A History Of Modern Psychology 11th Edition by Duane P. Schultz – Test Bank A+

$35.00
A History Of Modern Psychology 11th Edition by Duane P. Schultz – Test Bank A+

A History Of Modern Psychology 11th Edition by Duane P. Schultz – Test Bank A+

$35.00
A History Of Modern Psychology 11th Edition by Duane P. Schultz – Test Bank A+
1. Describe the functionalist protest, including the definition of functionalism and the bases on which the functionalists objected to Wundt’s psychology and Titchener’s structuralism.​

ANSWER: Answer not provided.​
POINTS: 1
NOTES: WWW

2. Making specific reference to material contained in your textbook, defend the following statement: “The suggestion that living things change with time, which is the fundamental notion of evolution, did not originate with Darwin.”​

ANSWER: Answer not provided.​
POINTS: 1

3. Explain evolutionary theory using the study of finches’ beaks.​

ANSWER: Answer not provided.​
POINTS: 1

4. In what specific ways did Darwin’s data and theory influence psychology in terms of both subject matter and methods?​

ANSWER: Answer not provided.​
POINTS: 1
NOTES: WWW

5. Summarize Galton’s contributions to psychology. Describe five examples of his influence that are familiar in contemporary psychology.​

ANSWER: Answer not provided.​
POINTS: 1

6. Describe/explain the role of Darwin’s work in the development of comparative psychology.​

ANSWER: Answer not provided.​
POINTS: 1

7. What were the major contributions of George Romanes and C. Lloyd Morgan to animal psychology and the development of functionalism?​

ANSWER: Answer not provided.​
POINTS: 1

8. The ____ ask, “What’s the mind made of?” whereas the ____ demand, “What does it do?”​

a.experimentalists; structuralists​
b.​structuralists; functionalists
c.​functionalists; behaviorists
d.​functionalists; structuralists
e.​Gestalt psychologists; functionalists

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functionalist Protest

9. Which of the of the following statements best summarizes the protest of functional psychology against Wundt and Titchener?​

a.Functional psychology proposed that more mental elements exist than allowed by Wundt and Titchener.​
b.​Functional psychology emphasized that Wundt’s and Titchener’s approaches to psychology were too broad and included too many topics of study.
c.​Functional psychology claimed that Wundt’s and Titchener’s approaches were too restrictive because they did not study the practical value of mental processes.
d.​In contrast to Wundt and Titchener, functional psychology said that consciousness could not be studied scientifically.
e.​None of the choices are correct.

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functionalist Protest

10. Functionalism was an intentional protest of the limitations of ____.​

a.​Wundt’s structuralism
b.​Wundt’s experimentalism
c.​Titchener’s structuralism
d.​James’s pragmatism
e.​Wundt’s experimentalism and Titchener’s structuralism

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functionalist Protest

11. The most important consequence of functionalism was ____.​

a.​the introduction of evolution
b.​the replacement of experimentalism
c.​the status it gave to pragmatism
d.​the development of applied psychology
e.​the development of clinical psychology

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functionalist Protest

12. Which of the following works were most influential in the development of functionalism?​

a.​Weber’s and Fechner’s work in psychophysics
b.​Quetelet’s and Galton’s work in statistics
c.​Wundt’s and Titchener’s systems
d.​The comparative research of physiologists and Darwin’s work
e.​The work of Darwin and Galton and comparative research

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functionalist Protest
NOTES: WWW

13. ____, a predecessor of Darwin, speculated that all mammals had evolved from a single filament and given movement by God.​

a.​Anaximander
b.​Plato
c.​Isaac Newton
d.​Erasmus Darwin
e.​Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

14. ____ argued that our bodies adapt to the environment and those adaptations will be heritable.​

a.​La Mettrie
b.​René Descartes
c.​Charles Lyell
d.​Erasmus Darwin
e.​Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

15. ____ was an early evolutionary theorist who argued that acquired characteristics could be inherited.​

a.​Erasmus Darwin
b.​Charles Darwin
c.​Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
d.​Bain
e.​Charles Lyell

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

16. ____ was a confidant of Darwin who introduced the concept of evolution into geological theory.​

a.​Wilberforce
b.​Huxley
c.​Butler
d.​Lyell
e.​Galton

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

17. Why, after many centuries of accepting biblical stories, did scholars question the one about Noah’s ark?​

a.​No inland body of water would hold such a vessel.
b.​Because the attitude of positivism allowed for no supernatural explanations.
c.​The giraffe’s neck had become too long after generations of having to reach for higher and higher branches to find food.
d.​Galton’s work in statistics showed that it was mathematically impossible.
e.​There were too many identified species to fit two of each into a boat.

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
NOTES: WWW

18. What event(s) led common people to question whether humans were really unique creatures, totally unlike other species?​

a.​Many took cruises to South America and other places where they were exposed to species of apes very similar to human beings.
b.​The tenet of natural selection became widely known and popular.
c.​Displays of orangutans and chimpanzees became common in zoos, as well as fossil comparisons of gorilla and human skeletons.
d.​Helmholtz’s and Fechner’s research findings made such questioning inevitable.
e.​None of the choices are correct.

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

19. Darwin’s ideas of evolution were not new. What was new about Darwin’s work was his ____.​

a.​hard data to support such a theory
b.​focus on lower animals
c.​work on emotions
d.​idea of natural selection
e.​idea of survival of the fittest

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

20. When in England, Darwin displayed a wide variety of physical symptoms. These symptoms were probably ____.​

a.​caused by the muscular disorder he later died from
b.​psychosomatic-neurotic in origin
c.​faked
d.​caused by over-exposure to lead in his drinking water
e.​None of the choices are correct.

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

21. How many years did Darwin wait to present his theory publicly?​

a.​2
b.​11
c.​17
d.​22
e.​34

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

22. A theory of evolution based on natural selection was developed independently by ____.​

a.​Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
b.​Charles Darwin and Charles Lyell
c.​Joseph Hooker and Charles Darwin
d.​Erasmus Darwin and Charles Darwin
e.​Jean Lamarck and Charles Darwin

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

23. The essential difference between Wallace’s theory of evolution and Darwin’s was that the work of the former ____.​

a.​was a restatement of Lamarck’s ideas
b.​was a restatement of Spencer’s ideas
c.​did not have empirical data to support it
d.​included the heritability of acquired traits
e.​was suppressed by Darwin

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

24. ____ is the preeminent book of Darwin’s theory of evolution, which details the evolution of humans from lower forms of life.​

a.On the Origin of Species
b.The Descent of Man
c.The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
d.Hereditary Genius
e.Natural Inheritance

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

25. The most fundamental point of Darwin’s theses was the ____.​

a.​fact of variation among members of the species
b.​heritability of variations
c.​process of natural selection
d.​tenet of survival of the fittest
e.​normal distribution of traits in a population

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
NOTES: WWW

26. Who predicted that humans in the future will live on the edge of starvation because the population of humans increases geometrically while the supply of food increases arithmetically?​

a.​Lamarck
b.​Lyell
c.​Huxley
d.​Malthus
e.​Hooker

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

27. Darwin’s position on Lamarck’s idea that changes due to experiences can be inherited was the ____ of Lamarck’s ____.​

a.​acceptance; doctrine
b.​replacement; doctrine with the variability hypothesis
c.​total rejection; doctrine
d.​replacement; doctrine with the doctrine of social Darwinism
e.​synthesis; ideas with Galton’s theory of the normal distribution

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

28. Who could be described as the driving force of England’s scientific establishment?​

a.​Lyell
b.​Huxley
c.​Hooker
d.​Darwin
e.​Wilberforce

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

29. Today, scientists are sometimes portrayed as offering science as a new religion or as being enemies of religion. This stance could be traced to ____.

a.​Huxley
b.​Hooker
c.Darwin
d.Lyell
e.Wilberforce

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

30. ​In a public debate on evolution, ____ refuted the points made against evolution by ____.

a.​Huxley; Hooker
b.Huxley; Lyell
c.Darwin; Fitzroy
d.Huxley; Wilberforce
e.Wilberforce; Huxley

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

31. ​In his book ____, Darwin emphasized the similarity between human and animal mental processes.

a.The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
b.The Ascent of Man
c.The Descent of Man
d.On the Origin of Species
e.The Phylogeny of Thought

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

32. In his book ____, Darwin explained human emotional gestures, postures, and other aspects of body language that convey emotion as remnants of adaptive movements by animals.

a.The Descent of Man
b.The Ascent of Man
c.The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals
d.A Biography of Emotions
e.Physiological Psychology

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

33. One of the early sources of modern child psychology was an article in 1877 by ____..

a.E. Darwin
b.C. Darwin
c.F. Galton
d.K. Pearson
e.J. M. Cattell

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

34. In the study of finches’ beaks, the biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant found that ____.

a.Darwin had underestimated the power of natural selection
b.under drought conditions, more thick-than thin-beaked birds survived and reproduced
c.in only one generation, natural selection produced a better-adapted species
d.​when heavy rains became common, birds with slender beaks flourished
e.All of the choices are correct.

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
NOTES: WWW

35. In his journal Mind, Darwin describes ____.

a.the developmental stages of his son in relation to human evolution
b.an ape whose mental processes are analyzed
c.early theory that has since been the foundation of cognitive psychology
d.simple stimuli that elicit the same responses in humans and animals
e.the evolution of human mental functions

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

36. The influence of Darwin’s work can be seen most directly in ____.

a.comparative psychology
b.functionalism
c.animal psychology
d.All of the above.
e.None of the above.

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
NOTES: WWW

37. A consequence of Darwin’s work for psychology was ____.

a.the legitimization of analog introspection in the study of animals
b.the legitimization of nonexperimental descriptive methods
c.the theory of eugenics
d.the use of the tenets of selective breeding for determining U.S. immigration quotas
e.acknowledgment of the necessity of statistical analysis in psychological research

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
NOTES: WWW

38. A consequence of Darwin’s work for psychology was ____.

a.the legitimization of the collective unconscious
b.work in comparative physiology
c.the theory of eugenics
d.a focus on individual differences
e.statistical analyses

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

39. ​In the Original Source Material from his autobiography, Charles Darwin described himself as ____.

a.​having “no great quickness of apprehension or wit”
b.​”a poor critic”
c.​”moderate abilities”
d.​possessing a “love of natural science [which] has been steady and ardent”
e.​All of the choices are correct.

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

40. Today, our acceptance that the study of individual differences is appropriate subject matter for psychology is due to whose work?

a.Quetelet
b.Helmholtz
c.Galton
d.Pearson
e.Spencer

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

41. ​Who wrote a 16th-century book on individual differences and argued that children’s education should be individualized to recognize such differences?

a.​Butler
b.​Huarte
c.​Galton
d.​Quetelet
e.​Wundt

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

42. Who wrote Hereditary Genius?

a.Galton
b.Darwin
c.Cattell
d.Quetelet
e.Helmholtz

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

43. Galton’s Hereditary Genius was mainly concerned with ____.

a.exploring his lineage and the eminent men in his family
b.a statistical analysis of the concept of eminent men producing eminent offspring
c.isolating the gene responsible for making geniuses
d.None of the above.
e.All of the above.

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

44. When Galton founded the science of eugenics, he ____.

a.was following in the footsteps of Huxley
b.invented the term “eugenics”
c.studied the incidence of behaviors in northern Europeans versus southern Europeans
d.became personally involved in aiding blood transfusions between Jews and Gentiles and between Africans and Caucasians
e.denounced the study of blood transfusions between rabbits

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

45. The early 20th-century American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of ____.

a.artificial selection
b.eugenics
c.product-moment correlations
d.Darwin’s theory of evolution
e.natural selection

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)
NOTES: WWW

46. Galton argued that what proportion of eminence could be reliably attributed to environmental influences?

a.0%
b.15%
c.25%
d.50%
e.82%

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

47. Which of the following did Galton not endorse in the material from Hereditary Genius?

a.the idea of natural equality
b.definite limits to muscular and intellectual powers
c.limiting one’s undertakings to matters within one’s reach
d.babies are born alike
e.None of the choices was endorsed by Galton.

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

48. Who first highlighted the importance of central tendency?

a.Quetelet
b.Darwin
c.Galton
d.Pearson
e.Cattell

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

49. Who was the first to show that biological and social data were normally distributed?

a.Galton
b.Quetelet
c.Pearson
d.Huarte
e.Moyen

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)
NOTES: WWW

50. Who arrived at the concept of the “average man” to describe findings from a large group of subjects?

a.Pearson
b.Quetelet
c.Huarte
d.Galton
e.Cattell

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

51. The idea of measures clustering around the of center or average of a distribution should be attributed to ____.

a.Quetelet
b.Darwin
c.Newton
d.Pearson
e.Cattell

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

52. Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution?

a.Pearson
b.Quetelet
c.Huarte
d.Galton
e.Cattell

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)
NOTES: WWW

53. Galton proposed that measurement of human traits could be defined and summarized by two numbers, which are ____.

a.the mean and the median
b.the variance and the standard deviation
c.the median and the mode
d.the mean and the standard deviation
e.the mean and the mode

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

54. The formula currently used for calculating the correlation coefficient was developed by ____.

a.Galton
b.Thorndike
c.Cattell
d.Binet
e.Pearson

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

55. The term mental tests was coined by ____, but ____ originated this concept.

a.Galton; Cattell
b.Cattell; Galton
c.Quetelet; Galton
d.Galton; Quetelet
e.Huarte; Quetelet

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

56. Mental tests were originated by ____.

a.Binet
b.Simon
c.Morgan
d.Galton
e.Romanes

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

57. Galton’s measures of intellectual functioning assumed correlation between intelligence and ____.

a.acuteness of the senses
b.reaction times to stimuli
c.Fechner’s Law
d.average error in psychophysics tasks
e.just noticeable differences

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

58. What had the greatest impact upon Galton’s view on the measurement of intelligence?

a.Descartes’ theory of innate ideas
b.Herbart’s argument that a threshold separates the conscious and unconscious mind
c.Wundt’s doctrine of creative synthesis
d.Berkeley’s mentalism
e.Locke’s theory that all knowledge comes through the senses

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

59. The aim of the research at the Anthropometric Laboratory was to assess ____.

a.developmental trends over the lifespan
b.the sensory capacities of humans
c.the collective mental resources of the British people
d.the correlates of intelligence among eminent men
e.eugenics policy development

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

60. What additional interest(s) did Galton research?

a.Arithmetic by smell
b.Paranoid disorders
c.The power of prayer
d.All of the above.
e.None of the above.

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

61. Which of the following are influenced by Galton’s work?

a.child development
b.​heredity
c.statistical techniques
d.testing methods
e.All of the above.

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

62. Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of ____.

a.rationalism as purported by Berkeley, Kant, and Descartes
b.empiricism as purported by Locke and Mill
c.Müller’s interference theory of memory
d.Ebbinghaus’s decay theory of memory
e.the effects of childhood experiences on the adult

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)
NOTES: WWW

63. The first experimental attempt to study word associations was by ____.

a.Ebbinghaus
b.Galton
c.Wundt
d.Freud
e.Jung

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

64. To study mental imagery, Galton used which self-report method?

a.introspection
b.retrospection
c.the questionnaire
d.projective tests
e.dream analysis

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

65. Galton studied paranoid disorders by ____.

a.visiting insane asylums
b.​reading every book and article about it on which he could get his hands
c.imaging that every person or thing he saw was spying on him
d.inviting people suffering from paranoid disorders to the Anthropometric Laboratory
e.All of the choices are correct.

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

66. In comparing evolutionary theory to theology, Galton’s concluded that ____.

a.there was insufficient evidence to support religious beliefs
b.there was insufficient evidence to support evolutionary theory
c.they were both correct
d.religious beliefs facilitated adaptation to environmental demands
e.there was insufficient evidence to support neither theology nor evolution

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

67. According to ____, animals have no soul and thus are automata.​

a.​Descartes
b.​Darwin
c.​Galton
d.​Romanes
e.​Morgan

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism
NOTES: WWW

68. ​The notion that there is a continuity of consciousness and cognitive processes between animals and humans was suggested and/or demonstrated by ____.

a.​Darwin’s evidence
b.​Galton’s selective breeding notions
c.​the structuralists
d.​the functionalists
e.​the behaviorists

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

69. ​According to Darwin, human emotional expressions reflect ____.

a.​a similarity of nervous systems between people and animals
b.​a correspondence of the “fight or flight” responses in humans and animals
c.​the inheritance of animal responses that may not be adaptive for humans
d.​evidence of animal intelligence
e.​evidence of instincts in humans

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

70. ​Wundt’s early position on animal intelligence was that ____.

a.​any sensory capacity at all allowed for judgment and drawing of conscious inferences
b.​animals and humans differ only in the range of stimuli that they can detect
c.​human’s erect stature makes smell and taste much less necessary than vision and audition for human adaptation to environments
d.​people have language; animals do not
e.​humans simply have more education than animals

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

71. The first systematic study of animal intelligence was by ____.​

a.​Galvani
b.​Huarte
c.​Sherrington
d.​Romanes
e.​Morgan

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

72. The work of Romanes was especially flawed because of his ____.​

a.​assumption of a continuity of intelligence between animals and people
b.​use of anthropometric methods
c.​use of the anecdotal method
d.​use of psychophysics methods
e.​reliance on reaction times to sensory stimuli in humans and animals

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

73. ​Whenever we think we “know what’s on someone’s mind,” we are using which technique?

a.​projection
b.​the anecdotal method
c.​introspection
d.​introspection by analogy
e.​identification

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

74. Despite Romanes’s deficiencies in methodology, he is respected by scientists for his ____.​

a.​reliance on experimentation
b.​subjective interpretations
c.​critical thinking regarding the inner workings of the animal mind
d.​stimulation of the development of comparative psychology
e.​phenomenological psychology

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism
NOTES: WWW

75. The intent of Lloyd Morgan’s canon was to ____.​

a.​exclude anthropological findings from the natural sciences
b.​make comparative psychology more scientific
c.​make comparative psychology more behavioral
d.​rid psychology of all traces of the technique of introspection
e.​impose a criterion for a distinction between instincts and thinking in both animals and humans

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

76. ​The first person(s) to engage in large studies of experimental comparative psychology was/were ____.

a.​Conway
b.​Romanes
c.​Morgan
d.​the functionalists
e.​the behaviorists

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

77. Structuralism asked, “What does the mind do?” whereas functionalism asked, “How does it do it?”​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functionalist Protest
NOTES: WWW

78. The most important legacy of functionalism is applied psychology.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functionalist Protest

79. A sturdy root of functional psychology is animal behavior research.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functionalist Protest

80. The intellectual Zeitgeist of the 19th century was ready for Darwin’s theory, although the social Zeitgeist was not.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
NOTES: WWW

81. A fundamental thesis of Darwin’s Origin was the principle of survival of the strongest.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

82. Observations made over the course of two decades in the Galapagos Islands indicate that evolutionary changes occur much faster than Darwin previously thought.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

83. ​Drastic environmental changes can drive evolutionary changes in animal forms to occur over decades rather than over millennia.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

84. Other than his theory of evolution, Darwin made no significant contributions to the field of psychology.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
NOTES: WWW

85. Ironically, Darwin’s theory of evolution brought both consciousness and the study of animal behavior to the forefront of psychology.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

86. While expanding the scope of the subject matter of psychology, Darwin’s theory added emphasis to the notion that experimentation is the only method proper to the science of psychology.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

87. Quetelet was the first to apply statistical methods to the examination of individual differences.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

88. Galton gave us the correlational coefficient measure.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)
NOTES: WWW

89. Galton created the term “mental tests”.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

90. Galton’s basic assumption was that one’s sensory abilities directly reflect one’s intelligence.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

91. The quality of Galton’s research is verified by its reliability, as assessed as recently as 1985.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)
NOTES: WWW

92. The first experimental examination of associations was by Wundt and Ebbinghaus.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Individual Differences: Francis Galton (1822-1911)

93. Wundt argued that if an animal has any sensory ability, then it can make judgments and conscious inferences​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

94. Darwin selected G. J. Romanes to investigate the evolution of the mind.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

95. The first book on comparative psychology was Animal Intelligence by Romanes.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

96. Romanes’s anecdotal method used observational reports about animal behavior.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

97. When you say, ” I know what my dog is thinking,” you are practicing introspection by analogy.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

98. Lloyd Morgan’s Canon was an attempt to limit the tendency to attribute human cognitive processes and abilities to animals.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

99. Romanes was the first scientist to conduct large-scale experimental studies in animal psychology.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

100. The initial work in comparative psychology was carried out in England and the leadership in the field stayed there for more than a decade.​

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

101. When psychologists began to examine mental processes in a completely different way than biologists studied anatomy, they laid the groundwork for functional psychology.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Animal Psychology and the Development of Functionalism

Chapter_7_Functionalism_Development_and_Founding

1. Describe Spencer’s adaptations and extensions of the theory of evolution. Why was his philosophy, particularly his concept of social Darwinism, so popular in the United States?​

ANSWER: Answer not provided.​
POINTS: 1

2. According to Schultz and Schultz, “Much is paradoxical about William James and his role in American psychology.” Discuss this paradox, describing the arguments for and against viewing James as one of psychology’s most important figures.

ANSWER: Answer not provided.
POINTS: 1
NOTES: WWW

3. Describe James’s early life and his days as a student. What are the symptoms of neurasthenia and what was the “epidemic of neurasthenia” in the United States? Why are these relevant to a discussion of James’s life?

ANSWER: Answer not provided.
POINTS: 1

4. Describe and compare James’s new look at consciousness with the views of Wundt.

ANSWER: Answer not provided.
POINTS: 1

5. What is the major theme or central thesis of the Original Source Material on Consciousness from Psychology (Briefer Course) (1892) by William James? What arguments does he use to support his thesis?

ANSWER: Answer not provided.
POINTS: 1

6. Describe James’s approach to methodology. What methods of studying consciousness did he find appropriate? What are the possible relationships between James’s views of methods and his philosophy of pragmatism?

ANSWER: ​Answer not provided.
POINTS: 1

7. Describe the variability hypothesis, its influence on the notion of male superiority, and the research of Woolley and Hollingworth in refuting this position.

ANSWER: ​Answer not provided.
POINTS: 1

8. What achievements are noteworthy in G. Stanley Hall’s life? Describe his work in developmental psychology, including his theory of psychological development.

ANSWER: ​Answer not provided.
POINTS: 1

9. Describe the founding of functionalism. In what ways was its founding different from that of Titchener’s structuralism? What were the contributions of Titchener and Dewey to functionalism as an emerging school of thought?

ANSWER: ​Answer not provided.
POINTS: 1

10. What did Angell consider to be the three major themes of functionalism? What were Carr’s major points? Distinguish between Angell’s and Carr’s contributions to psychology.

ANSWER: ​Answer not provided.
POINTS: 1
NOTES: WWW

11. Describe at least three contributions of Robert Sessions Woodworth to psychology.

ANSWER: Answer not provided.
POINTS: 1

12. ​Discuss the several ways in which functionalism expanded the field and/or practice of psychology.

ANSWER: Answer not provided.
POINTS: 1

13. Defend the proposition that functionalism was a transitory bridge from the study of the subjective mind and consciousness to the objective study of overt behavior.

ANSWER: Answer not provided.
POINTS: 1

14. Who did Darwin call “our philosopher”?​

a.​Spencer
b.​James
c.​Dewey
d.​Hollerith
e.​Cattell

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Evolution’s Neurotic Philosopher
NOTES: WWW

15. Perhaps the most important factor that enabled functionalist psychology to flourish in the United States was the ____.​

a.​social Zeitgeist
b.​political Zeitgeist
c.​economic Zeitgeist
d.​American temperament as a whole
e.​fruition of Darwin’s theory in the United States

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Evolution Comes to America: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

16. Spencer’s philosophy was ____.​

a.​Darwinism
b.​natural selection
c.​survival of the fittest
d.​eugenics
e.​pragmatism

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Evolution Comes to America: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

17. Who coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”?​

a.​James
b.​Galton
c.​Dewey
d.​Spencer
e.​Darwin

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Evolution Comes to America: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

18. Who originated the idea of social Darwinism?​

a.​James
b.​Darwin
c.​Spencer
d.​Galton
e.​Hollerith

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Evolution Comes to America: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

19. According to Spencer, the universe operates in accord with ____.​

a.​mathematical principles
b.​what we call “chaos theory”
c.​principles of pragmatism
d.​principles of functionalism
e.​the principle of the survival of the fittest

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Evolution Comes to America: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

20. Which of the following statements is NOT part of social Darwinism?​

a.​Nations of the world are in competition for survival analogous to competition among species for survival.
b.​Governments should not try to restrict the activities of business.
c.​Governments should not impede the rich by heavy taxes because the rich are needed for economic growth.
d.​Each nation should have a social welfare program that supports the poor.
e.​All of the choices are a part of social Darwinism.

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Evolution Comes to America: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

21. The most appealing aspect of Spencer’s philosophy for Americans was the notion of ____.​

a.​evolution of the human character
b.​evolution of social institutions
c.​natural selection
d.​survival of the fittest
e.​pragmatism

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Evolution Comes to America: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

22. Spencer developed synthetic philosophy, which was an attempt to ____.​

a.​bring together the works of Darwin and Wundt to form a new school of psychology
b.​ban the use of animal experimentation in psychology
c.​use evolutionary theory as a way to understand any process that undergoes change and development
d.​argue that consciousness had no use since it did not aid survival. therefore, psychology should give up the study of consciousness
e.​introduce the idea that evolution should be guided by governmental programs to “synthetically” direct evolution in a particular direction

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Evolution Comes to America: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

23. Synthetic as used in the name “synthetic philosophy” refers to ____.​

a.​the artificial nature of the physical universe
b.​unnatural circumstances
c.​the superiority of polyester over cotton
d.​combining or synthesizing
e.​the artificial nature of the physical universe and unnatural circumstances

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Evolution Comes to America: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

24. Who was the earliest to argue that the mind exists in its present form because of past and present efforts to adapt to various environments?​

a.​Spencer
b.​James
c.​Darwin
d.​Hollerith
e.​Dewey

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Evolution Comes to America: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

25. Spencer’s (1855) The Principles of Psychology was based on ____.​

a.​the work of the British empiricists
b.​James’s pragmatic philosophy
c.​Darwin’s theory of the evolution of nonhuman species
d.​his synthetic philosophy
e.​Galton’s work

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Evolution Comes to America: Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

26. The first person who applied evolution to machines was ____.​

a.​Butler
b.​Hollerith
c.​James
d.​Spencer
e.​Babbage

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Continuing Evolution of Machines

27. Who pioneered an innovative method of information processing?​

a.​Spencer
b.​Hollerith
c.​Dewey
d.​Babbage
e.​James

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Continuing Evolution of Machines

28. The fear in the 1960s that we would all be reduced to punched cards may not have happened without the work of ____.​

a.​Babbage
b.​Hollerith
c.​Hollingworth
d.​Lovelace
e.​James

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Continuing Evolution of Machines

29. Who had an interest in mystical events or what we call parapsychology?​

a.​Hollerith
b.​James
c.​Dewey
d.​Hollingworth
e.​Spencer

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

30. The major antecedent of functionalism in the United States was the work of ____.​

a.​Titchener
b.​Pierce
c.​Galton
d.​Jung
e.​James

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

31. James was vocally criticized by other early psychologists because he ____.​

a.​criticized the use of the experimental method
b.​loathed laboratory work and refused to do it
c.​hired Münsterberg, thus imposing Wundt’s psychology and its limitations on the new American psychology
d.​was a “gentleman scientist” rather than a traditional academic
e.​studied psychic phenomena and moved away from scientific psychology

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
NOTES: WWW

32. “That nasty little science” was James’s label for ____.​

a.​medicine
b.​physiology
c.​psychology
d.​phenomenology
e.​structuralism

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

33. “An elaboration of the obvious” was James’s description of ____.​

a.​structuralist
b.​the introspective method
c.​functionalism
d.​psychoanalysis
e.​psychology

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

34. This person was born into a wealthy American family. He eventually received a medical degree and taught psychology at Harvard University.​

a.​John Dewey
b.​James Angell
c.​Edward Bradford Titchener
d.​Herbert Spencer
e.​William James

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

35. James became familiar with the work of Wundt ____.​

a.​because of Titchener establishing a psychology department at Cornell University
b.​because of Spencer’s The Principles of Psychology
c.​in the late 1860s, before Wundt founded the Leipzig psychology laboratory
d.​as a result of using Fechner’s books for his first lectures in psychology in 1890
e.​as a result of his first teaching position at Harvard, in physiology

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

36. While today people might suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome, in James’s day a very fashionable disorder to suffer from was ____.​

a.​syphilis
b.​neurasthenia
c.​suicidal depression
d.​opium or heroin addiction
e.​phrenology

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

37. James’s term for his debilitating disorder was ____.​

a.​neurasthenia
b.​neuritis
c.​Americanitis
d.​psychitis
e.​neurasthenitis

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

38. James’s position on determinism versus free will can be characterized by which of the following?​

a.​Free will is an illusion to me.
b.​My first act of free will shall be to believe in free will.
c.​This ego is not master of its fate.
d.​We are slaves to our biology.
e.​If one believes in free will, one is free to so believe.

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

39. James believed that his bout of depression was relieved when he ____.​

a.​stopped believing in free will and accepted determinism
b.​chose to believe in free will
c.​completed The Varieties of Religious Experiences
d.​talked to the dead in séances
e.​got married

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

40. James’s experiments with mind-altering chemicals interested him because they ____.​

a.​relieved his neurasthenia
b.​cured him of depression
c.​allowed him a form of escape from reality
d.​fascinated him because of the way bodily changes influenced consciousness
e.​felt good and relieved his symptoms

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

41. The lecturer in James’s first course in psychology was ____.​

a.​Münsterberg
b.​Wundt
c.​James
d.​Titchener
e.​Cattell

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

42. Although it took twelve years to complete, ____’s great book on psychology represented a commitment to evolutionary principles and a rejection of Wundt’s approach to psychology.​

a.​John Dewey
b.​Herbert Spencer
c.​Edward Bradford Titchener
d.​James Angell
e.​William James

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
NOTES: WWW

43. James described the manuscript of his book, The Principles of Psychology, as testimony to the fact that ____.​

a.​Wundt’s experimentation was the sole method to be used in the new science
b.​structuralism’s focus on the elements of consciousness needed to be the focus of functionalism
c.​religious experiences were inseparable from psychological experiences
d.​religious experiences might be studied with experimental introspection
e.​a “science of psychology” did not exist

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

44. ____ is often called America’s greatest philosopher.​

a.​John Dewey
b.​Herbert Spencer
c.​Edward Bradford Titchener
d.​William James
e.​James Angell

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

45. Educational psychology as a discipline began with the work of ____.​

a.​Cattell
b.​James
c.​Binet
d.​Thorndike
e.​Dewey

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

46. “The study of living people as they adapt to their environment” is the central tenet of ____.​

a.​Darwin’s theory of the evolution of humans and their emotional expressions
b.​Spencer’s systematic philosophy
c.​James’s philosophy of pragmatism
d.​James’s psychology
e.​Butler’s evolution theory

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

47. William James ____.​

a.​founded functional psychology
b.​established an environment favorable for functionalism with his Principles of Psychology
c.​wrested psychology away from synthetic philosophy
d.​used pragmatism to recombine psychology and philosophy
e.​effectively nullified the influence of Wundt on American psychologists

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

48. For James, what was most essential to human evolution?​

a.​natural selection
b.​natural variations of a species
c.​survival of the fittest
d.​regression to the mean
e.​consciousness

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

49. ​For James, the “conditions” of mental life are the influences of ____.

a.​consciousness
b.​the body
c.​the central nervous system
d.​the irrational
e.​the environment we have adapted to

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

50. The idea of “objective experience” would be ____.​

a.​consistent with James’s position
b.​contrary to James’s position
c.​congruent with the idea of immediate experience
d.​consistent with James’s definition of consciousness
e.​consistent with James’s synthetic philosophy

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

51. The notion of analysis of consciousness is, in James’s view, the ____.​

a.​psychologists’ fallacy
b.​strength of experimentation
c.​difference between immediate and mediate experience
d.​basic difference between structuralism and functionalism
e.​difference between religion and spirituality

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

52. William James used the term “stream of consciousness” to indicate ____.​

a.​that the analysis of consciousness into mental elements is difficult but possible
b.​that the use of introspection to study consciousness is possible
c.​that consciousness is not as important as the unconscious in controlling behavior since consciousness is always changing
d.​that the changing nature of consciousness prevents its analysis into mental elements
e.​that unconscious thoughts can be accessed through free association

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology
NOTES: WWW

53. For James, one’s stream of consciousness ____.​

a.​can be reduced to sensations by introspection
b.​can be reduced to components by experimental methods without introspection
c.​is distorted when analyzed into distinct elements
d.​reflects the continuous movement of material from nonconscious to conscious
e.​reflects the continuous synthesis of elements through the principles of association

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

54. In the Original Source Material on Consciousness from Psychology (Briefer Course) (1892) James said, “Consciousness is in constant ____.”​

a.​motion
b.​evolution
c.​jeopardy
d.​agitation
e.​change

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

55. For James, choice and habit are different in that ____.​

a.​choice is a fallacy, and habit is real
b.​habit is a fallacy, and choice is real
c.​habit is nonconscious
d.​the purpose of habit is human adaptation to the environment
e.​choice is antithetical to pragmatism

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

56. James’s position on Wundt’s methodology was to ____.​

a.​accept both introspection and experimentation
b.​accept introspection but reject experimentation
c.​reject introspection but accept experimentation
d.​reject both introspection and experimentation
e.​replace both with the comparative method

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

57. James’s position on psychophysics was to ____.​

a.​reject it because it is a field of physiology, not psychology
b.​reject Fechner’s methods
c.​reject Weber’s Law and Fechner’s Law
d.​accept it as a component of psychology to be studied by experimentation
e.​incorporate it into his subsequent research on phenomena such as séances

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

58. James recommended the ____ method to supplement introspection and experimentation.​

a.​Wundtian
b.​observational
c.​cumulative
d.​comparative
e.​structural

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

59. The basic tenet of ____ is that the validity of an idea or conception must be tested by its practical consequences​

a.​empiricism
b.​rationalism
c.​scientism
d.​pragmatism
e.​cynicism

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

60. Peirce’s role in American psychology was to ____.​

a.​act as a sounding board for Herbert Spencer
b.​introduce the new psychology of Fechner and Wundt to U.S. scholars
c.​found functionalism
d.​posit synthetic philosophy
e.​synthesize pragmatism and evolutionary theory

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

61. According to James, the value or worth of beliefs can be evaluated in terms of ____.​

a.​the spiritual basis for a belief
b.​the habitual nature of a belief
c.​whether it works or not
d.​its adaptive value
e.​its effect on emotions

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

62. Which of the following statement expresses the James-Lange theory of emotions?​

a.​Emotion results from the activation of certain neural centers in the brain.
b.​Emotion results from how an individual perceives a situation, with or without physiological arousal.
c.​Emotion is completely a psychological state. There are no physiological equivalents to the emotions.
d.​Physiological arousal precedes the experience of an emotion.
e.​The emotion is experienced first, which is followed by physiological arousal.

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

63. James believed that a person has three components that make up their self. Which of the following elements were included in James’s theory of self?​

a.​feelings, actions, and conscious experience
b.​feelings, free will, and actions
c.​materials, social, and actions
d.​spiritual, material, and conscious experience
e.​materials, social, and spiritual

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

64. ​James’s description of habit indicates that it is ____.

a.​a repetitive action
b.​a component of the preconscious
c.​an intervening variable
d.​evidence of latent learning
e.​a classically conditioned response

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

65. For James, ____ “is what keeps us all within the bounds of ordinance.”​

a.​consciousness
b.​emotions
c.​learning
d.​habit
e.​religion

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

66. James argued that habitual actions would ____ the plasticity of ____.​

a.​increase; character
b.​decrease; character
c.​increase; neural matter
d.​decrease; neural matter
e.​increase; habits

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: William James (1842-1910): Anticipator of Functional Psychology

67. Whose Ph.D. work was described as the “most brilliant examination for the PhD that we have ever had at Harvard”?​

a.​Woolley
b.​Calkins
c.​Hollingworth
d.​Dewey
e.​Washburn

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women

68. In contemporary measures of memory, a common task is to assess one’s learning of paired associates. This technique was developed by ____.​

a.​Titchener
b.​James
c.​Calkins
d.​Dewey
e.​Woolley

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women
NOTES: WWW

69. The “myth of male intellectual superiority” is derived from which of Darwin’s ideas?​

a.​natural selection
b.​variability hypothesis
c.​the survival of the fittest
d.​sexual selection
e.​emotional expression

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women

70. The idea that men show a wider range of variations in physical and mental development than women and that the abilities of women are more clustered about the average is a definition of the ____.​

a.​selection variability hypothesis
b.​variability hypothesis
c.​sexual selection hypothesis
d.​male superiority hypothesis
e.​female evolution hypothesis

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women

71. Early 20th-century research on the effects of child labor was conducted by ____.​

a.​Calkins
b.​Woolley
c.​Hollingworth
d.​Anastasi
e.​Radcliffe

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women

72. Woolley’s research on sex differences and alleged male superiority was ____.​

a.​refuted by contemporary research
b.​the first experimental test of the variability hypothesis of male superiority
c.​supported by contemporary research
d.​attributed to genetic differences
e.​challenged by the “men’s issues” movement

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women

73. ​Consistent with contemporary research on sex differences, Woolley found that ____.

a.​there were no sex differences in mental intelligence
b.​men are more prone than women to anger and violence
c.​men are more susceptible to sexually provocative material
d.​women are more susceptible than men to depression and histrionic psychosis
e.​men are more prone than women to anger and violence and women are more susceptible than men to depression and histrionic psychosis

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women

74. ​A unique aspect of Woolley’s dissertation research was the ____.

a.​inclusion of faculty women in her sample
b.​attribution of sex differences to genetic factors
c.​attribution of sex differences to social and environmental factors
d.​inclusion of women faculty on her dissertation committee
e.​endorsement of G. Stanley Hall

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women

75. ​The results of Woolley’s sex differences research were attributed by some to ____.

a.​her skills as a researcher
b.​the fact that she was a woman and therefore biased in interpreting her results
c.​poor methodology
d.​the influence of her professors, Dewey and Angell
e.​the fact that she was a woman and therefore not as intelligent as men

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women

76. ​Hollingworth’s research refuted ____.

a.​the variability hypothesis
b.​Woolley’s finding that women are more emotional and less rational during menses
c.​the belief that “maternal behaviors” decline during menses
d.​Fechner’s Law
e.​None of the choices are correct.

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women
NOTES: WWW

77. The notion of a “motherhood instinct” was ____.​

a.​supported by Woolley’s research
b.​refuted by Woolley’s research
c.​supported by Hollingworth’s research
d.​refuted by Hollingworth’s research
e.​supported by Woolley’s research on the maternal behaviors displayed by mothers of gifted children

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women

78. The term gifted children was coined by ____.​

a.​Woolley
b.​Calkins
c.​Hollingworth
d.​Galton
e.​Binet

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women

79. The first American Ph.D. in psychology was earned by ____.​

a.​Titchener
b.​James
c.​Hall
d.​Cattell
e.​Yerkes

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924)

80. What is often considered to be the first psychology laboratory in the United States was established by ____.​

a.​Titchener
b.​James
c.​Cattell
d.​Angell
e.​Hall

ANSWER: e
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924)

81. Hall may be the best representative of the earliest roots of modern psychology in that his education included ____.​

a.​philosophy
b.​physiology
c.​physics
d.​All of the choices are correct.
e.​None of the choices are correct.

ANSWER: d
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924)

82. Who said, “I think I must have been hypnotized by the word ‘evolution,’ which was music to my ear?”​

a.​Cattell
b.​Hall
c.​Yerkes
d.​Witmer
e.​Münsterberg

ANSWER: b
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924)

83. Hall’s interest in the new science of psychology was aroused when he ____.​

a.​read Wundt’s Physiological Psychology
b.​attended James’s lectures in psychology at Harvard
c.​read James’s Principles of Psychology
d.​read Spencer’s Principles of Psychology
e.​read Angell’s “The Province of Functional Psychology”

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924)

84. ​Who was one of the most outspoken critics of Woolley and Hollingworth?

a.​J.M. Catell
b.​John Dewey
c.​G.S. Hall
d.​Harry Hollingworth
e.​M.W. Calkins

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: The Functional Inequality of Women

85. ​____ was one major area that G.S. Hall was interested in, as evidenced by his research in his doctoral dissertation.

a.​Introspection of tones
b.​Touch thresholds
c.​Space perception
d.​Gender roles
e.​Adult physiology

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924)

86. Hall referred to his laboratory as a ____.​

a.​laboratory of evolution
b.​laboratory of psychophysics
c.​laboratory of psychophysiology
d.​laboratory of mental evolution
e.​center for the study of children

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924)

87. Hall’s Pedagogical Seminary reflected his early interest in ____.​

a.​evolutionary theory
b.​eugenics
c.​child development
d.​heritability
e.​physiological psychology

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
NOTES: WWW

88. Hall had an interest in ____.​

a.​psychic phenomena
b.​music and tones
c.​religion
d.​emotions
e.​the education of women

ANSWER: c
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924)

89. ____ has been described as “difficult, untrustworthy, unscrupulous, devious, and aggressively self-promoting.”​

a.​Hall
b.​Cattell
c.​Witmer
d.​Goddard
e.​Münsterberg

ANSWER: a
POINTS: 1
REFERENCES: Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924)

90. Hall was one of the first American psychologists to become interested in ____.​

a.​equal political opportunity for women
b.​sexual equality
c.​physiological psychology
d.​psychoanalysis
e.​behaviorism
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