Career Information Career Counseling And Career Development 11Th Edition by Duane Brown – Test Bank A+

Career Information Career Counseling And Career Development 11Th Edition by Duane Brown – Test Bank A+

Career Information Career Counseling And Career Development 11Th Edition by Duane Brown – Test Bank A+

Career Information Career Counseling And Career Development 11Th Edition by Duane Brown – Test Bank A+
  1. The assessment approach used by postmodern theorists to information used in counseling is more likely to be quantitative than qualitative.

  • Admundson uses second order questioning to stimulate an awareness of what would happen if the career problem is not solved

  1. The first step in a solution focused brief approach to career is to do an audit of the immediate issues surrounding the decision-making dilemma.

4 Narratives are temporal interpretations of life events that have led to the current life situation according to Young and his associates.

  1. Bloch equates careers to what she terms adaptive entities.

  1. Postmodern theorists agree that there is an objective self.

7 Postmodern career counselors, with the possible exception of Savickas, that traditional interest inventories such as Holland’s scales, should not be used in career counseling. The most likely explanation of this position is the idea that data about human behavior cannot be generalized to others.

8 Savickas would use the RIASEC information from Holland’s scales in the counseling process to promote reflection.

  1. People have a tendency to return to the same place as they try to survive and thrive. Bloch calls these places attractors.

  1. Unity seems to be the goal of human striving for Bloch and Richmond. They define it as confidence that you can trust yourself to cope with what comes your way.

  1. Bright and Pryor seem to agree to a certain extent with Krumbotlz about the importance of chance career development

  1. In Bright and Pryor’s conceptualization of career counseling the counselors look for repetitive patters called attractors. Although it seems contradictory they (and Admunson) identify an attractor which they call a strange attractor which is not repetitive.

13 In Brief Solution-Fused Career Counseling. One of the steps is having the client search for exceptions to what they perceive is the usual course of events. In realty this step is a search for mistakes made in past situations.

Multiple Choice

  1. For the contextualists preparing for a career would be seen as
  2. An action
  3. A joint action
  4. A stream
  5. A project

  1. Contexualists criticize other career development theorists for
  2. Emphasizing cause and effect relationships
  3. Generalizing information from research findings
  4. Emphasizing the role of the history of the individual
  5. All the above

  1. Fractals are, according to Bloch
  2. Adaptive entities
  3. Nested and interdependent
  4. Can be used as a synonym for career
  5. All of the above

  1. Narratives can be best defined as
  2. Individual goals as they look into their futures

b The sum total of the individual’s striving

  1. Life stories
  2. Summaries of the individual interaction with her or his family

  1. From a postmodern perspective the individual’s self develops
  2. In continuous interaction with her or his environment
  3. Differently for each individual
  4. Differently in ethnic minorities than in Caucasians
  5. a & b above

  1. Chaos when referencing the self, from the point of view of Bloch, Pryor and others refers to
  2. The self as an open system

b A dynamically unstable self

  1. A self that is for all practical purpose dynamically out of control
  2. a & b above

  1. For Young, Valach, and Collin, the only way to understand the individual is
  2. Look at her or his history

b Examine the individual’s culture

  1. Determine where there are in the present
  2. All of the above

  1. A project is a longer term
  2. Individual set of actions

b Actions taken by two or more people

  1. The result of narratives
  2. a & b above

  1. To young and his associates implementing a career choice is
  2. An action
  3. A project
  4. A narrative
  5. An endeavor

  1. Savickas is an avowed postmodernist. However, he incorporates the thinking of which of the following into his theorizing?
  2. Alfred Adler
  3. John Holland
  4. Sigmund Freud
  5. a & b above

  1. The key to self-construction according to Savickas is
  2. Cognitions such as expectations
  3. Reflections based on contextual experiences
  4. Life style
  5. Self-prompting narratives

  1. Savickas theorizes that the development of the self begins in childhood as the child acts out various roles. Parents also model certain behavior which is incorporated into the self through a process he terms
  2. Assimilation

b Copying

  1. Introjection
  2. Identification

  1. Savickas seems to borrow which of the following constructs from Donald Super
  2. Career concern (career awareness)

b Self-control (self-confidence)

  1. Career curiosity (career exploration)
  2. All the above

  1. Savickas’ five step career counseling model does not include which of the following/
  2. Construction
  3. Destruction
  4. Reconstruction
  5. Interpretation

  1. 15. Which of the following is not an assumption of Chaos Theory
  2. Open systems such as families are unpredictable
  3. Feed back to a system makes it more stable
  4. Fractals are complex patters that repeat themselves recursively
  5. Small effects can cause large reactions

Answer Key for Chapter 6


  1. F
  2. T
  3. T
  4. T
  5. T
  6. F
  7. T
  8. T
  9. F
  10. T
  11. T
  12. T
  13. F

Multiple Choice

  1. D
  2. D
  3. D
  4. C
  5. A
  6. D
  7. C
  8. D
  9. D
  10. D
  11. B
  12. C
  13. D
  14. D
  15. D

Short Essay Questions

  1. Outline the steps in the Brief Solution-Focuses approach to career counseling.
  2. Most postmodern career counselors talk about the importance of deconstructing the client’s stories. What does this mean and how is it done?

Long Essay Questions

  • Savickas borrows heavily from other theorist, some of whom are traditional thinkers. Give examples of concepts he has borrowed from Adler, Super, and Holland and how intends to fit them into a postmodern framework in the counseling process.
  • Identify the basic assumptions of Chaos Theory and tell how these ideas are used in explaining career development.

Suggested Additional Assignment

Savickas, M. L. (2013). Career construction theory and practice. . In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent Eds). Career Development and Counseling (pp.147-186). New York: John Wiley.

Chapter 7

Gender as an Issue in Career Counseling: Women, Men, and Sexual Orientation Minorities

Learning Objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. Understand the similarities and differences among the career counseling processes for men, women and sexual minorities,
  2. Appreciate the problems encountered by clients other than men as they enter and advance in the career development process and learn how to accommodate them

Key Terms and Concepts






STEM Occupations



Glass Ceiling

Wage differential

Suggested Activities and Exercises

  • Construct a panel made up of the people discussed in this chapter and have them discuss the issues they faced in the workplace. How did they overcome them?
  • Have teams of students discuss issues and successful models from each of the groups discussed in this chapter.
  • Check EEOC records regarding complaints lodged against employers by members of this group. Compare the numbers to complaints lodged by ethnic groups such as Hispanics and African Americans.

Examination Questions for Chapter 7


  1. Sexual orientation is the persona presented to the public whether it be gay or straight, transgender or bisexual.

  1. Women are paid, on average, 20 percent or more less than men when all occupations are considered.

  1. Religion is identified as a tradition source of oppression of women, but career counselors are advised to ignore their client’s religious beliefs because of the explosiveness of the issue.

  1. The military has opened up opportunities for men, women, and minorities, but military service has been a double-edged sword for women because of sexual harassment.
  2. The role of heredity in the development of personality traits including interests is controversial and is often ignored because of the possibility that heredity shapes perception of the environment and thus occupational choice.

  1. One woman, Linda Gottfredson, believes that inherited traits shape men and women’s perceptions of the work environment.

  1. Careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) will be among the most prevalent and higher paid occupations in the future. As things stand, women seem to be moving into these occupations at about the same rate as men.

  1. Stem jobs show great promise for people who are living in what are now less populated states because of the relocation of high tech businesses.

  1. Generally speaking white women are now better educated than men as supported by the fact that they earn more college degrees at every level than men, but this is not the case for minority women: men are better educated.

  1. Mortimer and Johnson suggest that both boys and girls may benefit from participating in non-traditional careers. This idea is supported by SCCT studied in Chapter 5.

Multiple Choice

  1. Chapters 3 through 6 were dedicated to career development theory and its applications. One of these theories has come under fire, suggesting it has less utility for women. This theory was developed by
  2. Brown
  3. Lent
  4. Super
  5. Holland

  1. Some of the barriers to the entry to and advancement in some careers doesn’t involve our traditional ideas about discrimination, that is, discriminatory actions on the part of a hiring agent or supervisor. Discriminatory practices are built into the entire employment process in some industries. This is called
  2. Structural unemployment
  3. Regulatory discrimination
  4. Illegal employment practice
  5. Structural or institutional discrimination

  1. Which of the following factors tend to limit salary and advancement for women
  2. Raises and promotions based on seniority
  3. Tenure and other contractual guarantees of employment
  4. Limited leave policies for elder care
  5. a & c above

  1. Advocates for better career counseling for women have lobbied for
    1. Gender-based norms for the Self-Directed Search
    2. Minimization of reliance on theories based on research on males.
    3. Making women aware of STEM occupations
    4. All of the above

  1. Two occupational groups will make up the vast majority of STEM occupations according to BLS projections:
    1. Nursing and engineering
    2. Engineers and computing related
    3. Computing and accounting
    4. Engineers and science teachers

  1. Women hold a majority of the jobs in three of the STEM occupations. Nursing is one of these. Which of the following are also made up of mostly women?
  2. Accountants
  3. Laboratory technicians
  4. Biologists
  5. a & b above

  1. The group identified as most likely to experience the “triple whammy” of discrimination is

a Lesbians of color

  1. Gay men
  2. Bisexual women
  3. Transgender men

  1. Women, ethnic and religious minorities are protected from discrimination by federal civil rights legislation. Sexual minorities are not protected by this legislation, but many states have passed legislation to protect them from discrimination. Which of the following states does not protect sexual minorities in the workplace via legislation.
  2. Vermont

b Illinois

  1. Iowa
  2. Indiana

  1. There are several reasons why sexual minorities may not choose a particular occupation. One of these is counterintuitive, that is it would not seem obvious.
  2. Fear of discrimination
  3. Under representation of sexual minorities in the occupation
  4. Stereotypes
  5. Over representation of sexual minorities in the occupation.

  1. Based on the available research which of the following women are most likely to choose a STEM career?
  2. One with high math and verbal skills
  3. One with low verbal and high math skills
  4. One with moderate verbal and high math skills
  5. One with moderate math and verbal skills

  1. If a client declares, I want the STEM career that is most likely to allow me to become employed, what would you tell her to pursue educationally as she looks ahead?
  2. Pursue an electrical engineering degree
  3. Major in computer science
  4. Major in engineering with an emphasis in computing
  5. Major on engineering

  1. Structural discrimination is a program or institution that shunts minorities and women into lower SES trajectories than white men. An example of this is
  2. The policy: first hired, last fired
  3. Ability tracking in middle school
  4. A & B above
  5. Neither A or B

Answer Key for Chapter 7

True False

  1. F
  2. T
  3. F
  4. T
  5. T
  6. T
  7. F
  8. F
  9. F
  10. T

Multiple Choice

  1. D
  2. D
  3. D
  4. D
  5. B
  6. D
  7. A
  8. D
  9. D
  10. C
  11. C
  12. C

Short Answer Essay Questions

  1. Spokane list five criteria for the evaluation of career interventions. List them here.

  1. List five reasons why women do not earn as much as men in addition to gender bias.

  1. Lifestyle issues seem to interact with career issues more often for women than for me. The most obvious of these is pregnancy. List four other issues that interact with career choice and performance.

Long Answer Essay Questions

  1. Women and men over-choose gender stereotyped occupations. Drawing upon career theory such as Gottfredson’s developmental theory and/or Savickas’ constructivist theory, explain why this may occur.

Additional Assignment

  1. Identify three occupations of interest to you personally. Research the salaries for entry level, mid-career, and late career workers focusing on gender as an issue.

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