Child Development: An Active Learning Approach, Third Edition Test Bank by Laura E. Levine, Joyce Munsch A+

$35.00
Child Development: An Active Learning Approach, Third Edition Test Bank by Laura E. Levine, Joyce Munsch A+

Child Development: An Active Learning Approach, Third Edition Test Bank by Laura E. Levine, Joyce Munsch A+

$35.00
Child Development: An Active Learning Approach, Third Edition Test Bank by Laura E. Levine, Joyce Munsch A+

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

Multiple Choice Questions

1. A basic set of principles that help us organize our observations in order to understand and predict
human development is called a(n)
a. hypothesis.
b. operationalization.
c. theory.
d. dynamic system.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.1 What do child development theories tell us?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Why Theories of Development are Important
Difficulty Level: EasyQuestion Type: MC

2. The scientific process
a. is the best way to prove or disprove a theory.
b. provides us with hypotheses, but does not provide the methodology to test them.
c. has changed over time so that there now is little agreement on the best way to conduct the process.
d. cannot prove a theory beyond a shadow of a doubt, but can provide evidence that supports or
opposes the ideas in it.
Ans: D
Learning Objective:2.1 What do child development theories tell us?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Why Theories of Development are Important
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

3. As children grow, they become taller and heavier. This is a(n)
a. quantitative change in development.
b. qualitative change in development.
c. accumulative change in development.
d. transactive change in development.
Ans: A
Learning Objective:2.1 What do child development theories tell us?
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: How Does Change Happen?
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

4. The force that drives development
a. is biological processes in early development, but environmental processes later on.
b. alternates between biological process and environmental processes throughout development
c. cannot be quantified so we cannot say what this force might be.
d. can be biological processes, environmental events, or a combination of both.
Ans: D

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development
Learning Objective:2.1 What do child development theories tell us?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Why Does Change Happen?
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

5. When we look at developmental theories in historical perspective, we find that
a. theories do not develop in a vacuum because each draws upon earlier ideas or concepts.
b. over time theories have given more and more weight to the influence of early experiences on
development.
c. all of our current best ideas are really just old ideas that have been recycled.
d. the oldest theories, such as psychoanalysis and classical conditioning, are really still the best ones.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location:Theories of Child and Adolescent Development
Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC

6. Freud believed that the key to healthy psychological functioning involved
a. children directly confronting their parents about their perceived mistreatment while they were
young.
b. releasing inhibitions and given free reign to the demands of the id.
c. uncovering the thoughts in the unconscious mind that were associated with the psychological
symptoms of the person’s problem.
d. slowly being desensitized to stimuli that are provoking anxiety.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Psychoanalytic Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type; MC

7. The psychoanalytic technique of free association is intended to
a. uncover thoughts that are in the unconscious mind.
b. repress thoughts that create anxiety and stress for the person.
c. engage the reality principle so people can deal with their problems.
d. move people through the psychosexual stages of development.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location:Sigmond Freud’s Psychsexual Stages
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

8. In Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, the basic drives, such as sex and hunger, are contained in the
a. id.
b. ego.
c. unconscious.
d. superego.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Psychoanalytic Theory
Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

9. The part of the personality in Freudian psychoanalytic theory that negotiates between the demands
of the real world and the drive to satisfy basic drives is the
a. id.
b. ego.
c. superego.
d. latency principle.
Ans: B
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Psychoanalytic Theory
Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC

10. The superego is the part of the personality that
a. contains the basic biological drives, such as sex and hunger.
b. deal with the demands of the real world and the demands of the id.
c. constitutes the conscience or sense of right and wrong.
d. contains the growing sense of autonomy as the child develops.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Psychoanalytic Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
11. Freud would say that an adult who smokes heavily or one who constantly bites her nails
a. is trying to repress her aggressive urges.
b. is fixated at the oral stages because these needs were not met in infancy.
c. has not resolved his or her issues with the same-sex parent.
d. is stuck in the latency stage of development.
Ans: B

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
12. According to Freud, boys and girls develop what has been called “the family romance” during the
____________ stage of development.
a. anal
b. phallic
c. latency
d. genital
Ans: B
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
13. The driving force for development in Erik Erikson’s theory is the
a. use of rewards and punishment to shape the child’s behavior.
b. need to understand and make sense of the child’s experiences.
c. social experiences that are typical at each stage of development.
d. need to adapt to the changing demands of the environment.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain:Comprehension
Answer Location: Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
14. In Erikson’s psychosocial theory, the developmental challenge of infancy is the issue of
a. initiative versus guilt.
b. trust versus mistrust.
c. autonomy versus shame.
d. intimacy versus isolation.
Ans: B
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

15. Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory would suggest that the best way to help toddlers develop a sense
of autonomy would be to
a. be patient and allow the child to do things on her own, even if she struggles a bit.
b. allow the child to make his own decisions about what he wants to eat and when he wants to eat it.
c. let the child learn by watching other children of her own age, rather than getting help from an adult.
d. hold very high standards for the child and be critical of the child’s performance when the child
doesn’t meet your expectations.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Comparing Psychoanalytic Theories
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
16. The major modern application of psychoanalytic theory has been in the area of
a. neuroscience.
b. ethnography.
c. developmental psychopathology.
d. information processing.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Modern Applications of Psychoanalytic Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
17. Psychoanalytic theory focuses on the internal process of the mind, but learning theories focus on
a. conscious motivation.
b. adaptive biological mechanisms.
c. biological maturation.
d. observable behavior.
Ans: D
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain:Comprehension
Answer Location:Learning Theories
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
18. Watson believed that our personality, abilities and other qualities are primarily determined by
a. biological maturation.
b. neural impulses.
c. the environment.
d. internal drives.
Ans: C

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: John B. Watson and Classical Conditioning
Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC
19. In the process of classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that
a. naturally evokes an unconditioned response.
b. provokes a conditioned response.
c. that has no meaning before the process begins.
d. is quickly extinguished once the conditioning stops.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: John B. Watson and Classical Conditioning
Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC
20. John Watson classically conditioned Little Albert to demonstrate
a. that infants could learn to salivate to the sound of a bell.
b. how classical conditioning could create fear in a human infant.
c. that reinforcement was more powerful in shaping behavior than punishment.
d. how quickly responses can be learned and then unlearned.
Ans: B
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: John B. Watson and Classical Conditioning
Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC
21. One of the important modern applications of classical conditioning is to
a. develop effective treatments for phobias.
b. treat eating disorders.
c. understand the adaptive functions of behavior.
d. design better teaching techniques to use in classrooms.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain:Application
Answer Location: Modern Applications of Classical Conditioning
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

22. Through the use of virtual reality, deconditioning has been used to help returning soldiers
overcome their debilitating fear reactions. This therapeutic approach is based upon
a. dynamic systems theory.
b. principles of operant conditioning.
c. principles of classical conditioning.
d. social cognitive theory.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Modern Applications of Classical Conditioning
Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC
23. In operant conditioning
a. involuntary responses are either reinforced or punished by the environment.
b. an unconditioned stimulus will always lead to an unconditioned response.
c. a reinforcement that follows a behavior causes that behavior to occur again.
d. a fixed response produces behaviors that are the most resistant to extinction.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
24. If you wanted to encourage a child to eat a healthier diet, at first you might smile or nod when the
child was willing to take a small bite of a healthy food item on her plate. Then you might only smile
and nod when the child took a full bite of the food. Then you might only respond when the child ate
several bites, and finally only when the child finished the serving on her plate. You are changing this
child’s behavior through the process of
a. classical conditioning.
b. negative reinforcement.
c. shaping.
d. assimilation.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning
Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC
25. If a professor wanted his students to study at a steady pace throughout the semester, this would be
more likely to happen if the quizzes in his class happened
a. each time the class finished covering 100 pages in the textbook.

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

b. every other week.
c. as “pop quizzes” that occurred from time to time without warning.
d. only at the middle and then again at the end of the semester.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
26. After you eat dinner at your favorite restaurant five times, they give you a free dessert. This is an
example of a ________________ schedule of reinforcement.
a. fixed ratio
b. variable ratio
c. fixed interval
d. variable interval
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain:Application
Answer Location:B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
27. You can extinguish an undesired behavior by
a. delivering an unpleasant consequence following the behavior.
b. slowly escalating the amount of punishment for the continued undesired behavior.
c. not responding to the behavior.
d. only intermittently punishing the behavior.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
28. Bandura’s social cognitive theory added a third learning principle to classical and operant
conditioning, which was that
a. reinforcement is more powerful in shaping behavior than punishment.
b. only involuntary responses can be classically conditioned.
c. shaping is an effective way to learn a new behavior.
d. people also can learn through imitation of behaviors they observe.
Ans: D
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

Cognitive Domain:Comprehension
Answer Location:Albert Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
29. Which of the following correctly describes the steps in imitation according to social cognitive
theory?
a. motoric response – attention – memory – motivation
b. attention – memory – motoric response – motivation
c. motivation – attention – memory – motoric response
d. motivation – memory – attention – motoric response
Ans: B
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain:Analysis
Answer Location: Albert Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
30. When children observed an adult treating a Bobo doll in an aggressive manner
a. they were more likely to treat the doll aggressively themselves when they had the chance to play
with it.
b. it aroused a great deal of anxiety in the children and the experiment needed to be discontinued.
c. only children who were initially highly aggressive in their play were affected by what they saw.
d. they exactly copied what they saw the adult do when they played with a smaller doll.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Albert Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory
Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC
31. According to Piaget, when you encounter new information and it fits into an existing scheme, you
can ____________ the new information.
a. transform
b. assimilate
c. accommodate
d. encode
Ans: B
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain:Knowledge
Answer Location: Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

32. If new information cannot fit into an existing scheme, it throws us into a state of cognitive
disequilibrium and we will
a. transform the new information into a form we can understand.
b. encode the information in a new way that will allow it to be assimilated.
c. need to create a new scheme to accommodate the information.
d. level the information so that it can make sense to us.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory
Difficulty Level: Hard
Question Type: MC
33. Which of the following is how Piaget would describe children?
a. They are like little sponges that absorb any new information they encounter.
b. They are little computers who take in information and spit it out again.
c. They are like little teachers who want to tell everyone what they know.
d. They are like little scientists who actively experiment on their world.
Ans: D
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location:Modern Applications of Piaget’s Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
34. Piaget’s research has affected the world of education by
a. stressing the importance of rote learning in early education.
b. promoting strategies that allow the child to construct their own learning
c. emphasizing the importance of group work and collaboration in learning projects.
d. making us realize the young children need a great deal of adult supervision and oversight in order to
learn effectively.
Ans: B
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Modern Applications of Piaget’s Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
35. One of the ways in which Vygotsky differs from Piaget in his view of how children learn is that
Vygotsky
a. places more emphasis on the role of culture and the social world in cognitive development.
b. portrays children as individual learners who are focused on mastering their world.
c. believes that all learning is based upon the principles of classical and operant conditioning.
d. sees children as imitators of what they see other people doing.

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
36. The help that a more knowledgeable person offers to a child to help the child move beyond his
current level of understanding is called
a. collaborative learning.
b. prompting.
c. assimilation.
d. scaffolding.
Ans: D
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
37. When dynamic assessment is used to determine a child’s level of understanding, the instructor
determines the child’s current level of understanding and then
a. helps the child move to the next level of understanding.
b. compares the child’s performance to the performance of other children of the same age.
c. re-assesses the child’s understanding at a later date.
d. determines what the child can do under a different set of testing conditions.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain:Comprehension
Answer Location: Modern Application of Vygotsky’s Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
38. In the information processing model of human learning, the “software”
a. is the storage device that holds information until we need to use it.
b. are cognitive processes such as attention, organization, and retrieval strategies.
c. is the intake of information from the environment through our senses.
d. is the neural network that consists of concept nodes and links between them.
Ans: B
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Information Processing
Difficulty Level: Hard

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

Question Type: MC
39. When information comes in through our senses, according to the stores model of memory it is held
for a very brief period of time in raw form in
a. working memory.
b. encoding memory.
c. short-term memory.
d. sensory memory.
Ans: D
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Information Processing
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
40. In the connectionist/network model of memory, memory consists of
a. stores of information that are linked by encoding processes.
b. memory traces that strength with use or degrade with inactivity.
c. concept nodes that are linked together into a neural network.
d. the free associations that we make between ideas and concepts.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Information Processing
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
41. The understanding that newborn ducklings and goslings will imprint upon and follow their mothers
immediately after birth came from early work in the field of
a. ethology.
b. sociobiology.
c. ecological theory.
d. information processing.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Ethology
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
42. Sociobiology is the study of
a. the behavior of members within their kinship groups.
b. the differences between culture groups that have different biological inheritance.

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

c. social behaviors that are determined by genes and which have evolved to promote adaption to the
environment.
d. the behavior of animals and humans in their natural environments.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Sociobiology
Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC
43. According to the theory of sociobiology, you are more likely to protect, help, and give to relatives
rather than to other people because
a. this helps to ensure that genes that you share in common will be passed on to future generations.
b. you are more likely to live in closer proximity to your relatives.
c. you are more likely to be closer in age to your relatives than you are to other people.
d. you feel that your relatives understand you better than other people do.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain:Analysis
Answer Location:Sociobiology
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
44. An explanation for why girls growing up in families that are conflictual, dysfunctional, or in which
the father is absent go through puberty at an earlier age has come from the field of
a. psychopathology.
b. ecological systems theory.
c. evolutionary developmental psychology.
d. ethology.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Modern Applications of Evolutionary Theory
Difficulty Level:Medium
Question Type: MC
45. Bronfenbrenner would say that it is important that we understand the individual
a. as an autonomous individual who has the free will to make independent choices.
b. as someone who primarily responds to biological processes that he can’t control.
c. not on her own or with one or two other people, but rather within all of the contexts that affect
development.
d. as a member of a specific culture that dictates the person’s attitudes, values and beliefs.
Ans: C

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Ecological Theory
Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC
46. In ecological theory, the macrosystem consists of
a. all of a person’s face-to-face interactions in their immediate settings.
b. the interactions between various microsystems.
c. the settings that are external to the child and which the child never enters.
d. the cultural norms that guide the organizations and places that make up one’s everyday life.
Ans: D
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Ecological Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
47. Ecological system theory has made a particularly important impact in the area of
a. sociobiology.
b. social policy and action research.
c. education.
d. neurobiology.
Ans: B
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Modern Applications of Ecological Theory
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
48. A new understanding that has emerged from the research in neuropsychology is that
a. genes largely determine our behavior.
b. experience is powerful enough to override almost all genetic effects.
c. biology impacts on behavior, but the environment also affects biological functioning.
d. the effects of biology and behavior is so complex that we are not yet able to disentangle the two.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.3 What are neuropsychology and behavioral genomics?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Neuropsychology and Behavioral Genomics
Difficulty Level:Medium
Question Type: MC
49. As a result of our growing understanding of how both the brain and genes function, we now
recognize that

Levine, Child Development 3e
Chapter 2. Theories of Development

a. biology has an impact on behavior, but the environment also affects our biological functioning.
b. all of the different aspects of development interact and affect each other over time.
c. the “close in” environments have a great impact on development than the more distal
environments.
d. dominant genes are a more powerful influence on brain development than recessive genes.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.3 What are neuropsychology and behavioral genomics?
Cognitive Domain:Analysis
Answer Location:Neuropsychology and Behavioral Genomics
Difficulty Level:Medium
Question Type: MC
50. The idea that biological maturation operates in interaction with the environment and the
experiences it provides to children comes from
a. ethology.
b. sociobiology.
c. dynamic systems theory.
d. behavioral genomics.
Ans: C
Learning Objective: 2.2 What are the hypotheses and modern application of the major child
development theories?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Dynamic Systems Theory
Difficulty Level: Easy
Question Type: MC
51. What does developmental theory in non-Western cultures focus on?
a. The role of the individual in the context of the social group.
b. The primary role of the first three years of life for development.
c. The role of active participation in the developmental process.
d. The role of spirituality in developmental processes.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.4 How does culture influence theories of child development?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Developmental Theory in a Cultural Context
Difficulty Level: Medium
Question Type: MC
51. Which of the statements reflect the focus that African culture has on the development of the child?
a. The goal is for a child to develop an individual and unique identity.
b. The goal is for the child to become competent in the social world.
c. The goal is for the child to excel in areas important for the success in adulthood.
d. The goal is for the child to foster independence and a sense of purpose.
Ans: A
Learning Objective: 2.4 How does culture influence theories of child development?
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Developmental Theory in a Cultural Context

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