Deviance And Social Control A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L. -Test Bank +A

$35.00
Deviance And Social Control A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L. -Test Bank +A

Deviance And Social Control A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L. -Test Bank +A

$35.00
Deviance And Social Control A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L. -Test Bank +A
  1. Which theorist is considered the pioneer of sociological criminology and known for the significant contribution, differential association theory?
  2. a) Robert Merton
  3. b) Edwin Sutherland
  4. c) Ronald Akers
  5. d) Robert Burgess

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is not one of Sutherland’s Nine Propositions of differential association theory?
  2. a) Differential association may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.
  3. b) The same mechanisms are involved in learning crime as involved in other learning.
  4. c) Criminal behavior is inherent.
  5. d) Criminal behavior is learned through interaction and communication with others.

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Differential association and social learning theories are most likely to emphasize studies that examine social learning through communication with ________ others.
  2. a) stranger
  3. b) political
  4. c) formal
  5. d) intimate

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. _____________________ refers to the likelihood of rewards and punishments that will reinforce or diminish behaviors.
  2. a) Differential association
  3. b) Imitation observation
  4. c) Differential reinforcement
  5. d) Reproachful behavior

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. In the early 1950s, the ____________Project, offered delinquent boys the opportunity to leave their residential treatment facility during the day to go to work or school and then return to what was referred to as Guided Group Interaction where group sessions were led by trained staff, and the boys could discuss problems they were experiencing with their families, in school, or in their jobs.
  2. a) Highland
  3. b) DARE
  4. c) Chicago School
  5. d) Greenbrier

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In the research study by Pamela Hunt on the ___________ Subcultures, the “passion” philosophy refers to sharing resources in communal living, the aversion to status and authority, and promoting such behaviors to others
  2. a) Differential
  3. b) Jamband
  4. c) Hippie
  5. d) Biker Gang

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Akers et al (1998) conducted a Midwest self-report study on drug use, finding that social learning variables were predictive of which substance use and problems?
  2. a) Heroin and methamphetamine
  3. b) Smoking and alcohol
  4. c) Alcohol and marijuana
  5. d) Cocaine and heroin

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Which of the following includes incidence of sexual aggression as deviance?
  2. a) Sexual aggression
  3. b) Passive sexuality
  4. c) Property crime
  5. d) Aggravated robbery

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. In the history of social learning theories, they are criticized for a tendency to focus on ______________.
  2. a) drug addicts
  3. b) juvenile delinquents
  4. c) geriatrics patients
  5. d) new borns to toddlers

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

TRUE/FALSE

  1. A video online that provides “tips and tricks” on bulimia and anorexia is considered a learned deviant act because it includes sharing skills for deviant acts of body modification.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Edwin Sutherland stated that conventional theories about crime and criminality are valid because they explain only the crimes of the lower class.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Differential location in the social structure refers to the social and demographic characteristics of individuals defining roles in larger social structure.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Social learning theories argue social behavior is observed and imitated.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. According to Akers (1998), definitions are attitudes, beliefs, and rationalizations that define a behavior as good or bad, right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate; definitions can be general or specific.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Today, even those interested in biological predictors of crime and deviance do not argue that behavior is inherited, but rather they say that there may be predispositions that make some folks more likely to engage in behavior.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Cultural deviance has not been very influential in the study of deviance.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Differential association theories best describe subgroups like serial killers and schizophrenics.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

Short Answer

  1. What three things must be present in order for deviance to be learned?

Ans:

Presence of availability in instruction, opportunities to act out deviance, and encouragement to conduct deviant acts.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. List four concepts of social learning theory provided by Ron Akers? Provide a brief explanation of each.

Ans:

Definitions of attitudes, beliefs, rationalizations of good/bad, and right/wrong

  • can be general or specific
  • can be favorable , neutralizing, or reproachful of behavior

Differential association

  • definitions are learned through contact with others

Differential reinforcement

  • “balance of anticipated and actual rewards and punishments”
  • Likelihood of rewards and punishments will reinforce or diminish

Imitation

  • observing modeled behavior and repeating
  • ex: candy cigarettes

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Is differential association reinforcement theory strictly focused on the individual, the environment, or social world around them or both? Why or why not?

Ans:

This theory attempted to introduce the psychological concepts of operant conditioning to the original theory. The notion behind operant conditioning is that learning is enhanced by both social and nonsocial reinforcement. Their collaboration led to a seven-proposition integration of differential association and operant conditioning concepts. Ultimately, it incorporates both.

Chapter 7

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

  1. Social control theory is traced to the eighteenth-century work of which theorist:
  2. a) Karl Marx
  3. b) Cesare Becarria
  4. c) Cesare Lombroso
  5. d) Travis Hirschi

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. According to Nye, _________ refers to rules and norms that are instilled in consciousness as children.
  2. a) indirect controls
  3. b) direct controls
  4. c) internal social controls
  5. d) external social controls

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Social control theories argue deviance is a caused by:
  2. a) insufficient internal and external controls.
  3. b) learned behaviors from parents.
  4. c) imitation and observation of others.
  5. d) social structures and strain.

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. According to Hirschi’s social bond theory, _______________ refers to emotional attachment and bonds that keep us from engaging in deviant behaviors.
  2. a) attachment
  3. b) commitment
  4. c) involvement
  5. d) belief

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. When deviance is perceived to not cause injury or harm to anyone, it is which technique of neutralization?
  2. a) Denial of responsibility
  3. b) Denial of injury
  4. c) Condemnation of the condemners
  5. d) Appeal to higher loyalties

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Sykes and Matza refer to techniques of ___________ as it relates to social control and our justifications for deviance and crime.
  2. a) criminality
  3. b) deviance
  4. c) neutralization
  5. d) justification

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which additions to social control theories would examine the different levels of control placed on boys and girls in patriarchal households as affecting different deviancy?
  2. a) Power control theory
  3. b) Critical race theory
  4. c) General theory of crime
  5. d) Self-control theory

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. According to power control theory, ________ constitute(s) the primary agents of socialization in the family.
  2. a) siblings
  3. b) father
  4. c) mother
  5. d) grandmother

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which theory is designed to predict all behaviors, beyond criminal and/or delinquent?
  2. a) Power control theory
  3. b) Critical race theory
  4. c) General theory of crime
  5. d) Self-control theory

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

True/False

  1. Social control theories argue the law is representative of the consensus in society.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Travis Hirschi is among social control theorists which seek to ask why are people not being deviant rather than why are people deviant?

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Denial of the victim is a technique of neutralization.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Deviant acts that provide immediate gratification of desires construct low self-control.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Acts that are exciting, risky or thrilling induce NORMAL self-control.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Trajectory is the pathway or line of development of deviancy over a life span, referring to long-term patterns of life behavior and marked by sequence of transitions.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. A trajectory is shorter than a transition.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

Short Answer

  1. List the four components to social bonds of Hirschi’s social control theories. Provide an example of each or brief explanation of what it means.

Ans:

Attachment—what would those we are attached to think (mom, dad, friends, family, etc)?

Commitment—what will I lose? Weighing costs and benefits.

Involvement—“idle hands are the devil’s workshop”, things to keep busy such as sports,

homework, band practice, etc.

Belief—awareness, understanding, and agreement with rules and norms influence deviance; can be aware of norms and rules, yet less accepting of the moral validity of law.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. According to social control theorists, the blame for crime lies with weak institutions and their agents. Do you agree/disagree? Explain by using an example that supports your position.

Ans:

Yes, I agree. Though the theory does not explain everything, it explains some instances of deviance, depending on the deviance. For example, single parent families and “absent dads” are accused of lacking control over their children, as are unstable families. This theory would also predict that children with a history or truancy and exclusion would be more likely to turn to crime and those who are long-term unemployed could also be a problem.

  1. List Matza and Sykes’ Five Techniques of Neutralization. Provide examples and/or explanation of each to show you know the process of each.

Ans:

The Denial of Responsibility

  • Rationalization we are not responsible, mistakes or accidents
  • “helplessly propelled” into their bad behavior—unloving parents, a bad teacher, and boss

The Denial of Injury

  • If deviance is perceived to not cause injury or harm to anyone; “but no one was hurt by it”
  • argue that behavior should be allowed and is not all that bad if no one is hurt

The Denial of Victim

  • victim might exist, but they deserved the harm; “brought it on themselves”
  • Robin Hood’s behavior of stealing from the rich to give to the poor is justified
  • may be against the rules to steal, but the rich brought it upon themselves by stealing from the poor first

The Condemnation of the Condemners

  • individuals that are pointing the finger at the deviant’s behavior are also deviant
  • behavior is also deviant and therefore, those “condemners” have no right to call into question the behavior of the deviant individual

The Appeal to Higher Loyalties

  • larger group (society) lose out to the wishes of a smaller, more intimate group
  • loyalty to the group requires they break the rules for the good of the smaller group
  • For example, a young boy fights to protect his younger brother or show loyalty to their group

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. List the six elements that construct low self-control according to Hirschi and Gottfredson’s General Theory of Crime.

Six elements that construct low self-control:

  • Criminal acts provide immediate gratification of desires
  • Criminal acts provide easy or simple gratification of desires
  • Criminal acts are exciting, risky, or thrilling
  • Crimes provide few or meager long-term benefits
  • Crimes require little skill or planning
  • Crimes often result in pain or discomfort for the victim

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

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