Discovering Psychology the Science of Mind 1e by Cacioppo Freberg A+

$35.00
Discovering Psychology the Science of Mind 1e by Cacioppo Freberg A+
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Discovering Psychology the Science of Mind 1e by Cacioppo Freberg A+

$35.00
Discovering Psychology the Science of Mind 1e by Cacioppo Freberg A+

Chapter Six: The Aware Mind ─

Elements of Consciousness

Learning ObjectiveRelated Questions
Multiple

Choice

Essay
1. Analyze the meaning of consciousness in terms of alertness, sensory awareness, and self-awareness, and debate whether various nonhuman animals have consciousness.1-143, 4
2. Explain the roles of light and eating in regulating cycles of consciousness, and show how these cycles can be disrupted by technologies of modern life.15-24
3. Differentiate the five stages of sleep in terms of EEG patterns, autonomic nervous system and muscle activity, and possible functions.25-541
4. Compare and contrast several sleep disorders in terms of their symptoms and the type of sleep disturbed.55-652
5. Explain disorders of consciousness in terms of damage or dysfunction in specific areas of the brain.66-74
6. Differentiate the neurochemical mechanisms and effects on consciousness of hallucinogens, stimulants, depressants, and opiates.75-104
7. Evaluate the evidence for hypnosis and meditation as neurologically “real” altered states of consciousness.

8.

105-120

Chapter 06: The Aware Mind: Elements of Consciousness

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. College roommates Sergio and Giuseppe decide to start a landscaping business over the summer. They meet up at 5:00 a.m. one morning to clean and organize their equipment. Sergio is full of energy and begins to move heavy equipment right away; Giuseppe is sluggish and unable to focus. What aspect of consciousness describes the different mental states of Sergio and Giuseppe?
a.degree of awarenessc.stream of awareness
b.state of awarenessd.content of awareness

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. Corrina finds a quiet cubicle at the library and prepares for a long night of studying. Soon after she settles in, a group of girls gather at a nearby table and begin gossiping about someone Corrina knows. While reading her textbook, Corrina listens in on the conversation. What aspect of consciousness describes Corrina’s awareness of both her textbook material and the conversation?
a.degree of awarenessc.stream of awareness
b.state of awarenessd.content of awareness

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. Tasha runs a daycare center. She places birthday hats on a group of children to celebrate one-year-old Chantal’s birthday. Tasha notices that when Chantal passes by a mirror she grabs for the hat by reaching for the mirror instead of reaching for her own head. Tasha picks up the baby and helps her find her hat. What aspect of consciousness has Chantal not yet reached?
a.awareness of sensationc.self-awareness
b.reflective awarenessd.awareness of perception

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. The existence of varying states of awareness benefits animals by facilitating ____.
a.reproduction and immune functionc.body repair and immune function
b.reproduction and energy conservationd.body repair and energy conservation

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. From an evolutionary perspective, why is the conscious awareness of ongoing sensations advantageous for animals?
a.It enables animals to have a sense of mortality and a strong will to pass on their genes.
b.It facilitates the development of complex motor and sensory control.
c.It allows animals to respond instinctively to oncoming threats.
d.It provides the opportunity to choose responses rather than to respond instinctively.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. From an evolutionary perspective, why is self-awareness advantageous for animals?
a.It enables animals to have a sense of mortality and a strong will to pass on their genes.
b.It facilitates the development of complex motor and sensory control.
c.It allows animals to respond instinctively to oncoming threats.
d.It provides the opportunity to choose responses rather than to respond instinctively.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. Some researchers restrict the possibility of self-aware consciousness to species that ____.
a.show strong individualismc.exhibit complex social behavior
b.demonstrate cognitive complexityd.are at the top of the food chain

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. What is the relationship between the brain, the mind, and consciousness?
a.They are equal and interdependent entities.
b.They function as mutually exclusive entities.
c.Consciousness falls under the umbrella of the mind; the mind falls under the umbrella of the brain.
d.The brain falls under the umbrella of the mind; the mind falls under the umbrella of consciousness.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. Consciousness requires complex interactions between the cerebral cortex and the ____.
a.amygdalac.midbrain
b.thalamusd.hippocampus

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. After suffering a traumatic brain injury, Samantha learns that her brother Tobias has significant injury to his thalamus. What can we conclude?
a.Tobias cannot speak but can understand what is being said to him.
b.Tobias is conscious but is likely to have long-term memory loss.
c.Tobias is most likely brain dead.
d.Tobias will likely make a full recovery, but will have problems with impulse control.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. Jess is fast asleep, and her roommate Crystal is studying in the next room. Their cat knocks a lamp off of the bookshelf. Crystal jumps up from her desk, but Jess remains asleep. What brain structure is responsible for raising or lowering the thresholds of conscious awareness, such that Crystal reacts to the sound of the lamp falling and Jess is unaware of it?
a.reticular formationc.globus pallidus
b.substantia nigrad.corpus callosum

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. Gayle watches a bird fly by her window. Her visual system processes its shape, color, and movement. The question of how the brain processes these individual pieces of information to form a unified representation of a flying bird is known as the “____.”
a.merging puzzlec.unification paradox
b.binding problemd.association paradigm

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. Gayle watches a bird fly by her window. Her visual system processes its shape, color, and movement. How might the brain process these individual pieces of information to form a unified representation of a flying bird?
a.Clusters of neurons proliferate with new incoming stimuli and form connections to pre-existing clusters.
b.The brain uses bottom-up processing to interpret incoming sensory information.
c.The visual system acts as the primary sense and engages secondary senses, such as audition, to form a complete understanding of the stimuli.
d.Sensory information combines with past experience to produce expectations about a current situation.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. The frontal lobes provide working space for ____.
a.sensory integration and decision-making
b.sensory integration and emotional regulation
c.learning and decision-making
d.learning and emotional regulation

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious? OBJ: LO1

  1. Dr. Sanchez is a behavioral psychologist who studies learning and memory in rats. Because rats are most active at night, she asks the animal resource facility to reverse their light/dark cycle to accommodate her experiments. However, the animal facility is reluctant to disrupt the rats’ current ____.
a.circadian rhythmc.chronometric temperance
b.cerebrodynamic cycled.contrast arousal

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO2

  1. The Student Union is holding its weekly Friday night “De-stress ’til Dawn” mixer. Brandon is hungry, Shelby is tired, and Tina feels cold. Which brain structure controls the internal biological clocks responsible for regulating these processes?
a.hippocampusc.hypothalamus
b.amygdalad.cingulate cortex

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO2

  1. Internal biological clocks interact with external stimuli, referred to by the ____.
a.Dutch term maalgevenc.French term temps-donner
b.Italian term lezionadared.German term zeitgebers

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO2

  1. Kendyl is born with a congenital disorder that prevents her eyes from sensing light; her fraternal twin brother Gabe is born with normal vision. In comparison to Gabe, Kendyl will likely have ____.
a.no circadian cyclec.a longer circadian cycle
b.a shorter circadian cycled.the same circadian cycle

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO2

  1. Carl’s wife Juanita is unhappy that her husband’s new shift as a security guard is from 11:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. She complains to her husband that since he started his new job, he seems sluggish, depressed, and irritable. What condition might Carl have?
a.circadian abnormality disorderc.altered graveyard state
b.dysfunctional cycle conditiond.shift maladaption syndrome

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO2

  1. Who is most likely to suffer the biggest disruption to his or her circadian rhythm?
a.Dale, who travels from Connecticut to Oregon for a business meeting
b.Eli, who travels from Nevada to Rhode Island to visit his new grandson
c.Miranda, who travels from Maine to Florida for a family vacation
d.Carlos, who travels from Arizona to Montana for a job interview

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO2

  1. What is the evidence to suggest that abrupt changes to one’s daily schedule are detrimental to human behavior?
a.Switching from a day to night shift positively correlates with psychotic episodes.
b.Changing over to daylight savings time correlates with increased automobile accidents.
c.Divorce rates are higher in people who travel frequently to different time zones.
d.Murder rates typically increase during severe bouts of inclement weather.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO2

  1. Mina is seeing a therapist for depression. After several sessions, Mina’s therapist recommends that she undergo light therapy. Mina likely suffers from which disorder?
a.neurastheniac.seasonal affective disorder
b.somatization disorderd.bipolar disorder

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO2

  1. Artificial lighting affects sleep by breaking down ____.
a.epinephrinec.keratin
b.collagend.melatonin

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO2

  1. A shift in one’s circadian rhythm during adolescence, which leads to peak alertness at night, is thought to correlate with ____.
a.a surge in the production of sex hormones
b.a burst in brain development
c.heightened individualistic ideals
d.metabolic reorganization

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO2

  1. Azul studies for her upcoming molecular biology midterm. She starts by making an outline of her textbook chapters and then begins studying her lecture notes. Azul’s brain is likely to show ____.
a.alpha wave activityc.delta wave activity
b.beta wave activityd.theta wave activity

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. After a grueling day of classes, Edith returns to her apartment and plops down in a comfortable recliner; she closes her eyes momentarily and relaxes. Edith’s brain is likely to show ____.
a.alpha wave activityc.delta wave activity
b.beta wave activityd.theta wave activity

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Varying states of awareness are best monitored using a(n) ____.
a.CAT scanc.electroencephalogram
b.x-rayd.laser doppler

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. While eating her morning bowl of cereal, Kalinda daydreams about what she would do if she won the upcoming lottery drawing. Which cortical areas of Kalinda’s brain are likely to be activated?
a.medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and insula
b.frontoparietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula
c.anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
d.retrosplenial cortex, posterior parietal cortex, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Dominic leaves his noisy dorm room to find a quiet place where he can concentrate on his organic chemistry homework. Which cortical areas of Dominic’s brain are activated while he dedicates undivided attention to his homework?
a.medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and insula
b.frontoparietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula
c.anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
d.retrosplenial cortex, posterior parietal cortex, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Selena weeds her garden while thinking about what she will wear to her daughter’s graduation ceremony. What brain network is engaged while Selena daydreams?
a.The “fall back network”c.The “ulterior network”
b.The “clandestine network”d.The “default network”

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Justin is thrilled to come home to an empty apartment because he needs complete silence to work on his term paper. What brain network is engaged while Justin concentrates on his term paper?
a.The “vital network”c.The “frontal network”
b.The “decisive network”d.The “executive network”

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

I’m Awake!

Patti finds her husband Derek asleep in his recliner. She gently touches his shoulder and says, “Derek, wake-up; the dog needs to go out.” Derek abruptly responds, “Patti, I am awake!”.

  1. Derek was most likely in ____.
a.Stage 1 N-REMc.Stage 3 or 4 N-REM
b.Stage 2 N-REMd.REM sleep

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. What type of brain waveforms did Derek display right before being awakened?
a.delta waves
b.theta waves
c.beta waves
d.theta waves with sleep spindles and K-complexes

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

Appliances

Duke is exhausted and plops down on the couch. Fifteen minutes after falling asleep, Duke is not awakened by the refrigerator cycling on. He is, however, awoken by his roommate opening the refrigerator door.

  1. Duke is most likely in ____.
a.Stage 1 N-REMc.Stage 3 or 4 N-REM
b.Stage 2 N-REMd.REM sleep

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. What type of brain waveforms did Duke display right before being awakened?
a.delta waves
b.theta waves
c.beta waves
d.theta waves with sleep spindles and K-complexes

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

Moving the Car

Approximately an hour after falling asleep, Daisy’s roommate repeatedly shakes her shoulder and asks Daisy to move her car out of the driveway. Daisy takes several minutes to respond to her roommate and then opens the refrigerator to find her keys.

  1. Daisy was most likely in ____.
a.Stage 1 N-REMc.Stage 3 or 4 N-REM
b.Stage 2 N-REMd.REM sleep

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. What type of brain waveforms did Daisy display right before being awakened?
a.delta waves
b.theta waves
c.beta waves
d.theta waves with sleep spindles and K-complexes

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

Flying Jellyfish

Tao wakes up his roommate Don so that he doesn’t miss his morning classes again. Don tells Tao, “I wish you hadn’t woken me up, I was about to land on Mars after winning a fierce battle against flying jellyfish.”

  1. Don was most likely in ____.
a.Stage 1 N-REMc.Stage 3 or 4 N-REM
b.Stage 2 N-REMd.REM sleep

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. What type of brain waveforms did Don display right before being awakened?
a.delta wave activity
b.theta wave activity
c.beta wave activity
d.theta waves with sleep spindles and K-complex activity

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Our physiological state during REM sleep consists of ____.
a.slow and relaxed heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing; and twitching of postural muscles
b.rapid or irregular heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing; and twitching of postural muscles
c.slow and relaxed heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing; and paralysis of postural muscles
d.rapid or irregular heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing; and paralysis of postural muscles

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Dan, startled by the sound of a loud thump in the middle of the night, catches a glimpse of his roommate Yi wandering around their dorm room. The next morning Dan asks about the loud thump and Yi replies, “I think I was asleep the entire night … but I have been known to sleepwalk from time-to-time.” What stage of sleep was Yi likely experiencing while sleepwalking?
a.Stage 1 N-REMc.Stage 3 or 4 N-REM
b.Stage 2 N-REMd.REM sleep

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. What is a typical REM and N-REM cycling in humans?
a.First half of sleep: N-REM dominates; second half of sleep: REM dominates.
b.First half of sleep: REM dominates; second half of sleep: N-REM dominates.
c.First half of sleep: only N-REM occurs; second half of sleep: only REM occurs.
d.First half of sleep: only REM occurs; second half of sleep: only N-REM occurs.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. At the age of 45, Denise has gradually lost the ability to sleep. After seeking the advice of medical experts, Denise learns that she suffers from a rare genetic disorder that caused damage to her thalamus. What is the prognosis for this disorder?
a.deathc.dystonia
b.heart diseased.loss of eyesight

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. What is the evidence to suggest that sleep plays an important role in repairing the body?
a.Melatonin is manufactured during REM sleep.
b.Human growth hormone is released during Stages 3 and 4 of N-REM sleep.
c.Levels of the wound healing chemical prothrombin are depleted during consciousness.
d.The immune cells phagocytes and lymphocytes mature during Stage 1 N-REM sleep.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Study participants who were selectively deprived of Stages 3 and 4 N-REM sleep reported ____.
a.muscle and joint painc.headache and nausea
b.blurred visiond.sore throat and itchy eyes

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Vanessa crams for her anatomy and physiology final by staying up the entire night before the exam. What is a likely consequence of Vanessa’s actions?
a.Vanessa will experience a brief surge of energy during the test followed by a prolonged “crash” phase.
b.Vanessa will need to rest her eyes periodically during the exam or risk temporary vision impairment.
c.Vanessa will likely perform below her fullest potential because she decreased her capacity to remember the material.
d.Vanessa will need to have at least two nights of normal sleep before experiencing normal mental functioning.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. New mom Lin was up most of the night with her infant daughter. To give Lin a chance to sleep, her husband takes the baby to his parents’ house for a few hours. As soon as they leave, Lin falls fast asleep. What stage of sleep does Lin likely enter to compensate for her lack of sleep?
a.Stage 1 N-REMc.Stage 3 or 4 N-REM
b.Stage 2 N-REMd.REM sleep

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Why is it thought that the human infant spends about half of its sleep time in REM?
a.To provide an adequate energy supply for organ maturation
b.To provide the stimulation necessary to facilitate brain “wiring”
c.To reinforce behaviors or skills observed during wakefulness
d.To reduce the stimulation that otherwise interferes with brain network pruning

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Which disorder is correlated with individuals spending a greater portion of their sleeping time in REM?
a.generalized anxiety disorderc.obsessive compulsive disorder
b.depressiond.autism spectrum disorder

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. During REM sleep, specific brainstem neurons show reduced activity. What types of neurotransmitters are released by these neurons?
a.serotonin and dopaminec.glutamate and dopamine
b.serotonin and norepinephrined.glutamate and norepinephrine

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Maude has a series of dreams while in REM sleep. According to researchers, which of Maude’s dreams is likely to dominate her REM sleep in terms of content?
a.Maude dreams that she is a mermaid princess who lives in a castle made of rubies.
b.Maude dreams that she takes revenge on her boss by setting his office on fire.
c.Maude dreams that she has a sink full of dishes that must be washed.
d.Maude dreams that she is running in a desert, without water, to escape an enemy

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Maria dreams that she is standing in the middle of the street as a bus travels towards her, but she feels frozen and cannot move out of the way. According to which theory does Maria’s inability to move reflect the muscle paralysis that occurs during the REM state?
a.static-depiction theoryc.real-time paralysis theory
b.instinctive-representation theoryd.activation-synthesis theory

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Aviva wakes up abruptly after she dreams she is falling from the sky. She is relieved to find herself safe and secure in her comfortable bed. What may have caused Aviva to feel as if she were falling?
a.activation of the vestibular system
b.hyperstimulation of the cerebellum
c.surge in human growth hormone release
d.increased K-complex formation

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. What evidence supports the idea that we dream to develop future survival strategies by integrating sensory experience with stored memories when in an “off-line” mode during REM sleep?
a.Most people report having dreams in which they defeat their rivals.
b.We typically repeat a single behavior over and over again in a dream.
c.The majority of our dreams involve negative circumstances.
d.We tend to feel more rested when we wake from problem solving dreams.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Aurora talks to her therapist about a reoccurring dream in which she encounters a ferocious lion that has just escaped from local zoo. She works with her therapist to learn how to form a conscious awareness of the dream and to control the dream by turning the lion into a kitten. What technique is Aurora utilizing?
a.lucid dreamingc.directive dreaming
b.autonomous dreamingd.cogent dreaming

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO4

  1. Which scenario best illustrates the concept of a night terror?
a.Pierre dreams that a serial killer stands over his bed with a machete in his hand; Pierre is certain that he faces imminent death.
b.Chandra, who suffers from sleep apnea, dreams that she is sinking to the bottom of a lake and wakes up gasping for air.
c.Hector wakes up suddenly in great distress; his roommate asks him what is wrong but Hector cannot explain what happened.
d.Pauline has recurring nightmares in which her brother is trapped in a sinking car; because of this she worries obsessively about her brother’s safety.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO4

  1. What is the physiological basis for night terrors?
a.Sleep spindles and K-complexes do not form during Stage 4 N-REM sleep.
b.Dreaming begins in N-REM stages rather than in the REM state.
c.Hyperstimulation of beta waves occur during the REM state.
d.The transition from Stage 4 N-REM sleep upward into REM goes awry.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO4

  1. Dora has no problem falling asleep each night, but she wakes up frequently in the middle of the night and often cannot fall back asleep. From what type of insomnia does Dora suffer?
a.maintenance insomniac.continuance insomnia
b.duration insomniad.interval insomnia

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO4

  1. Darius suffers from insomnia; his family practitioner prescribes zolpidem to treat his insomnia. What can Darius expect from the medication?
a.He can expect to fall asleep 15 minutes faster and stay asleep 30 minutes longer.
b.He can expect to fall asleep 30 minutes faster and stay asleep 45 minutes longer.
c.He can expect to fall asleep 45 minutes faster and stay asleep 60 minutes longer.
d.He can expect to fall asleep 60 minutes faster and stay asleep 75 minutes longer.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO4

  1. Consuela stands in front of her American History class to give a presentation. She suddenly loses consciousness and suffers a “sleep attack” referred to as ____.
a.dyspneac.ataxia
b.cataplexyd.narcolepsy

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO4

  1. Carolos stands in front of his Thursday night slam poetry group to recite his most recent work. He suddenly experiences temporary muscle paralysis but does not lose consciousness, a condition termed ____.
a.dyspneac.ataxia
b.cataplexyd.narcolepsy

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO4

  1. Patients with narcolepsy have damaged or missing cells in their ____.
a.hippocampusc.medulla
b.amygdalad.hypothalamus

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO4

  1. A sleep disorder in which the person stops breathing while asleep is referred to as sleep ____.
a.apneac.ataxia
b.dystoniad.dyspepsia

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO4

  1. Some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may include biological vulnerabilities in the function of which neurotransmitter?
a.glutamatec.serotonin
b.norepinephrined.dopamine

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO4

  1. Sam suffers from restless leg syndrome. From what other disorder is Sam likely to suffer?
a.obsessive compulsive disorderc.bipolar disorder
b.generalized anxiety disorderd.attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO4

  1. Consider a classical case study of a woman named Christina who suffered inflammatory damage to her somatosensory nerves. What were the consequences of this damage?
a.She lost the ability to recognize faces and no longer had self-confidence.
b.She lost the ability to sense the placement of her body and no longer had a sense of self.
c.She lost the ability to empathize with others and became narcissistic.
d.She lost the ability to communicate with others and suffered from major depression.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: How is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage? OBJ: LO5

  1. The neurological conditions prosopagnosia and Capgras syndrome, which affect aspects of facial recognition, have taught us that conscious experience ____.
a.is an all or nothing phenomenon
b.stems from the integration of several brain pathways
c.evolved to ensure species continuation
d.is a uniquely human attribute

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: How is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage? OBJ: LO5

  1. Following cardiac arrest, Teresa’s father Ike is in a coma. Ike’s doctor explains to Teresa that his brain activity shows ____.
a.alpha and theta waves that are consistent with sleep
b.alpha and theta waves that are distinct from a normal sleeping pattern
c.only alpha waves that are consistent with sleep
d.only alpha waves that are distinct from a normal sleeping pattern

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage? OBJ: LO5

  1. Consider the scenarios below. Which person displays characteristic signs of a persistent vegetative state?
a.Brian is in persistent state of unconsciousness; he cannot be awakened and does not respond to painful stimuli.
b.Sienna is learning to walk after her automobile accident; however, she still cannot communicate and suffers significant cognitive impairment.
c.Anil is in a coma; his mother is hopeful because he occasionally opens his eyes and sometimes even smiles or cries, but Anil’s doctors tell her that these actions are random.
d.Muriel was in a deep coma; she now squeezes her mother’s hand when she hears her voice, but she cannot open her eyes or speak.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: How is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage? OBJ: LO5

  1. Brain death is characterized by ____.
a.a persistent vegetative state lasting longer than 18 months
b.two flat-line EEG recording taken 24 hours apart
c.a continuous comatose state lasting longer than 12 months
d.EEG recordings void of beta waves for at least 48 hours

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage? OBJ: LO5

  1. What physiological response may be responsible for the phenomenon of a near-death experience characterized by out-of-body experiences, the perception of light at the end of a tunnel, and the state of calmness?
a.deactivation of adrenal medullary pathways
b.increased release of serotonin
c.activation of the nigrostriatal pathway
d.release of glutamate blockers

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage? OBJ: LO5

  1. The inhibition of which neurotransmitter contributes to the onset of seizure activity?
a.GABAc.dopamine
b.glutamated.norepinephrine

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: How is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage? OBJ: LO5

  1. Regina wakes her husband in the middle of the night and tells him, “Where am I? This isn’t our bedroom.” After a visit to the emergency room, Regina learns that she likely suffered a partial seizure originating in her ____.
a.temporal lobec.occipital lobe
b.parietal lobed.frontal lobe

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage? OBJ: LO5

  1. Natalia, who suffers from epilepsy, experiences a seizure in which she completely loses consciousness, stops breathing, and thrashes about uncontrollably. Natalia experienced which type of seizure?
a.partial; tonic-clonicc.generalized; tonic-clonic
b.partial; myoclonicd.generalized; myoclonic

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage? OBJ: LO5

  1. When Gregg first started drinking alcohol, he needed only one or two beers to feel “buzzed”; now he needs at least four or five beers before he feels anything. What process describes Gregg’s need for more alcohol before feeling its effects?
a.drug resistancec.sensitization
b.desensitizationd.tolerance

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Jordan typically has at least three cups of coffee throughout the day. She decides to cut her coffee habit “cold turkey,” but experiences severe lethargy despite having a good night’s sleep. Jordan is experiencing ____.
a.desensitizationc.recoil
b.withdrawald.sensitization

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Which area of the brain plays a large role in brain addiction?
a.medullac.hypothalamus
b.nucleus accumbensd.hippocampus

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Over the ages, hallucinogens have played an important role in ____.
a.producing religious visionsc.creating social structures
b.influencing political idealismsd.formulating medicinal philosophies

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. The Amanita muscaria mushroom contains chemicals that interact with which neurotransmitters in the brain to produce hallucinations?
a.serotonin and dopaminec.GABA and dopamine
b.serotonin and glutamated.GABA and glutamate

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. After Nolan experiments with drugs, his father suspects that his son is exhibiting signs of schizophrenia. Nolan most likely was experimenting with ____.
a.phencyclidinec.mescaline
b.mushroomsd.lysergic acid diethylamide

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. The major psychoactive chemical in marijuana is ____.
a.tocotrienolc.thiazolidinedione
b.tert-butylhydroquinoned.tetrahydrocannabinol

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Megan is contemplating trying lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) at a party. As her friend, what warning would you give her?
a.It can cause schizophrenic symptoms.
b.It can lead to major depressive episodes.
c.It can cause intrusive hallucinations days after using the drug.
d.It is strongly addictive.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. What is true of stimulants?
a.They increase alertness, mobility, and reaction times.
b.They increase alertness and mobility, but decrease reaction times.
c.They decrease alertness, but increase mobility and reaction times.
d.The decrease alertness and mobility, but increase reaction times.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. In contrast to hallucinogens, why have stimulants been embraced by Western cultures?
a.Stimulants boost higher-order reasoning; hallucinogens decrease cognitive abilities.
b.The probability of becoming dependent on stimulants is low.
c.The ability to work long and hard is valued and rewarded.
d.Stimulant use is associated with reduced health problems in middle-age.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Undergraduate student Gabrielle is writing a research paper on the physiological effects of commonly used drugs, such as caffeine. As her well-informed friend, you tell Gabrielle that caffeine is known to ____.
a.block dopamine uptake in the brain
b.stimulate the ventral tegmental area in the brain
c.block adenosine-induced inhibition in the brain
d.upregulate serotonin levels and receptors in the brain

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. What is the relationship between caffeine and Parkinson’s disease?
a.It causes Parkinson’s disease.
b.It positively correlates with Parkinson’s disease.
c.It decreases one’s chance of acquiring Parkinson’s disease.
d.It negatively correlates with Parkinson’s disease.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Dharni lights up a cigarette before her creative writing class. What effect is the nicotine in the cigarette likely to have on Dharni?
a.She will be more alert and more relaxed.
b.She will be less alert and more relaxed.
c.She will be more alert and less relaxed.
d.She will be less alert and less relaxed.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Nicotine mimics the action of which neurotransmitter?
a.dopaminec.norepinephrine
b.serotonind.acetylcholine

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Cocaine and amphetamine boost the activity of which neurotransmitter?
a.dopaminec.norepinephrine
b.serotonind.acetylcholine

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Preeti discovers that her roommate Shari recently experimented with methamphetamine. Preeti, worried about her roommate, informs Shari that there are risks associated with methamphetamine use, such as the induction of symptoms associated with ____.
a.psychosisc.bipolar disorder
b.obsessive compulsive disorderd.generalized anxiety disorder

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Violet engages in recreational drug use at a party. Moments later, Violet’s good friend Latisha notices that Violet is grinding her teeth repeatedly. Violet likely took which drug?
a.cannabisc.LSD
b.cocained.Ritalin

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Although Sigmund Freud initially recommended the use of cocaine in his 1885 book, Über Coca (On Coca), Freud became disenchanted with the drug when he became aware of its ____.
a.limited mood altering potentialc.deadly side-effects
b.ability to alter motor behaviord.potential for addiction

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Amphetamine was originally marketed as a treatment for ____.
a.diabetesc.asthma
b.cancerd.syphilis

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Of the following, who is most likely to benefit from the use of methylphenidate?
a.Avrielle, who has been depressed ever since her mother passed away
b.Ellen, who is gearing up for the national mathematics Olympiad
c.Terry, who worries non-stop and has difficulties sleeping at night
d.Leonardo, who suffers from auditory hallucinations and paranoia

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

Ecstasy

Dr. Goddard is studying the behavioral effects of MDMA (Ecstasy) using a rat model.

  1. Dr. Goddard observes a change in rat behavior that he likens to ____.
a.bond formationc.aggression
b.addictiond.calmness

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Dr. Goddard measures increased release of which hormone in response to MDMA treatment?
a.prolactinc.testosterone
b.oxytocind.progesterone

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Why does the use of several depressants at once often prove to be a lethal combination?
a.Depressants block the activity of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, causing the heart to stop beating.
b.Depressants block the activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, causing depression of respiratory muscles.
c.Depressants boost the activity of the neurotransmitter glutamate, causing excitotoxicity in the nervous system.
d.Depressants boost the activity of the neurotransmitter GABA, causing nervous system inhibition.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. In addition to seeking the relaxation produced by alcohol, early humans might have turned to fermented beverages as a ____.
a.ceremonial religious rite
b.primitive surgical anesthetic
c.safety precaution against contaminated water
d.tool to promote social bonding

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Trevor and Dale attend an off-campus party. Trevor is the designated driver and restricts his alcohol consumption to a few drinks; Dale, on the other hand, becomes highly inebriated. Compared with Trevor, Dale is more likely to ____.
a.be outgoingc.feel flushed
b.act aggressivelyd.suffer medullary damage

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. While writing a story for her student paper, Our Voice, about the dangers of alcohol, Liz is surprised to find out that moderate alcohol consumption is both detrimental and beneficial. What does Liz include in her story?
a.Moderate alcohol consumption increases the risk for heart disease, but decreases the risk for developing certain cancers.
b.Moderate alcohol consumption decreases the risk for heart disease, but increases the risk for developing certain cancers.
c.Moderate alcohol consumption increases the risk for early onset Alzheimer’s disease, but decreases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes.
d.Moderate alcohol consumption decreases the risk for early onset Alzheimer’s disease, but increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Which drug is involved with the majority of suicides?
a.cocainec.alcohol
b.LSDd.MDMA

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Dr. Gonzalez, a medicinal chemist, and his team are developing a new class of highly effective and less addictive benzodiazepines. To ensure their effectiveness, she tests the drugs in a rat model by using the combined techniques of microdialysis and chromatography to measure levels of the neurotransmitter ____.
a.GABAc.acetylcholine
b.glutamated.serotonin

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Morphine, heroin, and codeine are effective because they imitate the action of our natural ____.
a.excitatory neurotransmittersc.endorphins
b.tryptaminesd.catecholamines

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. What is true of opiates?
a.Opiate use is associated with feelings of both euphoria and anxiety.
b.Opiates work as muscle relaxers by acting on the neurotransmitter GABA.
c.At high doses, opiates can lead to death by causing cardiac arrest.
d.Opiates have legitimate medical purposes, such as the control of diarrhea.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO6

  1. What is the evidence that hypnosis represents a distinctly altered state of consciousness?
a.Functional MRI analysis shows heightened activity in the amygdala and hippocampus of individuals undergoing hypnosis.
b.PET scans reveal that the anterior cingulate cortex and thalamus show characteristic changes in activity when a person is hypnotized.
c.EEG recordings of individuals experiencing a hypnotic state show a shift from beta wave to theta wave activity consistent with the early stages of sleep.
d.CAT scans taken before and after hypnosis show enhanced activity in the temporal and occipital lobes of individuals after hypnosis, despite the absence of external stimuli.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Clark Hull demonstrated that hypnosis was ____.
a.dependent on the specific stage of sleep
b.independent of sleep
c.ineffective at reducing pain
d.effective at improving memory

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Individuals high in susceptibility to hypnotism ____.
a.have Type B personalitiesc.suspend judgment
b.think more abstractlyd.have lower IQs

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. How may hypnosis facilitate pain mitigation?
a.By decreasing self-awareness
b.By stimulating the nucleus accumbens
c.By increasing the release of opiates in the brain
d.By promoting sensory dissociation

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. The Stroop Test provides evidence that behavior under hypnosis is more than social conformity by showing that highly suggestible individuals under hypnosis ____.
a.are able to ignore binaural sounds to decipher auditory signals
b.can identify words hidden within scintillating grid illusions
c.are able to ignore flashes of light when deciphering imagery
d.can identify ink colors at comparable rates regardless of word presentation

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze REF: Hypnosis

OBJ: LO7

  1. How does hypnosis affect memory?
a.It distorts episodic memories.c.It improves episodic memory.
b.It distorts short-term memories.d.It improves short-term memory.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Which hypnosis scenario would be supported by the American Psychological Association (APA)?
a.Jackie seeks the help of a hypnotist to help her remember events from her childhood.
b.Parker seeks the help of a hypnotist to help improve his IQ.
c.Steffi seeks the help of a hypnotist to help treat her depression.
d.Shamus seeks the help of a hypnotist to help him reach a state of enlightenment.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. When experienced practitioners are asked to describe the subjective experience produced by meditation, they describe ____.
a.an unconscious state with discrete visions, accompanied by a blissful emotional state
b.a conscious state without thought, accompanied by a blissful emotional state
c.an unconscious state with discrete visions, accompanied by a numb emotional state
d.a conscious state without thought, accompanied by a numb emotional state

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. In experienced meditators, EEG recordings of the frontal lobes of the brain during meditation feature increased levels of which type of brain waves?
a.alpha wavesc.delta waves
b.beta wavesd.theta waves

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Imaging studies using functional MRI suggest that meditation represents a voluntary regulation of attention and ____.
a.autonomic functionsc.central nervous system functions
b.somatic functionsd.sensory functions

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. What is the evidence that meditation may slow some aspects of aging?
a.It negatively correlates with rates of arthritis in older individuals.
b.It negatively correlates with cholesterol levels in older individuals.
c.It positively correlates with antioxidant levels in the brain of older individuals.
d.It positively correlates with increased cortical thickness in older individuals.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Alicia is fascinated to learn about the Native American practice of “vision quests” in her Native American Cultures class. She learns that to initiate an altered state of consciousness, Native Americans would engage in ____.
a.starvation and sleep extensionc.starvation and sleep loss
b.twirling and sleep extensiond.twirling and sleep loss

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. The Muslim sect of Sufis use extended periods of whirling as a means to ____.
a.see the light of Allahc.see into the future
b.feel oneness with the earthd.relive the past

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. The American Psychiatric Association’s definition of a trance state includes an altered state of consciousness accompanied by ____.
a.an unusually narrow focus of attention
b.a surreal appreciation for the external environment
c.a mystical sense of self-awareness
d.an existential out-of-body experience

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Compared with participants listening to unstructured beat sequences, individuals listening to rhythmic drumming show enhanced ____.
a.alpha wave activityc.delta wave activity
b.beta wave activityd.theta wave activity

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Kira and Yvonne are gearing up for a rave that is being held at a local warehouse. Their roommate Clara prefers to stay home and cannot understand why they would want to attend such a crowded, noisy venue. According to the text, what are the primary goals of many ravers?
a.unity and positive emotionc.hallucinations and positive emotion
b.unity and self-awarenessd.hallucinations and self-awareness

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

OBJ: LO7

ESSAY

  1. Describe the stages of sleep by addressing the following questions:

When does each stage typically occur during the sleep cycle?

What is the characteristic brain wave activity and autonomic response (where applicable) for each stage of sleep?

What is the typical reaction of a person when awoken at each stage?

End your essay by describing your sleep patterns. With what stage of sleep do you struggle the most and why?

ANS:

Stage 1 N-REM: This stage usually occurs when a person first goes to sleep. EEG shows patterns that are difficult to distinguish from those of the drowsy, waking volunteer. Some theta waves (4–7 cycles per second), which are larger and slower than alpha waves, are observed. At this stage, the person may not be aware that he or she is sleeping. Frequently, we awaken a friend or family member who has fallen asleep in front of the television by turning off the program, only to have the sleeping person deny being asleep.

Stage 2 N-REM: After 10 to 15 minutes, Stage 1 of N-REM gives way to Stage 2. Further reductions in heart rate and muscle tension occur, and the EEG begins to show special waveforms called K-complexes and sleep spindles that occur only in sleep. These particular types of activity might reflect the brain’s efforts to keep us asleep while continuing to monitor the external environment. We usually sleep through familiar stimuli, such as the hum of an air conditioner, while waking in response to unexpected stimuli, such as the sound of a door opening.

Stages 3 and 4 N-REM: After about 15 minutes in Stage 2, we enter Stage 3 and then Stage 4 N-REM sleep. Both of these stages show delta wave activity, which is the largest, slowest (1–4 cycles per second) waveform we will observe. Stages 3 and 4 differ primarily in the amount of delta activity that occurs, with Stage 4 having the most. We are very deeply asleep in these stages. Awakening from Stage 4 is difficult, and considerable disorientation may occur before a person becomes fully awake. You may have received a telephone call about an hour after you first go to sleep, when you are likely to be experiencing Stage 4. If you hear the telephone at all, it may take several seconds to locate the phone and wake up enough to have a decent conversation.

REM sleep: The first episode of REM sleep occurs between 90 and 120 minutes after the onset of sleep. This stage is often referred to as paradoxical sleep, reflecting a combination of brain activity resembling wakefulness with the external appearance of deep sleep. During REM, the EEG shows activity very similar to waking activity. The eyes make the periodic movements back and forth that give this stage its name. The autonomic nervous system becomes very active. Heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing become rapid or irregular. Males experience erections, while females experience increased blood flow in the vicinity of the vagina. Major postural muscles are completely inactive during REM sleep, effectively paralyzing the sleeper, although smaller muscles in the fingers and toes might twitch. If awakened during this stage, most people will report vivid, storylike dreams.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO3

  1. Describe the following disorders and list the causes and/or predisposing factors for each: night terrors; onset insomnia; maintenance insomnia; narcolepsy; and cataplexy.

ANS:

Night terror: A sleep disorder in which the sleeper wakes suddenly in great distress, but without experiencing the imagery of a nightmare. There is usually no memory of the night terror the next day. In night terrors, the usually smooth transition from Stage 4 N-REM sleep upward into REM goes awry. There may be a genetic predisposition to night terrors, as 80% of people with this condition report a family history for the behavior.

Onset insomnia: A sleep disorder characterized by an inability to initiate normal sleep. In cases of onset insomnia, a person will lie in bed for what seems to be a very long period but be unable to go to sleep. Stress and anxiety are frequent causes of this type of insomnia.

Maintenance insomnia: A sleep disorder characterized by an inability to maintain normal sleep. Maintenance insomnia occurs when sleep is frequently interrupted or early waking occurs. These cases typically result from stress, substance use, or psychological disorders.

Narcolepsy: A sleep disorder characterized by the intrusion of REM phenomena into wakefulness, sometimes referred to as “sleep attacks.” Attacks are often instigated by strong emotions. In many cases, narcolepsy appears to be a genetically determined disturbance in the control of REM sleep. The gene suspected of abnormalities in narcolepsy affects the activity of neurotransmitters known as orexins. Cells in the hypothalamus that normally secrete orexins are missing or damaged in the brains of patients with narcolepsy

Cataplexy: A disorder which occurs when the muscle paralysis normally associated with REM sleep occurs during wakefulness without any loss of consciousness. Having sex is a common emotional trigger for the disorder. Many patients with narcolepsy also experience sleep paralysis, or muscle paralysis that either precedes actual sleep or lingers once the person has awakened. Although upsetting, this paralysis is easy to resolve. Simply touching the person is enough to end the paralysis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Happens to Consciousness During Wakefulness and Sleep?

OBJ: LO4

  1. A substantial body of research supports the idea that we unconsciously copy the behavior of others. Under what circumstances are we most likely to copy the behavior of other people? Reflect on circumstances in which you have imitated others, and then evaluate and attempt to explain the underlying causes for your behavior.

ANS:

One possible answer is that we mimic others to avoid or repair social exclusion. Jessica Lakin and her colleagues (2008) made their participants feel socially excluded (temporarily, of course) and then observed that these excluded participants were more likely to mimic another person than were participants who had not been socially excluded. This process extends to group membership as well. Participants excluded by an in-group were subsequently more likely to mimic an in-group member than an out-group member. These results suggest that mimicry developed as an automatic behavior that we could use to respond to threats to our social connectivity, which could have been a matter of life or death to our hunter-gatherer ancestors. Because this mimicry is quite automatic and unconscious, we are usually not aware that we are behaving this way. A person’s own experience with mimicry might involve a social situation, such as at a party or an organizational event, or when around a romantic interest.

PTS: 1 DIF: Evaluate

REF: Interpersonal Relationships From a Perspective of Consciousness

OBJ: LO1

  1. Psychologists have discovered that human beings experience several different states of consciousness during the course of a day. For example, people have times when they are especially alert and times when they are awake but not alert, often called “daydreaming.” Also, while people are asleep, they experience different stages of sleep, each characterized by different patterns of brain and bodily activity.

In a multi-paragraph essay, discuss the different states of consciousness that you have experienced in the past 24 hours, including any periods when you were asleep, alert, or “daydreaming.” Be sure to describe both the brain and bodily activity you experienced during each state of consciousness. Include information from class materials, readings, and research on states of consciousness to support your discussion.

ANS:

Answers will vary.

PTS: 1 DIF: Create REF: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

OBJ: LO1 MSC: Vantage

Chapter Seven: The Feeling Mind ─

Motivation and Emotion

Learning ObjectiveRelated Questions
Multiple

Choice

Essay
4. Differentiate emotion and motivation, and analyze their relationship to each other.1-14
5. Analyze the physiological and environmental factors that influence hunger and eating.15-39
6. Assess the roles of evolved preferences and physiological and environmental factors in sexual motivation, considering how this motivation varies with gender and over time.

7.

40-53
5. Compare and contrast achievement and affiliation motivation in terms of predictors and implication for life outcomes.

6.

54-661, 3
6. Associate aspects of emotional responding with activation of central and autonomic nervous system structures.

7.

67-85
9. Evaluate the roles of nature, nurture, and their interaction in explaining human communication of emotion, based on research evidence.

10.

86-92
7. Differentiate major theories of emotion in terms of the relationship between physical sensations and subjective feelings.

8.

93-1052

Chapter 7: The Feeling Mind: Motivation and Emotion

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Laundry Day

Clarice wakes up in a daze and remembers that she has to do laundry, and once again, her depression sets in for the day. On her way to the laundry room, she encounters an enormous black spider, which causes her heart to race. Despite this, she continues to the laundry room and stays until all of her clothes are washed and dried to her satisfaction.

  1. At what point does Clarice experience an emotion?
a.When she remembers that she has to do laundry
b.When she wakes up in a daze
c.When she encounters the spider
d.When she starts her laundry

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How are Motivation and Emotion Related? OBJ: LO1

  1. What is the best description of Clarice’s mood?
a.depressedc.dazed
b.fearfuld.satisfied

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How are Motivation and Emotion Related? OBJ: LO1

  1. What aspect of Clarice’s day demonstrates motivation?
a.Feeling her heart racec.Encountering the spider
b.Waking up in a dazed.Doing her laundry

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How are Motivation and Emotion Related? OBJ: LO1

  1. What do motivation and emotion have in common?
a.They both arouse an organism to stimulate some type of behavior.
b.They both stimulate behavioral changes in a specific manner.
c.They both cause a prolonged change in behavior.
d.They both lead to general rather than specific behavioral changes.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: How are Motivation and Emotion Related? OBJ: LO1

  1. Hours into their cross country road trip, Omar and Carl are famished. The two friends argue about what to do. Should they stop at a highway rest stop, or search for a place to eat in the nearest town? They decide to stop this time at a rest stop, and next time in town. How is motivation demonstrated in this scenario?
a.They compete for similar resources.
b.They seek to eat food.
c.They find a resolution.
d.They react instinctively to their hunger.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: How are Motivation and Emotion Related? OBJ: LO1

  1. How does motivation offer a survival advantage?
a.It dictates the formation of social bonds.
b.It stimulates competition and ingenuity.
c.It fosters ambition and perseverance.
d.It prevents the waste of precious energy resources.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO1

  1. Why are animals motivated to explore their environments?
a.To find potential mates and pass on their genes
b.To act more effectively when the need arises
c.To boost overall brain function through curiosity
d.To avoid confrontation by ensuring that the territory is unmarked

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO1

  1. We can think of motivation as a process that maintains ____.
a.self-awarenessc.Homeostasis
b.self-actualizationd.Competition

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO1

  1. Caesar ingests a large meal, causing his blood glucose levels to rise. In response, Caesar’s pancreas releases insulin to remove glucose from the blood stream. As glucose levels drop, the pancreas stops releasing insulin. Which factor establishes the set point?
a.insulinc.Pancreas
b.glucosed.Blood

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO1

  1. A state of tension and arousal triggered by cues important for survival is referred to as ____.
a.emotionc.Drive
b.moodd.Motivation

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO1

  1. Which scenario best illustrates the concept of drive reduction?
a.The sun is bothering Mary’s eyes, so she moves into the shade of a nearby tree.
b.Tashaun has an intense itch on his back that he unsuccessfully tries to reach.
c.A wave of fear washes over Luisa as she narrowly misses the car in front of her.
d.Julio expects to receive a sizable bonus and is ecstatic when he finally gets it.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO1

  1. Drive theories of motivation are often described as “____” theories.
a.pushc.Throw
b.pulld.Catch

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO1

  1. Which researcher supports an incentive theory of motivation?
a.Dr. Morgan, who believes that “unpleasant internal forces are the biggest factors that drive motivation”
b.Dr. Stern, who believes that “rewards play a central role in shaping motivation”
c.Dr. Chen, who believes that “motivation is an innate characteristic based on instinctive behaviors”
d.Dr. Lopez, who believes that “only external, but not internal forces, can be strong motivating factors”

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO1

  1. Sally loves to run, and works jogging into her daily schedule because of the “runner’s high” she experiences. Sally is motivated by a(n) ____ reward.
a.top-downc.extrinsic
b.bottom-upd.intrinsic

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO1

  1. Millie has always struggled with her weight. During a recent physical examination, her doctor recommended that she lose 30 lbs. What is the most probable reason that Millie is overweight?
a.She is highly sensitive to external cues for hunger.
b.She is highly sensitive to internal cues for hunger.
c.She is relatively insensitive to external cues for hunger.
d.She is relatively insensitive to internal cues for hunger.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. What was Walter Cannon’s hypothesis regarding hunger cues (Cannon & Washburn, 1912)?
a.Hunger originates from psychological factors.
b.Hunger correlates with the extent of stomach contractions.
c.Hunger is mainly influenced by blood glucose levels.
d.Hunger is influenced by visual and social cues.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Following his afternoon classes, Darren stops at the cafeteria and eats a burger and fries. If you were to run a blood test on Darren shortly after his meal, what would you expect to find?
a.low glucose; low insulinc.high glucose; high insulin
b.low glucose; high insulind.high glucose; low insulin

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Why are diabetics with high blood glucose levels likely to report feeling hungry?
a.Because of a rebound effect
b.Because of heightened metabolic activity
c.Because of increased insulin levels
d.Because their cells are deprived of glucose

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. The body monitors fat stores by assessing levels of the hormone ____.
a.insulinc.calcitonin
b.glucocorticoidd.leptin

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Dr. Pasantes is investigating how the brain regulates patterns of eating behavior. She performs an experiment and finds that lesioning a particular brain region causes rodents to completely stop eating. What area of the brain has Dr. Pasantes lesioned?
a.lateral hypothalamusc.lateral amygdala
b.ventromedial hypothalamusd.ventromedial amygdala

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Dr. Pollini is investigating how the brain regulates patterns of eating behavior. He performs an experiment and finds that lesioning a particular brain region causes rodents to significantly increase their food intake and to gain weight. What area of the brain has Dr. Pollini lesioned?
a.lateral hypothalamusc.lateral amygdala
b.ventromedial hypothalamusd.ventromedial amygdala

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. According to research (Stacher, 1986), what hormone contributes to feelings of satiety in response to the ingestion of food?
a.insulinc.orexins
b.ghrelind.cholecystokinin

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Eric has recently put on some weight and has excess fat stores. How is Eric’s body likely to react to the increased fat storage?
a.Leptin levels will increase and the sympathetic nervous system will be activated.
b.Leptin levels will decrease and the sympathetic nervous system will be activated.
c.Leptin levels will increase and the parasympathetic nervous system will be activated.
d.Leptin levels will decrease and the parasympathetic nervous system will be activated.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Derek, a neuropsychology graduate student, works in a behaviorial eating research lab. He attends the lab meeting on Monday morning, eager to share his brilliant weight loss idea. Derek is sure that injecting people with leptin will help them lose weight. His idea is quickly shot down by the lab director, who states, “Not so fast, Derek; ____.”
a.as leptin increases, glucose absorption decreases
b.high levels of leptin inhibit insulin synthesis
c.leptin is metabolized by fat cells quicker than it is produced
d.obese humans already have high levels of circulating leptin

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. The height-to-weight ratio used to identify healthy weight, underweight, overweight, and obesity is referred to as the ____.
a.personal mass indexc.body mass index
b.personal density indexd.body density index

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. From 1991 to 2008, the rates of obesity have risen from 12% to ____ (Flegal, Carroll, Ogden, & Curtin, 2010).
a.24%c.44%
b.34%d.54%

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Why has our contemporary, sedentary lifestyle, with many people spending hours sitting in front of televisions or computers, contributed to a significant rise in obesity?
a.Because low muscle tone promotes insulin insensitivity
b.Because blood glucose levels remain stagnant during inactivity
c.Because leptin is most effective when people are active
d.Because humans use energy very efficiently

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Molly is hungry. She passes right by the fruit basket on her kitchen counter and instead, grabs the ice cream out of the freezer. Molly’s behavior demonstrates what about human food preferences?
a.Our digestive system is innately suited for sugary, high fat foods.
b.Short bursts of elevated blood glucose lead to increased arousal.
c.We retain the preferences of our ancestors for calorie-rich foods to ward off starvation.
d.Sugary, high fat food stimulates orexin release to relieve stress.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Elroy is eager to lose weight after gaining 15 pounds during his freshman year of college. He decides to do a crash diet over the summer, which starts with cabbage soup and salad every day for two weeks. Elroy loses weight at first but quickly puts weight back on, even gaining an extra five pounds before returning to college. What is the most likely reason for this?
a.By choosing low fat foods, he increased ghrelin levels.
b.He ate too many vegetables, which contain a high carbohydrate content.
c.He chose a diet that was not diverse.
d.He triggered mechanisms designed to prevent starvation.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Long-term, who is most likely to succeed in their attempts to lose weight?
a.Diane, who decides to lose weight by cutting out potato chips and ice cream from her diet
b.Enrique, who decides to lose weight by going on a high-protein, no-carbohydrate diet
c.Padma, who decides to lose weight by cutting meat completely out of her diet
d.Tommy, who decides to lose weight by restricting his caloric intake to 1,000 calories per day

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Suppose that it is 1964, and that Betty, a homemaker who put on weight with each of her three pregnancies, wants to lose twenty pounds. What medication would have been prescribed to Betty at that time to help her lose weight?
a.ephedrinec.amphetamines
b.orlistatd.sibutramine

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Interested in losing weight, Patrick seeks the advice of his doctor. Dr. Burns recommends a medication that can help Patrick by inhibiting the absorption of fats by the digestive tract. What medication is Patrick’s doctor recommending?
a.ephedrinec.amphetamines
b.orlistatd.sibutramine

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Approximately what percent of individuals with eating disorders today are male?
a.10%c.20%
b.15%d.25%

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by the maintenance of unusually low body weight and ____.
a.cycles of binge eating and purgingc.a distorted view of the body as obese
b.the need to defy conventional normsd.the extreme need for control

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Brianna suffers from anorexia nervosa. In addition to having an unusually low body weight, she has irregular menstrual cycles, feels cold constantly, and has skin that appears ____.
a.oily with a blue tintc.dry with a blue tint
b.oily with a yellow tintd.dry with a yellow tint

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. After a night of eating a gallon of ice cream and potato chips, Raven takes laxatives to purge the ingested food from her body. Raven, like many others who suffer from bulimia nervosa, is likely to feel what after purging?
a.reliefc.depression
b.sense of controld.elation

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. The research of Anne Becker illustrates how cultural attitudes toward beauty affect eating behaviors (Becker, Burwell, Herzog, Hamburg, & Gilman, 2002). What did Anne Becker find?
a.With the introduction of American television, adolescent girls in Fiji reported higher rates of dieting.
b.Home-schooled American teens with no access to television reported less of a desire to diet than their public school counterparts.
c.In regions of Africa once plagued by famine, food surplus levels positively correlate with the number of women reporting the need to diet.
d.Adolescent German girls were three times as likely to go on diets after visiting America while vacationing with their families.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. The binge-purge cycling of bulimia involves processes similar to those of ____.
a.the circadian cyclec.addiction
b.a hypoglycemic reactiond.a panic attack

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. Selena has suffered from bulimia nervosa for several years. She finally seeks professional help and is surprised to find out that medication can help her. What type of medication would be most helpful for Selena?
a.selective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsc.amphetamines
b.phenothiazinesd.catecholamine reuptake inhibitors

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO2

  1. From an evolutionary psychology perspective, the best reproductive strategy for men is promiscuity. However, one could argue that ____.
a.as promiscuous behavior increases, the genetic quality of potential mates decreases
b.there is no point in producing a large number of children who fail to survive
c.as a man produces more and more sperm, the quality of the sperm decreases
d.there is an adaptive advantage to monogamy that produces the same results

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. According to research (Bryant & Haselton, 2009), women who are ovulating are more likely to ____.
a.have extramarital affairs
b.speak in higher tones
c.break-up with abusive partners
d.consume less calories

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. What is the evidence to support the idea that hormones involved in the menstrual cycle do not significantly influence women’s sexual interest?
a.Women report more pain during sex and less sexual interest while ovulating.
b.Menopause has little impact on a woman’s sexual interest and activity.
c.Women report increased sexual activity during ovulation but only if they are trying to get pregnant.
d.Fertility drugs that increase gonadotropin levels have little impact on female sexual interest.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. Nicole tells her gynecologist that lately, she has had no sexual desire. Nicole and her gynecologist discuss the possibility of using a hormone patch to address her sexual dysfunction. This hormone patch likely uses which hormone?
a.testosteronec.progesterone
b.estrogend.follicle stimulating hormone

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. Which physiological response represents a remnant of our ancestors’ need to defend their territory?
a.When study participants were asked to escape a virtual fire, individuals told to imagine their homes on fire showed the greatest amygdala activity.
b.Police reports show higher incidences of aggression for men facing foreclosure than for men experiencing unemployment.
c.Victims demonstrated a surge in corticosteroid levels weeks following a crime that occurred at or near their home, but not in a far off location.
d.Males experience greater drops in testosterone when witnessing their favorite teams lose home games rather than away games.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. According to research (van Anders, Hamilton, & Watson, 2007), who is likely to have the highest testosterone levels?
a.Eric, who cannot seem to stay in a long-term relationship, and was called a commitment-phobe by his last girlfriend
b.Don, who just proposed to Sandra, his girlfriend of two years, but secretly longs for his former girlfriend, Jen, whom he dated for six years
c.Sergio, who has been married for fourteen years to Sarafena, but also has a mistress, Donatella, whom he has been seeing for the last ten years
d.Eduardo, who has been married for eleven years and has four boys ages two through seven, and is secretly relieved that he has no daughters

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. What is the connection between romantic love and sexual desire?
a.Romantic love is not possible without some degree of sexual desire.
b.Sexual desire cannot be sustained without romantic love.
c.Although they represent separate emotional states, they are physiologically similar.
d.Romantic love and sexual desire represent distinct biological and emotional states.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. What two hormones are associated with romantic love?
a.testosterone and estrogenc.vasopressin and estrogen
b.testosterone and oxytocind.vasopressin and oxytocin

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. What hormonal differences in women cause them to be more likely than men to equate sexual desire with feelings of romantic love?
a.higher oxytocin and lower testosterone
b.higher vasopressin and lower testosterone
c.higher oxytocin and higher estrogen
d.higher vasopressin and higher estrogen

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. Sexual orientation is best defined as ____.
a.engaging in sexual activity with a specific gender
b.a stable pattern of attraction to members of a particular sex
c.exhibiting characteristic behaviors consistent with a particular gender
d.exhibiting sexual attractions that are inconsistent with one’s gender

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. According to research (Kirk, Bailey, & Martin, 2000), if one identical male twin is homosexual, his twin has what percent chance of also being homosexual?
a.30%c.70%
b.50%d.90%

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. What is the evidence to suggest that exposure to sex hormones in the womb affects sexual orientation?
a.Females exposed to higher than normal levels of male hormones in the womb develop male external genitalia and report more same-sex sexual activity.
b.Males whose mothers were on hormone replacement therapy while pregnant report more attraction to males than the general population.
c.The testosterone hormonal patch used to stimulate sexual desire in females also leads to higher birth rates of babies who later identified themselves as lesbians.
d.Women who took drugs to stimulate ovulation had sons who were more likely to experiment with same-sex activity.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. Why are men with older brothers, but not men with older sisters or those who are only children, more likely to be gay?
a.Mothers are more likely to unknowingly treat their youngest sons like daughters.
b.A mother’s heightened immunological response with subsequent male-fetus pregnancies affects brain development.
c.Older brothers are likely to deride and belittle the youngest brother, creating a more sensitive, fearful, and confused individual.
d.Older brothers are more likely to protect and guard the youngest brother, shielding him from rough-and-tumble play and traditional masculine rituals.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. According to the work of Simon LeVay (1991), gay men and women have similarities in their ____.
a.levels of estrogenc.hypothalamic brain structure
b.levels of oxytocind.basal ganglia brain structure

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO3

  1. Achievement is usually defined as ____.
a.the need to reach a level of self-perfection
b.a desire to excel or outperform others
c.the fulfillment of culturally dictated goals
d.meeting the needs of those we seek to please

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. Of the following, who displays characteristics most consistent with high levels of achievement motivation?
a.April, who tackles her quantum physics problems with a high level of abstract reasoning
b.Devlin, who feels frustrated when his professor gives him a check mark on a writing assignment instead of a grade
c.Calista, who worries constantly about whether or not her parents are happy with her grades
d.NaShaun, who is climbing the corporate ladder and knows to keep his friends close but his enemies closer

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. Whose career path displays characteristics consistent with high levels of achievement motivation?
a.Desmond, who takes over as the CEO of a fledgling company as a fair boss but one who enforces strict adherence to his guidelines
b.Sabina, who graduates at the top of her medical school class and chooses to do a residency in neurology, a challenging field with few therapeutic options for patients
c.Mateo, who is a state senator and works tirelessly trying to get his constituents to sign off on bills that will support his district
d.Donna, who is a dedicated scientist, and puts her heart and soul into her research knowing that her experiments are just as likely to fail as they are to succeed

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. When asked to identify what is most important to their happiness, an overwhelming majority of people typically rated ____ at the top of their list.
a.wealthc.intimacy
b.physical healthd.mental capabilities

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. In one study (Twenge, Baumeister, Tice, & Stucke, 2001), students who were told that a personality test revealed that they were “the type likely to end up alone later in life” were more likely to ____.
a.show signs of depressionc.report low self-esteem
b.act aggressivelyd.demonstrate introversion

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. Compared with other species, why are social connections especially important for the survival of human beings?
a.Human beings typically lose the drive to survive during times of prolonged isolation.
b.Human beings require the greatest amount of parenting to survive to adulthood.
c.Human beings have a set point for social activity and need external connections to monitor the balance.
d.Human beings suffer both psychological and physical damage from isolation, whereas most other species are unaffected by it.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. What evidence illustrates that the need for affiliation has a genetic component?
a.Adoption studies show that siblings raised in different environments show similar patterns of social activity.
b.Our set point for needing affiliation correlates with cortical thickness.
c.People who are low in their need for affiliation are more likely to have genetic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism.
d.Twin studies show that set points for the need for affiliation are influenced by genetics.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. Maslow’s view of motivation is best described as a ____.
a.tree of powerc.pyramid of needs
b.web of ambitiond.pinwheel of desire

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. Martha, a first grade teacher, is concerned about her student, Marvin. She knows that six-year-old Marvin has the potential to learn, but he always comes to school hungry and without a coat, even in the coldest months. According to Maslow, why is Marvin in danger of failing?
a.He is showing signs of neglect; thus, he likely lives in an environment void of enrichment.
b.He will eventually feel like a social outcast and rebel against conventional societal norms.
c.He will have impaired brain development due to the lack of appropriate physiological and psychological care.
d.He will have little to no motivation to learn at school if his most basic needs are not met.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. According to Maslow, what is at the pinnacle of human motivation?
a.affectionc.belongingness
b.esteemd.self-actualization

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. Which saying best reflects the concept of self-actualization?
a.“Search for inner peace.”
b.“Be all that you can be.”
c.“Do unto others as you would have done onto you.”
d.“Take time to stop and smell the roses.”

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. What is a critique of the human motivation for self-actualization (Kenrick, Griskevicius, Neuberg, & Schaller, 2010)?
a.The evolutionary advantage is not clear.
b.It is overly simplistic.
c.Self-actualization contradicts the motivation for affiliation.
d.Cultures differ dramatically in their emphasis on self-actualization

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. As part of his honor’s thesis, Braydon develops a survey to evaluate the updated hierarchy of needs of Kenrick and colleagues, specifically in young adult men and women. Braydon is most interested in determining if men and women differ in the highest level of motivation, which is ____.
a.mate retentionc.Affiliation
b.parentingd.Status

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Apply

REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated? OBJ: LO4

  1. A major advantage provided by emotion is ____.
a.that it creates the desire for affiliation
b.in its ability to produce arousal
c.that it promotes self-actualization and empathy
d.in its ability to produce an internal drive for survival

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, ____ (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908).
a.the ideal amount of arousal interacts with the complexity of a task
b.performance and arousal function independently
c.heightened arousal leads to heightened performance on complex tasks
d.dampened arousal disinhibits instinctive behaviors

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Baby Alec squints his face and screams at the top of his lungs; his mother runs over to try to soothe him. Alec’s actions demonstrate that ____.
a.emotions are easily communicated through non-verbal means
b.complex emotions require maturity
c.emotions drive classical conditioning
d.without language, emotions are abstractions

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. What is the evidence to support that there is coordinated development of language and emotional communication in our brains?
a.Stroke victims with infarcted Broca’s areas have difficulty producing language and the appropriate emotional response.
b.Children with autism typically demonstrate delayed language development and difficulty expressing emotion.
c.We use the same pathways for language and for the perception and appreciation of music.
d.The brains of novelists show a wider range of emotions than that of doctors.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Consider the case of Eliot (Damasio, 1994), who had frontal lobe surgery to remove a tumor. What did we learn with regard to the brain’s use of emotional information?
a.Emotions act as the gateway for social intelligence by establish limits for and patterns of appropriate behaviors that promote survival.
b.Emotions regulate higher order cognition by allowing the mind to integrate concrete knowledge with abstract reasoning.
c.Emotions set the stage for forming strong connections with other individuals and establishing long lasting bonds.
d.Emotions provide a bridge to past experiences that can be used to set priorities such as approach and avoidance.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Which nervous system structure participates in the general arousal associated with emotional states?
a.cranial nervous systemc.autonomic nervous system
b.somatic nervous systemd.encephalic nervous system

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. According to research (Cacioppo, Berntson, Norris, & Gollan, 2011), why do humans place a general priority on negative emotions over positive emotions?
a.Negative emotions require less energy to maintain.
b.Negative emotions weed out potential enemies.
c.Negative emotions establish dominance in social hierarchies.
d.Negative emotions signal more serious threats to survival.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Gaia glances over at her roommate, who is on the phone with her mother. She watches as her roommate’s facial expressions change from happy – to sad – to angry – as she progresses through the phone conversation. What area of Gaia’s brain is most likely to change activity as she processes the different facial expressions?
a.hippocampusc.basal ganglia
b.amygdalad.striatum

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Patient S.M., who was unable to detect negative emotion in music and fear in images, suffered damage to which brain region?
a.hippocampusc.basal ganglia
b.amygdalad.striatum

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Abnormal development of the amygdala is associated with which disorder?
a.bipolar disorderc.obsessive compulsive disorder
b.depressiond.autism

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Following a serious automobile accident several months ago, Lata is not able to read her bosses facial expressions to determine if he is happy or disappointed with her performance. Lata likely suffered damage to her ____.
a.Insulac.corpus callosum
b.medullad.hippocampus

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. The emotional quality of pain likely results from information processing at which level of the brain?
a.basal gangliac.cingulate cortex
b.amygdalad.insula

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Ahn is participating in a research study assessing the impact of brain damage on emotion relatability. She is asked to scan through a series of images and decipher the facial expressions of several individuals. Ahn performs well on the task but consistently is unable to recognize the expression of disgust. Ahn most likely suffered damage to which area of her brain?
a.basal gangliac.cingulate cortex
b.amygdalad.insula

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Which brain region coordinates movements in response to emotional stimuli?
a.basal gangliac.cingulate cortex
b.amygdalad.insula

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Months after suffering head trauma from a work accident, Maxwell’s wife Jessica notices that he is acting irresponsibly. For example, he decided on a whim to go sky diving, he drives his car at high speeds on the highway and constantly blurts out obscenities to people. In what region did Maxwell likely suffer brain damage?
a.basal gangliac.cerebral cortex
b.Insulad.amygdala

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. How do the right and left brain hemispheres process emotion?
a.The left hemisphere processes positive emotions; the right hemisphere processes negative emotions.
b.The right hemisphere processes positive emotions; the left hemisphere processes negative emotions.
c.The left hemisphere funnels information about emotion to the right hemisphere.
d.The right hemisphere funnels information about emotion to the left hemisphere.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Donatella participates in a study and is asked to view a series of images that are likely to provoke strong emotion: a father caressing his newborn baby; a child crying at his mother’s funeral; and a shark ferociously attacking a seal. While she views these images, a PET scan monitors her brain activity. What is the PET scan likely to show?
a.A specialized region of the prefrontal cortex shows robust activity for all of her emotions.
b.Separate cortical “emotion centers” respond to each of her emotions.
c.The prototypic “emotional pattern” of activity is observed in response to all of her emotions.
d.Distinct patterns of activity will be observed for each of her emotions.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Several months ago, Ambreena suffered moderate brain damage following the surgical removal of a brain tumor. Her husband is perplexed by the fact that she struggles to smile when they are together sharing a happy moment, but when looking at a recent family photograph, he notices a big grin on her face. This indicates that Ambreena suffered damage to her ____.
a.motor cortexc.basal ganglia
b.amygdalad.cerebellum

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Apply REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. Dr. Burke performs a neurological examination on his patient Ishmael. At one point he asks Ishmael to smile, but Ishmael produces only a crooked smirk. At the end of the examination, Ishmael tells Dr. Burke a humorous story, at which point Ishmael smiles ear-to-ear. Dr. Burke suspects that Ishmael suffered damage to his ____.
a.motor cortexc.basal ganglia
b.amygdalad.cerebellum

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Apply REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO5

  1. What is the evidence to support Charles Darwin’s claim that human emotional expression was shaped through evolution?
a.The recognition of emotional facial expressions is uniquely tailored to promote survival in different climatic regions around the world.
b.Infants’ social smiles emerge at about the same age, regardless of whether an infant can see faces or is born blind.
c.Individuals who are capable of showing the widest range of emotions typically have the greatest number of progeny.
d.The same breadth of different emotions expressed by humans are also expressed by nearly all species, but to varying degrees.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO6

  1. A cultural norm that specifies when, where, and how a person should express an emotion is referred to as a ____.
a.display rulec.conformative law
b.normative actiond.controlled expression

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO6

  1. According to a study (Matsumoto, Yoo, and Nakagawa, 2008), individuals from which nation are most likely to show emotion freely?
a.United Statesc.Hong Kong
b.Italyd.Switzerland

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Children who are highly responsive and show strong emotional reactions to novel stimuli are more likely to be ____ adults.
a.overly anxiousc.depressed
b.psychopathicd.highly intelligent

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Understand REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO6

  1. What do twin studies tell us about genetics and the ability to read emotions?
a.Genetics plays a negligible role in reading emotions.
b.Genetics plays a small but significant role in reading emotions.
c.Genetics plays a moderate role in reading emotions.
d.Genetics plays a very large role in reading emotions.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Individual differences in emotional intelligence are most predictive of ____.
a.self-confidencec.the success of relationships
b.emotional stabilityd.cognitive capabilities

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO6

  1. In a study of Japanese and American individuals (Matsumoto et al., 2002), how did the two cultures differ with regards to reading emotions?
a.The Japanese were more accurate in identifying the correct emotion being expressed.
b.The Americans were more accurate in identifying the correct emotion being expressed.
c.The Japanese interpreted low intensity emotions as being understated; Americans interpreted high intensity emotions as exaggerated.
d.The Americans interpreted low intensity emotions as being understated; Japanese interpreted high intensity emotions as exaggerated.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO6

  1. Which model or theory of emotion proposes that physical sensations lead to subjective feelings?
a.James-Lange theory
b.catharsis theory
c.Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion
d.Cannon-Bard theory

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Which model or theory proposes that emotions act as a reservoir that fills up and spills over, and that expressing these emotions will reduce arousal?
a.James-Lange theoryc.catharsis theory
b.Schachter-Singer two-factor theoryd.Cannon-Bard theory

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Which model or theory of emotion proposes that there is a simultaneous and independent occurrence of physical sensations and subjective feelings during an emotional experience?
a.catharsis theory
b.Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
c.Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion
d.Cannon-Bard theory

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Which model or theory of emotion proposes that general arousal leads to assessment, which in turn leads to subjective feelings?
a.James-Lange theory
b.Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
c.Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion
d.Cannon-Bard theory

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Which model or theory of emotion proposes that a range of physical sensations, from precise to general, requires varying degrees of cognitive processing prior to subjective feelings?
a.James-Lange theory
b.Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
c.Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion
d.Cannon-Bard theory

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Remember REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Which scenario supports the James-Lange theory of emotion?
a.Tony approaches his friend Juanita, who is walking her dog. As the dog begins to bark, Tony’s heart races; he thinks about why this is the case, and realizes he has a crush on Juanita.
b.Micah wakes up feeling glum. He forces himself to smile from ear-to-ear and laugh out loud, and then he begins to feel happy.
c.Bethany feels very depressed about her recent break-up with her boyfriend. She slumps down on her couch and cries for an hour straight, and then she begins to feel better.
d.Aaron relaxes in his hammock. Suddenly, he feels an earthquake, causing him to feel afraid; at the same time, his heart beats rapidly and his palms sweat.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Which scenario supports the catharsis theory of emotion?
a.Tony approaches his friend Juanita, who is walking her dog. As the dog begins to bark, Tony’s heart races; he thinks about why this is the case, and realizes he has a crush on Juanita.
b.Micah wakes up feeling glum. He forces himself to smile from ear-to-ear and laugh out loud, and then he begins to feel happy.
c.Bethany feels very depressed about her recent break-up with her boyfriend. She slumps down on her couch and cries for an hour straight, and then she begins to feel better.
d.Aaron relaxes in his hammock. Suddenly, he feels an earthquake, causing him to feel afraid; at the same time, his heart beats rapidly and his palms sweat.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Which scenario supports the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?
a.Tony approaches his friend Juanita, who is walking her dog. As the dog begins to bark, Tony’s heart races; he thinks about why this is the case, and realizes he has a crush on Juanita.
b.Micah wakes up feeling glum. He forces himself to smile from ear-to-ear and laugh out loud, and then he begins to feel happy.
c.Bethany feels very depressed about her recent break-up with her boyfriend. She slumps down on her couch and cries for an hour straight, and then she begins to feel better.
d.Aaron relaxes in his hammock. Suddenly, he feels an earthquake, causing him to feel afraid; at the same time, his heart beats rapidly and his palms sweat.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Which scenario supports the Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotion?
a.Tony approaches his friend Juanita, who is walking her dog. As the dog begins to bark, Tony’s heart races; he thinks about why this is the case, and realizes he has a crush on Juanita.
b.Micah wakes up feeling glum. He forces himself to smile from ear-to-ear and laugh out loud, and then he begins to feel happy.
c.Bethany feels very depressed about her recent break-up with her boyfriend. She slumps down on her couch and cries for an hour straight, and then she begins to feel better.
d.Aaron relaxes in his hammock. Suddenly, he feels an earthquake, causing him to feel afraid; at the same time, his heart beats rapidly and his palms sweat.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Analyze REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Consider the Capilano Canyon experiment (Dutton & Aron, 1974). What is the explanation for why the men crossing the more frightening suspension bridge included much more sexual content in their interviews?
a.In the presence of an attractive woman, the men attempted to repress their fear.
b.Fear-provoking situations exaggerate risk-taking in all areas, including finding a mate.
c.During times of heightened fear, people often try to distract themselves.
d.The men misinterpreted physiological signals of fear as sexual arousal.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Understand REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. The Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion (SAME) provides a middle ground between which two theories of emotion?
a.The Cannon-Bard theory and the Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
b.The Cannon-Bard theory and the catharsis theory
c.The James-Lange theory and the Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
d.The James-Lange theory and the catharsis theory

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. According to the Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion (SAME), which scenario is likely to elicit the slowest emotional response?
a.Tiana receives a rare phone call from her husband who is away at war; she happily grins from ear-to-ear.
b.While hiking, Daria sees a mountain lion off in the distance; she has never been so scared, and stops dead in her tracks as her heart beats uncontrollably.
c.Doug is finishing up his term paper as his roommate accidentally drops a pint of beer on his laptop; Doug starts to shake uncontrollably with anger.
d.Tyrone looks over his annual progress report from his boss; the comments are mostly positive and he is proud of his accomplishments.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Apply REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. According to contemporary views of emotion, an emphasis on what factor may account for the vast range of emotional reactions that individuals have toward the same event?
a.physiologyc.appraisal
b.individualismd.intelligence

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Understand REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

ESSAY

  1. Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and discuss how Maslow felt motivation is shaped. How does the contemporary hierarchy of needs (Kenrick, Griskevicius, Neuberg, & Schaller, 2010) differs from Maslow’s? Which model do you prefer, and why?

ANS:

Maslow viewed motivation as a hierarchy of needs, in which lower levels must be satisfied before the individual has the time and energy to pursue higher level needs. At the lowest level of the pyramid, we find “physiological needs,” including food, water, and shelter. These basic needs must be met on a daily basis, or life will be threatened. Consequently, if meeting these needs is a challenge for a person, Maslow predicted that the person is unlikely to care about needs appearing at higher levels of the hierarchy. Once physiological needs are generally met, Maslow suggests that we turn our attention to safety, and then to belongingness, represented by the love and affection of others. For Maslow, these three lower categories are essential to human life. Freed from the challenges of meeting basic needs, we begin to seek esteem, or the respect we receive from other members of the community. At the pinnacle of human striving, however, is the goal of self-actualization, according to Maslow. A person seeking self-actualization desires to fully meet his or her potential.

Maslow’s classic theory received a recent modification that retained the overall hierarchical organization but added three new perspectives: the evolutionary functions of motives, the development of motives over the lifespan, and the cognitive priorities assigned to motives in response to environmental stimuli. This modified pyramid replaces self-actualization with mate acquisition, mate retention, and parenting. The authors of the revision noted that self-actualization was interesting, but they could not find an evolutionary explanation for why we would seek to reach this level. Many of the activities described by Maslow as helping people to reach self-actualization, such as art and poetry, might be better explained as efforts to gain status, which in turn would attract mates.

PTS: 1 DIF: Evaluate REF: What Does It Mean To Be Motivated?

OBJ: LO4

  1. Describe the four theories of emotion discussed in the text and provide an example for each. Which do you agree with the most and which the least? Explain your answer.

ANS:

The James-Lange theory of emotion proposes that physical sensations lead to subjective feelings. At the core of the James-Lange theory is the idea that classes of emotions are the result of a sequence of events. Once an individual perceives a stimulus, such as a grizzly bear, he or she will experience a physiological response. This physiological response is subsequently interpreted by the individual, giving rise to a conscious awareness

of a subjective feeling.

The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion features the simultaneous and independent occurrence of physical sensations and subjective feelings during an emotional experience. For Cannon-Bard, the sight of the bear would immediately and simultaneously trigger a subjective feeling of fear (oh no, there’s a bear in my room) and physical sensations (probably the autonomic nervous system’s fight-flight response in this example). The Cannon-Bard theory does not assume that the experience of a subjective feeling is dependent on any physical sensations.

The Schachter-Singer two-factor theory asserts that general arousal leads to assessment, which in turn leads to subjective feelings. Schachter and Singer believed that each emotional experience begins with an assessment of our physical sensations. Because these reactions can be similar among emotional states (i.e. fear and sexual arousal), they suggested that interpreting these states requires another step. Any emotional arousal signals us to make a conscious, cognitive appraisal of our circumstances, which then allows us to identify the emotion we’re experiencing. Physical sensations may lead to several different interpretations, based on the way an individual assesses a situation. The sight of a bear would initiate a general state of arousal. To identify the source of your arousal, you would assess your situation, attribute your arousal to the presence of a bear in your room, and identify your feelings as fear.

The Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion (SAME) begins with a recognition that physical responses to a stimulus can range from quite specific to quite general. For example, the physical sensations associated with disgust can be more precise than the physical sensations associated with pride. The initial degree of specificity of the physical response leads to different cognitive processing. A highly specific physical response leads to unambiguous recognition of a subjective feeling. (e.g., A bear walks in, I react physically, I know I’m scared). At the other extreme, instead of specific physical responses, a situation might produce very general arousal, which will require significant cognitive processing and evaluation. For example, a valedictorian giving a graduation speech might not understand her arousal until she sees her parents and other members of the audience clapping and realizes the emotion she is feeling is pride.

PTS: 1 DIF: Evaluate REF: Why Are We Emotional?

OBJ: LO7

  1. Describe John Gottman’s work in predicting the success of a relationship (Gottman, 2011). Think about your own relationship with a romantic partner or close friend. How does your style of communication affect this relationship? How might it be improved?

ANS:

Psychologist John Gottman uses a combination of heart rate, facial expression, and an analysis of the way people talk about their relationships to each other and to others to predict whether a relationship will last. He is correct over 90% of the time. One of Gottman’s key observations is the ratio of positive to negative comments in a couple’s discussion of a problem. Happy couples make 5 times more positive comments about each other and their relationship during these discussions (e.g., we laugh a lot versus we never have any fun).

The human mind is skewed toward the negative, like noticing bitter tastes over sweet. This slant suggests that it is all too easy to focus on your partner’s negative qualities, which will lead to negative emotions and conflict. If we put our relationships on evolutionary cruise control, the ratio of positive to negative comments might drop to a point where the relationship is in danger. Maintaining a more positive outlook on your partner requires attention and work.

PTS: 1 DIF: Evaluate

REF: Interpersonal Relationships From the Perspective of Emotion

OBJ: LO4

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