Discovering Psychology The Science of Mind 2nd Edition By John T. – Freberg – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Discovering Psychology The Science of Mind 2nd Edition By John T. – Freberg – Test Bank A+

Discovering Psychology The Science of Mind 2nd Edition By John T. – Freberg – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Discovering Psychology The Science of Mind 2nd Edition By John T. – Freberg – Test Bank A+

1. ​College roommates Sergio and Giuseppe decide to start a landscaping business over the summer. When they meet up at 5:00 a.m. one morning to work, Sergio is full of energy and begins to move heavy equipment right away while Giuseppe is sluggish and unable to focus. What aspect of consciousness describes the different mental states of Sergio and Giuseppe?

a. ​preconscious awareness

b. ​state of awareness

c. ​stream of consciousness

d. ​content of awareness

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

2. ​Corrina finds a quiet cubicle at the library and prepares for a long night of studying. While she studies, she is also aware of the conversation taking place at the next table. What aspect of consciousness describes Corrina’s awareness of both her textbook material and the other conversation?

a. ​preconscious awareness

b. ​state of awareness

c. ​stream of consciousness

d. ​content of awareness

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

3. ​Tasha runs a daycare center. She places birthday hats on a group of children to celebrate 1-year-old Chantal’s birthday. Tasha notices that when Chantal passes by a mirror she grabs for the hat by reaching for the mirror instead of reaching for her own head. Tasha picks up the baby and helps her find her hat. What aspect of consciousness has Chantal not yet reached?

a. ​awareness of sensation

b. ​reflective awareness

c. ​self-awareness

d. ​meta-cognition

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

4. ​The existence of varying states of awareness benefits animals by facilitating ____.

a. ​reproduction and immune function

b. ​reproduction and energy conservation

c. ​body repair and immune function

d. ​body repair and energy conservation

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

5. ​From an evolutionary perspective, why is the conscious awareness of ongoing sensations advantageous for animals?

a. ​It enables animals to have a sense of mortality and a strong will to pass on their genes.

b. ​It facilitates the development of complex motor and sensory control.

c. ​It allows animals to respond instinctively to oncoming threats.

d. ​It provides the opportunity to choose responses rather than to respond instinctively.

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

6. ​From an evolutionary perspective, why is self-awareness advantageous for animals?

a. ​It is correlated with heightened meaningfulness of self-preservation.

b. ​It facilitates the development of complex motor and sensory control.

c. ​It allows animals to respond instinctively to oncoming threats.

d. ​It provides the opportunity to choose responses rather than to respond instinctively.

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

7. ​Some researchers restrict the possibility of self-aware consciousness to species that ____.

a. ​show strong individualism

b. ​demonstrate cognitive complexity

c. ​exhibit complex social behavior

d. ​are at the top of the food chain

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

8. ​What is the relationship between the brain, the mind, and consciousness?

a. ​They are equal and interdependent entities.

b. ​They function as mutually exclusive entities.

c. ​Consciousness falls under the umbrella of the mind; the mind falls under the umbrella of the brain.

d. ​The brain falls under the umbrella of the mind; the mind falls under the umbrella of consciousness.

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

9. ​Consciousness requires complex interactions between the cerebral cortex and the ____.

a. ​amygdala

b. ​thalamus

c. ​midbrain

d. ​hippocampus

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

10. ​Samantha learns that after suffering a traumatic brain injury, her brother Tobias has significant injury to his thalamus. What can we anticipate will be the impact on Tobias in the future?

a. ​Tobias will not be able to speak but will understand what is being said to him.

b. ​Tobias will be conscious but is likely to have long-term memory loss.

c. ​Tobias will most likely suffer from irreversible brain death.

d. ​Tobias will likely make a full recovery, but will have problems with impulse control.

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

11. ​Jess is fast asleep, and her roommate Crystal is studying in the next room when their cat knocks a lamp off of the bookshelf. Crystal jumps up from her desk, but Jess remains asleep. What brain structure is responsible for raising or lowering the thresholds of conscious awareness, such that Crystal reacts to the stimulus while Jess does not?

a. ​the reticular formation

b. ​the substantia nigra

c. ​the medial parietal cortex

d. ​the corpus callosum

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

12. ​Activity in the ________ of the brain corresponds to mind wandering, thinking about the self, and preparing for conscious thought.

a. ​behavioral inhibition system (BIS)

b. ​reticular activating system (RAS)

c. ​prefrontal cortex (PFC)

d. ​default mode network (DMN)

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

13. ​Jonah and Eli are having a conversation about how the brain works. Jonah maintains that the brain must be much more active when a person is focused and attending to a problem, while Eli points out that the brain operates with the same activity no matter how focused a person is. Who is right?

a. ​Neither is right, because the brain exhibits about 5% more activity when a person is focused compared to when they are unfocused.

b. ​Jonah is right, as the brain shows between an 80 and 85% increase in activity when a person is focused compared to when they are unfocused.

c. ​Eli is right, because the brain activity level does not change at all when a person’s focus level changes.

d. ​Neither is right, because the brain actually exhibits 10 to 15% lessactivity when a person is focused compared to when they are unfocused.

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean To Be Conscious?

14. ​Dr. Sanchez is a behavioral psychologist who studies learning and memory in rats. Because rats are most active at night, she asks the animal resource facility to reverse their light‑dark cycle to accommodate her experiments. However, the animal facility is reluctant to disrupt the rats’ current ____, which lasts for “about a day.”

a. ​circadian rhythm

b. ​cerebrodynamic cycle

c. ​chronometric temperance

d. ​contrast arousal

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

15. ​The Student Union is holding its weekly Friday night “De-stress ’til Dawn” mixer. Brandon is hungry, Shelby is tired, and Tina feels cold. Which brain structure controls the internal biological clocks responsible for regulating these processes?

a. ​hippocampus

b. ​amygdala

c. ​hypothalamus

d. ​cingulate cortex

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

16. ​Internal biological clocks interact with external stimuli, referred to by the ____.

a. ​Dutch term maalgeven

b. ​Italian term lezionadare

c. ​French term temps-donner

d. ​German term zeitgebers

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

17. ​Kendyl is born with a congenital disorder that prevents her eyes from sensing light; her fraternal twin brother Gabe is born with normal vision. Compared to Gabe, Kendyl will likely have ____.

a. ​no circadian cycle

b. ​a shorter circadian cycle

c. ​a longer circadian cycle

d. ​the same circadian cycle

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

18. ​Which of the following individuals is likely to have a longer-than-usual circadian rhythm?

a. ​Lisa, who has to get up every morning at 6:30 a.m., just before sunrise, to teach classes that begin at 8:00 a.m.

b. ​Dan, who has worked on a submarine far below the surface of the water for the last 3 months.

c. ​Jennifer, who works a usual 9 to 5 shift most days but is occasionally asked to work an overnight shift.

d. ​Ira, who spends most of his days working inside the “Bird House” at his city’s local zoo.

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

19. ​Carl’s wife Juanita is unhappy that her husband’s new shift as a security guard is from 11:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. She complains to her husband that since he started his new job, he has been having health, personality, mood, and interpersonal problems. What condition might Carl have?

a. ​circadian abnormality disorder

b. ​dysfunctional cycle condition

c. ​rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder

d. ​shift maladaption syndrome

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

20. ​Who is most likely to suffer the biggest disruption to his or her circadian rhythm?

a. ​Dale, who travels from Connecticut to Oregon for a business meeting

b. ​Eli, who travels from California to New York to visit his new grandson

c. ​Miranda, who travels from Maine to Florida for a family vacation

d. ​Carlos, who travels from Arizona to Montana for a job interview

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

21. ​What is the evidence to suggest that abrupt changes to one’s daily schedule are detrimental to human behavior?

a. ​Switching from a day to night shift positively correlates with psychotic episodes.

b. ​Changing over to daylight savings time correlates with increased automobile accidents.

c. ​Divorce rates are higher in people who travel frequently to different time zones.

d. ​Murder rates typically increase during severe bouts of inclement weather.

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

22. ​Mina is seeing a therapist for depression. After several sessions, Mina’s therapist recommends that she undergo light therapy and take antidepressant medication. Mina likely suffers from which disorder?

a. ​neurasthenia

b. ​somatization disorder

c. ​seasonal affective disorder

d. ​bipolar disorder

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

23. ​Artificial lighting affects sleep by breaking down ____.

a. ​epinephrine

b. ​collagen

c. ​keratin

d. ​melatonin

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

24. ​Recent research focusing on morning people (larks) and night people (owls) suggests that ________.

a. ​being an owl is actually evolutionary adaptive, as people get more work done when they are safely in their homes at night

b. ​one can easily “retrain their bodies to shift to a different pattern”

c. ​being a lark or an owl may be due to genetic influence

d. ​there are significant hypothalamus differences between larks and owls

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

25. A shift in one’s circadian rhythm during adolescence, which leads to peak alertness at night, is thought to correlate with ____.

a. ​a surge in the production of sex hormones

b. ​a burst in brain development

c. ​heightened individualistic ideals

d. ​metabolic reorganization

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

26. ​Azul studies for her upcoming molecular biology midterm. She starts by making an outline of her textbook chapters and then begins studying her lecture notes. Azul’s brain is likely to show ____ wave activity.

a. ​alpha

b. ​beta

c. ​delta

d. ​theta

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

27. ​After a grueling day of classes, Edith returns to her apartment and plops down in a comfortable recliner; she closes her eyes and immediately begins to relax. Edith’s brain is likely to show an increase in____ wave activity.

a. ​alpha

b. ​beta

c. ​delta

d. ​theta

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

28. ​Varying states of awareness are best monitored using ____, which provides an overall measure of brain activity.

a. ​a CAT scan

b. ​magnetic resonance imaging

c. ​ an electroencephalogram

d. ​positron emission tomography

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

29. ​While eating her morning bowl of cereal, Kalinda daydreams about what she would do if she won the upcoming lottery drawing. Which cortical areas of Kalinda’s brain are likely to be activated?

a. ​the DMN

b. ​frontoparietal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex

c. ​anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

d. ​retrosplenial cortex and posterior parietal cortex

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

30. ​Selena weeds her garden while thinking about what she will wear to her daughter’s graduation ceremony. What brain network is engaged while Selena daydreams?

a. ​the “fall back network”

b. ​the “clandestine network”

c. ​the “ulterior network”

d. ​the “DMN”

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

31. ​Why is it inaccurate to say that daydreaming is a “total waste of time”?

a. ​Because synaptic pruning, which is essential to the overall health of the brain, occur at higher rates during moments of daydreaming.

b. ​Because daydreaming gives our brain an opportunity to capture more of the essential REM waves needed for repair and growth.

c. ​Because we often think about past experiences and plan our future when the DMN is active during daydreaming.

d. ​Because daydreaming gives the brain an opportunity to replenish its supply of spent neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine and serotonin.

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

32. ​Patti finds her husband Derek asleep in his recliner. She gently touches his shoulder and says, “Derek, wake-up; the dog needs to go out.” Derek abruptly responds, “Patti, I am awake!” Derek was most likely in ____.

a. ​Stage 1 N-REM

b. ​Stage 2 N-REM

c. ​Stage 3 or 4 N-REM

d. ​REM sleep

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

33. ​Patti finds her husband Derek asleep in his recliner. She gently touches his shoulder and says, “Derek, wake-up; the dog needs to go out.” Derek abruptly responds, “Patti, I am awake!” What type of brain waveforms did Derek display right before being awakened?

a. ​delta waves

b. ​theta waves

c. ​beta waves

d. ​alpha waves with sleep spindles and K-complexes

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

34. ​Duke is exhausted and plops down on the couch. Fifteen minutes after falling asleep, Duke is not awakened by the refrigerator cycling on. He is, however, awakened by his roommate opening the refrigerator door. Duke is most likely in ____.

a. ​Stage 1 N-REM

b. ​Stage 2 N-REM

c. ​Stage 3 or 4 N-REM

d. ​REM sleep

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

35. ​Duke is exhausted and plops down on the couch. Fifteen minutes after falling asleep, Duke is not awakened by the refrigerator cycling on. He is, however, awakened by his roommate opening the refrigerator door. What type of brain waveforms did Duke display right before being awakened?

a. ​delta waves

b. ​theta waves

c. ​beta waves

d. ​theta waves with sleep spindles and K-complexes

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

36. ​Approximately an hour after falling asleep, Daisy’s roommate repeatedly shakes her shoulder and asks Daisy to move her car out of the driveway. Daisy takes several minutes to respond to her roommate and then opens the refrigerator to find her keys. Daisy was most likely in ____.

a. ​Stage 1 N-REM

b. ​Stage 2 N-REM

c. ​Stage 3 or 4 N-REM

d. ​REM sleep

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

37. ​Approximately an hour after falling asleep, Daisy’s roommate repeatedly shakes her shoulder and asks Daisy to move her car out of the driveway. Daisy takes several minutes to respond to her roommate and then opens the refrigerator to find her keys. What type of brain waveforms did Daisy display right before being awakened?

a. ​delta waves

b. ​theta waves

c. ​beta waves

d. ​theta waves with sleep spindles and K-complexes

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

38. ​Tao wakes up his roommate Don so that he doesn’t miss his morning classes again. Don tells Tao, “I wish you hadn’t woken me up, I was about to land on Mars after winning a fierce battle against flying jellyfish.” Don was most likely in ____.

a. ​Stage 1 N-REM

b. ​Stage 2 N-REM

c. ​Stage 3 or 4 N-REM

d. ​REM sleep

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

39. ​Tao wakes up his roommate Don so that he doesn’t miss his morning classes again. Don tells Tao, “I wish you hadn’t woken me up, I was about to land on Mars after winning a fierce battle against flying jellyfish.” What type of brain waveforms did Don display right before being awakened?

a. ​delta wave

b. ​theta wave

c. ​beta wave

d. ​theta waves with sleep spindles and K-complex activity

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

40. ​Our physiological state during REM sleep consists of ____.

a. ​slow and relaxed heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing; and twitching of postural muscles

b. ​rapid or irregular heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing; and twitching of postural muscles

c. ​slow and relaxed heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing; and paralysis of postural muscles

d. ​rapid or irregular heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing; and paralysis of postural muscles

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

41. ​Dan, startled by the sound of a loud thump in the middle of the night, catches a glimpse of his roommate Yi wandering around their dorm room. The next morning Dan asks about the loud thump and Yi replies, “I think I was asleep the entire night . . . but I have been known to sleepwalk from time-to-time.” What stage of sleep was Yi likely experiencing while sleepwalking?

a. ​Stage 1 N-REM

b. ​Stage 2 N-REM

c. ​Stage 3 or 4 N-REM

d. ​REM sleep

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

42. ​What is a typical REM and N-REM cycling in humans?

a. ​First half of sleep: N-REM dominates; second half of sleep: REM dominates.

b. ​First half of sleep: REM dominates; second half of sleep: N-REM dominates.

c. ​First half of sleep: only N-REM occurs; second half of sleep: only REM occurs.

d. ​First half of sleep: only REM occurs; second half of sleep: only N-REM occurs.

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

43. ​What is the evidence to suggest that sleep plays an important role in repairing the body?

a. ​Melatonin is manufactured during REM sleep.

b. ​Human growth hormone is released during Stages 3 and 4 of N-REM sleep.

c. ​Levels of the wound-healing chemical, prothrombin, are depleted during consciousness.

d. ​The immune cells phagocytes and lymphocytes mature during Stage 1 N-REM sleep.

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

44. ​Study participants who were selectively deprived of Stages 3 and 4 N-REM sleep reported ____.

a. ​muscle and joint pain

b. ​blurred vision

c. ​headache and nausea

d. ​sore throat and itchy eyes

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

45. ​Vanessa crams for her anatomy and physiology final by staying up the entire night before the exam. What is a likely consequence of Vanessa’s actions?

a. ​Vanessa will experience a brief surge of energy during the test followed by a prolonged “crash” phase.

b. ​Vanessa will need to rest her eyes periodically during the exam or risk temporary vision impairment.

c. ​Vanessa will likely perform significantly below her fullest potential because she decreased her capacity to remember the material.

d. ​Vanessa will need to have at least two nights of normal sleep before experiencing normal mental functioning.

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

46. ​New mom Lin was up most of the night with her infant daughter. To give Lin a chance to sleep, her husband takes the baby to his parents’ house for a few hours. As soon as they leave, Lin falls fast asleep. What stage of sleep does Lin likely enter to compensate for her lack of sleep?

a. ​Stage 1 N-REM

b. ​Stage 2 N-REM

c. ​Stage 3 or 4 N-REM

d. ​REM sleep

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

47. ​Why is it thought that the human infant spends about half of its sleep time in REM?

a. ​to provide an adequate energy supply for organ maturation

b. ​to provide the stimulation necessary to facilitate brain “wiring”

c. ​to reinforce behaviors or skills observed during wakefulness

d. ​to reduce the stimulation that otherwise interferes with brain network pruning

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

48. ​Which disorder is correlated with individuals spending a greater portion of their sleeping time in REM?

a. ​generalized anxiety disorder

b. ​depression

c. ​obsessive compulsive disorder

d. ​autism spectrum disorder

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

49. ​One hypothesized mechanism by which antidepressant medications help to regulate mood is the suppression of ______ sleep.

a. ​N-REM stage 1

b. ​N-REM stage 2

c. ​N-REM stage 3

d. ​REM

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

50. ​During REM sleep, specific brainstem neurons show reduced activity. What types of neurotransmitters are released by these neurons?

a. ​serotonin and dopamine

b. ​serotonin and norepinephrine

c. ​glutamate and dopamine

d. ​glutamate and norepinephrine

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

51. ​Maria dreams that she is standing in the middle of the street as a bus travels toward her, but she feels frozen and cannot move out of the way. According to which theory does Maria’s inability to move reflect the muscle paralysis that occurs during the REM state?

a. ​static-depiction theory

b. ​instinctive-representation theory

c. ​real-time paralysis theory

d. ​activation-synthesis theory

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

52. ​Aviva wakes up abruptly after she dreams she is falling from the sky. She is relieved to find herself safe and secure in her comfortable bed. What may have caused Aviva to feel as if she were falling?

a. ​activation of the vestibular system

b. ​hyperstimulation of the cerebellum

c. ​surge in human growth hormone release

d. ​increased K-complex formation

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

53. ​Aurora talks to her therapist about a recurring dream in which she encounters a ferocious lion that has just escaped from local zoo. She works with her therapist to learn how to form a conscious awareness of the dream and to control the dream by turning the lion into a kitten. What technique is Aurora utilizing?

a. ​lucid dreaming

b. ​autonomous dreaming

c. ​directive dreaming

d. ​cogent dreaming

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

54. ​The part of the brain that has been found to be most active during lucid dreaming is the ________, which suggests that such dreams occur when this brain area just “wakes up” during sleep.

a. ​bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

b. ​the substantia nigra

c. ​ventromedial superior colliculus

d. ​dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

55. ​Which scenario best illustrates the concept of a night terror?

a. ​Pierre dreams that a serial killer stands over his bed with a machete in his hand; Pierre is certain that he faces imminent death.

b. ​Chandra, who suffers from sleep apnea, dreams that she is sinking to the bottom of a lake and wakes up gasping for air.

c. ​Hector demonstrates acute distress even though he is asleep. When his roommate wakes him up, he is confused and does not remember being so upset.

d. ​Pauline has recurring nightmares in which her brother is trapped in a sinking car; because of this she worries obsessively about her brother’s safety.

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

56. ​What is the physiological basis for night terrors?

a. ​Sleep spindles and K-complexes do not form during Stage 4 N-REM sleep.

b. ​Dreaming begins in N-REM stages rather than in the REM state.

c. ​Hyperstimulation of beta waves occur during the REM state.

d. ​The transition from Stage 4 N-REM sleep upward into REM goes awry.

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

57. ​Dora has no problem falling asleep each night, but she wakes up frequently in the middle of the night and often cannot fall back asleep. From what type of insomnia does Dora suffer?

a. ​maintenance insomnia

b. ​duration insomnia

c. ​continuance insomnia

d. ​interval insomnia

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

58. ​Darius suffers from insomnia; his family practitioner prescribes zolpidem to treat his insomnia. What can Darius expect from the medication?

a. ​He can expect to fall asleep 15 minutes faster and stay asleep 30 minutes longer.

b. ​He can expect to fall asleep 30 minutes faster and stay asleep 45 minutes longer.

c. ​He can expect to fall asleep 45 minutes faster and stay asleep 60 minutes longer.

d. ​He can expect to fall asleep 60 minutes faster and stay asleep 75 minutes longer.

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

59. ​Consuela stands in front of her American History class to give a presentation. She suddenly loses consciousness and suffers a “sleep attack” referred to as ____.

a. ​dyspnea

b. ​cataplexy

c. ​ataxia

d. ​narcolepsy

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

60. ​Carlos stands in front of his Thursday night slam poetry group to recite his most recent work. He suddenly experiences temporary muscle paralysis but does not lose consciousness, a condition termed ____.

a. ​dyspnea

b. ​cataplexy

c. ​ataxia

d. ​narcolepsy

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

61. ​Patients with narcolepsy have damaged or missing cells in their ____, which cause a disruption in the production of ________.

a. ​hippocampus; neurotransmitters

b. ​amygdala; neuromodulators

c. ​medulla; oxytocin

d. ​hypothalamus; orexin

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

62. ​Sleep ________ is a sleep disorder in which the person stops breathing while asleep.

a. apnea

b. ​dystonia

c. ​ataxia

d. ​dyspepsia

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

63. ​Michael sleeps every night with a loud and somewhat disruptive machine that uses a mask to regulate airflow into his lungs. His wife has grown used to the inconvenient noises made by this machine, but she often thinks about moving into the guest bedroom for sleep time. Which diagnosis might Michael have received?

a. ​sleep apnea

b. ​somnambulism

c. ​narcolepsy

d. ​insomnia

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

64. ​Some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may include biological vulnerabilities in the function of which neurotransmitter?

a. ​glutamate

b. ​norepinephrine

c. ​serotonin

d. ​dopamine

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

65. ​Sam suffers from restless leg syndrome. From what other disorder is Sam likely to suffer?

a. ​obsessive compulsive disorder

b. ​generalized anxiety disorder

c. ​bipolar disorder

d. ​attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

66. ​The neurological conditions prosopagnosia and Capgras syndrome, which affect aspects of facial recognition, have taught us that conscious experience ____.

a. ​is an all-or-nothing phenomenon

b. ​stems from the integration of several brain pathways

c. ​evolved to ensure species continuation in humans and lower animals

d. ​is a uniquely human attribute that is only approximated by some lower species

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: How Is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage?

67. ​Following cardiac arrest, Teresa’s father Ike is in a coma. Ike’s doctor explains to Teresa that his brain activity shows ____.

a. ​alpha and theta waves that are consistent with sleep

b. ​alpha and theta waves that are distinct from a normal sleeping pattern

c. ​only alpha waves that are consistent with sleep

d. ​only alpha waves that are distinct from a normal sleeping pattern

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage?

68. ​Consider the following scenarios. Which person displays characteristic signs of a persistent vegetative state?

a. ​Brian is in a persistent state of unconsciousness; he cannot be awakened and does not respond to painful stimuli.

b. ​Sienna is learning to walk after her automobile accident; however, she still cannot communicate and suffers significant cognitive impairment.

c. ​Anil is in a coma; his mother is hopeful because he occasionally opens his eyes and sometimes even smiles or cries, but Anil’s doctors tell her that these actions are random.

d. ​Muriel was in a deep coma; she now squeezes her mother’s hand when she hears her voice, but she cannot open her eyes or speak.

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage?

69. ​Brain death is characterized by ____.

a. ​a persistent vegetative state lasting longer than 18 months

b. ​two flatline EEG recordings taken 24 hours apart

c. ​a continuous comatose state lasting longer than 12 weeks

d. ​EEG recordings void of beta waves for at least 48 hours

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage?

70. ​What physiological response may be responsible for the phenomenon of a near-death experience characterized by out-of-body experiences, the perception of light at the end of a tunnel, and the state of calmness?

a. ​deactivation of adrenal medullary pathways

b. ​increased inhibition of action potentials in brainstem neurons

c. ​activation of the nigrostriatal pathway

d. ​release of chemicals to minimize cell loss in the brain

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage?

71. ​The inhibition of which neurotransmitter contributes to the onset of seizure activity?

a. ​GABA

b. glutamate

c. ​dopamine

d. ​norepinephrine

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage?

72. ​Regina wakes her husband in the middle of the night and tells him, “Where am I? This isn’t our bedroom.” After a visit to the emergency room, Regina learns that she likely suffered a partial seizure originating in her ____ lobe.

a. ​temporal

b. ​parietal

c. ​occipital

d. ​frontal

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage?

73. ​Natalia, who suffers from epilepsy, experiences a seizure in which she completely loses consciousness, stops breathing, and thrashes about uncontrollably. Natalia experienced which type of seizure?

a. ​partial tonic-clonic

b. ​partial myoclonic

c. ​generalized tonic-clonic

d. ​generalized myoclonic

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Is Consciousness Affected by Brain Damage?

74. ​When Gregg first started drinking alcohol, he needed only one or two beers to feel “buzzed”; now he needs at least four or five beers before he feels anything. What process describes Gregg’s need for more alcohol before feeling its effects?

a. ​drug resistance

b. ​desensitization

c. ​habituation

d. ​tolerance

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

75. ​Jordan typically has at least three cups of coffee throughout the day. She decides to cut her coffee habit “cold turkey,” but experiences severe lethargy despite having a good night’s sleep. Jordan is experiencing ____.

a. ​the desensitization effect

b. ​withdrawal symptoms

c. ​recoil narcosis

d. ​sensitization syndrome

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

76. ​Which area of the brain, attached to the basal ganglia by an impulsive, reward-seeking system, plays a large role in brain addiction?

a. ​medulla oblongata

b. ​nucleus accumbens

c. ​hypothalamus

d. ​hippocampus

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

77. ​The major psychoactive chemical in marijuana is ____.

a. ​tocotrienol

b. ​tert-butylhydroquinone

c. ​thiazolidinedione

d. ​tetrahydrocannabinol

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

78. ​Megan is contemplating trying lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) at a party. As her friend, what warning would you give her?

a. ​It can cause symptoms of schizophrenia.

b. ​It can lead to major depressive episodes.

c. ​It can cause hallucinations days after using the drug.

d. ​It is strongly addictive.

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

79. ​Undergraduate student Gabrielle is writing a research paper on the physiological effects of commonly used drugs, such as caffeine. As her well-informed friend, you tell Gabrielle that caffeine is known to ____.

a. ​block dopamine uptake in the brain

b. ​stimulate the ventral tegmental area in the brain

c. ​interfere with adenosine-induced inhibition in the brain

d. ​upregulate serotonin levels and receptors in the brain

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

80. ​What is the relationship between caffeine and Parkinson’s disease?

a. ​It causes Parkinson’s disease.

b. ​It positively correlates with Parkinson’s disease.

c. ​It prevents one from acquiring Parkinson’s disease.

d. ​It negatively correlates with Parkinson’s disease.

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

81. ​Dharni lights up a cigarette before her creative writing class. What effect is the nicotine in the cigarette likely to have on Dharni?

a. ​She will be more alert and more relaxed.

b. ​She will be less alert and more relaxed.

c. ​She will be more alert and less relaxed.

d. ​She will be less alert and less relaxed.

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

82. ​Nicotine mimics the action of which neurotransmitter?

a. ​dopamine

b. ​serotonin

c. ​norepinephrine

d. ​acetylcholine

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

83. ​Cocaine and amphetamine both boost the activity of ______, although they do so through different mechanisms.

a. ​dopamine

b. ​serotonin

c. ​norepinephrine

d. ​acetylcholine

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

84. ​After Nolan experiments with drugs, his father suspects that his son is exhibiting signs of schizophrenia. Nolan most likely was experimenting with ____.

a. ​cocaine

b. ​nicotine

c. ​alcohol

d. ​3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

85. ​Preeti discovers that her roommate Shari recently experimented with methamphetamine. Preeti, worried about her roommate, informs Shari that there are risks associated with methamphetamine use, such as the induction of symptoms associated with ____.

a. ​psychosis

b. ​obsessive compulsive disorder

c. ​bipolar disorder

d. ​generalized anxiety disorder

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

86. ​Violet engages in recreational drug use at a party. Moments later, Violet’s good friend Latisha notices that Violet is grinding her teeth repeatedly. Violet likely took which drug?

a. ​cannabis

b. ​cocaine

c. ​LSD

d. ​ritalin

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

87. ​Many products available to the public before World War I contained _______, which was accepted early on as a relatively harmless drug that was not recognized for its addictive nature.

a. ​LSD (acid)

b. ​phencyclidine (PCP)

c. ​cocaine

d. ​MDMA

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

88. ​Methylphenidate is more commonly known by its trade name ________.

a. ​Ritalin

b. ​Buspar

c. ​Prozac

d. ​Zoloft

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

89. ​Of the following, who is most likely to benefit from the use of methylphenidate?

a. ​Avrielle, who has been depressed ever since her mother passed away

b. ​Ellen, who is gearing up for the national mathematics Olympiad

c. ​Terry, who worries nonstop and has difficulties sleeping at night

d. ​Leonardo, who suffers from auditory hallucinations and paranoia

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

90. ​Dr. Goddard is studying the behavioral effects of MDMA (Ecstasy) using a rat model. He is most likely to observe all but which of the following side effects of this drug in the rat?

a. ​dehydration

b. ​hyperthermia

c. ​convulsions

d. ​exhaustion

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

91. ​Dr. Goddard is studying the behavioral effects of MDMA (Ecstasy) using a rat model. He would measure increased release of which hormones in response to MDMA treatment?

a. ​prolactin and glutamate

b. ​serotonin and oxytocin

c. ​testosterone and noradrenaline

d. ​progesterone and adrenaline

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

92. ​In addition to seeking the relaxation produced by alcohol, early humans might have turned to fermented beverages as a ____.

a. ​ceremonial religious rite

b. ​primitive surgical anesthetic

c. ​safety precaution against contaminated water

d. ​tool to promote social bonding

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

93. ​Trevor and Dale attend an off-campus party. Trevor is the designated driver and restricts his alcohol consumption to a few drinks; Dale, on the other hand, becomes highly intoxicated. Compared with Trevor, Dale is more likely to ____.

a. ​be shy and introverted

b. ​act aggressively

c. ​feel flushed

d. ​suffer from insomnia

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

94. ​The addictive potential of alcohol is probably best explained by the way it stimulates the reward pathways for ______ in the brain.

a. ​dopamine

b. ​serotonin

c. ​GABA

d. ​acetylcholine

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

95. ​Morphine, heroin, and codeine are effective because they imitate the action of our natural ____.

a. ​excitatory neurotransmitters

b. ​tryptamines

c. ​endorphins

d. ​catecholamines

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

96. ​What is true of opiates?

a. ​Opiate use is associated with feelings of both euphoria and anxiety.

b. ​Opiates work as muscle relaxers by acting on the neurotransmitter GABA.

c. ​At high doses, opiates can lead to death by causing cardiac arrest.

d. ​Opiates have legitimate medical purposes, such as the control of diarrhea.

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

97. ​Sema has recently been given a prescription for a mild opiate medication by her physician. This drug is most likely being used to help control which of the following ailments?

a. ​acne of the face and body

b. ​a persistent, nagging cough

c. ​a fungal infection of the foot (athlete’s foot)

d. ​urinary incontinence

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

98. ​In order to demonstrate that the regulation and certification of hypnotherapists is questionable, psychologist Steve Eichel managed to obtain official-looking credentials that certified his ____ as a licensed and qualified hypnotherapist.

a. ​cat

b. ​fish

c. ​dog

d. ​horse

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

99. ​Although many purported uses of hypnosis fail to be supported by reliable and valid research, the _______ has shown that hypnotic suggestion can lead to reorganization of cognitive processes.

a. ​Stroop test

b. ​MMPI-2

c. ​Draw-A-House task

d. ​Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

100. ​Of the following, for which has hypnosis been found an effective intervention?

a. ​smoking cessation

b. ​weight loss

c. ​pain relief

d. ​memory recovery

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

101. ​The Stroop Test provides evidence that behavior under hypnosis is more than social conformity by showing that highly suggestible individuals under hypnosis ____.

a. ​are able to ignore binaural sounds to decipher auditory signals

b. ​can identify words hidden within scintillating grid illusions

c. ​are able to ignore flashes of light when deciphering imagery

d. ​can identify ink colors at comparable rates regardless of word presentation

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: Hypnosis

102. ​When experienced practitioners are asked to describe the subjective experience produced by meditation, they describe ____.

a. ​an unconscious state with discrete visions, accompanied by a blissful emotional state

b. ​a conscious state without thought, accompanied by a blissful emotional state

c. ​an unconscious state with discrete visions, accompanied by a numb emotional state

d. ​a conscious state without thought, accompanied by a numb emotional state

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

103. ​In experienced meditators, EEG recordings of the frontal lobes of the brain during meditation feature increased levels of which type of brain waves?

a. ​alpha waves

b. ​beta waves

c. ​delta waves

d. ​theta waves

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

104. ​Imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggest that meditation represents a voluntary regulation of attention and ____ functions.

a. ​autonomic

b. ​somatic

c. ​central nervous system

d. ​sensory

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

105. ​What is the evidence that meditation may slow some aspects of aging?

a. ​It negatively correlates with rates of arthritis in older individuals.

b. ​It negatively correlates with cholesterol levels in older individuals.

c. ​It positively correlates with antioxidant levels in the brains of older individuals.

d. ​It positively correlates with increased cortical thickness in older individuals.

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

106. ​Alicia is fascinated to learn about the Native American practice of “vision quests” in her Native American Cultures class. She learns that to initiate an altered state of consciousness, Native Americans would engage in ____.

a. ​starvation and sleep extension

b. ​twirling and sleep extension

c. ​starvation and sleep loss

d. ​twirling and sleep loss

ANSWER: c

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

107. ​The Muslim sect of Sufis use extended periods of whirling as a means to ____.

a. ​see the light of Allah

b. ​feel oneness with the earth

c. ​see into the future

d. ​relive the past

ANSWER: b

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

108. ​A _____ typically refers to an induced state of consciousness in which a person is less responsive to external stimuli.

a. ​trance state

b. ​hypnotic moment

c. ​metaphysical elevation

d. ​meditational mantra

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

109. ​Compared with participants listening to unstructured beat sequences, individuals listening to rhythmic drumming show enhanced ____ wave activity.

a. ​alpha

b. ​beta

c. ​delta

d. ​theta

ANSWER: d

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

110. ​Kira and Yvonne are gearing up for a rave that is being held at a local warehouse. Their roommate Clara prefers to stay home and cannot understand why they would want to attend such a crowded, noisy venue. According to the text, what are the primary goals of many ravers?

a. ​unity and positive emotion

b. ​unity and self-awareness

c. ​hallucinations and positive emotion

d. ​hallucinations and self-awareness

ANSWER: a

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Do People Intentionally Alter Their States of Consciousness?

111. Describe the stages of sleep by addressing the following questions:

When does each stage typically occur during the sleep cycle?

What is the characteristic brain wave activity and autonomic response (where applicable) for each stage of sleep?

What is the typical reaction of a person when awakened at each stage?

End your essay by describing your sleep patterns. With what stage of sleep do you struggle the most and why?

ANSWER: Stage 1 N-REM: This stage usually occurs when a person first goes to sleep. An EEG shows patterns that are difficult to distinguish from those of the drowsy, waking volunteer. Some theta waves (4‑7 cycles per second), which are larger and slower than alpha waves, are observed. At this stage, the person may not be aware that he or she is sleeping. Frequently, we awaken a friend or family member who has fallen asleep in front of the television by turning off the program, only to have the sleeping person deny being asleep.

Stage 2 N-REM: After 10 to 15 minutes, Stage 1 of N-REM gives way to Stage 2. Further reductions in heart rate and muscle tension occur, and the EEG begins to show special waveforms called K-complexes and sleep spindles that occur only in sleep. These particular types of activity might reflect the brain’s efforts to keep us asleep while continuing to monitor the external environment. We usually sleep through familiar stimuli, such as the hum of an air conditioner, while waking in response to unexpected stimuli, such as the sound of a door opening.

Stages 3 and 4 N-REM: After about 15 minutes in Stage 2, we enter Stage 3 and then Stage 4 N-REM sleep. Both of these stages show delta wave activity, which is the largest, slowest (1‑4 cycles per second) waveform we will observe. Stages 3 and 4 differ primarily in the amount of delta activity that occurs, with Stage 4 having the most. We are very deeply asleep in these stages. Awakening from Stage 4 is difficult, and considerable disorientation may occur before a person becomes fully awake. You may have received a telephone call about an hour after you first go to sleep, when you are likely to be experiencing Stage 4. If you hear the telephone at all, it may take several seconds to locate the phone and wake up enough to have a decent conversation.

REM sleep: The first episode of REM sleep occurs between 90 and 120 minutes after the onset of sleep. This stage is often referred to as paradoxical sleep, reflecting a combination of brain activity resembling wakefulness with the external appearance of deep sleep. During REM, the EEG shows activity very similar to waking activity. The eyes make the periodic movements back and forth that give this stage its name. The autonomic nervous system becomes very active. Heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing become rapid or irregular. Males experience erections, while females experience increased blood flow in the vicinity of the vagina. Major postural muscles are completely inactive during REM sleep, effectively paralyzing the sleeper, although smaller muscles in the fingers and toes might twitch. If awakened during this stage, most people will report vivid, storylike dreams.

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

112. ​Describe the following disorders and list the causes and/or predisposing factors for each: night terrors; onset insomnia; maintenance insomnia; narcolepsy; and cataplexy.

ANSWER: Night terror: A sleep disorder in which the sleeper wakes suddenly in great distress, but without experiencing the imagery of a nightmare. There is usually no memory of the night terror the next day. In night terrors, the usually smooth transition from Stage 4 N-REM sleep upward into REM goes awry. There may be a genetic predisposition to night terrors, as 80% of people with this condition report a family history for the behavior.

Onset insomnia: A sleep disorder characterized by an inability to initiate normal sleep. In cases of onset insomnia, a person will lie in bed for what seems to be a very long period but be unable to go to sleep. Stress and anxiety are frequent causes of this type of insomnia.

Maintenance insomnia: A sleep disorder characterized by an inability to maintain normal sleep. Maintenance insomnia occurs when sleep is frequently interrupted or early waking occurs. These cases typically result from stress, substance use, or psychological disorders.

Narcolepsy: A sleep disorder characterized by the intrusion of REM phenomena into wakefulness, sometimes referred to as “sleep attacks.” Attacks are often instigated by strong emotions. In many cases, narcolepsy appears to be a genetically determined disturbance in the control of REM sleep. The gene suspected of abnormalities in narcolepsy affects the activity of neurotransmitters known as orexins. Cells in the hypothalamus that normally secrete orexins are missing or damaged in the brains of patients with narcolepsy.

Cataplexy: A disorder, which occurs when the muscle paralysis normally associated with REM sleep occurs during wakefulness without any loss of consciousness. Having sex is a common emotional trigger for the disorder. Many patients with narcolepsy also experience sleep paralysis, or muscle paralysis that either precedes actual sleep or lingers once the person has awakened. Although upsetting, this paralysis is easy to resolve. Simply touching the person is enough to end the paralysis.

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Happens to Consciousness During Waking and Sleep?

113. ​A substantial body of research supports the idea that we unconsciously copy the behavior of others. Under what circumstances are we most likely to copy the behavior of other people? Reflect on circumstances in which you have imitated others, and then evaluate and attempt to explain the underlying causes for your behavior.

ANSWER: One possible answer is that we mimic others to avoid or repair social exclusion. Jessica Lakin and her colleagues (2008) made their participants feel socially excluded (temporarily, of course) and then observed that these excluded participants were more likely to mimic another person than were participants who had not been socially excluded. This process extends to group membership as well. Participants excluded by an in-group were subsequently more likely to mimic an in-group member than an out-group member. These results suggest that mimicry developed as an automatic behavior that we could use to respond to threats to our social connectivity, which could have been a matter of life or death to our hunter‑gatherer ancestors. Because this mimicry is automatic and unconscious, we are usually not aware that we are behaving this way. A person’s own experience with mimicry might involve a social situation, such as at a party or an organizational event, or when the person is around a romantic interest.

DIFFICULTY: Evaluate

REFERENCES: Interpersonal Relationships From a Perspective of Consciousness

114. Psychologists have discovered that human beings experience several different states of consciousness during the course of a day. For example, people have times when they are especially alert and times when they are awake but not alert, often called “daydreaming.” Also, while people are asleep, they experience different stages of sleep, each characterized by different patterns of brain and bodily activity.

In a multi-paragraph essay, discuss the different states of consciousness that you have experienced in the past 24 hours, including any periods when you were asleep, alert, or “daydreaming.” Be sure to describe both the brain and bodily activity you experienced during each state of consciousness. Include information from class materials, readings, and research on states of consciousness to support your discussion.

ANSWER: ​Answers will vary.

DIFFICULTY: Create

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Conscious?

NOTES: Vantage

Chapter_07_The_Developing_Mind

1. Clarice wakes up in a daze and remembers that she has to do laundry. On her way to the laundry room, she encounters an enormous black spider, which causes her heart to race. Despite this, she continues to the laundry room and stays until all of her clothes are washed and dried to her satisfaction. At what point does Clarice experience an emotion?​

a. ​when she remembers that she has to do laundry

b. ​when she wakes up in a daze

c. ​when she encounters the spider

d. ​when she starts her laundry

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Are Motivation and Emotion Related?

2. Clarice wakes up in a daze and remembers that she has to do laundry. On her way to the laundry room, she encounters an enormous black spider, which causes her heart to race. Despite this, she continues to the laundry room and stays until all of her clothes are washed and dried to her satisfaction. What aspect of Clarice’s day demonstrates motivation?​

a. ​feeling her heart race

b. ​waking up in a daze

c. ​encountering the spider

d. ​doing her laundry

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Are Motivation and Emotion Related?

3. Which of the following is the best statement of the distinction between a mood and an emotion?​

a. ​A mood is a positive state, while an emotion is a negative state.

b. ​A mood stimulates motivation, while an emotion does not.

c. ​A mood is a more general state than an emotion.

d. ​An emotion involves physical changes, while a mood does not.

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Are Motivation and Emotion Related?

4. What do motivation and emotion have in common?​

a. ​They both arouse an organism to stimulate some type of behavior.

b. ​They both stimulate behavioral changes in a specific manner.

c. ​They both cause a prolonged change in behavior.

d. ​They both lead to general rather than specific behavioral changes.

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: How Are Motivation and Emotion Related?

5. Hours into their cross-country road trip, Omar and Carl are famished. The two friends argue about what to do. Should they stop at a highway rest stop, or search for a place to eat in the nearest town? They decide to stop this time at a rest stop, and next time in town. How is motivation demonstrated in this scenario?​

a. ​They compete for similar resources.

b. ​They seek to eat food.

c. ​They disagree on the best solution to their problem.

d. ​They react instinctively to their hunger.

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: How Are Motivation and Emotion Related?

6. How does motivation offer a survival advantage?​

a. ​It dictates the formation of social bonds.

b. ​It stimulates competition and ingenuity.

c. ​It fosters ambition and perseverance.

d. ​It prevents the waste of precious energy resources.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

7. Why are animals motivated to explore their environments?​

a. ​to find potential mates and pass on their genes

b. ​to act more effectively when the need arises

c. ​to boost overall brain function through curiosity

d. ​to avoid confrontation by ensuring that the territory is unmarked

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

8. We can think of motivation as a process that maintains ____.​

a. ​self-awareness

b. ​self-actualization

c. ​homeostasis

d. ​competition

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

9. According to psychologist ____, motivation is a process that is best thought of as a process that maintains homeostasis.​

a. ​Hans Selye

b. ​Philip Bard

c. ​William James

d. ​Walter Canon

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

10. Caesar ingests a large meal, causing his blood glucose levels to rise. In response, Caesar’s pancreas releases insulin to remove glucose from the blood stream. As glucose levels drop, the pancreas stops releasing insulin. Which factor establishes the set point?​

a. ​insulin

b. ​glucose

c. ​pancreas

d. ​blood

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

11. A(n) _____ is a value that is defended in order to maintain homeostasis.​

a. ​set point

b. ​metabolism

c. ​extrinsic balance

d. ​emotion

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

12. A state of tension and arousal triggered by cues important for survival is referred to as ____.​

a. ​emotion

b. ​mood

c. ​drive

d. ​motivation

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

13. Which scenario best illustrates the concept of drive reduction?​

a. ​The sun is bothering Mary’s eyes, so she moves into the shade of a nearby tree.

b. ​Deshaun has an intense itch on his back but he ignores it because he knows he will be unable to reach it.

c. ​A wave of fear washes over Luisa as she narrowly misses the car in front of her.

d. ​Julio expects to receive a sizable bonus and is ecstatic when he finally gets it.

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

14. Drive theories of motivation are often described as “____” theories because internal drives move an organism toward a goal.​

a. ​push

b. ​pull

c. ​throw

d. ​catch

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

15. Which researcher supports an incentive theory of motivation?​

a. ​Dr. Morgan, who believes that “unpleasant internal forces are the biggest factors that drive motivation”

b. ​Dr. Stern, who believes that “rewards play a central role in shaping motivation”

c. ​Dr. Chen, who believes that “motivation is an innate characteristic based on instinctive behaviors”

d. ​Dr. Lopez, who believes that “only external, but not internal forces, can be strong motivating factors”

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

16. Incentive theories of motivation are often described as “____” theories because external rewards move an organism toward a goal.​

a. ​push

b. ​pull

c. ​throw

d. ​catch

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

17. Incentive theories of motivation are to ____ as drive theories are to ____.

a. ​pull; push

b. ​push; pull

c. ​biological; psychological

d. ​psychological; biological

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

18. ​Sally loves to run, and works jogging into her daily schedule because of the “runner’s high” she experiences. Sally is motivated by a(n) ____ reward.

a. ​top-down

b. ​bottom-up

c. ​extrinsic

d. ​intrinsic

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

19. Eriq is going to the “Grand Opening” of a local sporting goods store because he read that there will be food, giveaways, and a raffle for a grand prize of a $500 gift card. Eriq is motivated by ______ rewards.​

a. ​top-down

b. ​bottom-up

c. ​extrinsic

d. ​intrinsic

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

20. ​Millie has always struggled with her weight. During a recent physical examination, her doctor recommended that she lose 30 pounds. What is the most probable reason that Millie is overweight?

a. ​She is highly sensitive to external cues for hunger.

b. ​She is highly sensitive to internal cues for hunger.

c. ​She is relatively insensitive to external cues for hunger.

d. ​She is relatively insensitive to internal cues for hunger.

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

21. According to Cannon and Washburn (1912), what as hypothesized to be the cause of hunger cues?​

a. ​Hunger originates from psychological factors.

b. ​Hunger correlates with the extent of stomach contractions.

c. ​Hunger is mainly influenced by blood glucose levels.

d. ​Hunger is influenced by visual and social cues.

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

22. Following his afternoon classes, Darren stops at the cafeteria and eats a hot dog and french fries. If you were to run a blood test on Darren shortly after his meal, what would you expect to find?​

a. ​low glucose; low insulin

b. ​low glucose; high insulin

c. ​high glucose; high insulin

d. ​high glucose; low insulin

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

23. Why are those who suffer from diabetes with high levels of glucose in their blood likely to report feeling hungry?​

a. ​because of a rebound effect

b. ​because of heightened metabolic activity

c. ​because of increased insulin levels

d. ​because their cells are deprived of glucose

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

24. The body monitors fat stores by assessing levels of the hormone ____, which is produced and secreted by fat cells.​

a. ​insulin

b. ​glucocorticoid

c. ​calcitonin

d. ​leptin

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

25. Dr. Pasantes is investigating how the brain regulates patterns of eating behavior. She performs an experiment and finds that lesioning a particular brain region causes rodents to completely stop eating. What area of the brain has Dr. Pasantes lesioned?​

a. ​the lateral hypothalamus

b. ​the ventromedial hypothalamus

c. ​the lateral amygdala

d. ​the ventromedial amygdala

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

26. Dr. Pollini is investigating how the brain regulates patterns of eating behavior. He performs an experiment and finds that lesioning a particular brain region interferes with rodent’s ability to feel satiated. This, in turn, leads them to significantly increase their food intake and to gain weight. What area of the brain has Dr. Pollini lesioned?​

a. ​lateral hypothalamus

b. ​ventromedial hypothalamus

c. ​lateral amygdala

d. ​ventromedial amygdala

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

27. Eric has recently put on some weight and has excess fat stores. How is Eric’s body likely to react to the increased fat storage?​

a. ​Leptin levels will increase and the sympathetic nervous system will be activated.

b. ​Leptin levels will decrease and the sympathetic nervous system will be activated.

c. ​Leptin levels will increase and the parasympathetic nervous system will be activated.

d. ​Leptin levels will decrease and the parasympathetic nervous system will be activated.

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

28. Derek, a neuropsychology graduate student, works in a behavioral eating research lab. Derek suggests to the lead investigator that injecting people with leptin will help them lose weight. His idea is quickly shot down by a classmate, who states, “Not so fast, Derek; ____.”​

a. ​as leptin increases, glucose absorption decreases

b. ​high levels of leptin inhibit insulin synthesis

c. ​leptin is metabolized by fat cells quicker than it is produced

d. ​obese humans already have high levels of circulating leptin

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

29. The height-to-weight ratio used to identify healthy weight, underweight, overweight, and obesity is referred to as the ____.​

a. ​personal mass index

b. ​personal density index

c. ​body mass index

d. ​body density index

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

30. From 1991 to 2012, the rates of obesity have risen from 12 to ____% (Ogden, Carroll, Kit, & Flegal, 2014).​

a. ​24

b. ​37

c. ​44

d. ​54

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

31. Why has our contemporary lifestyle, with many people spending hours sitting sedentary in front of televisions or computers, contributed to a significant rise in obesity?​

a. ​because low muscle tone promotes insulin insensitivity

b. ​because blood glucose levels remain stagnant during inactivity

c. ​because leptin is most effective when people are active

d. ​because humans use energy very efficiently, and less activity causes us to use less energy

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

32. Molly is hungry. She passes right by the fruit basket on her kitchen counter and instead, grabs the ice cream out of the freezer. What human food preferences does Molly’s behavior demonstrate?​

a. ​Our digestive system is innately suited for sugary, high-fat foods.

b. ​Short bursts of elevated blood glucose lead to increased arousal.

c. ​We retain the preferences of our ancestors for calorie-rich foods to ward off starvation.

d. ​Sugary, high-fat food stimulates orexin release to relieve stress.

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

33. Elroy is eager to lose weight after gaining 15 pounds during his freshman year of college. He decides to do a crash diet over the summer, which starts with cabbage soup and salad every day for 2 weeks. Elroy loses weight at first but quickly puts weight back on, even gaining an extra 5 pounds before returning to college. What is the most likely reason for this?​

a. ​By choosing low fat foods, he increased ghrelin levels.

b. ​He ate too many vegetables, which contain a high carbohydrate content.

c. ​He chose a diet that was not diverse and this led to an increase in his metabolism.

d. ​He lowered his metabolism by triggered mechanisms designed to prevent starvation.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

34. Long-term, who is most likely to succeed in their attempts to lose weight?​

a. ​Diane, who decides to lose weight by cutting out potato chips and ice cream from her diet

b. ​Enrique, who decides to lose weight by going on a high-protein, no-carbohydrate diet

c. ​Padma, who decides to lose weight by cutting meat completely out of her diet

d. ​Tommy, who decides to lose weight by restricting his caloric intake to 1,000 calories per day

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

35. Suppose that it is 1964, and that Betty, a homemaker who put on weight with each of her three pregnancies, wants to lose 20 pounds. What medication would have been prescribed to Betty at that time to help her lose weight?​

a. ​ephedrine

b. ​orlistat

c. ​amphetamines

d. ​sibutramine

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

36. Interested in losing weight, Patrick seeks the advice of his doctor. Dr. Burns recommends a medication that can help Patrick by inhibiting the absorption of fats by the digestive tract. What medication is Patrick’s doctor recommending?​

a. ​ephedrine

b. ​orlistat

c. ​amphetamines

d. ​sibutramine

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

37. Interested in losing weight, Frederica seeks the advice of her doctor. Dr. Rothschild recommends a medication that can help her by acting as a serotonin agonist. What medication is Frederica’s doctor recommending?​

a. ​ephedrine

b. ​orlistat

c. ​lorcaserin

d. ​sibutramine

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

38. As many as ____% of individuals with eating disorders today are males.​

a. ​10

b. ​15

c. ​20

d. ​25

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

39. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by the maintenance of unusually low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and ____.​

a. ​cycles of binge eating and purging

b. ​the need to defy conventional norms

c. ​a distorted view of the body as obese

d. ​the extreme need for control

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

40. Brianna suffers from anorexia nervosa. In addition to having an unusually low body weight, she has irregular menstrual cycles, an increased sensitivity to cold, a fine downy hair on her face and body (called lanugo), and has skin that appears ____.

a. ​oily with a blue tint

b. ​oily with a yellow tint

c. ​dry with a blue tint

d. ​dry with a yellow tint

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

41. After a night of eating a gallon of ice cream and potato chips, Stephen takes laxatives to purge the ingested food from his body. Stephen, like many others who suffer from bulimia nervosa, is likely to feel what after purging?​

a. ​relief and calm

b. ​a heightened sense of control

c. ​depression and disgust

d. ​elation and arousal

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

42. The research of Anne Becker illustrates how cultural attitudes toward beauty affect eating behaviors (Becker, Burwell, Herzog, Hamburg, & Gilman, 2002). What did Anne Becker find?​

a. ​With the introduction of American television, adolescent girls in Fiji reported higher rates of dieting.

b. ​Home-schooled American teens with no access to television reported less of a desire to diet than their public school counterparts.

c. ​In regions of Africa once plagued by famine, food surplus levels positively correlate with the number of women reporting the need to diet.

d. ​Adolescent German girls were three times as likely to go on diets after visiting America while vacationing with their families.

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

43. The binge‑purge cycling of bulimia nervosa involves processes similar to those of ____.​

a. ​the circadian cycle

b. ​a hypoglycemic reaction

c. ​addiction

d. ​a panic attack

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

44. Selena has suffered from bulimia nervosa for several years. She finally seeks professional help and is surprised to find out that medication can help her. What type of medication, when combined with cognitive behavioral therapy, would be most helpful for Selena?

a. ​selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

b. ​phenothiazines

c. ​amphetamines

d. ​catecholamine reuptake inhibitors

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

45. According to research (Bryant & Haselton, 2009), women who are ovulating are more likely to ____.​

a. ​have extramarital affairs

b. ​speak in higher tones

c. ​breakup with abusive partners

d. ​consume fewer calories

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

46. What is the evidence to support the idea that hormones involved in the menstrual cycle do not significantly influence women’s sexual interest?​

a. ​Women report more pain during sex and less sexual interest while ovulating.

b. ​Menopause produces significant hormonal changes in women, but has little impact on their sexual interest and activity.

c. ​Women report increased sexual activity during ovulation but only if they are trying to get pregnant.

d. ​Fertility drugs that increase gonadotropin levels have little impact on female sexual interest.

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

47. Nicole tells her gynecologist that lately she has had no sexual desire. Nicole and her gynecologist discuss the possibility of using a hormone patch to address her sexual dysfunction. This hormone patch likely uses which hormone?​

a. ​testosterone

b. ​estrogen

c. ​progesterone

d. ​follicle stimulating hormone

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

48. Which physiological response represents a remnant of our ancestors’ need to defend their territory?​

a. ​When study participants were asked to escape a virtual fire, individuals told to imagine their homes on fire showed the greatest amygdala activity.

b. ​Police reports show higher incidences of aggression for men facing foreclosure than for men experiencing unemployment.

c. ​Victims demonstrated a surge in corticosteroid levels weeks following a crime that occurred at or near their home, but not in a far off location.

d. ​Males experience greater drops in testosterone when witnessing their favorite teams lose home games rather than away games.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

49. According to research (van Anders, Hamilton, & Watson, 2007), who is likely to have the highest testosterone levels?​

a. ​Eric, who cannot seem to stay in a long-term relationship, and was called a “commitment-phobe” by his last girlfriend

b. ​Don, who just proposed to Sandra, his girlfriend of 2 years, but secretly longs for his former girlfriend, Jen, whom he dated for 6 years

c. ​Sergio, who has been married for 14 years to Sarafena, but also has a mistress, Donatella, whom he has been seeing for the last 10 years

d. ​Eduardo, who has been married for 11 years and has four boys ages 2 through 7, and is secretly relieved that he has no daughters

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

50. What is the connection between romantic love and sexual desire?​

a. ​Romantic love is not possible without some degree of sexual desire.

b. ​Sexual desire cannot be sustained without romantic love.

c. ​Although they represent separate emotional states, they are physiologically similar.

d. ​Romantic love and sexual desire represent distinct biological and emotional states.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

51. ​What two hormones are associated with romantic love?

a. ​testosterone and estrogen

b. ​testosterone and oxytocin

c. ​vasopressin and estrogen

d. ​vasopressin and oxytocin

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

52. What hormonal differences in women cause them to be more likely than men to equate sexual desire with feelings of romantic love?​

a. ​higher oxytocin and lower testosterone

b. ​higher vasopressin and lower testosterone

c. ​higher oxytocin and higher estrogen

d. ​higher vasopressin and higher estrogen

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

53. Sexual orientation is best defined as ____.​

a. ​engaging in sexual activity with a specific sex

b. ​a stable pattern of attraction to members of a particular sex

c. ​exhibiting characteristic behaviors consistent with a particular sex

d. ​exhibiting sexual attractions that are inconsistent with one’s sex

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

54. According to research (Kirk, Bailey, & Martin, 2000), if one identical male twin is homosexual, his twin has what percent chance of also being homosexual?​

a. ​30%

b. ​50%

c. ​70%

d. ​90%

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

55. What is the evidence to suggest that exposure to sex hormones in the womb affects sexual orientation?​

a. ​Females exposed to higher than normal levels of male hormones in the womb develop masculinized external genitalia and report more same-sex sexual activity.

b. ​Males whose mothers were on hormone replacement therapy while pregnant report more attraction to males than the general population.

c. ​The testosterone hormonal patch used to stimulate sexual desire in females also leads to higher birth rates of babies who later identified themselves as lesbians.

d. ​Women who took drugs to stimulate ovulation had sons who were more likely to experiment with same-sex activity.

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

56. Why are men with older brothers, but not men with older sisters or those who are only children, more likely to be gay?​

a. ​Mothers are more likely to unknowingly treat their youngest sons like daughters.

b. ​A mother’s heightened immune response with subsequent male-fetus pregnancies affects brain development.

c. ​Older brothers are likely to deride and belittle the youngest brother, creating a more sensitive, fearful, and confused individual.

d. ​Older brothers are more likely to protect and guard the youngest brother, shielding him from rough-and-tumble play and traditional masculine rituals.

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

57. According to the work of Simon LeVay (1991), gay men and women have similarities in their ____.​

a. ​levels of estrogen

b. ​levels of oxytocin

c. ​hypothalamic brain structure

d. ​basal ganglia brain structure

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

58. According to the work of Simon LeVay (1991), which part of the brain shows similarities between women and homosexual men?​

a. ​the third interstitial nucleus of the hypothalamus (INAH-3)

b. ​the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LNA)

c. ​the suprachiasmatic striatum of the hippocampus (SSH)

d. ​the left anterior parietal (LAP) lobe of the cerebral cortex

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

59. When asked to identify what is most important to their happiness, an overwhelming majority of people typically rated ____ at the top of their list.​

a. ​wealth

b. ​physical health

c. ​intimacy

d. ​fame

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

60. In one study (Twenge, Baumeister, Tice, & Stucke, 2001), students who were told that a personality test revealed that they were “the type likely to end up alone later in life” were more likely to ____.​

a. ​show signs of depression and anxiety

b. ​show less empathy and act aggressively

c. ​report low self-esteem and low self-efficacy

d. ​demonstrate introversion and neuroticism

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

61. Compared with other species, why are social connections especially important for the survival of human beings?​

a. ​Human beings typically lose the drive to survive during times of prolonged isolation.

b. ​Human beings require the greatest amount of parenting to survive to adulthood and reproduce.

c. ​Human beings have a set point for social activity and need external connections to monitor the balance.

d. ​Human beings suffer both psychological and physical damage from isolation, whereas most other species are unaffected by it.

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

62. What evidence illustrates that the need for affiliation has a genetic component?​

a. ​Adoption studies show that siblings raised in different environments show similar patterns of social activity.

b. ​Our set point for needing affiliation correlates with cortical thickness.

c. ​People who are low in their need for affiliation are more likely to have genetic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism.

d. ​Twin studies show that set points for the need for affiliation are influenced by genetics.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

63. Achievement motivation is usually defined as ____.​

a. ​the need to reach a level of self-perfection

b. ​a desire to excel or outperform others

c. ​the fulfillment of culturally dictated goals

d. ​meeting the needs of those we seek to please

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

64. Of the following, who displays characteristics most consistent with high levels of achievement motivation?​

a. ​April, who tackles her quantum physics problems with a high level of abstract reasoning

b. ​Devlin, who decides to skip going to the football game on Sunday, and instead goes to the office to get ahead of the coming week’s work

c. ​Calista, who worries constantly about whether or not her parents are happy with her grades

d. ​NaShaun, who is climbing the corporate ladder and knows to keep his friends close but his enemies closer

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

65. Maslow’s view of motivation is best described as a ____.​

a. ​tree of power

b. ​web of ambition

c. ​pyramid of needs

d. ​pinwheel of desire

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

66. Martha, a first grade teacher, is concerned about her student, Marvin. She knows that 6-year-old Marvin has the potential to learn, but he always comes to school hungry and without a coat, even in the coldest months. According to Maslow, why is Marvin in danger of failing?​

a. ​He is showing signs of neglect; thus, he likely lives in an environment void of enrichment.

b. ​He will eventually feel like a social outcast and rebel against conventional societal norms.

c. ​He will have impaired brain development due to the lack of appropriate physiological and psychological care.

d. ​He will have little to no motivation to learn at school if his most basic needs are not met.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

67. According to Maslow, what is at the pinnacle of human striving?​

a. ​affection

b. ​esteem

c. ​belongingness

d. ​self-actualization

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

68. Which saying best reflects the concept of self-actualization?

a. ​“Search for inner peace.”

b. ​“Be all that you can be.”

c. ​“Do unto others as you would have done unto you.”

d. ​“Take time to stop and smell the roses.”

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

69. What is a critique of the human motivation for self-actualization (Kenrick, Griskevicius, Neuberg, & Schaller, 2010)?​

a. ​There is no evolutionary explanation for reaching this goal.

b. ​It is overly simplistic and is virtually never reached.

c. ​Self-actualization contradicts the motivation for affiliation.

d. ​Cultures differ dramatically in their emphasis on self-actualization.

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

70. As part of his honor’s thesis, Braydon develops a survey to evaluate the update of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs by Kenrick and colleagues (2010). Braydon is most interested in determining if men and women differ in the highest level of motivation, which is ____.​

a. ​mate retention

b. ​parenting

c. ​affiliation

d. ​status

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

71. A major advantage provided by emotion is ____.​

a. ​that it creates the desire for affiliation

b. ​in its ability to produce arousal

c. ​that it promotes self-actualization and empathy

d. ​in its ability to produce an internal drive for survival

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

72. According to the Yerkes‑Dodson law, ____ (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908).

a. ​the ideal amount of arousal interacts with the complexity of a task to determine performance

b. ​performance and arousal function independently of each other, but are both impacted by task complexity

c. ​heightened arousal leads to heightened performance on complex tasks

d. ​dampened arousal disinhibits instinctive behaviors but inhibits acquired behaviors

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

73. Baby Alec squints his face, squeezes his fists, and tightens up his body muscles. His mother immediately runs over to try to soothe him. Alec’s actions demonstrate that ____.​

a. ​emotions are easily communicated through nonverbal means

b. ​complex emotions require maturity

c. ​emotions drive classical conditioning

d. ​without language, emotions are abstractions

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

74. What is the evidence to support that there is coordinated development of language and emotional communication in our brains?

a. ​Stroke victims with infarcted Broca’s areas have difficulty producing language and the appropriate emotional response.

b. ​Children with autism typically demonstrate delayed language development and difficulty expressing emotion.

c. ​We use the same pathways for language and for the perception and appreciation of music.

d. ​The brains of novelists show a wider range of emotions than that of doctors.

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

75. Consider the case of Eliot (Damasio, 1994), who had frontal lobe surgery to remove a tumor. What did we learn with regard to the brain’s use of emotional information?​

a. ​Emotions act as the gateway for social intelligence by establishing limits for and patterns of appropriate behaviors that promote survival.

b. ​Emotions regulate higher order cognition by allowing the mind to integrate concrete knowledge with abstract reasoning.

c. ​Emotions set the stage for forming strong connections with other individuals and establishing long lasting bonds.

d. ​Emotions provide a bridge to past experiences that can be used to set priorities such as approach and avoidance.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

76. Which nervous system structure participates in the general arousal associated with emotional states?​

a. ​cranial nervous system

b. ​somatic nervous system

c. ​autonomic nervous system

d. ​encephalic nervous system

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

77. According to research (Cacioppo, Berntson, Larsen, Poehlmann, & Ito, 2000), which of the following is true regarding negative and positive emotions?​

a. ​Negative emotions produce stronger somatic nervous system arousal than positive emotions.

b. ​Positive emotions produce stronger somatic nervous system arousal than negative emotions.

c. ​Positive emotions produce stronger autonomic nervous system arousal than negative emotions.

d. ​Negative emotions produce stronger autonomic nervous system arousal than positive emotions.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

78. Gaia glances over at her roommate, who is on the phone with her mother. She watches as her roommate’s facial expressions change from happy to sad to angry as she progresses through the phone conversation. Which area of Gaia’s brain is most likely to change activity as she processes the different facial expressions?​

a. ​hippocampus

b. ​amygdala

c. ​insula

d. ​striatum

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

79. Patient S. M. is able to recognize the emotions of happiness, sadness, and disgust portrayed in photographs, but has selective difficulty identifying fear correction. Which brain region has probably suffered damage in this patient?​

a. ​hypothalamus

b. ​amygdala

c. ​pons

d. ​medulla

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

80. Abnormal development of the amygdala is associated with which disorder?

a. ​bipolar disorder

b. ​major depressive disorder

c. ​obsessive compulsive disorder

d. ​autism spectrum disorder

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

81. Following a serious automobile accident several months ago, Lata is not able to read her bosses facial expressions to determine if he is happy or disappointed with her performance. Lata likely suffered damage to her ____.​

a. ​insula

b. ​medulla

c. ​corpus callosum

d. ​hippocampus

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

82. The emotional quality of pain likely results from information processing at which level of the brain?​

a. ​basal ganglia

b. ​amygdala

c. ​cingulate cortex

d. ​insula

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

83. Ahn is participating in a research study assessing the impact of brain damage on emotion recognition. She is asked to scan through a series of images and decipher the facial expressions of several individuals. Ahn performs well on the task but is consistently unable to recognize the expression of disgust. Ahn most likely suffered damage to which area of her brain?​

a. ​basal ganglia

b. ​amygdala

c. ​cingulate cortex

d. ​insula

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

84. Which brain region coordinates movements in response to emotional stimuli?​

a. ​basal ganglia

b. ​amygdala

c. ​cingulate cortex

d. ​insula

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

85. Months after suffering head trauma from a work accident, Maxwell’s wife Jessica notices that he is acting irresponsibly. For example, he decided on a whim to go sky diving, he drives his car at high speeds on the highway, and constantly blurts out obscenities to people. In what region did Maxwell likely suffer brain damage?​

a. ​basal ganglia

b. ​insula

c. ​cerebral cortex

d. ​amygdala

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

86. How do the right and left brain hemispheres process emotion?​

a. ​The left hemisphere processes positive emotions; the right hemisphere processes negative emotions.

b. ​The right hemisphere processes positive emotions; the left hemisphere processes negative emotions.

c. ​The left hemisphere funnels information about emotion to the right hemisphere.

d. ​The right hemisphere funnels information about emotion to the left hemisphere.

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

87. Donatella participates in a study and is asked to view a series of images that are likely to provoke strong emotion: a father caressing his newborn baby; a child crying at his mother’s funeral; and a shark ferociously attacking a seal. While she views these images, a PET scan monitors her brain activity. What is the PET scan likely to show?​

a. ​A specialized region of the prefrontal cortex shows robust activity for all of her emotions.

b. ​Separate cortical “emotion centers” respond to each of her emotions.

c. ​The prototypic “emotional pattern” of activity is observed in response to all of her emotions.

d. ​Distinct patterns of activity will be observed for each of her emotions.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

88. Several months ago, Ambreena suffered moderate brain damage following the surgical removal of a brain tumor. Her husband is perplexed by the fact that she struggles to smile when they are together sharing a happy moment, but when looking at a recent family photograph, he notices a big grin on her face. This indicates that Ambreena suffered damage involving ____.

a. ​lateralization of the somatosensory cortex

b. ​activation of the amygdala

c. ​cortical input

d. ​subcortical input

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

89. Dr. Burke performs a neurological examination on his patient Ishmael. At one point he asks Ishmael to smile, but Ishmael produces only a crooked smirk. At the end of the examination, Ishmael tells Dr. Burke a humorous story, at which point Ishmael smiles ear-to-ear. Dr. Burke suspects that Ishmael suffered damage to his ____.​

a. ​motor cortex

b. ​amygdala

c. ​basal ganglia

d. ​cerebellum

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

90. What is the evidence to support Charles Darwin’s claim that human emotional expression was shaped through evolution?​

a. ​The recognition of emotional facial expressions is uniquely tailored to promote survival in different climatic regions around the world.

b. ​Infants’ social smiles emerge at about the same age, regardless of whether an infant can see faces or is born blind.

c. ​Individuals who are capable of showing the widest range of emotions typically have the greatest number of progeny.

d. ​The same breadth of different emotions expressed by humans are also expressed by nearly all species, but to varying degrees.

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

91. A cultural norm that specifies when, where, and how a person should express an emotion is referred to as a ____.

a. ​display rule

b. ​normative action

c. ​conformative law

d. ​controlled expression

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

92. According to a study (Matsumoto, Yoo, Nakagawa, et al., 2008), individuals from which nation are most likely to show the lowest amount of emotional suppression?​

a. ​United States

b. ​Italy

c. ​Hong Kong

d. ​Switzerland

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

93. Children who are highly responsive and show strong emotional reactions to novel stimuli are more likely to be ____ adults.​

a. ​cautious and anxious

b. ​psychopathic

c. ​depressed

d. ​highly intelligent

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

94. What do twin studies tell us about genetics and the ability to read emotions?

a. ​Genetics plays a negligible role in reading emotions.

b. ​Genetics plays a small but significant role in reading emotions.

c. ​Genetics plays a moderate role in reading emotions.

d. ​Genetics plays a very large role in reading emotions.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

95. Individual differences in emotional intelligence are most predictive of ____.​

a. ​self-confidence and self-esteem

b. ​emotional stability and facial feedback

c. ​the success of work and personal relationships

d. ​cognitive capabilities

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

96. In a study of Japanese and American individuals (Matsumoto et al., 2002), how did the two cultures differ with regards to reading emotions?​

a. ​The Japanese were more accurate in identifying the correct emotion being expressed.

b. ​The Americans were more accurate in identifying the correct emotion being expressed.

c. ​The Japanese interpreted low intensity emotions as being under-expressed; Americans interpreted high intensity emotions as exaggerated.

d. ​The Americans interpreted low intensity emotions as being understated; Japanese interpreted high intensity emotions as exaggerated.

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

97. Which model or theory of emotion proposes that physical sensations lead to subjective feelings?

a. ​James‑Lange theory

b. ​catharsis theory

c. ​Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion

d. ​Cannon‑Bard theory

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

98. Which model or theory proposes that emotions act as a reservoir that fills up and spills over, and that expressing these emotions will reduce arousal?​

a. ​James‑Lange theory

b. ​Schachter‑Singer two-factor theory

c. ​catharsis theory

d. ​Cannon‑Bard theory

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

99. Which model or theory of emotion proposes that there is a simultaneous and independent occurrence of physical sensations and subjective feelings during an emotional experience?​

a. ​catharsis theory

b. ​Schachter‑Singer two-factor theory

c. ​Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion

d. ​Cannon‑Bard theory

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

100. Which model or theory of emotion proposes that general arousal leads to assessment, which in turn calls for an assessment that leads to subjective feelings?​

a. ​James‑Lange theory

b. ​Schachter‑Singer two-factor theory

c. ​Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion

d. ​Cannon‑Bard theory

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

101. Which model or theory of emotion proposes that a range of physical sensations, from precise to general, requires varying degrees of cognitive processing prior to subjective feelings?​

a. ​James‑Lange theory

b. ​Schachter‑Singer two-factor theory

c. ​Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion

d. ​Cannon‑Bard theory

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

102. Which scenario supports the James‑Lange theory of emotion?​

a. ​Tony approaches his friend Juanita, who is walking her dog. As the dog begins to bark, Tony’s heart races; he thinks about why this is the case, and realizes he has a crush on Juanita.

b. ​Micah wakes up feeling glum. He forces himself to smile from ear-to-ear and laugh out loud, and then he begins to feel happy.

c. ​Bethany feels very depressed about her recent breakup with her boyfriend. She slumps down on her couch and cries for an hour straight, and then she begins to feel better.

d. ​Aaron relaxes in his hammock. Suddenly, he feels an earthquake, causing him to feel afraid; at the same time, his heart beats rapidly and his palms sweat.

ANSWER: b

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

103. Which scenario supports the catharsis theory of emotion?​

a. ​Tony approaches his friend Juanita, who is walking her dog. As the dog begins to bark, Tony’s heart races; he thinks about why this is the case, and realizes he has a crush on Juanita.

b. ​Micah wakes up feeling glum. He forces himself to smile from ear-to-ear and laugh out loud, and then he begins to feel happy.

c. ​Bethany feels very depressed about her recent breakup with her boyfriend. She slumps down on her couch and cries for an hour straight, and then she begins to feel better.

d. ​Aaron relaxes in his hammock. Suddenly, he feels an earthquake, causing him to feel afraid; at the same time, his heart beats rapidly and his palms sweat.

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

104. Which scenario supports the Cannon‑Bard theory of emotion?​

a. ​Tony approaches his friend Juanita, who is walking her dog. As the dog begins to bark, Tony’s heart races; he thinks about why this is the case, and realizes he has a crush on Juanita.

b. ​Micah wakes up feeling glum. He forces himself to smile from ear-to-ear and laugh out loud, and then he begins to feel happy.

c. ​Bethany feels very depressed about her recent breakup with her boyfriend. She slumps down on her couch and cries for an hour straight, and then she begins to feel better.

d. ​Aaron relaxes in his hammock. Suddenly, he feels an earthquake, causing him to feel afraid; at the same time, his heart beats rapidly and his palms sweat.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

105. Which scenario supports the Schachter‑Singer two-factor theory of emotion?​

a. ​Tony approaches his friend Juanita, who is walking her dog. As the dog begins to bark, Tony’s heart races; he thinks about why this is the case, and realizes he has a crush on Juanita.

b. ​Micah wakes up feeling glum. He forces himself to smile from ear-to-ear and laugh out loud, and then he begins to feel happy.

c. ​Bethany feels very depressed about her recent breakup with her boyfriend. She slumps down on her couch and cries for an hour straight, and then she begins to feel better.

d. ​Aaron relaxes in his hammock. Suddenly, he feels an earthquake, causing him to feel afraid; at the same time, his heart beats rapidly and his palms sweat.

ANSWER: a

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Think Critically

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

106. Consider the Capilano Canyon experiment (Dutton & Aron, 1974). What is the explanation for why the men crossing the more frightening suspension bridge included much more sexual content in their interviews?​

a. ​In the presence of an attractive woman, the men attempted to repress their fear.

b. ​Fear-provoking situations exaggerate risk-taking in all areas, including finding a mate.

c. ​During times of heightened fear, people often try to distract themselves.

d. ​The men misinterpreted physiological signals of fear as sexual arousal.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

107. The Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion (SAME) provides a middle ground between which two theories of emotion?​

a. ​the Cannon‑Bard theory and the Schachter‑Singer two-factor theory

b. ​the Cannon‑Bard theory and the catharsis theory

c. ​the James‑Lange theory and the Schachter‑Singer two-factor theory

d. ​the James‑Lange theory and the catharsis theory

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

108. According to the Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion (SAME), which scenario is likely to elicit the slowest emotional response?​

a. ​Tiana receives a rare phone call from her husband who is away at war; she happily grins from ear-to-ear.

b. ​While hiking, Daria sees a mountain lion off in the distance; she has never been so scared, and stops dead in her tracks as her heart beats uncontrollably.

c. ​Doug is finishing up his term paper as his roommate accidentally drops a pint of beer on his laptop; Doug starts to shake uncontrollably with anger.

d. ​Tyrone looks over his annual progress report from his boss; the comments are mostly positive and he is proud of his accomplishments.

ANSWER: d

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Apply

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

109. ​According to contemporary views of emotion, an emphasis on what factor may account for the vast range of emotional reactions that individuals have toward the same event?

a. ​physiology

b. ​individualism

c. ​appraisal

d. ​intelligence

ANSWER: c

POINTS: 1

DIFFICULTY: Understand

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

110. Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and discuss how Maslow felt motivation is shaped. How does the contemporary hierarchy of needs (Kenrick, Griskevicius, Neuberg, & Schaller, 2010) differs from Maslow’s? Which model do you prefer, and why?​

ANSWER: ​Maslow viewed motivation as a hierarchy of needs, in which lower levels must be satisfied before the individual has the time and energy to pursue higher level needs. At the lowest level of the pyramid, we find “physiological needs,” including food, water, and shelter. These basic needs must be met on a daily basis, or life will be threatened. Consequently, if meeting these needs is a challenge for a person, Maslow predicted that the person is unlikely to care about needs appearing at higher levels of the hierarchy. Once physiological needs are generally met, Maslow suggests that we turn our attention to safety, and then to belongingness, represented by the love and affection of others. For Maslow, these three lower categories are essential to human life. Freed from the challenges of meeting basic needs, we begin to seek esteem, or the respect we receive from other members of the community. At the pinnacle of human striving, however, is the goal of self-actualization, according to Maslow. A person seeking self-actualization desires to fully meet his or her potential.

Maslow’s classic theory received a recent modification that retained the overall hierarchical organization but added three new perspectives: the evolutionary functions of motives, the development of motives over the life span, and the cognitive priorities assigned to motives in response to environmental stimuli. This modified pyramid replaces self-actualization with mate acquisition, mate retention, and parenting. The authors of the revision noted that self-actualization was interesting, but they could not find an evolutionary explanation for why we would seek to reach this level. Many of the activities described by Maslow as helping people to reach self-actualization, such as art and poetry, might be better explained as efforts to gain status, which in turn would attract mates.

POINTS: 10

DIFFICULTY: Evaluate

REFERENCES: What Does It Mean to Be Motivated?

111. Describe the four theories of emotion discussed in the text and provide an example for each. Which do you agree with the most and which the least? Explain your answer.​

ANSWER: ​The James‑Lange theory of emotion proposes that physical sensations lead to subjective feelings. At the core of the James‑Lange theory is the idea that classes of emotions are the result of a sequence of events. Once an individual perceives a stimulus, such as a grizzly bear, he or she will experience a physiological response. This physiological response is subsequently interpreted by the individual, giving rise to a conscious awareness of a subjective feeling.

The Cannon‑Bard theory of emotion features the simultaneous and independent occurrence of physical sensations and subjective feelings during an emotional experience. For Cannon‑Bard, the sight of the bear would immediately and simultaneously trigger a subjective feeling of fear (oh no, there’s a bear in my room) and physical sensations (probably the autonomic nervous system’s fight‑flight response in this example). The Cannon‑Bard theory does not assume that the experience of a subjective feeling is dependent on any physical sensations.

The Schachter‑Singer two-factor theory asserts that general arousal leads to assessment, which in turn leads to subjective feelings. Schachter and Singer believed that each emotional experience begins with an assessment of our physical sensations. Because these reactions can be similar among emotional states (i.e., fear and sexual arousal), they suggested that interpreting these states requires another step. Any emotional arousal signals us to make a conscious, cognitive appraisal of our circumstances, which then allows us to identify the emotion we’re experiencing. Physical sensations may lead to several different interpretations, based on the way an individual assesses a situation. The sight of a bear would initiate a general state of arousal. To identify the source of your arousal, you would assess your situation, attribute your arousal to the presence of a bear in your room, and identify your feelings as fear.

The Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion (SAME) begins with a recognition that physical responses to a stimulus can range from quite specific to quite general. For example, the physical sensations associated with disgust can be more precise than the physical sensations associated with pride. The initial degree of specificity of the physical response leads to different cognitive processing. A highly specific physical response leads to unambiguous recognition of a subjective feeling. (e.g., A bear walks in, I react physically, I know I’m scared). At the other extreme, instead of specific physical responses, a situation might produce very general arousal, which will require significant cognitive processing and evaluation. For example, a valedictorian giving a graduation speech might not understand her arousal until she sees her parents and other members of the audience clapping and realizes the emotion she is feeling is pride.

POINTS: 10

DIFFICULTY: Evaluate

REFERENCES: Why Are We Emotional?

112. Describe John Gottman’s work in predicting the success of a relationship (Gottman, 2011). Think about your own relationship with a romantic partner or close friend. How does your style of communication affect this relationship? How might it be improved?​

ANSWER: ​Psychologist John Gottman uses a combination of heart rate, facial expression, and an analysis of the way people talk about their relationships to each other and to others to predict whether a relationship will last. He is correct over 90% of the time. One of Gottman’s key observations is the ratio of positive to negative comments in a couple’s discussion of a problem. Happy couples make 5 times more positive comments about each other and their relationship during these discussions (e.g., we laugh a lot versus we never have any fun).

The human mind is skewed toward the negative, like noticing bitter tastes over sweet. This slant suggests that it is all too easy to focus on your partner’s negative qualities, which will lead to negative emotions and conflict. If we put our relationships on evolutionary cruise control, the ratio of positive to negative comments might drop to a point where the relationship is in danger. Maintaining a more positive outlook on your partner requires attention and work.

POINTS: 10

DIFFICULTY: Evaluate

REFERENCES: Interpersonal Relationships From the Perspective of Emotion

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