Effective Training 5th Edition by Blanchard – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Effective Training 5th Edition by Blanchard – Test Bank  A+

Effective Training 5th Edition by Blanchard – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Effective Training 5th Edition by Blanchard – Test Bank A+
  1. Training methods can be divided into _____ and _____ approaches.
    1. Cognitive; behavioral
    2. Strategic; skill
    3. Procedural; strategic
    4. KSA; lecture
    5. None of the above

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 200

  1. Which training method can effectively be used to change attitudes?
    1. Cognitive
    2. Behavioral
    3. Attitudinal
    4. Both A & B

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 200

  1. The main difference between a lecture and a lecturette is that the lecturette
    1. Is specifically designed for skills training.
    2. Is specifically designed for presenting procedural knowledge.
    3. Is specifically designed for presenting strategic knowledge.
    4. Is done only at the start of training.
    5. Generally lasts less than 20 minutes.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 202

  1. Compared to the lecture, a lecture/discussion
    1. allows trainees to interact with the lecturer.
    2. is able to achieve more complex learning objectives.
    3. is able to provide more information in a much shorter time.
    4. A & B.
    5. All of the above.

Answer D

Difficulty Easy

Page Ref 202

  1. The main advantage a lecture has over printed text and video is the
    1. Credibility the lecturer can give to the material.
    2. Ability to test learning.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 202

  1. _____ questions require no specific response.
    1. Closed‑ended
    2. Reverse
    3. Open‑ended
    4. Overhead
    5. Bad

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 203

  1. A(n) _____question occurs when the trainer is asked a question and instead of providing an answer, she re‑asks the question of the group.
    1. Relay
    2. Reverse
    3. Overhead
    4. Re‑directed
    5. All of the above

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 204

  1. When the trainer believes a trainee has asked a question because the trainee really wants to answer but is hesitant, the trainer should respond using the______.
    1. Relay question
    2. Overhead question
    3. Reverse question
    4. Direct question

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 204

  1. A visual display of how to do something or how something works is called a

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 204

  1. Demonstrations, like lectures, can be differentiated by the level of ______ of the trainee.
    1. Intelligence
    2. Involvement
    3. Commitment
    4. Interest

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 205

  1. Developing a good demonstration requires
    1. A charismatic trainer.
    2. Using well-designed slides to get your point across.
    3. Breaking down the task into manageable parts or sequences.
    4. Putting together as much information as possible.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 205

  1. In the lecture method, “summarizing” impacts on which aspect of retention?
    1. Attention
    2. Symbolic coding
    3. Cognitive organization
    4. Symbolic rehearsal

Answer: C

Difficulty: Challenging

Page Ref: Table 6-3, p. 207

  1. Which of the following learning processes identified in Social Learning Theory does the lecture, when done well, have the most impact on?
    1. Symbolic rehearsal
    2. Attention
    3. Behavioral reproduction
    4. Skill

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 207

  1. Which of the retention processes does a well-done lecture have the most impact on?
    1. Attention
    2. Symbolic coding
    3. Cognitive organization
    4. Symbolic rehearsal

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 208

  1. Listening to a lecture, attention begins to decline after _____ to _____ minutes and begins to _____ near the end.
    1. 15; 20; further decline
    2. 20; 30; pick up
    3. 15; 20; pick up
    4. 20; 30; further decline
    5. None of the above

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 208

  1. According to the text, business games have been developed and used for
    1. Improving interpersonal skills.
    2. Teaching initiating structure.
    3. Strengthening executive and management skills.
    4. Changing attitudes toward diversity.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 212

  1. Which of the following statements is true about business games?
    1. They are generally used as a standalone training method.
    2. They can take up to several weeks to complete.
    3. To be effective games should require trainees to make a minimum of six decisions.
    4. Games do not require learning objectives.
    5. A & D

Answer B

Difficulty Easy

Page ref 212-213

  1. If learning objectives focus primarily on decision making, _____ can be an appropriate training tool.
    1. The in‑basket
    2. Behavior modeling
    3. Role-plays
    4. The case study
    5. Both A & D

Answer: E

Difficulty: Challenging

Page Ref: 214-216

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the “solutions trainees

come to” in a case study is true?

  1. The proper solution must be arrived at by trainees before new material is introduced.
  2. The solution has no relevance to the exercise.
  3. There should be only one solution.
  4. The solution is not as important as the understanding of the advantages and disadvantages that go along with the solution.
  5. Case studies have so many solutions that feedback should be limited to comments about the validity of the case study in the job’s context.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 215

  1. The case study
    1. Should have a trainer present the correct solution after trainees have provided their solutions.
    2. Has a shorter version which is the incident process.
    3. Has as its major weakness “providing incomplete information.”
    4. A & C.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 215-216

  1. _____ is an enactment of a scenario in which each participant is given a part to act out.
    1. Simulation
    2. Role-play
    3. Behavioral enactment
    4. Modeling

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 216

  1. ____________ role-plays provide more details about the situation and the characters.
    1. Single
    2. Double
    3. Structured
    4. Spontaneous

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 216-217

  1. Which of the following is NOT a role-play method of training?
    1. Single role-play
    2. Spontaneous role-play
    3. Role‑rotation format role-play
    4. Structured role-play
    5. All of the above are methods of role-play

Answer: E

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 216-217

  1. Which of the following is most appropriate for training interpersonal skills?
    1. Behavior modeling
    2. The case study
    3. The simulator
    4. The business game
    5. The ice breaker

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 219

  1. Behavioral modeling is based on which theory?
    1. Bandura’s social learning theory
    2. Goldstein’s training model
    3. Vroom’s expectancy theory
    4. Skinner’s reinforcement theory
    5. Elaboration theory

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 219

  1. Which of the following should you consider when implementing Behavior Modeling?
    1. Use whole rather than part learning.
    2. Do not emphasize more that 7 learning points during any one training module.
    3. Use a real model rather than a video for authenticity.
    4. A & C.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: Table 6-6 p. 220

  1. Which of these statements regarding the use of games and simulations in training is NOT true?
    1. In general games are the most expensive.
    2. In general role-plays are the least expensive.
    3. Both games and simulations may require some background knowledge.
    4. Both games and simulations allow trainees to practice skills in a safe environment.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 220-221

  1. Which of the following is true about games and simulations?
    1. A major problem for them is attracting trainee attention.
    2. They are quite useful in developing trainee skill in applying or using knowledge.
    3. They are quite good at teaching facts or procedures.
    4. Their greatest weakness is in helping provide cognitive organization.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 223

  1. Which of the following is true about OJT?
    1. It is one of the more expensive training methods.
    2. Most OJT done by small businesses uses the JIT method.
    3. When using the JIT method of OJT, the first step is “Present.”
    4. OJT generally uses experienced coworkers or supervisors as trainers.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 225

  1. The most frequently used training method (especially in smaller businesses) is
    1. Role-play.
    2. Behavioral modeling.
    3. On‑the‑job training.

Answer: E

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 225

  1. The acronym JIT (an on‑the‑job training technique) stands for
    1. Job information topology.
    2. Just‑in‑time.
    3. Job incidents technique.
    4. Job instruction technique.
    5. Job instructional topology.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 225

  1. In the “job instruction technique,” the first step in the “try out” stage of training is “have the learner talk through the job.” This causes activation of which social learning theory process?
    1. Attention
    2. Behavioral reproduction
    3. Symbolic rehearsal
    4. All levels of retention

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 227

  1. Which training technique has its roots back in the Middle Ages?
    1. Apprenticeship training
    2. Behavioral modeling
    3. Simulations
    4. In‑baskets
    5. Coaching

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 229

  1. _____ is the process of providing one‑to‑one guidance and instruction to improve the knowledge, skills, and work performance of the trainee.
    1. Behavior modeling
    2. Computer simulation
    3. Coaching
    4. Tutoring

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 230

  1. The difference between coaching and traditional OJT is
    1. No type of TNA is needed for coaching.
    2. In coaching, the relationship must be more collaborative.
    3. Coaching is more of an ongoing process.
    4. Both B & C.
    5. All of the above.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 231

  1. The difference between mentoring and coaching is
    1. Mentoring is more effective.
    2. Coaching is more effective.
    3. They focus on different aspects of the job.
    4. Mentoring has always been a more formalized process.
    5. Both B & D.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 233

  1. Which of the following is a strength of OJT?
    1. Trainees learn skills in the actual work environment.
    2. Transfer of training occurs naturally.
    3. New employees can be oriented rapidly.
    4. All of the above.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 235

  1. Which of the following training methods is most appropriate when both knowledge and skill are learning objectives?
    1. Lecturettes
    2. Demonstrations
    3. Open discussions
    4. Role-play

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: Table 6-10, p. 237

  1. According to the text, what is the biggest mistake made when using static media?
    1. Cramming too much information on the one poster, sheet, or overhead
    2. Newsprint being used too often in adult learning
    3. Overheads used in a fully lighted room
    4. Burned out light bulbs in the overhead
    5. Using a VCR that only plays Betamax

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 239

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of static media?
    1. Video tapes
    2. Overhead transparency
    3. Pictures/slides
    4. Printed material
    5. All of the above are an example of static media

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 240

  1. For both static and dynamic visuals, the rule of thumb for adequate trainee viewing is:
    1. Three feet of trainee distance from the screen for every inch of screen size.
    2. One foot of trainee distance from the trainer for every foot of screen size.
    3. Two feet of trainee distance from the screen for every foot of screen size.
    4. One foot of trainee distance from the screen for every inch of screen size.
    5. Two feet of trainee distance from the screen for every 3 inches of screen size.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Challenging

Page Ref: 241

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

  1. ____A lecture is best used to present information. (T; p. 200)
  2. ____The lecturette is an extensive presentation of material by the lecturer. (F; p. 201)
  3. ____The discussion method includes a lecturette to provide information to trainees. (T; p. 202)
  4. ____A relay question is when asked a question, the trainer re‑asks the question to the person who asked the question in hopes they will provide an answer. (F; p. 204)
  5. ____The direct question is specific in nature and, therefore, has a specific answer. (F; p. 204)
  6. ____One way to encourage trainees to respond is to ask them to write out an answer. (T; p. 204)
  7. ____If you decided to use a case, the easiest way to obtain one is to develop it from scratch. (F; p. 215)
  8. ____Case studies are best for developing analytic skills and complex problem-solving strategies. (T; p. 215)
  9. ____Role rotation in a role-play is where participants take on the role which is opposite to what they believe in. (F; p. 217)
  10. ____The last step in behavior modeling is providing opportunity for reinforcement in a structured role-play. (F; p. 219)
  11. ____The Job Instructional Technique has 3 steps: prepare, present, and try out. (F; p. 225)
  12. ____OJT is often the training method of choice for small businesses. (T; p. 227)
  13. ____A main advantage to newsprint is it can be hung on the walls around the training room. (T; p. 236)
  14. ____Audio tapes as a training method are hardly ever used as the newer technology is far superior. (F; p. 240)

SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS

  1. Discuss the different types of lectures and the differences between them.

The straight lecture is an extensive presentation of material by the lecturer. The material is presented orally, while the trainee attempts to absorb the information. The lecturette has the same characteristics as the lecture, but usually lasts less than 20 minutes. The discussion method uses a lecturette to provide trainees with information that is supported, reinforced, and expanded on through interactions among the trainees and between the trainees and the trainer.

  1. Define coaching and explain its relationship with the term mentoring.

Coaching is the process of providing one-on-one guidance and instruction to improve the knowledge, skills, and work performance of the person being coached. In coaching, co‑workers can be coaches but typically it is the supervisor who acts as the coach. Mentoring is considered to be a form of coaching in which an ongoing relationship is developed between a senior and junior employee. While coaching focuses on the technical aspects of the employee’s job, mentoring is more focused on improving the employee’s fit in the organization.

  1. What is the purpose of role-play and when should it be used?

Role-play is appropriate when the learning objective is to develop interpersonal skills within specific situations, or to provide an experience of what it feels like to be in a specific situation. It should only be used if quality feedback can be guaranteed and when there is ample opportunity and time to debrief after the training. Role-play should be used to complement training after the required knowledge has been acquired.

  1. What is the purpose of behavior modeling and when should it be used?

Behavior modeling is useful when the purpose is to show trainees what appropriate and/or inappropriate behavior looks like, or to allow trainees an opportunity to compare their own behavior with that of a role model. It is also effective in developing observational and critical thinking skills. Behavior modeling should be used when the object of the training is a skill that can be modeled, and when there is ample opportunity for quality feedback.

ESSAY QUESTION

  1. Define a role-play and in doing so, be sure to identify and explain the five different types of role-play.

The role-play is an enactment (or simulation) of a scenario in which each participant is given a part to act out. The five different types of role-play are

  • Structured role-plays provide trainees with more detail about the situation that has brought the characters together. They also provide more detailed descriptions of each character’s attitudes, needs, opinions, and so on.
  • Spontaneous role-plays are loosely constructed interactions in which one of the participants plays him/herself while the other character(s) play(s) people the first trainee has interacted with in the past (or will in the future).
  • Single role-play is when a set of trainees does a role-play and the rest of the trainers watch. This provides a visual demonstration of some learning point.
  • Multiple role-play is when all trainees are in role-play groups, with each group acting out their roles simultaneously.
  • The role rotation method begins as a single role-play. Then, after a discussion period, different trainees will exchange places with some, or all, of the characters who are performing the role-play.

CHAPTER SEVEN: Electronic training methods

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

  1. Which of the following is NOT a potential benefit for Electronic Training?

A) Reduces the cost of training

B) Allows the trainee to master learning

C) Reduces the company ability to track learning

D) Increases employee’s access to training

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 252

  1. Self-paced learning is when the trainees

A) Move through the training at a predetermined pace.

  1. B) Move out of ET and into more traditional training methods.
  2. C) Move quickly with some restrictions.
  3. Move through the training as fast as they are able to.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 253

  1. The principles of programmed instruction
    1. Are the same as intelligent tutoring.
    2. Is the basis for Electronic Training.
    3. Are a standalone method not conducive to being integrated with other methods.
    4. Provide the trainee with information.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 253

  1. Interactive Multimedia training has the advantage of being able to
    1. integrate text, video, graphics, photos, animation, and sound to produce a complex training environment.
    2. learn from trainee responses what worked and what did not in the training process.
    3. put the trainee in an artificial three-dimensional environment that simulates events and situations that might be experienced on the job.
    4. All of the above.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 255

  1. In order to be effective, IM should
    1. Utilize a variety of cues.
    2. Accommodate multiple learning styles.
    3. Incorporate evaluation methods.
    4. Both A & B.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 257

  1. _____ refers to the program’s ability to allow trainees to respond to questions.
    1. Sophistication of the multimedia
    2. Interactivity
    3. Auto pacing
    4. Self pacing

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: Table 7-3, p. 258

  1. In developing an ET program, which three factors need to be considered?

A) Auto- pacing, level of interactivity, and level of sophistication of the trainees

B) Self- pacing, level of interactivity, and level of sophistication of the multimedia

C) Self- pacing, level of interactivity, and level of sophistication of the programmer

  1. D) Auto- pacing, level of interactivity, and level of sophistication of the multimedia

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: Table 7-3, p. 258

  1. Which of the following is a component of the Intelligent Tutoring System?
    1. Scenario generator
    2. Training session manager
    3. Teacher model
    4. A & B above
    5. All of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 259

  1. In an Intelligent Tutoring System, which of the following is NOT a function of a training session manager?
    1. Interpreting trainee responses
    2. Responding either with more information, coaching, or tutoring
    3. Determining the order and level of difficulty of problems presented to the trainee
    4. D) Determining how and when to remediate the trainee

Answer: C

Difficulty: Challenging

Page Ref: 259

  1. The user interface is the _____ that allows the trainee to interact with the Intelligent Tutoring System.
    1. Executive
    2. Equipment
    3. Manager
    4. Trainer

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 259

  1. Intelligent Tutoring Systems set themselves apart from simple programmed instruction because they
    1. Generate instruction that matches the trainees’ individual needs.
    2. Communicate and respond to trainees questions.
    3. Learn from the responses of the trainee what approach to take in teaching the trainee.
    4. All of the above.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 259-260

  1. Which of the following statements regarding ET is true?

A) Programmed Instruction has many advantages over Intelligent Tutoring.

B) Many producers of Interactive Multimedia training market it as Virtual Reality training.

C) Interactive Multimedia training has not yet been able to develop 3-D capability.

  1. D) A good example of the use of Virtual Reality was Duracell’s training in China.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 259-260

  1. In Virtual Reality training, which of the following devices is NOT used to provide sensory information?
    1. Headset
    2. Gloves
    3. Joystick
    4. Treadmill

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 260

  1. The main difference between Virtual Reality and Multimedia training is that in Virtual Reality training
    1. You do not have the ability to monitor trainee responses and adjust the input.
    2. the trainee psychologically experiences the environment as real.
    3. There is much more interest and use of Virtual Reality training.
    4. There is less lead time for development and many more off-the-shelf training packages.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 260

  1. Simulator sickness refers to
    1. Vertigo resulting from prolonged immersion in a virtual reality environment.
    2. Annoyances resulting from glitches in the simulation.
    3. A physical reaction to the 3-D multimedia configuration of some programs.
    4. The initial reaction everyone feels at the beginning of Virtual Reality training.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 261

  1. A “Learning Management System” for e-training

A) Is necessary for all e-training systems.

B) Is a form of programmed instruction.

C) Performs training-related administrative functions.

  1. D) Is primarily used for Internet access to training.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 262

  1. Which of the following is NOT a delivery system for e-learning?

A) LAN

B) Internet

C) ET

  1. D) DVD
  2. E) They are all delivery systems for e-learning.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 262

  1. For training with a strategic knowledge objective, ______.
    1. intelligent tutoring systems are required
    2. a content expert instructor is required
    3. program instruction is required
    4. interactive multimedia is required

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 265

  1. The health and safety training programs offered as canned DVD training packages are
    1. Extremely expensive and only viable for large organizations.
    2. Priced under five hundred dollars.
    3. Not deemed appropriate by OSHA.
    4. Designed to be integrated with an equal number of lecture hours by trainers.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: Table 7-4, p. 267

  1. A major concern with ET is that

A) It cannot provide real enough examples in its training.

B) It takes far too long to complete.

C) Trainees do not seem to like learning from a computer.

  1. D) It is difficult to be able to identify exactly who is taking the training.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 269

  1. Interactive Multimedia training can be used for
    1. Almost any training objective.
    2. Only declarative and procedural knowledge.
    3. Only declarative knowledge and some basic skills.
    4. Only declarative, procedural, and strategic knowledge.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 270

  1. ET is best at achieving what types of learning objectives?

A) knowledge objectives

B) skill objectives

C) attitude objectives

D) Both A & B

  1. E) All of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 270

  1. Which of the following statements about ET is true?

A) It is effective at getting trainees’ attention.

B) It can provide multiple cues in training to facilitate symbolic coding.

C) Its major weakness is in the area of symbolic rehearsal.

D) Both A & B.

  1. E) All of the above are true.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Challenging

Page Ref: 270-271

  1. One of the limitations of ET is that
    1. It is not effective at modeling behavior.
    2. It cannot provide a situation where the trainee applies knowledge.
    3. With the exception of virtual reality, it does not provide an opportunity for behavioral reproduction.
    4. None of the above.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 271

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

  1. ____ Intelligent tutoring systems are able to change the approach to training depending on the responses of the trainee. (T; p. 259)
  2. ____Virtual Reality training is primarily a 3-D visual on a computer monitor that the trainee interacts with. (F; p. 260)
  3. ____Virtual Reality is one of the most popular training technologies today. (F; p. 260)
  4. ____The most important advantage of ET is its control over the content of the material and learning process. (T; p. 269)
  5. ____ET is generally seen as more interesting and motivating than instructor-based training (T; p. 270)
  6. ____ET has few trainee limitations (T; p. 271)
  7. ____ There is substantial evidence that shows that blended learning is less effective than ET methods. (F; p. 272)

SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS

  1. What are the differences between interactive multimedia and virtual reality, and why has virtual reality not become as popular?

The main difference between interactive multimedia (IM) and virtual reality (VR) is that in virtual reality, there is complete immersion. With IM, the trainee is outside the actual learning experience, viewing the environment on a monitor. Virtual Reality also incorporates other senses such as tactile and olfactory, that IM cannot.

The reason VR has not become as popular as IM is the cost involved in developing VR training material, the long lead time required to prepare, and the concern regarding the consequences of being immersed in an electronic environment for a long time.

  1. What are some points that should be taken into consideration when selecting an IM training program?

Table 7-3 summarizes the three factors that should be taken into consideration, which are: self-pacing, interactivity, and multimedia sophistication. Students may elaborate on each one, and include additional factors such as cost, stability of course content, and control of material and process.

ESSAY QUESTIONS

  1. What type of training can be undertaken by ET, and describe the effectiveness of ET in terms of utilization of the learning processes (related to Social Learning Theory) – Attention, Retention, and Behavioral Reproduction.

ET can be used for almost any type of training. In terms of effectiveness, ET is quite effective with Attention and Retention, especially Symbolic Rehearsal. ET is not as effective with behavioral reproduction, because it does not provide an opportunity to actually model the desired behavior and receive feedback. Pages 280 and 281 outline an effective answer to this question.

  1. Describe how ET can facilitate the process of retention.

Symbolic Coding: ET can provide multiple cues that can be used in the

symbolic coding process. Textual, auditory, and oral cues can be integrated to allow trainees to use those that fit best with their learning style to code the content of the training.

Cognitive Organization: Audiovisuals (AVs) are also effective in facilitating trainees’ cognitive organization. The programming

of the ET creates a specific organization of the material, with each learning segment broken down into small steps. This makes it easier to integrate with the trainee’s existing cognitive organization. Through the accumulation of these small steps and their repetition, ET is able to shape the cognitive organization of the trainee in the desired manner. The more self-paced the ET, the more it facilitates cognitive organization.

Symbolic Rehearsal: This is a strong feature of the ET approach, especially IM and VR. The trainees are first moved through mastery of the facts; then they are provided application segments in which to apply the facts to specific situations. It allows each trainee to continue

to practice while providing immediate feedback, until the trainee masters the simulation.

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