Emergency Care 13th Edition By Daniel J. Limmer -Test Bank A+

$35.00
Emergency Care 13th Edition By Daniel J. Limmer -Test Bank A+

Emergency Care 13th Edition By Daniel J. Limmer -Test Bank A+

$35.00
Emergency Care 13th Edition By Daniel J. Limmer -Test Bank A+

Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) What is the inferior-most portion of the sternum? 1)
A) Sternal notch B) Manubrium
C) Body D) Xiphoid process
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The sternal notch is located at the superior part of the sternum.
B) INCORRECT. The manubrium is the superior-most part of the sternum.
C) INCORRECT. The term body does not describe the inferior-most part of the
sternum.
D) CORRECT. The inferior portion of the sternum is called the xiphoid process.
2) What is another name for the shoulder blade? 2)
A) Clavicle B) Patella C) Pharynx D) Scapula
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The clavicle is also known as the collar bone.
B) INCORRECT. The kneecap is called the patella.
C) INCORRECT. The area directly posterior to the mouth and nose is known as the
pharynx.
D) CORRECT. The scapula is also known as the shoulder blade.
3) Which of the following structures receives deoxygenated blood from the body via the venae cavae? 3)
A) Left atrium B) Right ventricle C) Right atrium D) Left ventricle
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The left atrium receives the oxygen-rich blood from the lungs.
B) INCORRECT. The right ventricle receives blood from the chamber above it, the
right atrium.
C) CORRECT. The venae cavae are the two large veins that return blood to the heart.
The right atrium receives this blood and, upon contraction, sends it to the right
ventricle.
D) INCORRECT. The left ventricle receives oxygen-rich blood from the chamber
above it, the left atrium.
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4) What causes the “seesaw” breathing pattern of young children? 4)
A) They rely more on the diaphragm during breathing difficulty.
B) The cricoid cartilage and trachea are both more flexible than in adults, making breathing
more difficult.
C) The size of their tongues in proportion to their mouths.
D) The pronounced inward curvature at the bottom of the ribcage.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. The chest wall of a child is softer and more flexible, so infants and
children tend to rely more on the diaphragm when they are having breathing
difficulty. This causes the visible “seesaw” breathing pattern in which the chest and
abdomen alternate movement.
B) INCORRECT. Although a child’s cricoid cartilage and trachea are softer and more
flexible than those of an adult, they generally will not cause a “seesaw” breathing
pattern.
C) INCORRECT. The proportionally larger tongues of children do not contribute to
the “seesaw” breathing pattern.
D) INCORRECT. The bottom of a child’s ribcage is not as inwardly curved as an
adult’s; this can make breathing more difficult, but it doesn’t create the “seesaw”
pattern.
5) Failure of the liver would result in which of the following? 5)
A) Inability to detoxify harmful substances in the bloodstream
B) Inability to filter out old and damaged blood cells
C) Inability to secrete insulin
D) None of the above
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. The liver detoxifies harmful substances from the blood, stores sugar,
and assists in the production of blood products.
B) INCORRECT. Old and damaged blood cells are filtered out by the spleen.
C) INCORRECT. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas.
D) INCORRECT. One of the answers provided is correct.
6) What vessel carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs? 6)
A) Aorta B) Venae cavae
C) Pulmonary veins D) Pulmonary artery
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The aorta is the largest artery and it carries oxygenated blood to the
body.
B) INCORRECT. The venae cavae are the two large veins that return blood to the
heart.
C) INCORRECT. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the
heart.
D) CORRECT. When the right ventricle contracts, it pumps this blood out to the lungs
via the pulmonary artery.
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7) What is the strongest and most muscular part of the heart? 7)
A) Left ventricle B) Right atrium C) Left atrium D) Right ventricle
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. The left ventricle is the most muscular and strongest part of the heart.
B) INCORRECT. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood back from the body
and doesn’t require much strength.
C) INCORRECT. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and
moves it into the left ventricle. It is not the most muscular part of the heart.
D) INCORRECT. The right ventricle only needs to pump blood from the heart to the
lungs.
8) Which organ is the principal organ of the renal system? 8)
A) Ureter B) Kidney C) Urethra D) Bladder
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The ureters are small tubes that connect to the kidneys but they are
not considered the primary organ.
B) CORRECT. The kidneys are considered the principal organs of the renal system.
C) INCORRECT. The urethra is how urine is excreted from the bladder to the outside,
but it is not considered the primary organ of the renal system.
D) INCORRECT. The bladder is an organ of the renal system but it is not considered
the primary organ.
9) You have been dispatched to the site of a construction accident where a 36-year-old male patient
was moderately cut by some machinery. His left arm has a 4″ deep laceration that appears to have
stopped bleeding with the gauze and direct pressure applied by his coworkers. Your knowledge of
physiology suggests that which component of blood was partially responsible for forming clotting
factors to stop the bleeding?
9)
A) Platelets B) Red blood cells
C) Plasma D) White blood cells
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Platelets are specialized cells that release chemical clotting factors
when activated. These clotting factors are needed in order to form blood clots.
B) INCORRECT. Red blood cells primarily function to carry oxygen and carbon
dioxide.
C) INCORRECT. Plasma is the watery portion of blood.
D) INCORRECT. White blood cells primarily play a role in helping the body resist
infection.
10) What condition of immediate concern results from a loss of red blood cells due to hemorrhage? 10)
A) Decreased production of carbon dioxide B) Decreased ability to fight infection
C) Decrease in pulse rate D) Decreased oxygen delivery to the tissues
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Carbon dioxide production is not initially impacted by red blood
cell loss.
B) INCORRECT. Red blood cells do not fight infection.
C) INCORRECT. Generally, pulse rates initially rise as blood is lost through
hemorrhaging.
D) CORRECT. Since red blood cells supply oxygen to the tissues, any significant loss
of these cells can reduce oxygenation in the body.
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11) The cardiac muscle receives its supply of oxygenated blood by which of the following mechanisms? 11)
A) Absorption of oxygen from the blood returning from the lungs
B) Coronary veins that branch off the pulmonary vein as it returns oxygenated blood to the heart
C) Coronary arteries that branch off the aorta
D) None of the above
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Oxygenated blood does not return from the lungs directly to cardiac
muscle.
B) INCORRECT. Coronary veins carry deoxygenated blood from the cardiac muscle.
C) CORRECT. The heart muscle has its own blood supply through the coronary artery
system.
D) INCORRECT. One of the answers provided is correct.
12) Which of the following structures or tissues is NOT part of the musculoskeletal system? 12)
A) Tendons B) Acetabulum C) Ligaments D) Fat
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Tendons are the fibrous structures that connect muscle to bone.
B) INCORRECT. The acetabulum is the socket of the hip joint.
C) INCORRECT. Ligaments are the tissues that connect bone to bone.
D) CORRECT. Fat, also called adipose tissue, is not part of the musculoskeletal
system.
13) What is the bone on the thumb side of the forearm? 13)
A) Ulna B) Acromion C) Fibula D) Radius
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The ulna is the medial bone of the forearm, opposite the thumb side.
B) INCORRECT. The highest portion of the shoulder is called the acromion.
C) INCORRECT. The fibula is the lateral and smallest bone of the lower leg.
D) CORRECT. The radius is the lateral bone of the forearm. It is always aligned with
the thumb.
14) Which of the following is a function of the skin? 14)
A) Balancing water in the body B) Protection from the environment
C) Regulation of body temperature D) All of the above
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Balancing water is an important function of the skin, but not the
only one.
B) INCORRECT. Although the skin does provide protection, there are more functions
it serves.
C) INCORRECT. The skin performs more functions than just regulation of body
temperature.
D) CORRECT. The skin performs a variety of functions, such as protection, water
balance, temperature regulation, excretion, and shock absorption.
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15) Which of the following body systems primarily produces hormones? 15)
A) Endocrine B) Gastrointestinal C) Exocrine D) Cardiovascular
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. The endocrine system produces chemicals called hormones that help to
regulate many body activities and functions.
B) INCORRECT. The gastrointestinal system is responsible for digestion.
C) INCORRECT. The exocrine system produces substances for excretion, such as
sweat or saliva.
D) INCORRECT. The cardiovascular system is responsible for circulation of the blood.
16) The two major portions of the skull are the: 16)
A) frontal bone and ilium. B) manubrium and mandible.
C) cranium and face. D) atlas and axis.
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The skull is not made up of a frontal bone or an ilium.
B) INCORRECT. The manubrium is part of the sternum and the mandible is the lower
jaw bone.
C) CORRECT. The two major portions of the skull are the cranium and the face.
D) INCORRECT. The first and second cervical vertebrae are called the atlas and the
axis; they are not part of the skull.
17) The pulse palpated on the top of the foot is called the ________ pulse. 17)
A) dorsalis pedis B) phalanx proximalis
C) tibialis posterior D) suprametatarsal
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. The pulse of the dorsalis pedis artery can be palpated on top of the
foot.
B) INCORRECT. The term phalanx proximalis refers to bones in the hands and feet,
not to a pulse location.
C) INCORRECT. The tibialis posterior is a muscle that runs through the back of the
foot, and although it has an artery it is not palpated on top of the foot.
D) INCORRECT. There is no pulse on top of the foot called a suprametatarsal.
18) In relation to anatomy, the term topography means: 18)
A) the study of the skin.
B) blood pressure fluctuations.
C) external landmarks of body structures.
D) key elements of the central nervous system.
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The study of skin is known as dermatology.
B) INCORRECT. The term topography is not related to blood pressure.
C) CORRECT. One of the ways to find organs or body structures is through
topography, or external landmarks, such as notches or bumps.
D) INCORRECT. Key elements of the central nervous system are not referred to as
topography.
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19) Which of the following structures do NOT form part of the thorax? 19)
A) Ribs B) Sternum
C) 8th through 19th vertebrae D) Ischium
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The thorax, or chest, contains ribs.
B) INCORRECT. The sternum is part of the chest, or thorax.
C) INCORRECT. The 8th through 19th vertebrae make up the posterior portion of the
thorax.
D) CORRECT. The lower, posterior of the pelvis is called the ischium.
20) What are the small bones that make up the wrist called? 20)
A) Metatarsals B) Metacarpals C) Carpals D) Tarsals
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The metatarsals are the bones of the foot.
B) INCORRECT. The bones that make up the hand are called metacarpals.
C) CORRECT. The bones that make up the wrist are called carpals.
D) INCORRECT. The tarsals are the bones in the ankle.
21) Which of the following structures allows food to move from the mouth to the stomach? 21)
A) Trachea B) Esophagus C) Venae cavae D) Duodenum
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The trachea (also called the “windpipe”) is the structure that
connects the pharynx to the lungs.
B) CORRECT. The food passes from the mouth through the oropharynx and into the
esophagus, where it is transported to the stomach.
C) INCORRECT. The largest veins in the body are called the venae cavae.
D) INCORRECT. The duodenum is part of the tube leading from the stomach to the
large intestines.
22) A child’s ________ takes up proportionally more space in the pharynx than does an adult’s. 22)
A) cricoid cartilage B) tongue
C) epiglottis D) trachea
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The cricoid cartilage is not located in the pharynx.
B) CORRECT. An adult’s tongue is proportionally smaller in the pharynx than that of
a child.
C) INCORRECT. Proportionally, the epiglottis is not significantly different between
adults and children.
D) INCORRECT. The trachea of a pediatric patient is proportionally narrower than
that of an adult.
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23) A clot cannot form without which of the following blood components? 23)
A) Plasma B) Platelets
C) White blood cells D) Corpuscles
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Plasma is a watery, salty fluid that makes up over half the volume of
the blood; it is not a key component of clotting.
B) CORRECT. When platelets are activated, they release chemical clotting factors
needed to form blood clots.
C) INCORRECT. White blood cells are involved in destroying microorganisms
(germs) and producing substances called antibodies; they are not necessary for
blood to form clots.
D) INCORRECT. Blood cells, also called corpuscles, are responsible for carrying
oxygen to the tissues and helping the body to resist infection.
24) What type of muscles control the size of the bronchioles in the lungs? 24)
A) Voluntary B) Smooth C) Skeletal D) Striated
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Voluntary muscles are controlled by the individual, such as arm
movement.
B) CORRECT. Smooth muscles, which activate involuntarily, are found in the lungs
and blood vessels.
C) INCORRECT. Skeletal muscle is not found in the lungs.
D) INCORRECT. Striated muscle is generally voluntary, under the conscious control
of the individual.
25) An artery is a blood vessel that only: 25)
A) carries deoxygenated blood. B) carries blood away from the heart.
C) returns blood to the heart. D) carries oxygenated blood.
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Almost all arteries carry oxygenated blood except for the pulmonary
and umbilical arteries.
B) CORRECT. Arteries always carry blood away from the heart.
C) INCORRECT. Veins return blood to the heart.
D) INCORRECT. Pulmonary and umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood.
26) Your patient is an 84-year-old male with difficulty breathing and peripheral edema. He tells you
he has been suffering for many years with “heart failure” and his condition is worsening, especially
with trouble breathing at night. Your knowledge of cardiovascular physiology suggests that his
condition could have resulted from the failure of either the right or left side of his heart. Which
chamber of the heart is the strongest, most muscular part of the heart and is primarily responsible
for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body?
26)
A) Left atrium B) Left ventricle C) Right ventricle D) Right atrium
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs, but does
not pump it through the body.
B) CORRECT. The left ventricle is the most muscular and strongest part of the heart
and it receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium. It pumps this blood
through the aorta to be distributed to the entire body.
C) INCORRECT. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs where
gas exchange occurs.
D) INCORRECT. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood into the
right atrium.
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27) What is the large, wing-shaped bone on either side of the pelvis? 27)
A) Ilium B) Ischium C) Acetabulum D) Pubis
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. The ilium is the wide, wing-shaped part of the pelvis.
B) INCORRECT. The inferior, posterior portion of the pelvis is called the ischium.
C) INCORRECT. The acetabulum is the socket that the femur fits into to form the hip.
D) INCORRECT. The small bridged bone at the front of the pelvis is called the pubis.
28) The pressure against the walls of the blood vessels as blood is ejected from the heart and circulates
through the body is the ________ blood pressure.
28)
A) diastolic B) central venous C) systolic D) mean arterial
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. When the left ventricle of the heart relaxes and refills, the pressure
remaining in the arteries is called the diastolic blood pressure.
B) INCORRECT. The passive pressure found in veins is not impacted by the blood
ejections from the heart.
C) CORRECT. Each time the left ventricle of the heart contracts, it forces blood out
into circulation. The pressure created in the arteries by this blood is called the
systolic blood pressure.
D) INCORRECT. The term mean arterial pressure is simply a person’s average blood
pressure over time; it is not a specific measurement of pressure when blood is
being ejected from the heart.
29) Your 15-year-old patient was playing baseball today and was struck in the face by a baseball bat.
As you assess his injuries and manage spinal immobilization, you note that several of his teeth are
broken and he seems to have deformity and pain isolated to his lower jaw. The lower jaw bone is
also known as the:
29)
A) mandible. B) maxillae. C) manubrium. D) orbit.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. The lower jawbone is known as the mandible.
B) INCORRECT. The maxillae are the fused bones of the upper jaw.
C) INCORRECT. The manubrium is found in the sternum.
D) INCORRECT. The orbit is the bone surrounding the eye.
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30) You are on the scene at an office building where a 32-year-old male is described as having
difficulty breathing and chest pain. The patient is allergic to peanuts and thinks he may have
accidentally ingested some cookies with peanuts in them this afternoon during his break. He is pale
with a pulse rate of 158 and a respiratory rate of 36. You understand that a “fight-or-flight”
response may have been activated in this patient, involving which nervous system and which
hormone?
30)
A) Parasympathetic nervous system and epinephrine
B) Sympathetic nervous system and epinephrine
C) Sympathetic nervous system and insulin
D) Parasympathetic nervous system and insulin
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The “fight-or-flight” response is not generated by the
parasympathetic nervous system.
B) CORRECT. The sympathetic nervous system and epinephrine are responsible for
activating the “fight-or-flight” response, manifesting with an increased heart rate,
vasoconstriction, and bronchodilation of the lungs.
C) INCORRECT. Insulin is not a component of the sympathetic nervous system.
D) INCORRECT. The parasympathetic nervous system, sometimes referred to as the
“feed or breed” system, has an opposite effect and causes an increase in digestive
function and a decrease in heart rate.
31) What is NOT one of the primary organs for the female reproductive system? 31)
A) Vagina B) Urethra C) Ovaries D) Uterus
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The vagina is one of the primary organs of the female reproductive
system.
B) CORRECT. The urethra is not part of the female reproductive system but is
actually part of the renal system.
C) INCORRECT. The ovaries are one of the primary organs of the female
reproductive system.
D) INCORRECT. The uterus is one of the primary organs of the female reproductive
system.
32) What is another name for the eye socket? 32)
A) Parietal bone B) Odontoid process
C) Orbit D) Zygomatic arch
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The parietal bones are located on the sides of the skull.
B) INCORRECT. The odontoid process is a bone found in the second cervical
vertebrae.
C) CORRECT. The bony structures around the eyes are called orbits.
D) INCORRECT. The cheeks are formed with the zygomatic arches.
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33) Which of the following is the primary function of the stomach? 33)
A) Production of bile
B) Absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream
C) Absorption of water from food products
D) Chemical breakdown of food by acidic secretions
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The liver produces bile, which is excreted into the small intestine to
assist in the breakdown of fats.
B) INCORRECT. Nutrients are absorbed by the body through the wall of the small
intestine and enter into the bloodstream.
C) INCORRECT. The large intestine removes water from waste products as they
move toward elimination from the body.
D) CORRECT. In the stomach, acidic gastric juices begin to break food down into
components that the body will be able to convert into energy.
34) Physiology is the study of: 34)
A) muscles and movement. B) body structures.
C) body systems. D) exercise and nutrition.
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The study of muscles and movement is known as kinesiology.
B) INCORRECT. Anatomy is the study of body structures.
C) CORRECT. Physiology is the study of body systems.
D) INCORRECT. Physiology is not directly related to exercise and nutrition.
35) Which of the following is NOT part of the lower extremity? 35)
A) Patella B) Femur C) Pelvis D) Carpals
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The small bone on the anterior of the knee is called a patella; the
knee is part of the lower extremity.
B) INCORRECT. The femur bone is found in the thigh and is part of the lower
extremity.
C) INCORRECT. The pelvis is where the lower extremity begins.
D) CORRECT. The bones in the wrist are called carpals.
36) What type of blood vessels surround the alveoli? 36)
A) Arterioles B) Veins C) Arteries D) Capillaries
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Arterioles are the blood vessels connecting arteries with capillaries.
B) INCORRECT. The alveoli are not surrounded by veins.
C) INCORRECT. Arteries are not the blood vessels that surround the alveoli.
D) CORRECT. The pulmonary capillaries bring circulating blood to the outside of the
alveoli.
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37) Your unit has arrived on the scene of a multiple vehicle collision where several vehicles have
rear-ended each other. You are directed by the incident commander to care for a 23-year-old
female in the first vehicle. The firefighter on-scene holding manual spinal immobilization indicates
that her primary complaint is back pain from her head whipping back and forth from the impact.
Your understanding of the anatomy of the spinal column and vertebrae suggests that this type of
mechanism of injury results in frequent injuries to which part of the spinal column?
37)
A) Lumbar spine B) Sacral spine C) Cervical spine D) Thoracic spine
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The lumbar spine is low in the back and generally not affected by a
whipping motion of the head.
B) INCORRECT. At the lowermost region of the back is the sacral spine and it can
almost never be injured by a motion of the head.
C) CORRECT. Because the head is large and heavy compared to the spinal column, a
mechanism of injury where the head is forced back and forth or where the head
strikes something like the windshield will typically injure the cervical spine more
than it will injure other regions of the spine.
D) INCORRECT. The thoracic spine runs through the upper back; a flopping motion
of the head will most likely not cause injuries to this part of the spine.
38) What are the two most easily injured portions of the spine? 38)
A) Sacral and coccygeal B) Lumbar and sacral
C) Cervical and thoracic D) Cervical and lumbar
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The sacral and coccygeal portions of the spine are strong and not
easily injured.
B) INCORRECT. The lumbar spine is unsupported and can be injured by numerous
mechanisms, but the sacral spine is solid and strong.
C) INCORRECT. Although the cervical spine can be easily injured, the thoracic spine
is supported by the rib cage and less prone to injury.
D) CORRECT. The cervical spine can be easily injured due to the size and weight of
the head, and lumbar spine is hurt more often because it is unsupported by other
parts of the skeleton.
39) Which of the following terms describes the heart muscle’s ability to generate its own electrical
impulses?
39)
A) Irritability B) Conductivity C) Contractility D) Automaticity
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Irritability does not describe the heart muscle’s ability to generate
electrical impulses.
B) INCORRECT. Conductivity is the degree to which a material conducts electricity,
not generates it.
C) INCORRECT. A muscle’s ability to contract is called contractility; it is not related to
electricity generation.
D) CORRECT. The ability of the heart to generate and conduct electrical impulses on
its own is called automaticity.
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40) Which of the following BEST describes the medical condition of shock? 40)
A) Hypotension
B) Delayed capillary refill
C) A state of inadequate tissue perfusion
D) An extreme emotional reaction to a stressful event
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Low blood pressure (hypotension) can be a sign of shock, not a
description of the condition.
B) INCORRECT. The condition of shock may cause delayed capillary refill, but the
term does not define the condition.
C) CORRECT. Hypoperfusion, commonly called shock, means that there is inadequate
circulation of blood through one or more organs or structures.
D) INCORRECT. The medical condition of shock is not related to emotional reactions.
41) What system is a group of organs and glands designed for the specific purpose of reproduction? 41)
A) Respiratory system B) Reproduction system
C) Renal system D) Lymphatic system
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The respiratory system brings oxygen into the body and expels
carbon dioxide.
B) CORRECT. The digestive system is how food travels through the body and is
broken down into absorbable forms.
C) INCORRECT. The renal system regulates fluid balance and the filtration of blood.
D) INCORRECT. The lymphatic system is composed of organs, tissues, and vessels
that help to maintain the fluid balance of the body and contribute to the body’s
immune system.
42) What two body systems are critical for the life support chain? 42)
A) Cardiovascular and lymphatic systems B) Respiratory and endocrine systems
C) Cardiopulmonary and digestive systems D) Respiratory and cardiovascular systems
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The lymphatic system, which maintains the fluid balance of the
body and contributes to the immune system, is not part of the life support chain.
B) INCORRECT. Although the respiratory system is critical to life, the endocrine
system produces hormones to control body functions that can be less critical.
C) INCORRECT. Although digestion is important for life and health, it is not
considered a critical part of the life support chain.
D) CORRECT. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems together make up the
cardiopulmonary system. The interaction of these two systems is critical to life.
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43) Which of the following types of blood vessels allow the exchange of substances directly between
the blood and the cells of the body?
43)
A) Veins B) Capillaries C) Alveoli D) Arterioles
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Veins carry deoxygenated blood and waste products away from the
cells, but they do not interact directly with the cells.
B) CORRECT. Capillaries are thin-walled, microscopic blood vessel where the
oxygen/carbon dioxide and nutrient/waste exchange with the body’s cells takes
place.
C) INCORRECT. Alveoli are the microscopic sacs of the lungs where gas exchange
with the bloodstream takes place.
D) INCORRECT. Blood moves from arteries into the smaller arterioles, and then into
even smaller structures for exchange with the cells; arterioles are not directly
related to the cellular exchange.
44) Which of the following are the components of the nervous system? 44)
A) Spinal cord and motor nerves B) Spinal cord and sensory nerves
C) Brain, spinal cord, and nerves D) Brain and autonomic nerves
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. There are more components of the nervous system than just the
spinal cord and motor nerves.
B) INCORRECT. Although the spinal cord and sensory nerves are important parts of
the nervous system, there are other components.
C) CORRECT. The nervous system is made up of the brain, the spinal cord, and all of
the associated nerves.
D) INCORRECT. The brain and autonomic nerves make up only part of the nervous
system.
45) What is the long bone of the upper portion of the arm? 45)
A) Humerus B) Scapula C) Radius D) Ulna
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. The bone of the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow is
called the humerus.
B) INCORRECT. The shoulder blade is also called the scapula.
C) INCORRECT. The radius is the lateral bone of the forearm.
D) INCORRECT. The ulna is the medial bone of the forearm.
46) Which of the following structures closes over the trachea to protect it during swallowing? 46)
A) Diaphragm B) Epiglottis
C) Pharynx D) Cricoid cartilage
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The diaphragm is the muscular structure that divides the chest
cavity from the abdominal cavity.
B) CORRECT. A leaf-shaped structure called the epiglottis closes over the opening to
the trachea to prevent foods and foreign objects from entering the trachea during
swallowing.
C) INCORRECT. The pharynx is the area directly posterior to the mouth and nose.
D) INCORRECT. The ring-shaped structure that forms the lower portion of the larynx
is the cricoid cartilage.
13
47) What two components are directly related to aerobic metabolism? 47)
A) Electrolytes and carbohydrates B) Carbolic acid and air
C) Exercise and water D) Oxygen and glucose
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Electrolytes and carbohydrates are not directly related to aerobic
metabolism.
B) INCORRECT. Carbolic acid, which is found in many plants, and air do not
produce aerobic metabolism.
C) INCORRECT. Aerobic metabolism is not triggered by exercise and water.
D) CORRECT. When oxygen is present, glucose is converted in a process called aerobic
metabolism.
48) What system produces chemicals called hormones that help to regulate many body activities and
functions?
48)
A) Respiratory system B) Digestive system
C) Lymphatic system D) Endocrine system
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The respiratory system brings oxygen into the body and expels
carbon dioxide.
B) INCORRECT. The digestive system is how food travels through the body and is
broken down into absorbable forms.
C) INCORRECT. The lymphatic system is composed of organs, tissues, and vessels
that help to maintain the fluid balance of the body and contribute to the body’s
immune system.
D) CORRECT. The endocrine system produces chemicals called hormones that help to
regulate many body activities and functions.
49) Which organ secretes insulin after a person eats a large meal? 49)
A) Spleen B) Gallbladder C) Liver D) Pancreas
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The organ located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen that
acts as a blood filtration system and a reservoir for reserves of blood is called the
spleen.
B) INCORRECT. The gallbladder stores bile produced by the liver.
C) INCORRECT. The liver produces bile to assist in the breakdown of fats and assists
in the metabolism of various substances in the body.
D) CORRECT. The pancreas is located behind the stomach and produces insulin for
sugar absorption and juices that assist in the digestion of food.
14
50) You have been dispatched to a local shopping mall where a 63-year-old female patient has slipped
and fallen in a department store. Upon your arrival, you find her supine on the ground, conscious
and oriented with stable vital signs, complaining of severe pain to the upper portion of her left leg
and hip. Her left leg is slightly shortened and rotated outward. The bone most commonly fractured
with a “broken hip” is the:
50)
A) ilium. B) tibia. C) femur. D) fibula.
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The superior and widest portion of the pelvis, the ilium, is usually
not fractured with a “broken hip.”
B) INCORRECT. The tibia, which is in the lower leg, is not involved in a “broken hip.”
C) CORRECT. It is a common misconception that the pelvis is the source of hip
fractures when, in fact, the proximal end of the femur is more commonly involved.
D) INCORRECT. A bone in the lower leg like the fibula is not specifically part of a hip
fracture.
51) What is the largest bone of the lower leg? 51)
A) Tibia B) Patella C) Femur D) Fibula
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. The medial and largest bone of the lower leg is the tibia.
B) INCORRECT. The patella, or kneecap, is not the largest bone of the lower leg.
C) INCORRECT. Although it is a large bone, the femur is not in the lower leg.
D) INCORRECT. The fibula is the lateral and smallest bone of the lower leg.
52) You are caring for a 47-year-old male patient with classical chest pain suggestive of a myocardial
infarction. Based on your understanding of the cardiovascular system, you know he could be
suffering from damage, narrowing, or blockage of what arteries?
52)
A) Coronary arteries B) Brachial arteries
C) Femoral arteries D) Pulmonary arteries
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Because cardiac tissue is so dependent upon a constant supply of
oxygen and nutrients, any narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries
supplying the heart tissue will typically manifest as an ache or irritation that the
patient will describe as chest pain.
B) INCORRECT. Any narrowing or blockage of the brachial arteries will not cause the
symptoms of myocardial infarction.
C) INCORRECT. The femoral arteries in the legs will not cause chest pain, regardless
of blockages, narrowing or damage.
D) INCORRECT. Damage to pulmonary arteries does not generally cause classic chest
pain symptoms.
53) Which of the following is the only movable bone of the face? 53)
A) Manubrium B) Mandible C) Zygoma D) Maxillae
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The superior portion of the sternum is called the manubrium.
B) CORRECT. The mandible is the lower jaw bone and the only moveable bone in the
face.
C) INCORRECT. The zygoma (or zygomatic arches) are bones that are commonly
called the cheek bones; they do not move.
D) INCORRECT. The immovable, fused bones in the upper face are called the
maxillae.
15
54) At which of the following locations could you palpate a malleolus? 54)
A) Spinal column B) Wrist C) Ankle D) Elbow
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The malleolus is not found in the spinal column.
B) INCORRECT. The wrist does not contain the malleolus.
C) CORRECT. The malleolus is the protrusion on the side of the ankle.
D) INCORRECT. There is no structure in the elbow known as a malleolus.
55) Which layer of the skin is exposed to the environment? 55)
A) Dermis B) Subcutaneous tissue
C) Epidermis D) Adipose tissue
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The dermis is the middle layer of skin and should not usually be
exposed to the environment.
B) INCORRECT. The deepest layer of skin is called subcutaneous tissue and if the
skin is intact it will not be exposed to the environment.
C) CORRECT. The outer layer of skin, which is exposed to the environment, is called
the epidermis.
D) INCORRECT. Adipose tissue is fat, which is not exposed to the environment.
56) Which of the following organs functions as a reservoir for blood that can be used in case of blood
loss?
56)
A) Thyroid gland B) Spleen C) Heart D) Liver
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The thyroid gland regulates certain hormones and it is not related to
the storage of blood.
B) CORRECT. The spleen is a reservoir for reserves of blood.
C) INCORRECT. The heart pumps blood, it is not able to store it.
D) INCORRECT. The liver produces bile to assist in the breakdown of fats and assists
in the metabolism of various substances in the body.
57) In which of the following locations is the femoral pulse palpated? 57)
A) Behind the knee
B) On the medial side of the ankle, posterior to the tibia
C) On the medial side of the upper arm
D) At the groin
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The pulse behind the knee is called the popliteal pulse.
B) INCORRECT. The posterior tibial pulse is palpated on the medial side of the ankle.
C) INCORRECT. The brachial pulse is located on the side of the upper arm.
D) CORRECT. The femoral arteries run through each leg; their pulsing can be best
palpated at the crease between the abdomen and groin.
16
58) Which of the following makes up more than half of the volume of blood in the body? 58)
A) Plasma B) Red blood cells
C) White corpuscles D) Platelets
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Plasma is a watery, salty fluid that makes up over half the volume of
the blood.
B) INCORRECT. Making up less than half of the volume of blood, the primary
function of the red blood cells is to carry oxygen to the tissues.
C) INCORRECT. White corpuscles are involved in destroying microorganisms
(germs) and producing substances called antibodies; although important, they are
only a fraction of blood volume.
D) INCORRECT. Platelets are membrane-enclosed fragments of specialized cells,
making up only a small portion of blood volume.
59) Which of the following respiratory processes requires the active use of muscles? 59)
A) Inhalation B) Exhalation C) Bifurcation D) Gas exchange
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. The muscles of the diaphragm and ribs are necessary for inhalation.
B) INCORRECT. Exhalation is mainly the result of relaxation of the respiratory
muscles and is a passive process.
C) INCORRECT. Bifurcation is the anatomic term used to describe when a single body
structure splits into two, such as when the trachea splits and goes into each lung.
D) INCORRECT. Gas exchange, such as that which occurs in the alveoli, does not
require muscles.
60) Which of the following is NOT part of the upper extremities? 60)
A) Clavicle B) Calcaneus C) Carpals D) Scapula
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The clavicle, or collar bone, is considered part of the upper
extremities.
B) CORRECT. The calcaneus is the heel bone, in the lower extremity.
C) INCORRECT. The carpals are the bones of the wrist, which are part of the upper
extremities.
D) INCORRECT. The shoulder blade, or scapula, is part of the upper extremities.
17
Answer Key
Testname: C6
1) D
2) D
3) C
4) A
5) A
6) D
7) A
8) B
9) A
10) D
11) C
12) D
13) D
14) D
15) A
16) C
17) A
18) C
19) D
20) C
21) B
22) B
23) B
24) B
25) B
26) B
27) A
28) C
29) A
30) B
31) B
32) C
33) D
34) C
35) D
36) D
37) C
38) D
39) D
40) C
41) B
42) D
43) B
44) C
45) A
46) B
47) D
48) D
49) D
50) C
18
Answer Key
Testname: C6
51) A
52) A
53) B
54) C
55) C
56) B
57) D
58) A
59) A
60) B
19

chapter 7

Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) An infection of the brain is called: 1)
A) encephalitis. B) rhinitis.
C) multiple sclerosis. D) meningitis.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Encephalitis is an infection in the brain tissue.
B) INCORRECT. An inflammation of the membranes in the nose is called rhinitis.
C) INCORRECT. Multiple sclerosis is a disease that affects the transmission of
messages in the nervous system.
D) INCORRECT. Meningitis is an infection of the protective layers of the brain and
spinal cord.
2) What do chemoreceptors found in the body and vascular system measure? 2)
A) Low oxygen and high carbon dioxide B) High oxygen and low carbon dioxide
C) High oxygen and high carbon dioxide D) Low oxygen and low carbon dioxide
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Chemical sensors in the brain and blood vessels that identify low levels
of oxygen and high levels of carbon dioxide are called chemoreceptors.
B) INCORRECT. Chemoreceptors are not measuring for high oxygen and low carbon
dioxide levels.
C) INCORRECT. Chemoreceptors do not measure for high oxygen levels.
D) INCORRECT. Low carbon dioxide levels would not trigger chemoreceptors.
3) Which of the following is an indicator that a patient’s nervous system has been impaired? 3)
A) Changes in pupil dilation B) General weakness
C) Hearing disturbances D) All of the above
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Pupil changes are one of many indicators of nervous system
impairment.
B) INCORRECT. A patient with nervous system impairment can present with general
or specific weaknesses, or any of a number of other signs and symptoms.
C) INCORRECT. Hearing and visual disturbances, among other signs and symptoms,
can indicate an impairment of a patient’s nervous system.
D) CORRECT. All of the signs and symptoms provided can indicate an impairment of
the nervous system.
1
4) What is the name of the heart dysfunction caused by an electrical source that causes the heart to
beat too fast?
4)
A) Bradycardia B) Heart attack C) Trauma D) Tachycardia
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Bradycardia refers to a heart rate that is too slow.
B) INCORRECT. A heart attack can cause the dysfunction that leads to a rapid heart
rate, but it is not the dysfunction.
C) INCORRECT. A rapid heart rate is not called trauma.
D) CORRECT. Electrical problems typically occur from diseases such as heart attacks
or heart failure that damage the electrical system of the heart. These cardiac
electrical problems include bradycardias (heart rate is too slow) and tachycardias
(heart rate is too fast).
5) Carbon dioxide is transported back to the lungs in two ways: via the red blood cells and: 5)
A) plasma. B) oncotic pressure.
C) white blood cells. D) hydrostatic pressure.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Some carbon dioxide is dissolved in the blood plasma and transported
back to the lungs.
B) INCORRECT. Oncotic pressure is related to proteins in plasma, not carbon dioxide
transportation.
C) INCORRECT. White blood cells do not carry carbon dioxide.
D) INCORRECT. When the heart beats, the pressure created tends to push fluid back
out of the blood vessels toward the cells and is called hydrostatic pressure.
6) In normal exhalation, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax to contract the chest, which
creates a positive pressure. This is what type of process?
6)
A) Active B) Passive C) Respiration D) Inspiration
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. An active process requires effort; relaxation of muscles is not active.
B) CORRECT. Exhalation is normally a passive process. To exhale, the diaphragm and
intercostal muscles relax to make the chest contract, creating a positive pressure
that pushes air out.
C) INCORRECT. The term respiration refers to the entire breathing cycle, not just to
the exhalation process.
D) INCORRECT. Inspiration is another term for inhaling, which occurs when the
diaphragm contracts and the intercostal muscles expand.
7) The pressure that is created when the heart pushes the blood throughout the circulatory system is
called:
7)
A) osmotic pressure. B) oncotic pressure.
C) hyperstatic pressure. D) hydrostatic pressure.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Osmotic pressure relates to the fluid levels of the cells, not to
circulatory pressure.
B) INCORRECT. When large proteins attract water from the spaces between the cells
and back into the bloodstream it is known as oncotic pressure.
C) INCORRECT. The term hyperstatic pressure is not generally used in reference to
circulation.
D) CORRECT. When the heart beats, it creates hydrostatic pressure which pushes
fluid back out of the blood vessels toward the cells.
2
8) What is a patent airway? 8)
A) A term used by EMS practitioners to indicate that the patient has a secured and opened
airway necessary for life
B) The condition of the patient’s airway at the start of a lifesaving intervention
C) An airway that is in need of securing via an oral or nasal pharyngeal airway
D) A rigid suction device used to remove fluid and foreign objects from the pharynx to secure
the airway
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. A patent airway is one that is open, clear and free from obstructions.
B) INCORRECT. The condition of a patient’s airway at the outset of lifesaving care
may or may not be patent.
C) INCORRECT. An airway that is blocked or otherwise occluded would not be
referred to as patent.
D) INCORRECT. The term patent airway does not refer to a suction device.
9) The disruption of lung tissue by mechanical forces or medical problems can upset diffusion, which
is defined as:
9)
A) the exchange of gases in the bronchi.
B) maintaining enough positive pressure in the pleural space to keep the lungs from collapsing.
C) the process of gas exchange between the alveoli and the capillaries.
D) the ability of the lungs to expand equally during inspiration.
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Gases are not exchanged in the bronchi.
B) INCORRECT. The process of diffusion is not directly related to pressures in the
chest cavity.
C) CORRECT. The process of diffusion moves oxygen across the thin membrane from
the alveoli to the capillaries.
D) INCORRECT. Although the ability of the lungs to expand equally can be impacted
by trauma or illness, it is not referred to as diffusion.
10) You respond to a patient who is choking. The victim is suffering from the most common of airway
obstructions. This would indicate that the problem is in the ________ airway.
10)
A) bronchial B) alveoli C) lower D) upper
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. An obstruction in the bronchial portion of the airway would not be
common.
B) INCORRECT. An obstruction in the tiny air sacs of the lungs would not cause
choking.
C) INCORRECT. Obstructions in the lower airway are not common and would not
generally present as choking.
D) CORRECT. An obstruction that causes choking would usually be found in the
upper airway.
3
11) In the normal drive to breathe, chemoreceptors are stimulated by: 11)
A) low carbon dioxide. B) high carbon dioxide.
C) diffusion. D) high oxygen.
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. In a normal drive to breathe, low carbon dioxide would not trigger
chemoreceptors.
B) CORRECT. Normally, respiration or the need to breathe is triggered in the brain by
chemoreceptors detecting increasing carbon dioxide levels.
C) INCORRECT. Diffusion is the exchange of gases between the alveoli and
capillaries and the process does not involve chemoreceptors.
D) INCORRECT. Chemoreceptors are not usually stimulated by high oxygen levels.
12) Your patient is an 86-year-old male with congestive heart failure. He called for help tonight
because he cannot breathe and feels like he is “drowning in his own lungs.” The patient has had
several heart attacks in the past and he tells you his “heart is shot.” The patient’s cardiac output is
likely diminished because:
12)
A) the pressure in the system against which the heart must pump is increased (afterload is
increased).
B) less blood fills his heart with each contraction (preload is diminished).
C) the heart’s force of contraction is reduced (contractility is diminished).
D) All of the above are true.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. An increased afterload might be contributing to this patient’s
reduced cardiac output, but there are other factors also.
B) INCORRECT. Diminished preload is definitely one of the things that might reduce
cardiac output, but not the only one.
C) INCORRECT. This patient most likely has diminished contractility in addition to
other causes for a reduced cardiac output.
D) CORRECT. A patient with preexisting heart damage and the development of fluid
in his lungs (congestive heart failure) is likely experiencing a diminished cardiac
output because all three factors (preload, contractility, and afterload) are impaired.
13) The basic nutrient of the cell and the building block for energy is: 13)
A) protein. B) oxygen. C) glucose. D) water.
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Large molecules made up of chains of amino acids are called
proteins; they are important to cell function, but they are not the basic nutrient of a
cell.
B) INCORRECT. Although cells require oxygen, it is not an energy building block.
C) CORRECT. Glucose, a simple sugar obtained from the foods we eat, is the basic
nutrient of the cell. It is the building block for energy in the form of ATP.
D) INCORRECT. Water is critical to cellular health and function, but it is not a
nutrient and does not create energy.
4
14) What is the type of metabolism that occurs when energy is created with a balance of adequate
oxygen and nutrients?
14)
A) Hypoxic B) Homeostatic C) Aerobic D) Anaerobic
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Hypoxic metabolism refers to metabolism that occurs in an oxygen
poor environment.
B) INCORRECT. Although the term homeostatic would describe a state that is equal
and steady, it is not used in reference to a specific type of metabolism.
C) CORRECT. Metabolism that occurs in the presence of sufficient oxygen and
nutrients is called aerobic metabolism.
D) INCORRECT. Anaerobic metabolism is the result of glucose being metabolized
without enough oxygen.
15) Daniel has been performing landscaping on a hot, humid summer day when he suddenly becomes
dizzy and feels like he might faint. This disruption of fluid balance is most likely caused by:
15)
A) tachycardia. B) dehydration. C) hypotension. D) hyperthermia.
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. This patient may present with tachycardia, but that wouldn’t be the
reason that his fluid balance was disrupted.
B) CORRECT. Dehydration is an abnormal decrease in the total amount of water in
the body. This may be caused by a decreased fluid intake or a significant loss of
fluid from the body by one or more of a variety of means.
C) INCORRECT. Although the patient may be hypotensive, that wouldn’t be the cause
of the fluid imbalance.
D) INCORRECT. Hyperthermia would most likely not be the cause of this fluid
balance disruption.
16) You are on the scene at a local park where a 51-year-old male is reported to be confused and
having difficulty walking. Your partner notes that the patient is wearing a bracelet indicating he is
diabetic. Upon questioning, the patient is able to report that he has not eaten in 8 hours. Your
knowledge of pathophysiology suggests that the patient may be suffering from a diabetic
emergency. Glucose is a building block for what form of energy in the cell?
16)
A) Mitochondria B) ATP
C) Endoplasmic reticulum D) Electrolytes
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The mitochondria are where the glucose is converted into energy in
the cell.
B) CORRECT. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy created in the
mitochondria of the cell when glucose and other nutrients are converted.
C) INCORRECT. The endoplasmic reticulum is specifically responsible for creating
proteins.
D) INCORRECT. Although electrolytes play an important role in cellular activity, they
are not directly related to creating forms of energy.
5
17) What is the correct order of air flow from the nose to the alveoli in the lungs? 17)
A) Nose, hyperpharynx, pharynx, hypopharynx, trachea, mainstem bronchi, bronchi, alveoli
B) Nose, nasopharynx, pharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli
C) Mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, hypopharynx, trachea, mainstem bronchi, crania, alveoli
D) Nose, pharynx, hypopharynx, epiglottis, trachea, crania, mainstem bronchi, alveoli
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The term hyperpharynx does not describe a proper anatomic
structure of the airway.
B) CORRECT. Air follows a path from the openings of the nose into the nasopharynx,
travels to the rear of the throat (hypopharynx), and then enters the larynx, below
which the trachea begins. It then travels down the trachea to the point where it
branches into two large tubes called the mainstem bronchi, one leading to each
lung, until they reach their endpoints at the multitude of tiny air pockets in the
lungs called alveoli.
C) INCORRECT. The mouth would not be included when mapping air flow entering
through the nose; the epiglottis and crania would also not be involved.
D) INCORRECT. The crania are not part of the airflow path in the respiratory system.
18) The potential space between the lung and chest wall is called the: 18)
A) lung space. B) dead space. C) pleural space. D) carina space.
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The space between the lung and the chest wall is not referred to as
the lung space.
B) INCORRECT. Dead air space refers to the air sitting in the airway between the
pharynx and the alveoli; not between the lung and chest wall.
C) CORRECT. Although the lungs are in direct contact with the inner walls of the
chest, there is a slight space between the lung tissue and chest wall called the
pleural space.
D) INCORRECT. The carina is a cartilage structure located in the trachea.
19) The process by which glucose and other nutrients are converted into energy is called: 19)
A) catabolism. B) depolarization. C) respiration. D) metabolism.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The process of breaking down fats and proteins is known as
catabolism; it is not related to turning glucose into energy.
B) INCORRECT. Depolarization refers to the changing polarity of cellular
membranes; it is not related to converting nutrients into energy.
C) INCORRECT. Respiration is breathing; it does not directly convert glucose into
energy.
D) CORRECT. The conversion of glucose into energy is an essential process of
metabolism.
6
20) What is FiO2? 20)
A) The concentration of gases in our expired air, which is referred to as the fraction of used
oxygen
B) The flow rate of gases provided to the patient by mask or nasal cannula
C) The amount of oxygen delivered via an airway adjunct in liters per minute
D) The concentration of oxygen in our inhaled air, which is referred to as the fraction of inspired
oxygen
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. FiO2 does not refer to air that has been exhaled.
B) INCORRECT. The flow rates of masks or cannulas are measured in liters per minute
(LPM), not FiO2.
C) INCORRECT. An airway adjunct is used to maintain the airway in an open
position; it does not provide measured oxygen.
D) CORRECT. The concentration of oxygen in the air we breathe in is referred to as
the fraction of inspired oxygen, or FiO2.
21) Production of energy occurs in what part of the cell? 21)
A) Potassium pump B) Nucleus
C) Endoplasmic reticulum D) Mitochondria
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Ions are moved across cell membranes by the sodium potassium
pump mechanism, which requires energy produced elsewhere in the cell.
B) INCORRECT. The cell nucleus contains DNA, the genetic blueprint for cellular
reproduction.
C) INCORRECT. The endoplasmic reticulum plays a key role in the synthesizing of
proteins in the cell, not the production of energy.
D) CORRECT. Energy for the cell is produced largely by the mitochondria, the
structures responsible for the conversion of glucose and other nutrients into
energy.
22) Our blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the cells and returns with what byproduct of
metabolism?
22)
A) Carbon monoxide B) Carbon dioxide
C) Lactic acid D) Carbolic acid
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Carbon monoxide is a gas produced by burning carbon-based
products.
B) CORRECT. One of the primary waste products of metabolism is carbon dioxide,
which is transported back to the lungs in the blood stream and released through
exhalation.
C) INCORRECT. Anaerobic metabolism produces harmful lactic acid, which
accumulates in and around the cells.
D) INCORRECT. Carbolic acid is generally found in plants; it is not a byproduct of
human cellular metabolism.
7
23) A patient breathing in room air should be receiving ________ percent oxygen. 23)
A) 16 B) 21 C) 100 D) 5
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Inhaling room air will usually provide more than 16% oxygen.
B) CORRECT. Typically, inhaled air contains about 79% nitrogen and 21% oxygen.
C) INCORRECT. Atmospheric (room) air contains more nitrogen than oxygen; it is
not possible for it to contain 100% oxygen.
D) INCORRECT. Room air contains more than 5% oxygen.
24) The human body is made up of ________ % water. 24)
A) 7.5 B) 17.5 C) 60 D) 75
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The body consists of more than 7.5% water.
B) INCORRECT. The water needed to maintain health and proper body function is
more than only 17.5%.
C) CORRECT. About 60% of the body is made up of water, and without this fluid the
functions of the cells would cease.
D) INCORRECT. The human body consists of less than 75% water.
25) What substances, when dissolved, separate into charged particles? 25)
A) Ions B) Electrolytes C) Cations D) ATP
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. An ion is an atom or molecule and it cannot be dissolved.
B) CORRECT. Electrolytes are substances that, when dissolved in water, separate into
charged particles.
C) INCORRECT. Positively charged ions are called cations; they don’t dissolve into
charged particles.
D) INCORRECT. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy produced by the cell; it
does not break down into charged particles.
26) The most vulnerable part of the cell is the: 26)
A) mitochondria. B) nucleus. C) DNA. D) membrane.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The mitochondria are not the most vulnerable part of the cell.
B) INCORRECT. Located within the center of the cell, the nucleus is not the most
vulnerable part.
C) INCORRECT. DNA, stored in the nucleus of the cell, is not the most vulnerable
part.
D) CORRECT. The cell membrane is the most vulnerable element of the cell. Many
disease processes alter its permeability, or its ability to effectively transfer fluids,
electrolytes, and other substances in and out of the cell.
8
27) A 19-year-old male is reported to have taken too many narcotic pain pills that were prescribed for
his recent knee surgery. He is extremely sleepy with very shallow breathing. His color is pale and
his SpO2 reading is 84%. His body is probably attempting to compensate for his poor level of
ventilatory effort by stimulating the respiratory system to increase rate and tidal volume.
Normally, respiratory drive is triggered by changing levels of:
27)
A) pH. B) glucose. C) oxygen. D) carbon dioxide.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Although not the primary trigger, a secondary stimulus to breathe
can be initiated by changing pH levels.
B) INCORRECT. Glucose has no direct effect on respiratory drive.
C) INCORRECT. Although changing oxygen levels can sometimes trigger respiration,
it is not the normal trigger.
D) CORRECT. Chemoreceptors throughout the body constantly measure levels of
carbon dioxide and oxygen. The primary stimulation to breathe is triggered from
increasing levels of carbon dioxide.
28) If a hole is created in the chest wall, air could escape or be drawn in, or if bleeding develops within
the chest, air and blood can accumulate in the pleural space. This would force the lung to:
28)
A) increase the minute volume. B) work harder with minimal problems.
C) increase respirations. D) collapse.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The minute volume would not increase as a result of air or blood
accumulating in the pleural space.
B) INCORRECT. Although blood or air in the pleural space will make respirations
more difficult, the problem created would certainly not be minimal.
C) INCORRECT. Blood and/or air in the pleural space would not force increased
respirations.
D) CORRECT. If bleeding develops within the chest, blood can accumulate in the
pleural space and force the lung to collapse away from the chest wall. This can also
occur if a hole in either the lung or the chest wall (or both) allows air to accumulate
between the lung and the chest wall.
29) Cells make up tissues, tissues make up organs, and organs make up: 29)
A) systems. B) sections. C) organelles. D) groups.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Cells work together to form tissues, tissues form organs, and organs
make up systems.
B) INCORRECT. The term section would not be used to describe a collection of organs.
C) INCORRECT. Organelles are components within a cell.
D) INCORRECT. The next step in the hierarchy of cells, tissues and organs, are not
called a group.
9
30) You are caring for a 25-year-old male patient that has been shot once in the head. The patient is in
extremis (near the point of death) with a noticeable breathing pattern that alternates between no
breathing and fast breathing. Your understanding of pathophysiology leads you to believe the
breathing pattern may be due to damage to the section of his brain responsible for respiratory
control, also known as the:
30)
A) frontal lobe. B) cerebellum.
C) thalamus. D) medulla oblongata.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Breathing is not directly controlled by the frontal lobe.
B) INCORRECT. The cerebellum is not responsible for respiratory control.
C) INCORRECT. Respiratory control does not reside within the thalamus.
D) CORRECT. The section of the brain known as the “seat of respiratory control” is the
medulla oblongata.
31) When carbon dioxide is not exchanged, the net result is high carbon dioxide, a condition called
________, within the body.
31)
A) hyperthermia B) hyperemia C) hypercapnia D) hyperglycemia
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. An increased body temperature is called hyperthermia; it is
generally unrelated to problems with carbon dioxide exchange.
B) INCORRECT. Excess blood in the vessels supplying an organ or other part of the
body is known as hyperemia; it is not related to carbon dioxide levels.
C) CORRECT. Hypercapnia is the condition where carbon dioxide levels rise in the
body.
D) INCORRECT. Hyperglycemia means increased blood glucose levels, which does
not have a connection with carbon dioxide.
32) The respiratory system moves air in and out; however, to ________ cells, the air that is inhaled
must meet up with the circulatory system.
32)
A) defuse B) perfuse
C) hyperoxygenate D) register
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Cells cannot be defused.
B) CORRECT. The respiratory system moves air in and out, but to perfuse cells the air
that is breathed in must meet up with blood.
C) INCORRECT. The term hyperoxygenate means to introduce high levels of oxygen,
which is not a normal part of standard respiration.
D) INCORRECT. Putting oxygen into the bloodstream through the respiration process
has nothing to do with registering cells.
33) Stroke volume depends on a series of factors: one is the force the myocardial muscle exerts to move
the blood. This is known as:
33)
A) afterload. B) automaticity. C) contractility. D) preload.
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Afterload is how much pressure the heart has to pump against in
order to force blood out into the system.
B) INCORRECT. The ability of cardiac cells to depolarize is called automaticity.
C) CORRECT. Contractility is the force of contraction; that is, how hard the heart
squeezes. The more forceful the muscle squeezes, the greater the stroke volume.
D) INCORRECT. Preload is how much blood is returned to the heart prior to the
contraction
10
34) Injuries to the brain and spinal cord, sepsis, and severe allergic reactions can cause what similar
cardiovascular problem?
34)
A) Hypertension B) Loss of tone C) Permeability D) Increased SVR
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Sepsis, allergic reactions, and brain injuries do not commonly cause
increased blood pressure (hypertension).
B) CORRECT. Loss of tone, or vasodilation, can be caused by brain and spinal cord
injuries, severe allergies, or sepsis.
C) INCORRECT. Injuries, sepsis, and severe allergies will not commonly all affect
permeability.
D) INCORRECT. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) is the pressure within the vessels
that the heart must push against. Brian and spinal injuries do not generally cause
an increase in SVR.
35) The study of how disease affects the functioning of the human body is called: 35)
A) physiology. B) psychology.
C) pathophysiology. D) anatomy.
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Physiology is the study of the normal function of the human body.
B) INCORRECT. The study of the human mind and its functions is called psychology.
C) CORRECT. Pathophysiology is the study of how disease processes affect the
function of the body.
D) INCORRECT. The study of the parts and structures of the human body is called
anatomy.
36) Which of the following statements provides reasons for the disruption of respiratory control? 36)
A) Medical reasons, infections, trauma, toxins, and drugs, along with neurologic disorders, can
interrupt this control.
B) A structural reason that has caused collapse of the upper and lower airways to block the flow
of oxygen to the alveoli can interrupt this control.
C) A medical, structural, and mechanical failure that has initiated the cascade of life-threatening
problems will interrupt this control.
D) Mechanical failure, soft-tissue damage, obstruction, and lack of perfusion will interrupt this
control.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Medical events like strokes, infections, and toxin or drug exposure, and
brain trauma can all disrupt respiratory control in the medulla oblongata.
B) INCORRECT. A traumatic injury that collapses the upper and lower airways,
blocking the flow of oxygen will not initially impact the respiratory control
function.
C) INCORRECT. Medical, structural, and mechanical failures that result in
life-threatening problems will not necessarily impact respiratory control.
D) INCORRECT. Disruption of respiratory control is not necessarily related to
mechanical failure, trauma, obstruction, or lack of perfusion.
11
37) The net result of respiratory challenges is low oxygen, also called ________, within the body. 37)
A) anoxia B) hypoxia C) anorexia D) hypoglycemia
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The term anoxia refers to a total lack of oxygen.
B) CORRECT. The condition of low oxygen in the body is called hypoxia.
C) INCORRECT. Anorexia is an eating disorder that is unrelated to respiration.
D) INCORRECT. A low level of glucose in the blood is called hypoglycemia; it is
unrelated to oxygen levels.
38) Which of the following BEST defines adenosine triphosphate (ATP)? 38)
A) It is the form of energy that is produced in the mitochondria from glucose and DNA.
B) It is the form of energy that is produced in the nucleus from glucose and other nutrients.
C) It is the form of energy produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and is the cell’s engine
responsible for all cell function.
D) It is the form of energy produced in the mitochondria and is the cell’s engine responsible for
all cell function.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. DNA is not used to create cellular energy.
B) INCORRECT. Adenosine triphosphate is not produced in the nucleus of the cell.
C) INCORRECT. The endoplasmic reticulum is not responsible for production of
ATP.
D) CORRECT. ATP, which is produced in the mitochondria, is essentially the cell’s
internally created fuel and is responsible for powering all the other cellular
functions.
39) Certain blood vessels that contain specialized sensors that detect the level of internal pressure and
transmit messages to the nervous system, which then triggers the smooth muscle in the vessel walls
to make any needed size adjustments, are called:
39)
A) volume receptors. B) chemoreceptors.
C) pressure receptors. D) stretch receptors.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Internal pressure within blood vessels is not measured by volume
receptors.
B) INCORRECT. Chemoreceptors detect the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in
the blood, not the internal pressure of the vessel.
C) INCORRECT. The receptors that trigger changes in the size of a blood vessel are
not called pressure receptors.
D) CORRECT. Certain blood vessels contain specialized sensors called stretch
receptors that detect the level of internal pressure and transmit messages to the
nervous system, which then triggers the smooth muscle in the vessel walls to make
any needed size adjustments.
12
40) A condition that is caused by a decreased number of red blood cells is called: 40)
A) anemia. B) erythrocythemia.
C) leukemia. D) polycythemia.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Anemia is a decrease in the number of red blood cells. When severe,
anemia decreases the blood’s ability to carry oxygen.
B) INCORRECT. An increase in red blood cells in circulation is called
erythrocythemia.
C) INCORRECT. Leukemia is a type of cancer that usually begins in the white blood
cells.
D) INCORRECT. Polycythemia is a disease state where the number of red blood cells
increase or the volume of plasma decreases.
41) A disruption of the balance between oncotic pressure and hydrostatic pressure is critical to
regulating:
41)
A) oxygenation and perfusion.
B) blood pressure and cell hydration.
C) waste removal and urine.
D) perfusion and proper circulation to the tissues.
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Oxygenation and perfusion are not directly impacted by a
disruption to both oncotic and hydrostatic pressures.
B) CORRECT. The balance between the pulling-in force of plasma oncotic pressure
and the pushing-out force of hydrostatic pressure is critical to regulating both
blood pressure and cell hydration.
C) INCORRECT. Waste removal and urine are not regulated by the balance
disruption of oncotic and hydrostatic pressures.
D) INCORRECT. Perfusion and proper circulation to the tissues mean the same thing.
42) Your patient is a 22-year-old female that accidentally ate some shellfish and is now having a
severe reaction. She tells you that the last time she ate shellfish, “they had to put a breathing tube in
my throat and I almost died.” Her face is starting to swell up and you can hear audible wheezing
when she breathes. The chemical that produces edema and narrowing of the airways during
hypersensitivity reactions like this is called:
42)
A) serotonin. B) insulin. C) histamine. D) acetylcholine.
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Serotonin would not stimulate a hypersensitivity reaction.
B) INCORRECT. Insulin is not related to hypersensitivity reactions.
C) CORRECT. Severe allergic reactions can occur when chemicals like histamine are
released, which can produce edema and narrowing of the airways.
D) INCORRECT. Severe allergic reactions are not triggered by acetylcholine.
13
43) What is the most common digestive disorder? 43)
A) Diarrhea and gastric esophageal disease
B) Irritable bowel and gastric esophageal disease
C) Vomiting and diarrhea
D) Flatus
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Gastric esophageal disease is not a common digestive disorder.
B) INCORRECT. Irritable bowel and esophageal diseases are not the most common
disorders.
C) CORRECT. Probably the most common digestive disorders are nausea, vomiting,
and diarrhea.
D) INCORRECT. Flatus is not the most common disorder of the digestive system.
44) Not all inspired air reaches the alveoli; 150 mL is stopped in the airway leading to the alveoli. This
is called:
44)
A) dead air space. B) tidal volume. C) vital capacity. D) bronchial air.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Air that occupies the space between the mouth and alveoli, but that
does not actually reach the area of gas exchange is call dead air space.
B) INCORRECT. The total volume of air moved in one in-and-out cycle of breathing
is called the tidal volume.
C) INCORRECT. The air in the airway that never reaches the alveoli is not known as
vital capacity.
D) INCORRECT. Since the inspired air that doesn’t reach the alveoli is found
throughout the lower and upper airways, it is not referred to as just bronchial air.
45) You and your EMT partner respond to a local shipping warehouse for a worker who was hit by a
falling crate. Upon arrival, you find the man lying on the concrete floor of the facility, alert and
oriented but unable to move or even feel his legs below the waist. Based on the mechanism of
injury and the symptoms, which of the patient’s body systems would you suspect has been
impaired?
45)
A) Cardiopulmonary system B) Immune system
C) Nervous system D) Endocrine system
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The cardiopulmonary system controls breathing, circulation of the
blood, and perfusion.
B) INCORRECT. The immune system is responsible for fighting infection. It responds
to specific body invaders by identifying them, marking them, and destroying them.
C) CORRECT. Mechanical damage to the spine and other nervous pathways results in
disruption of nervous system communication. That means when a nervous
pathway is damaged, movement, sensation, and even automatic functions like
breathing and blood vessel dilation may be altered.
D) INCORRECT. The endocrine system is made up of a variety of glands that secrete
hormones that dictate and control a variety of body functions, such as glucose
transfer and water absorption in the kidneys.
14
46) The cellular structure that is responsible for synthesizing proteins is: 46)
A) endoplasmic reticulum. B) nucleus.
C) mitochondria. D) sodium pump.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. The endoplasmic reticulum plays a key role in the synthesizing of
proteins in the cell.
B) INCORRECT. The DNA is stored in the nucleus and primarily functions to store
genes.
C) INCORRECT. The mitochondria produces energy for the cell; it does not
synthesize proteins.
D) INCORRECT. The sodium pump manages ion movement across the cell walls, not
protein synthesis.
47) The sympathetic nervous response causes which of the following to occur? 47)
A) Breathe faster and deeper, blood vessels to constrict, heart to beat stronger and faster, skin to
sweat, pupils to constrict, and skin to become warm
B) Breathe slower and deeper, blood vessels to dilate, heart to beat stronger and faster, skin to
sweat, pupils to constrict, and skin to become pale
C) Breathe faster and deeper, blood vessels to dilate, heart to beat stronger and slower, skin to
sweat, pupils to dilate, and skin to become pale
D) Breathe faster and deeper, blood vessels to constrict, heart to beat stronger and faster, skin to
sweat, pupils to dilate, and skin to become pale
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Pupils won’t constrict and skin doesn’t become warmer during a
sympathetic nervous response.
B) INCORRECT. A sympathetic nervous response will generally not slow breathing,
dilate vessels, or constrict pupils.
C) INCORRECT. A sympathetic nervous response will not commonly dilate vessels or
slow the heart rate.
D) CORRECT. During shock, the sympathetic nervous system causes rapid, deeper
breathing, constricted blood vessels, rapid heart rates, perspiration, dilated pupils,
and pale skin.
48) Plasma oncotic pressure is created by the movement of which of the following? 48)
A) Dilation of the vessels B) Large proteins
C) Constriction of the vessels D) Contraction of the heart
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. When a blood vessel dilates, it does not create plasma oncotic
pressure.
B) CORRECT. Blood plasma contains large proteins, which tend to attract water away
from the area around body cells and pull it into the bloodstream. This force is
called plasma oncotic pressure.
C) INCORRECT. The constriction of vessels does not create plasma oncotic pressure.
D) INCORRECT. Plasma oncotic pressure is not created by contractions of the heart.
15
49) The layer of covering that protects the nervous system is called the: 49)
A) skull. B) cerebrospinal fluid.
C) meninges. D) spinal column.
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Although the skull protects part of the nervous system, it is not a
layer that covers all of it.
B) INCORRECT. The cerebrospinal fluid surrounds the brain and spinal cord and
provides some shock-absorption, but it is not considered a layer of covering.
C) CORRECT. The brain and spinal cord are well-protected by bone and muscle.
Additionally, they are covered by protective layers called meninges.
D) INCORRECT. The spinal column only protects a portion of the nervous system.
50) The major organs of the endocrine system are the: 50)
A) pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands.
B) brain, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands.
C) liver, pancreas, and the kidneys.
D) kidneys and the brain.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Although important, glands are not considered organs.
B) INCORRECT. The pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal are glands, not organs.
C) INCORRECT. The liver is not an organ of the endocrine system, and the pancreas
is considered a gland.
D) CORRECT. The major organs of the endocrine system include the kidneys and the
brain.
51) What element does the cell need in order to NOT dehydrate and die? 51)
A) Glucose B) Water C) Oxygen D) Proteins
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Glucose is critical for cellular energy production, not hydration.
B) CORRECT. Water moves into a cell from the environment around it. Without
enough water, the cell will dehydrate and die.
C) INCORRECT. Oxygen is not required to prevent cellular dehydration.
D) INCORRECT. The cell does not require proteins to stay hydrating
52) You are called to a kindergarten class where a boy has fallen while climbing on playground
equipment. The teacher saw him fall and hit his stomach on a step. He is sobbing and holding his
abdomen. As you assess him, you find his skin cool and clammy, his pulse is 132, respiratory is 28.
Why is the boy acting this way?
52)
A) He possibly has internal injuries and is in shock.
B) He is embarrassed and is afraid that the other students will make fun of him.
C) He is really upset and wants his mother.
D) He possibly has wet his pants and does not want anyone to know.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Between the mechanism of injury and the signs this patient is
presenting with, the EMT should suspect shock and possible internal injuries.
B) INCORRECT. Patients do sometimes become embarrassed following certain
injuries, but that will not cause the signs described.
C) INCORRECT. Although the patient may be upset, that alone will not change the
condition of his skin, heart rate, and breathing.
D) INCORRECT. Attempting to avoid embarrassment will generally not cause the
combined skin, pulse, and respiratory signs.
16
53) ________ blood returns to the right side of the heart. 53)
A) Deoxygenated B) Oxygenated C) Red D) Anemic
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Deoxygenated blood that has been returned to the right side of the
heart is pumped to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries and arterioles.
B) INCORRECT. Oxygenated blood does not return to the right side of the heart.
C) INCORRECT. Human blood is always some shade of red. The color does not have
anything to do with the circulation patterns.
D) INCORRECT. Whether blood is considered anemic or not, it still follows the
normal circulatory paths.
54) What is the best description of the chest’s mechanical functions? 54)
A) The diaphragm contracts, causing the intercostal muscles that are attached to the lungs to also
contract, which moves the air into the lungs.
B) With the chest being an airtight space, the act of breathing occurs when the muscles of the
diaphragm and intercostal relax, which causes the lungs to expand and air to flow into the
lungs.
C) The chest is a closed space, and the pleural space surrounds the lungs; when the diaphragm
contracts and the intercostals expand, the chest and lungs move outward and downward,
allowing expiration and gas exchange in the lungs.
D) The chest is a closed space with only one opening; the trachea, to inspire air; the diaphragm
contracts down and the intercostal muscles expand the ribs, causing a negative pressure that
fills the lungs with air.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The intercostal muscles are not attached to the lungs, and they don’t
contract on inspiration.
B) INCORRECT. Inhalation is an active function; when the diaphragm and intercostal
muscles relax, it results in exhalation.
C) INCORRECT. The chest and lungs do not move outward and downward during
expiration, and it is not during expiration that gas exchange occurs.
D) CORRECT. During inspiration, the diaphragm contracts, the muscles of the chest
expand, and a negative pressure is created in the chest cavity and lungs. This
negative pressure pulls air in through the trachea, which is the only opening into
the chest cavity.
55) The metabolism that creates large amounts of carbon dioxide and lactic acid but generates little
energy is called:
55)
A) hyperoxic. B) homeostatic. C) aerobic. D) anaerobic.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The term hyperoxic refers to an excess of oxygen; it is not generally
used to describe a type of metabolism.
B) INCORRECT. Inefficient metabolism is not called homestatic.
C) INCORRECT. Metabolism that occurs in the presence of sufficient oxygen and
nutrients to produce maximum energy with minimal waste is called aerobic
metabolism.
D) CORRECT. Anaerobic metabolism is the result of glucose being metabolized
without enough oxygen; it produces much more waste such as lactic acid and far
less energy.
17
56) Shock occurs as a result of which of the following? 56)
A) C/Q match B) Inadequate perfusion
C) V/Q match D) Adequate perfusion
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The term C/Q match is not used when referring to shock.
B) CORRECT. Inadequate perfusion is referred to as hypoperfusion, which is
considered to be a synonym for shock.
C) INCORRECT. A V/Q match is actually the opposite of shock.
D) INCORRECT. Adequate perfusion does not cause shock.
57) A 59-year-old male has suffered a severe laceration from a circular saw while cutting wood in his
garage. Upon your arrival, you find the patient sitting on the floor in a pool of blood. He is
extremely pale. Based on your knowledge of pathophysiology, you would expect his body to try to
compensate for the blood loss in all of the following ways, except:
57)
A) constricted pupils. B) increased respirations.
C) sweaty skin. D) increased pulse.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. The sympathetic nervous response would cause the pupils to dilate not
constrict.
B) INCORRECT. During the compensation process, chemoreceptors in the brain and
blood vessels sense increasing carbon dioxide and hypoxia and stimulate the
respiratory system to breathe faster and deeper.
C) INCORRECT. A sign of the body compensating for blood loss is pale, sweaty skin.
D) INCORRECT. The body compensates by activating the “fight-or-flight”
mechanism of the autonomic nervous system, which causes blood vessels to
constrict and the heart to beat faster and stronger.
58) Water that is found in the space between cells and blood vessels is called: 58)
A) intravascular. B) intracellular. C) hydrostatic. D) interstitial.
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. About 5% of the water in the human body is intravascular, in the
blood stream.
B) INCORRECT. Intracellular water is found inside of the cells.
C) INCORRECT. The term hydrostatic refers to the pressure within vessels, not the
fluid around them.
D) CORRECT. Interstitial water, found between the cells and vessels in the body,
makes up about 25% of the total water volume.
59) A 12-year-old female patient is having an asthma attack after participating in some strenuous
activity during recess at school. She’s taken several doses of her own bronchodilator with little
relief. Your partner immediately administers oxygen. Providing supplemental oxygen will increase
the amount of oxygen molecules carried by the ________ in her blood, helping oxygenate critical
organs like the brain.
59)
A) hemoglobin B) albumin
C) white blood cells D) plasma
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Blood transports oxygen by binding the vast majority of it to
hemoglobin in red blood cells.
B) INCORRECT. Albumin helps regulate oncotic pressure.
C) INCORRECT. White blood cells primarily function to fight infection.
D) INCORRECT. Only a small amount (~2%) of oxygen is dissolved in the liquid
portion of blood known as plasma.
18
60) Janie is having difficulty breathing. Her current tidal volume is 350 mL, and she is breathing at 28
times per minute. What would be her minute volume?
60)
A) 12.5 mL B) 378 mL C) 342 mL D) 9,800 mL
Answer: D
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. For this to be correct, the patient’s tidal volume would have been
only about 0.45 mL.
B) INCORRECT. This would mean that the patient’s tidal volume was about 13.5 mL,
not 350 mL as stated.
C) INCORRECT. If the patient’s tidal volume is 350 mL and she is breathing 28 times
per minute, there is no way that the minute volume would be less than the volume
of one breath.
D) CORRECT. The minute volume is calculated by multiplying the tidal volume by
respiratory rate; 350 mL × 28 = 9,800 mL.
61) The movement of ions across the cell membrane is needed to accomplish repolarization. What cell
structure is used to prepare for depolarization?
61)
A) Sodium potassium pump B) Endoplasmic reticulum
C) Nucleus D) Mitochondria
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. Ions are moved across cell membranes by the sodium potassium pump
mechanism.
B) INCORRECT. The endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes proteins; it does not manage
the movement of ions.
C) INCORRECT. Depolarization and repolarization do not involve the nucleus of the
cell.
D) INCORRECT. The mitochondria are not directly involved in the movement of ions
for depolarization.
62) The seat of respiratory control is found in the: 62)
A) medulla oblongata. B) nose.
C) chest. D) lungs.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. A section of the brain called the medulla oblongata is the seat of
respiratory control. From time to time, disorders that affect this portion of the brain
can interfere with respiratory function.
B) INCORRECT. Respiration is not controlled by the nose.
C) INCORRECT. The chest is not the seat of respiratory control.
D) INCORRECT. Although the lungs are obviously an important part of respiration,
they do not control it.
63) When a person has an exaggerated response to a body invader, the person is said to have: 63)
A) hypersensitivity. B) hyposensitivity.
C) histamine dump. D) antibody reaction.
Answer: A
Explanation: A) CORRECT. An exaggerated immune response is referred to as hypersensitivity,
which is also known as an allergic reaction.
B) INCORRECT. The prefix hypo means under or low; hyposensitivity would indicate
a muted reaction to an invader.
C) INCORRECT. When mast cells release histamine it is often called a histamine dump,
but it does not necessarily involve an exaggerated response.
D) INCORRECT. The reaction created when an antigen combines with an antibody is
called an antibody reaction; it is not generally considered an exaggerated response.
19
64) The volume of air that is moved in and out of the chest in a normal breath cycle is called: 64)
A) expiration. B) tidal volume. C) inspiration. D) vital capacity.
Answer: B
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Expiration is another term for exhalation, which is the air breathed
out at the end of the breathing cycle.
B) CORRECT. The volume of air moved in one in-and-out cycle of breathing is called
the tidal volume.
C) INCORRECT. Only the first part of the breathing cycle is called inspiration, when
air is drawn into the body.
D) INCORRECT. Air volume moved during the breathing cycle is not called vital
capacity.
65) When the body’s water moves from the bloodstream into the interstitial space, it is called: 65)
A) dehydration. B) hypovolemia. C) edema. D) hydrostatic.
Answer: C
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Dehydration is an abnormal decrease in the total amount of water in
the body.
B) INCORRECT. Shock caused by a loss of blood is called hypovolemia.
C) CORRECT. When water migrates out of the bloodstream and cells and into the
interstitial space, it can be seen in the form of edema.
D) INCORRECT. The term hydrostatic refers to a type of pressure, not to fluid
movement into cellular spaces.
20
Answer Key
Testname: C7
1) A
2) A
3) D
4) D
5) A
6) B
7) D
8) A
9) C
10) D
11) B
12) D
13) C
14) C
15) B
16) B
17) B
18) C
19) D
20) D
21) D
22) B
23) B
24) C
25) B
26) D
27) D
28) D
29) A
30) D
31) C
32) B
33) C
34) B
35) C
36) A
37) B
38) D
39) D
40) A
41) B
42) C
43) C
44) A
45) C
46) A
47) D
48) B
49) C
50) D
21
Answer Key
Testname: C7
51) B
52) A
53) A
54) D
55) D
56) B
57) A
58) D
59) A
60) D
61) A
62) A
63) A
64) B
65) C

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