Essentials of Negotiation 6th Edition by Roy J Lewicki Irving -Test Bank A+

$35.00
Essentials of Negotiation 6th Edition by Roy J Lewicki Irving -Test Bank A+

Essentials of Negotiation 6th Edition by Roy J Lewicki Irving -Test Bank A+

$35.00
Essentials of Negotiation 6th Edition by Roy J Lewicki Irving -Test Bank A+

Perception is a “sense-making” process; people interpret their ____________ so they can make appropriate responses to it.

________________________________________

2.The perceiver’s own needs, desires, motivations, and personal experiences may be likely to create a ____________ about the other party in an upcoming negotiation.

________________________________________

3.________________________ occur when people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual.

________________________________________

4.Projection occurs when people ascribe to others the characteristics or ____________ that they possess themselves.

________________________________________

5.A ____________ is the subjective mechanism through which people evaluate and make sense out of situations, leading them to pursue or avoid subsequent actions.

________________________________________

6.The frames of those who hear or interpret communication may create ____________ of their own.

________________________________________

7.____________ in frames between parties are sources of conflict.

________________________________________

8.Parties who focus on ____________ in a dispute are often able to find ways to resolve that dispute.

________________________________________

9.Disputes settled by ____________ usually create clear winners and losers.

________________________________________

10.Frames are shaped by conversations that the parties have with each other about the issues in the _______________________.

________________________________________

11.____________ can also occur as one party uses metaphors, analogies, or specific cases to illustrate a point.

________________________________________

12.Frames shape what the parties define as the ________________________ and how they talk about them.

________________________________________

13.Negotiators operating under ____________ also reached agreements having higher joint value for the two parties.

________________________________________

14.Negotiations in which the outcomes are ____________ framed tend to produce fewer concessions, reach fewer agreements, and perceive outcomes as less fair.

________________________________________

15.____________ is the tendency of negotiators to believe that their ability to be correct or accurate is greater than is actually true.

________________________________________

16.The ____________________________ is the tendency to neglect to use information that is available but expressed in numerical probabilities.

________________________________________

17.________________________ is the process of devaluing the other party’s concessions simply because the other party made them.

________________________________________

18.Misperceptions and cognitive biases typically arise out of ________________________ as negotiators gather and process information.

________________________________________

19.Considering mood and emotion, negotiators are portrayed as rational beings who seem ___________, calm, and in control.

________________________________________

20.Negotiators may intentionally manipulate ____________ in order to get the other side to adopt certain beliefs or take certain actions.

________________________________________


True / False Questions

21.Perception is the process by which individuals “connect” to their environment.

True False

22.Stereotyping and halo effects are examples of perceptual distortion by the anticipation of encountering certain attributes and qualities in another person.

True False

23.Halo effects can be positive or negative.

True False

24.If perceptual distortions and initial assumptions are correct, then negotiators may not be able to reverse their effects.

True False

25.A perceptual bias is the subjective mechanism through which people evaluate and make sense out of situations.

True False

26.Framing is about focusing, shaping, and organizing the world around us but does not define persons, events or processes.

True False

27.Frames are important in negotiation because disputes are often nebulous and open to different interpretations.

True False

28.A characterization frame can clearly be shaped by experience with the other party but identity frames (of self) tend to be negative while the characterization frames tend to be positive.

True False

29.The frames of those who hear or interpret communication may create biases of their own.

True False

30.Parties are likely to assume a particular frame because of one factor.

True False

31.Disputes over rights are sometimes referred to formal or informal arbitrators to decide whose standards or rights are more appropriate.

True False

32.The definition of issues at stake in a negotiation may not change as the discussion evolves.

True False

33.Early in a negotiation, it is not uncommon for the parties to “talk past each other.”

True False

34.When brought into the conversation, these secondary concerns often transform the conversation about the primary issues.

True False

35.The way an issue is framed will not influence how negotiators perceive risk and behave in relation to it.

True False

36.Negotiators always ask about the other party’s perceptions and thoughts.

True False

37.The question of how best to manage perceptual and cognitive bias is not a difficult one.

True False

38.Reframing does not require negotiators to be flexible during a negotiation but they should anticipate that multiple contingencies may arise during negotiations.

True False

39.Telling people about a perceptual or cognitive bias, or having them discuss things in a group meeting, will make the bias go away.

True False

40.Negotiators who feel positive emotions are more likely to be inflexible in how they arrive at a solution to a problem.

True False

Multiple Choice Questions

41.Perception is

A.the process by which individuals connect to their environment.

B.strongly influenced by the receiver’s current state of mind, role and understanding or comprehension of earlier communications.

C.a factor that can affect how meanings are ascribed.

D.a complex physical and psychological process.

E.All of the above describe perception.

42.Which of the following lists the stages of the perceptual process in the correct order?

A.stimulus, translation, attention, recognition, behavior

B.stimulus, behavior, translation, attention, recognition

C.stimulus, attention, recognition, translation, behavior

D.behavior, stimulus, recognition, attention, translation

E.None of the above lists the stages of the perceptual process in the correct order.

43.Halo effects occur when

A.attributes are assigned to an individual solely on the basis of his or her membership in a particular social or demographic group.

B.people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual.

C.the perceiver singles out certain information that supports or reinforces a prior belief, and filters out information that does not confirm that belief.

D.people ascribe to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves.

E.All of the above describe halo effects.

44.Projection occurs when

A.attributes are assigned to an individual solely on the basis of his or her membership in a particular social or demographic group.

B.people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual.

C.the perceiver singles out certain information that supports or reinforces a prior belief, and filters out information that does not confirm that belief.

D.people ascribe to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves.

E.All of the above describe projection.

45.Frames are important in negotiation because

A.they allow parties to develop separate definitions of the issues.

B.they can be avoided.

C.disputes are often nebulous and open to different interpretations.

D.do not allow negotiators to articulate an aspect of a complex social situation.

E.all of the above.

46.In which type of frame would parties be more likely to engage primarily in distributive (win-lose or lose-lose) negotiations than in other types?

A.Identity

B.Loss-gain

C.Outcome

D.Process

E.Substantive

47.An insight drawn from research of the frames negotiators use in disputes would suggest that parties discussing salary may be likely to use outcome frames and may be related to which of the following?

A.Negotiators can use more than one frame.

B.Mismatches in frames between parties are sources of conflict.

C.Particular types of frames may led to particular types of agreements.

D.Specific frames may be likely to be used with certain types of issues.

E.Parties are likely to assume a particular frame because of various factors.

48.Those attempting to negotiate in China recognize the value the Chinese place in saving “face.” Which of the following cultural elements should also be examined in approaching discussions with the Chinese?

A.Social linkage

B.Harmony

C.Roles

D.Reciprocal obligations

E.All of the above should be considered

49.Frames are shaped by conversations that the parties have with each other about the issues in the bargaining mix. Which of the following factors can affect how the conversation is shaped?

A.Negotiators tend to argue for stock issues, or concerns that are raised every time the parties negotiate.

B.Each party attempts to make the best possible case for his or her preferred position or perspective.

C.Frames may define major shifts and transitions in a complex overall negotiation.

D.Multiple agenda items operate to shape issue development.

E.All of the above contribute to the shaping of the conversation.

50.One of the most important aspects of framing as issue development is the process of reframing, or the manner in which the thrust, tone, and focus of a conversation change as the parties engage in it. Reframing is or occurs:

A.the way parties challenge each other, as they present their own case or refute the other’s.

B.a dynamic process that may occur many times in a conversation.

C.when using metaphors, analogies, or specific cases to illustrate a point.

D.and may be used intentionally by one side or the other.

E.all of the above apply to reframing as parties often propose new ways to approach a problem.

51.The irrational escalation of commitment bias refers to

A.the standard against which subsequent adjustments are measured during negotiation.

B.the perspective or point of view that people use when they gather information and solve problems.

C.how easily information can be recalled and used to inform or evaluate a process of a decision.

D.a negotiator’s commitment to a course of action, even when that commitment constitutes irrational behavior on his/her part.

E.None of the above refer to irrational escalation of commitment.

52.Which of the following is not a cognitive bias?

A.the irrational escalation of commitment

B.the belief that the issues under negotiation are all “fixed pie”

C.the process of anchoring and adjustment in decision making

D.the winner’s curse

E.All of the above are cognitive biases.

53.The availability of information bias operates with which of the following statements?

A.when negotiators sometimes maintain commitment to a course of action even when that commitment constitutes irrational behavior on their part.

B.when thorough preparation, along with the use of a devil’s advocate or reality check, can help prevent errors.

C.when information that is presented in vivid, colorful, or attention-getting ways becomes easy to recall, and thus also becomes central and critical in evaluating events and options.

D.when the tendency of negotiators to believe that their ability to be correct or accurate is greater than is actually true.

E.when the tendency will often lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy, as follows: People who expect to be treated in a distributive manner will (1) be more likely to perceive the other party’s behavior as distributive, and (2) treat the other party in a more distributive manner.

54.Which of the following cognitive biases can lead negotiators to discount the worth or validity of the judgment of others?

A.Irrational escalation of commitment

B.Mythical fixed-pie beliefs

C.Anchoring and adjustment

D.Availability of information

E.Overconfidence

55.The Endowment Effect

A.is making attributions to the person or the situation.

B.is drawing conclusions from small sample sizes.

C.is negotiators believing that their ability to be correct or accurate is greater than actually true.

D.is the tendency to overvalue something you own or believe you possess.

E.is none of the above in describing the Endowment Effect.

56.Reactive devaluation

A.leads negotiators to minimize the magnitude of a concession made by a disliked other.

B.leads to reduced willingness to respond with a concession of equal size.

C.may be minimized by maintaining a more objective view of the process.

D.can lead to motivation to seek even more once a concession has been made.

E.All of the above are elements of reactive devaluation.

57.The best way to manage perceptual and cognitive biases is:

A.to be aware that they exist.

B.to participate in group discussions.

C.to tell people about the bias.

D.complete a questionnaire.

E.All of the above help manage biases but may not be enough in and of themselves.

58.The distinction between mood and emotion is based on which of the following characteristics?

A.specificity

B.intensity

C.duration

D.all of the above

E.none of the above

59.Negative emotions may lead parties to

A.more integrative processes.

B.escalate the conflict.

C.promote persistence.

D.define the situation as integrative.

E.more integrative outcomes.

60.Which of the following statements about how emotion plays a part in negotiation is accurate?

A.Negotiations only create negative emotions.

B.Positive feelings do not promote persistence.

C.Negative feelings may create positive outcomes.

D.Positive emotion may result from impasse.

E.Negative emotions do not undermine a negotiator’s ability to analyze a situation accurately.

Short Answer Questions

61.Define perception.

62.Define perceptual distortion by generalization.

63.What is stereotyping?

64.How does projection occur?

65.A key issue in perception and negotiation is framing. What is framing?

66.How are frames critical in negotiations?

67.How does an outcome frame function in an environmental dispute?

68.Why are mismatches in frames between parties sources of conflicts?

69.List the five concepts from Chinese culture, as identified by C. Tinsley that those attempting to negotiate in China should recognize.

70.What role do frames play in the way they are constructed so that bargainers define problems and courses of action jointly through their talk?

71.How do multiple agenda items operate to shape issue development?

72.Define cognitive biases.

73.Explain “Irrational Escalation of Commitment.”

74.What can help prevent errors of anchoring and adjustment?

75.Both risk-averse and risk-seeking framing is part of what theory?

76.What are the two things to keep in mind about the effect of frames on risk in negotiation (according to Neale and Bazerman)?

77.In negotiation, when does the availability bias operate?

78.What is the best remedy for the winner’s curse?

79.Describe the double-edged effect of overconfidence.

80.Define the fundamental attribution error.

Chapter 06 Perception, Cognition, and Emotion Answer Key

Fill in the Blank Questions

1.Perception is a “sense-making” process; people interpret their ____________ so they can make appropriate responses to it.

environment

2.The perceiver’s own needs, desires, motivations, and personal experiences may be likely to create a ____________ about the other party in an upcoming negotiation.

predisposition

3.________________________ occur when people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual.

Halo effects

4.Projection occurs when people ascribe to others the characteristics or ____________ that they possess themselves.

feelings

5.A ____________ is the subjective mechanism through which people evaluate and make sense out of situations, leading them to pursue or avoid subsequent actions.

frame

6.The frames of those who hear or interpret communication may create ____________ of their own.

biases

7.____________ in frames between parties are sources of conflict.

Mismatches

8.Parties who focus on ____________ in a dispute are often able to find ways to resolve that dispute.

interests

9.Disputes settled by ____________ usually create clear winners and losers.

power

10.Frames are shaped by conversations that the parties have with each other about the issues in the _______________________.

bargaining mix

11.____________ can also occur as one party uses metaphors, analogies, or specific cases to illustrate a point.

Reframing

12.Frames shape what the parties define as the ________________________ and how they talk about them.

key issues

13.Negotiators operating under ____________ also reached agreements having higher joint value for the two parties.

accountability

14.Negotiations in which the outcomes are ____________ framed tend to produce fewer concessions, reach fewer agreements, and perceive outcomes as less fair.

negatively

15.____________ is the tendency of negotiators to believe that their ability to be correct or accurate is greater than is actually true.

Overconfidence

16.The ____________________________ is the tendency to neglect to use information that is available but expressed in numerical probabilities.

base rate fallacy

17.________________________ is the process of devaluing the other party’s concessions simply because the other party made them.

Reactive devaluation

18.Misperceptions and cognitive biases typically arise out of ________________________ as negotiators gather and process information.

conscious awareness

19.Considering mood and emotion, negotiators are portrayed as rational beings who seem ___________, calm, and in control.

calculating

20.Negotiators may intentionally manipulate ____________ in order to get the other side to adopt certain beliefs or take certain actions.

emotion

True / False Questions

21.Perception is the process by which individuals “connect” to their environment.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

22.Stereotyping and halo effects are examples of perceptual distortion by the anticipation of encountering certain attributes and qualities in another person.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

23.Halo effects can be positive or negative.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

24.If perceptual distortions and initial assumptions are correct, then negotiators may not be able to reverse their effects.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

25.A perceptual bias is the subjective mechanism through which people evaluate and make sense out of situations.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

26.Framing is about focusing, shaping, and organizing the world around us but does not define persons, events or processes.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

27.Frames are important in negotiation because disputes are often nebulous and open to different interpretations.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

28.A characterization frame can clearly be shaped by experience with the other party but identity frames (of self) tend to be negative while the characterization frames tend to be positive.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

29.The frames of those who hear or interpret communication may create biases of their own.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

30.Parties are likely to assume a particular frame because of one factor.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

31.Disputes over rights are sometimes referred to formal or informal arbitrators to decide whose standards or rights are more appropriate.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

32.The definition of issues at stake in a negotiation may not change as the discussion evolves.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

33.Early in a negotiation, it is not uncommon for the parties to “talk past each other.”

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

34.When brought into the conversation, these secondary concerns often transform the conversation about the primary issues.

TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

35.The way an issue is framed will not influence how negotiators perceive risk and behave in relation to it.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

36.Negotiators always ask about the other party’s perceptions and thoughts.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

37.The question of how best to manage perceptual and cognitive bias is not a difficult one.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

38.Reframing does not require negotiators to be flexible during a negotiation but they should anticipate that multiple contingencies may arise during negotiations.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

39.Telling people about a perceptual or cognitive bias, or having them discuss things in a group meeting, will make the bias go away.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

40.Negotiators who feel positive emotions are more likely to be inflexible in how they arrive at a solution to a problem.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Multiple Choice Questions

41.Perception is

A.the process by which individuals connect to their environment.

B.strongly influenced by the receiver’s current state of mind, role and understanding or comprehension of earlier communications.

C.a factor that can affect how meanings are ascribed.

D.a complex physical and psychological process.

E.All of the above describe perception.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

42.Which of the following lists the stages of the perceptual process in the correct order?

A.stimulus, translation, attention, recognition, behavior

B.stimulus, behavior, translation, attention, recognition

C.stimulus, attention, recognition, translation, behavior

D.behavior, stimulus, recognition, attention, translation

E.None of the above lists the stages of the perceptual process in the correct order.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

43.Halo effects occur when

A.attributes are assigned to an individual solely on the basis of his or her membership in a particular social or demographic group.

B.people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual.

C.the perceiver singles out certain information that supports or reinforces a prior belief, and filters out information that does not confirm that belief.

D.people ascribe to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves.

E.All of the above describe halo effects.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

44.Projection occurs when

A.attributes are assigned to an individual solely on the basis of his or her membership in a particular social or demographic group.

B.people generalize about a variety of attributes based on the knowledge of one attribute of an individual.

C.the perceiver singles out certain information that supports or reinforces a prior belief, and filters out information that does not confirm that belief.

D.people ascribe to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves.

E.All of the above describe projection.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

45.Frames are important in negotiation because

A.they allow parties to develop separate definitions of the issues.

B.they can be avoided.

C.disputes are often nebulous and open to different interpretations.

D.do not allow negotiators to articulate an aspect of a complex social situation.

E.all of the above.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

46.In which type of frame would parties be more likely to engage primarily in distributive (win-lose or lose-lose) negotiations than in other types?

A.Identity

B.Loss-gain

C.Outcome

D.Process

E.Substantive

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

47.An insight drawn from research of the frames negotiators use in disputes would suggest that parties discussing salary may be likely to use outcome frames and may be related to which of the following?

A.Negotiators can use more than one frame.

B.Mismatches in frames between parties are sources of conflict.

C.Particular types of frames may led to particular types of agreements.

D.Specific frames may be likely to be used with certain types of issues.

E.Parties are likely to assume a particular frame because of various factors.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

48.Those attempting to negotiate in China recognize the value the Chinese place in saving “face.” Which of the following cultural elements should also be examined in approaching discussions with the Chinese?

A.Social linkage

B.Harmony

C.Roles

D.Reciprocal obligations

E.All of the above should be considered

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

49.Frames are shaped by conversations that the parties have with each other about the issues in the bargaining mix. Which of the following factors can affect how the conversation is shaped?

A.Negotiators tend to argue for stock issues, or concerns that are raised every time the parties negotiate.

B.Each party attempts to make the best possible case for his or her preferred position or perspective.

C.Frames may define major shifts and transitions in a complex overall negotiation.

D.Multiple agenda items operate to shape issue development.

E.All of the above contribute to the shaping of the conversation.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

50.One of the most important aspects of framing as issue development is the process of reframing, or the manner in which the thrust, tone, and focus of a conversation change as the parties engage in it. Reframing is or occurs:

A.the way parties challenge each other, as they present their own case or refute the other’s.

B.a dynamic process that may occur many times in a conversation.

C.when using metaphors, analogies, or specific cases to illustrate a point.

D.and may be used intentionally by one side or the other.

E.all of the above apply to reframing as parties often propose new ways to approach a problem.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

51.The irrational escalation of commitment bias refers to

A.the standard against which subsequent adjustments are measured during negotiation.

B.the perspective or point of view that people use when they gather information and solve problems.

C.how easily information can be recalled and used to inform or evaluate a process of a decision.

D.a negotiator’s commitment to a course of action, even when that commitment constitutes irrational behavior on his/her part.

E.None of the above refer to irrational escalation of commitment.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

52.Which of the following is not a cognitive bias?

A.the irrational escalation of commitment

B.the belief that the issues under negotiation are all “fixed pie”

C.the process of anchoring and adjustment in decision making

D.the winner’s curse

E.All of the above are cognitive biases.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

53.The availability of information bias operates with which of the following statements?

A.when negotiators sometimes maintain commitment to a course of action even when that commitment constitutes irrational behavior on their part.

B.when thorough preparation, along with the use of a devil’s advocate or reality check, can help prevent errors.

C.when information that is presented in vivid, colorful, or attention-getting ways becomes easy to recall, and thus also becomes central and critical in evaluating events and options.

D.when the tendency of negotiators to believe that their ability to be correct or accurate is greater than is actually true.

E.when the tendency will often lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy, as follows: People who expect to be treated in a distributive manner will (1) be more likely to perceive the other party’s behavior as distributive, and (2) treat the other party in a more distributive manner.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

54.Which of the following cognitive biases can lead negotiators to discount the worth or validity of the judgment of others?

A.Irrational escalation of commitment

B.Mythical fixed-pie beliefs

C.Anchoring and adjustment

D.Availability of information

E.Overconfidence

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

55.The Endowment Effect

A.is making attributions to the person or the situation.

B.is drawing conclusions from small sample sizes.

C.is negotiators believing that their ability to be correct or accurate is greater than actually true.

D.is the tendency to overvalue something you own or believe you possess.

E.is none of the above in describing the Endowment Effect.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

56.Reactive devaluation

A.leads negotiators to minimize the magnitude of a concession made by a disliked other.

B.leads to reduced willingness to respond with a concession of equal size.

C.may be minimized by maintaining a more objective view of the process.

D.can lead to motivation to seek even more once a concession has been made.

E.All of the above are elements of reactive devaluation.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

57.The best way to manage perceptual and cognitive biases is:

A.to be aware that they exist.

B.to participate in group discussions.

C.to tell people about the bias.

D.complete a questionnaire.

E.All of the above help manage biases but may not be enough in and of themselves.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

58.The distinction between mood and emotion is based on which of the following characteristics?

A.specificity

B.intensity

C.duration

D.all of the above

E.none of the above

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

59.Negative emotions may lead parties to

A.more integrative processes.

B.escalate the conflict.

C.promote persistence.

D.define the situation as integrative.

E.more integrative outcomes.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

60.Which of the following statements about how emotion plays a part in negotiation is accurate?

A.Negotiations only create negative emotions.

B.Positive feelings do not promote persistence.

C.Negative feelings may create positive outcomes.

D.Positive emotion may result from impasse.

E.Negative emotions do not undermine a negotiator’s ability to analyze a situation accurately.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Short Answer Questions

61.Define perception.

The process of screening, selecting, and interpreting stimuli so that they have meaning to the individual.

62.Define perceptual distortion by generalization.

Perceptual distortion by generalization occurs when small amounts of perceptual information are used to draw large conclusions about individuals.

63.What is stereotyping?

Stereotyping occurs when attributes are assigned to an individual solely on the basis of his or her membership in a particular social or demographic group.

64.How does projection occur?

Projection occurs when people assign to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves and it arises out of a need to protect one’s own self-concept.

65.A key issue in perception and negotiation is framing. What is framing?

A frame is the subjective mechanism through which people evaluate and make sense out of situations, leading them to pursue or avoid subsequent actions.

66.How are frames critical in negotiations?

Because how parties frame and define a negotiating issue or problem is a clear and strong reflection of what they define as central and critical to negotiating objectives, what their expectations and preferences are for certain possible outcomes, what information they seek and use to argue their case, the procedures they use to try to present their case, and the manner in which they evaluate the outcomes actually achieved.

67.How does an outcome frame function in an environmental dispute?

An outcome frame is a party’s predisposition to achieving a specific result or outcome from the negotiation. To the degree that a negotiator has a specific, preferred outcome he or she wants to achieve, the dominant frame may be to focus all strategy, tactics, and communication toward getting that outcome. Parties who have a strong outcome frame are more likely to engage primarily in distributive (win-lose or lose-lose) negotiations than in other types of negotiations.

68.Why are mismatches in frames between parties sources of conflicts?

Such mismatches cause conflict and ambiguity, which may either create misunderstanding, lead to conflict escalation and even stalemate, or lead one or both parties to “reframe” the conflict into frames that are more compatible and that may lead to resolution. For highly polarized disputes, mutual reframing may not occur without the help of a third party.

69.List the five concepts from Chinese culture, as identified by C. Tinsley that those attempting to negotiate in China should recognize.

Social linkage, harmony, roles, reciprocal obligations, and face.

70.What role do frames play in the way they are constructed so that bargainers define problems and courses of action jointly through their talk?

Frames are shaped by conversations that the parties have with each other about the issues in the bargaining mix. Although both parties may approach the discussion with initial frames that resemble the categories described earlier, the ongoing interaction between them shapes the discussion as each side attempts to argue from his or her own perspective or counter argue against the other’s perspective.

71.How do multiple agenda items operate to shape issue development?

Although parties usually have one or two major objectives, priorities, or core issues, there are often a number of lesser or secondary items. When brought into the conversation, these secondary concerns often transform the conversation about the primary issues.

72.Define cognitive biases.

Systematic errors made when processing information.

73.Explain “Irrational Escalation of Commitment.”

Negotiators sometimes maintain commitment to a course of action, even when that commitment constitutes irrational behavior on their part. Once a course of action is decided, negotiators often seek supportive (confirming) evidence for that choice, while ignoring or failing to seek disconfirming evidence.

74.What can help prevent errors of anchoring and adjustment?

Thorough preparation along with the use of a devil’s advocate or reality check.

75.Both risk-averse and risk-seeking framing is part of what theory?

Prospect theory.

76.What are the two things to keep in mind about the effect of frames on risk in negotiation (according to Neale and Bazerman)?

(1) negotiators are not usually indifferent to risk, but (2) they should not necessarily trust their intuitions regarding it. In other words, negotiators may overreact to a perceived loss when they might react more positively to the same situation if it is framed as a perceived gain. Hence, as a negotiator you must “avoid the pitfalls of being framed while, simultaneously, understanding positively and negatively framing your opponent”.

77.In negotiation, when does the availability bias operate?

When information that is presented in more vivid, colorful, or attention-getting ways becomes easier to recall and thus also becomes more central and critical in evaluating events and options.

78.What is the best remedy for the winner’s curse?

Prevent it from occurring. Thorough investigation and preparation provides negotiators with independent verification of the worth of the settlement.

79.Describe the double-edged effect of overconfidence.

(1) Overconfidence can solidify the degree to which negotiators support positions or options that are incorrect or inappropriate; and (2) overconfidence can lead negotiators to discount the worth or validity of the judgments of others, in effect shutting down other parties as sources of information, interests, and options necessary for a successful integrative negotiation.

80.Define the fundamental attribution error.

When people “explain” another’s behavior, the tendency is to overestimate the causal role of personal or internal factors and underestimate the causal role of situational or external factors.

Chapter 07

Communication

Fill in the Blank Questions

1.In negotiations, language operates at two levels: the _____________ level (for proposals or offers) and the _____________ level (for semantics, syntax, and style).

________________________________________

2.The use of _________________________ is defined as when negotiators use positive words when speaking of their own positions, and negative words when referring to the other party’s position.

________________________________________

3.High levels of _________________________ denote comfort and competence with language, and low levels denote discomfort, anxiety, or inexperience.

________________________________________

4.Nonverbal communication—done well—may help negotiators achieve better outcomes through _____________ coordination.

________________________________________

5.Researchers have been examining the effects of channels in general, and _____________ in particular, on negotiation processes and outcomes during much of the past decade.

________________________________________

6._____________ questions cause attention, get information and start thinking.

________________________________________

7._________________________ involves receiving a message while providing no feedback to the sender about the accuracy or completeness of reception.

________________________________________

8._________________________ techniques allow negotiators to understand more completely the other party’s positions by actively arguing these positions until the other party is convinced that they are understood.

________________________________________

9.Achieving _____________ in negotiation is, in large part, making decisions to accept offers, to compromise priorities, to trade off across issues with the other party, or some combination of these elements.

________________________________________


True / False Questions

10.While the blend of integrative versus distributive communication content varies as a function of the issues being discussed, it is also clear that the content of communication is only partly responsible for negotiation outcomes.

True False

11.Researcher Thompson and her colleagues found that winners and losers evaluated their own outcomes equally when they did not know how well the other party had done, but if they found out that the other negotiator had done better, or was even pleased with his or her outcome, then negotiators felt less positive about their own outcome.

True False

12.Mitigating circumstances occur where negotiators explain their positions from a broader perspective, suggesting that while their current position may appear negative it derives from positive motives.

True False

13.Sitkin and Bies suggest that negotiators who use multiple explanations are more likely to have better outcomes and that the negative effects of poor outcomes can be mitigated by communicating explanations for them.

True False

14.Low verbal immediacy is intended to engage or compel the other party, while high verbal immediacy is intended to create a sense of distance or aloofness.

True False

15.High levels of language intensity are used to convey strong feelings in the recipient, while low intensity conveys weak feelings.

True False

16.A negotiator’s choice of words may only signal a position; it may never shape or predict it.

True False

17.Manageable questions cause difficulty, give information, and bring the discussion to a false conclusion.

True False

Multiple Choice Questions

18.Define exonerating circumstances.

A.Negotiators suggest that they had no choice in taking the positions they did.

B.Negotiators explain their positions from a broader perspective, suggesting that while their current position may appear negative it derives from positive motives.

C.Outcomes can be explained by changing the context.

D.Negotiators who use multiple explanations are more likely to have better outcomes.

E.None of the above can define exonerating circumstances.

19.Which of the following is not one of the five linguistic dimensions of making threats?

A.the use of polarized language

B.the conveyance of verbal immediacy

C.the degree of lexical diversity

D.the extent of low-power language style

E.All of the above are elements of the five linguistic dimensions of making threats.

20.Gibbons, Bradac, and Busch suggest that threats can be made more credible and more compelling by using

A.positively polarized descriptions of the other party.

B.low immediacy.

C.high intensity.

D.low verbal diversity.

E.None of the above can make threats more credible and compelling.

21.What are the most dominant contributors to breakdowns and failures in negotiation?

A.failures and distortions in perception, meaning, and feedback.

B.failures and distortions in perception, feedback, and behaviors.

C.failures and distortions in perception, communication, and framing.

D.failures and distortions in perception, cognition, and communication.

E.None of the above contribute to breakdowns and failures in negotiation.

22.Questions can be used to

A.manage difficult or stalled negotiations.

B.pry or lever a negotiation out of a breakdown or an apparent dead end.

C.assist or force the other party to face up to the effects or consequences of their behaviors.

D.collect and diagnose information.

E.Questions can be used for all of the above.

23.Which of the following are types of manageable questions?

A.close-out questions that force the other party into seeing things your way

B.leading questions that point toward an answer

C.impulse questions that occur “on the spur of the moment,” without planning

D.loaded questions that put the other party on the spot regardless of his/her answer

E.None of the above is types of manageable questions.

24.In passive listening

A.the receivers restate or paraphrase the sender’s message in their own language.

B.the receivers interject responses to keep communicators sending messages.

C.the receiver provides no feedback to the sender about the accuracy or completeness of reception.

D.senders may misinterpret acknowledgments as the receiver’s agreement with their position, rather than that they are simply receiving the message.

E.None of the above occurs in passive listening.

Short Answer Questions

25.A communication framework for negotiation is based on what assumptions?

26.Having a BATNA changes which things in a negotiation?

27.Define “reframing explanations.”

28.Define the “information is weakness” effect.

29.What are the five linguistic dimensions of making threats?

30.How can using the five linguistic dimensions make threats more credible and compelling?

31.Some nonverbal acts, called attending behaviors, are particularly important in connecting with another person during a coordinated interaction like negotiation. Why?

32.Define social bandwidth.

33.What three main techniques are available for improving communication in negotiation?

34.We know that role reversal can be a useful tool for improving communication and the accurate understanding and appreciation of the other party’s position in negotiation. But when is it useful?

35.As negotiations come to a close, what are the two key aspects of communication and negotiation that negotiators must attend to simultaneously?

Chapter 07 Communication Answer Key

Fill in the Blank Questions

1.In negotiations, language operates at two levels: the _____________ level (for proposals or offers) and the _____________ level (for semantics, syntax, and style).

logical; pragmatic

2.The use of _________________________ is defined as when negotiators use positive words when speaking of their own positions, and negative words when referring to the other party’s position.

polarized language

3.High levels of _________________________ denote comfort and competence with language, and low levels denote discomfort, anxiety, or inexperience.

lexical diversity

4.Nonverbal communication—done well—may help negotiators achieve better outcomes through _____________ coordination.

mutual

5.Researchers have been examining the effects of channels in general, and _____________ in particular, on negotiation processes and outcomes during much of the past decade.

e-mail

6._____________ questions cause attention, get information and start thinking.

Manageable

7._________________________ involves receiving a message while providing no feedback to the sender about the accuracy or completeness of reception.

Passive listening

8._________________________ techniques allow negotiators to understand more completely the other party’s positions by actively arguing these positions until the other party is convinced that they are understood.

Role-reversal

9.Achieving _____________ in negotiation is, in large part, making decisions to accept offers, to compromise priorities, to trade off across issues with the other party, or some combination of these elements.

closure

True / False Questions

10.While the blend of integrative versus distributive communication content varies as a function of the issues being discussed, it is also clear that the content of communication is only partly responsible for negotiation outcomes.

TRUE

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11.Researcher Thompson and her colleagues found that winners and losers evaluated their own outcomes equally when they did not know how well the other party had done, but if they found out that the other negotiator had done better, or was even pleased with his or her outcome, then negotiators felt less positive about their own outcome.

TRUE

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12.Mitigating circumstances occur where negotiators explain their positions from a broader perspective, suggesting that while their current position may appear negative it derives from positive motives.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

13.Sitkin and Bies suggest that negotiators who use multiple explanations are more likely to have better outcomes and that the negative effects of poor outcomes can be mitigated by communicating explanations for them.

TRUE

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14.Low verbal immediacy is intended to engage or compel the other party, while high verbal immediacy is intended to create a sense of distance or aloofness.

FALSE

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15.High levels of language intensity are used to convey strong feelings in the recipient, while low intensity conveys weak feelings.

TRUE

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16.A negotiator’s choice of words may only signal a position; it may never shape or predict it.

FALSE

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17.Manageable questions cause difficulty, give information, and bring the discussion to a false conclusion.

FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Multiple Choice Questions

18.Define exonerating circumstances.

A.Negotiators suggest that they had no choice in taking the positions they did.

B.Negotiators explain their positions from a broader perspective, suggesting that while their current position may appear negative it derives from positive motives.

C.Outcomes can be explained by changing the context.

D.Negotiators who use multiple explanations are more likely to have better outcomes.

E.None of the above can define exonerating circumstances.

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19.Which of the following is not one of the five linguistic dimensions of making threats?

A.the use of polarized language

B.the conveyance of verbal immediacy

C.the degree of lexical diversity

D.the extent of low-power language style

E.All of the above are elements of the five linguistic dimensions of making threats.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

20.Gibbons, Bradac, and Busch suggest that threats can be made more credible and more compelling by using

A.positively polarized descriptions of the other party.

B.low immediacy.

C.high intensity.

D.low verbal diversity.

E.None of the above can make threats more credible and compelling.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

21.What are the most dominant contributors to breakdowns and failures in negotiation?

A.failures and distortions in perception, meaning, and feedback.

B.failures and distortions in perception, feedback, and behaviors.

C.failures and distortions in perception, communication, and framing.

D.failures and distortions in perception, cognition, and communication.

E.None of the above contribute to breakdowns and failures in negotiation.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

22.Questions can be used to

A.manage difficult or stalled negotiations.

B.pry or lever a negotiation out of a breakdown or an apparent dead end.

C.assist or force the other party to face up to the effects or consequences of their behaviors.

D.collect and diagnose information.

E.Questions can be used for all of the above.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

23.Which of the following are types of manageable questions?

A.close-out questions that force the other party into seeing things your way

B.leading questions that point toward an answer

C.impulse questions that occur “on the spur of the moment,” without planning

D.loaded questions that put the other party on the spot regardless of his/her answer

E.None of the above is types of manageable questions.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

24.In passive listening

A.the receivers restate or paraphrase the sender’s message in their own language.

B.the receivers interject responses to keep communicators sending messages.

C.the receiver provides no feedback to the sender about the accuracy or completeness of reception.

D.senders may misinterpret acknowledgments as the receiver’s agreement with their position, rather than that they are simply receiving the message.

E.None of the above occurs in passive listening.

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Short Answer Questions

25.A communication framework for negotiation is based on what assumptions?

(1) The communication of offers is a dynamic process; (2) the offer process is interactive; and (3) a variety of internal and external factors drive the interaction and motivate a bargainer to change his or her offer.

26.Having a BATNA changes which things in a negotiation?

(1) Negotiators with attractive BATNAs set higher reservation prices for themselves; (2) negotiators whose counterparts had attractive BATNAs set lower reservation points for themselves; and (3) when both parties were aware of the attractive BATNA that one of the negotiators had, that negotiator received a more positive negotiation outcome.

27.Define “reframing explanations.”

Outcomes can be explained by changing the context (e.g. short-term pain for long term gain).

28.Define the “information is weakness” effect.

Negotiators who know the complete preferences of both parties will have more difficulty determining fair outcomes than will negotiators who do not have this information.

29.What are the five linguistic dimensions of making threats?

The use of polarized language, the conveyance of verbal immediacy, the degree of language intensity, the degree of lexical diversity, the extent of high-power language style.

30.How can using the five linguistic dimensions make threats more credible and compelling?

Threats can be made more credible and more compelling by negatively polarized descriptions of the other party and his or her position, high immediacy, high intensity, high lexical diversity, and a distinctively high-power style.

31.Some nonverbal acts, called attending behaviors, are particularly important in connecting with another person during a coordinated interaction like negotiation. Why?

Because they let the other know that you are listening and prepare the other party to receive your message.

32.Define social bandwidth.

The ability of a channel to carry and convey subtle social and relational cues from sender to receiver that go beyond the literal text of the message itself (see also Short, Williams, and Christie, 1976, who used the term “social presence”). Greater social bandwidth means that a channel can convey more cues having social, relational, or symbolic content.

33.What three main techniques are available for improving communication in negotiation?

The use of questions, listening, and role reversal.

34.We know that role reversal can be a useful tool for improving communication and the accurate understanding and appreciation of the other party’s position in negotiation. But when is it useful?

This tool may be most useful during the preparation stage of negotiation, or during a team caucus when things are not going well.

35.As negotiations come to a close, what are the two key aspects of communication and negotiation that negotiators must attend to simultaneously?

The avoidance of fatal mistakes and the achievement of satisfactory closure in a constructive manner.

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