Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition by Tom S. Garrison – Test Bank A+

 Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition by Tom S. Garrison – Test Bank A+

Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition by Tom S. Garrison – Test Bank A+

Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition by Tom S. Garrison – Test Bank A+
. The salinity of seawater is a measure of the amount of sodium and chloride in a water sample.


2. Heat and temperature both measure random vibrations of an atom or a molecule.


3. Red light is able to penetrate the water deepest.


4. Scientists believe the global change in greenhouse gases is making the surface ocean fresher in high latitudes.


5. The pycnocline can occur at the same range of depths as a halocline.


6. The most precise way to calculate the salinity of seawater is to evaporate a known weight of seawater and weigh the residue.


7. Frozen water is more dense than liquid water.


8. The density of seawater is affected by both temperature and salinity.


9. As carbon dioxide dissolves at the surface of the ocean, it combines chemically to form a weak acid called carbonic acid.


10. The geometry of the covalent bonds shared by the hydrogen atoms and oxygen atom in a water molecule account for its polarity.


Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

11. The term “salinity” refers to the total quantity of ____.

a.dissolved inorganic solids in the ocean
b.sodium chloride dissolved in the ocean
c.chlorine in one kilogram of water
d.chloride ions in the water

12. Which region of the ocean generally lacks a thermocline?

a.tropical region
b.temperate region
c.sub-tropical region
d.polar region

13. The property of water that accounts for the ability of liquid water to absorb large amounts of heat and change relatively little in temperature is called ____.

a.high heat capacity
b.latent heat of evaporation
c.latent heat of fusion
d.freezing coefficient

14. Which of the following statements about pH is true?

a.The pH scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
b.A pH of 3 is alkaline, a pH of 10 is acid.
c.An acid is a substance that combines with a hydrogen in solution.
d.On average, the pH of the ocean is moderately acidic.

15. Heat can be carried to the polar regions ____. ocean currents from the tropics the circumpolar ocean current water is transported away from the poles water is transported towards lower latitudes

16. The density of seawater will increase when ____.

a.the temperature increases
b.the salinity decreases
c.the salinity increases
d.dissolved gases increase

17. If our planet were without its ocean, but otherwise the same as it is today, surface temperatures would be ____.

a.more extreme
b.less extreme
c.about the same as we know today
d.impossible to tell without more information

18. The two most abundant elements (ions) dissolved in seawater are ____.

a.fluorine and iodine and silver
c.bromine and boron
d.sodium and chloride

19. Oxygen enters seawater ____.

a.through the respiration of animals a byproduct of photosynthesis and diffusion from the atmosphere a result of decomposition of plant and animal remains
d.through the oxidation of metal ions in seawater

20. Eighty calories of heat energy must be removed per gram of pure water at 0°C to form ice. This represents water’s ____.

a.latent heat of evaporation
b.latent heat of fusion
c.sensible heat

21. As carbon dioxide enters the ocean, it ____. used by animals for respiration
b.bonds to water molecules to increase the salinity of the ocean
c.forms carbonic acid
d.becomes a product of photosynthesis

22. Residence time is the ____.

a.same for all elements in the ocean
b.average length of time an element spends in the ocean
c.length of time it takes an element to dissolve in the ocean
d.same as mixing time

23. The components of ocean water whose quantities are less than 1 part per million (ppm) are considered ____.

a.excess volatiles
c.major constituents
d.trace elements

24. The wavelengths of light that penetrate deepest into the ocean are ____. and violet and yellow and red and blue

25. What type of bond enables water molecules to stick together?

a.covalent bond
b.molecular bond
c.hydrogen bond
d.atomic bond

26. What is the approximate mixing time of the world ocean?

a.about 1,600 years
b.about 160,000 years
c.about 160,000,000 years
d.about 1 million years

27. The thin layer of lighted water near the surface of the ocean is called the ____.

a.SOFAR layer
b.photic zone
c.aphotic zone

28. The principle of constant proportions states that the ____. amount of dissolved solids in the ocean is a constant
b.salinity of the ocean is a constant
c.excess volatile ratio of the ocean is a constant
d.ratio of major salts in samples of seawater from various places is a constant

29. The hydrogen atoms in a water molecule tend to bond to ____.

a.each other
b.oxygen atoms of another water molecule
c.hydrogen atoms of another water molecule
d.all positively charged ions

30. Which of the following statements is true regarding the ocean’s SOFAR layer?

a.SOFAR is an acronym for “sound finding and refraction.”
b.Ssound transmits for only a very short distance within this layer.
c.Sound velocity is at a minimum within this layer.
d.Sound velocity is at a maximum within this layer.

31. The deepest thermoclines can be found ____. temperate zones Antarctica the tropics
d.anywhere, depending on water salinity

32. At the present time, the salinity of the ocean seems to be ____.

a.increasing due to evaporation as the Earth warms up
b.decreasing due to several years of excessive rainfall
c.increasing due to pollution chemical equilibrium, where ions are added to the ocean at the same rate as they are being removed

33. The hydrogen bonds of water molecules account for which of the following?

a.Water can dissolve almost any substance.
b.Water has a low surface tension.
c.Water has a low boiling point.
d.Water has a low heat capacity.

34. The average salinity of the world ocean is about ____.


35. Which of the following statements is true regarding sound in the ocean?

a.Sound is scattered as it bounces off suspended particles in the water.
b.Sound intensity increases as it moves through the ocean because of absorption.
c.The speed of sound in the ocean is ten times less than the speed of sound in air.
d.The speed of sound in the ocean decreases as temperature increases.

36. About what percentage of the incoming sunlight that is intercepted by Earth actually reaches the surface to be converted to heat?


37. A zone in which the ocean’s salinity changes rapidly with increasing depth is called a ____.

a.a halocline
b.a thermocline
c.a pycnocline
d.a metacline

38. The amount of oxygen that seawater can hold in solution will be greater in ____.

a.colder water
b.warmer water
c.water with a higher salinity
d.water with less pressure and density

39. The bending of light or sound waves is referred to as ____.


40. The ocean is stratified with respect to ____.

c.amount of dissolved oxygen
d.amount of dissolved carbon dioxide

41. Describe how carbon dioxide acts as a buffer in seawater.

42. Describe the distribution of oxygen in the ocean from the surface to the deep sea.

43. Explain at least three processes that happen to light from the sun as it reaches the surface of the ocean.

44. What is meant by the mixing time of the ocean?

45. Describe the factors that affect the distance and the rate at which sound travels in the ocean. Would you expect sound to travel faster through warm or cold water? Shallow or deep? Why?

Answer Key

1. False

2. False

3. False

4. True

5. True

6. False

7. False

8. True

9. True

10. True

11. a

12. d

13. a

14. a

15. a

16. c

17. a

18. d

19. b

20. b

21. c

22. b

23. d

24. d

25. c

26. a

27. b

28. d

29. b

30. c

31. c

32. d

33. a

34. c

35. a

36. c

37. a

38. a

39. b

40. b

41. The proportion of carbon dioxide gas in the ocean is greater than that in the atmosphere, however CO2 still readily dissolves into seawater because it reacts with H2O to change chemical forms. In the ocean, CO2 combines chemically with water to form carbonic acid, (H2 CO3), which can further break down into bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonate (CO32-). While carbonic acid will lower pH (more acidic), formation of bicarbonate and carbonate increase pH (more alkaline). These chemical changes help to balance pH and hence act as a buffer. This chemical equilibrium is important for marine organisms because the carbonate ions are an important component of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), the compound that forms the skeletal material of many marine organisms (sponges, corals, snails, sea stars etc). An increase in CO2 ultimately reduces the amount of carbonate available to organisms for building their skeleton, another threat to their survival.

42. Oxygen is very unevenly distributed in the ocean. At the surface, oxygen readily diffuses into the ocean water from the atmosphere. In addition, photosynthesis activity by phytoplankton and other plants and algae releases oxygen. Therefore, the shallow waters of photic zone are rich in oxygen. Oxygen concentration decreases below the sunlit layer because of the respiration of marine animals and bacteria, and because of the oxygen consumed by the decay
of tiny dead organisms slowly sinking through the area. In the deep sea, oxygen levels increase slightly because deep sea water is carried from the surface by deep water currents that originated in the cold, oxygenated surface water of the poles. Additionally, fewer animals are present in the deep water to take up oxygen reaching these depths.

43. Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation (energy). As light from the sun hits the surface of the ocean, many different things happen. First, some of the light is reflected back into the atmosphere. Secondly, light wavelengths are absorbed by the water and the energy is converted to heat. Thirdly, some of the sun’s energy is absorbed by particles or by photosynthetic organisms living in the photic zone. Light is also scattered in the ocean. Scattering occurs as light is bounced around between water molecules/organisms and particles in the ocean. The result of all this activity is that light is attenuated very quickly in the ocean only reaching a couple hundred meters.

44. The ocean, as a vast body of water, is mixed by the constant action of winds and currents, which in turn mixes all of the oceans dissolved constituents. If constituent minerals remain in the ocean water for long periods of time, they will become evenly distributed throughout the ocean. The mixing time of the ocean is about 1,600 years, so all elements with a residence time longer than this (the “major” constituents) will disperse throughout the ocean. At this rate, the ocean has been mixed hundreds of thousands of times. The result of this long-term thorough mixing is the basis for the principle of constant proportions.

45. Sound is a form of energy transmitted by rapid pressure changes in an elastic medium. Like light, sound intensity decreases as it travels through the ocean due to scattering and absorption. However, sound can travel much greater distances through water than light. The speed of sound in seawater is about 1500 meters per second which is 5 times faster than in air. The speed of sound increases as temperature and pressure increases. Therefore, sound travels fast in warm surface waters and decreases with depth due to decreasing temperature. However, below about 1,000 meters, the effect of increasing pressure offsets temperature influences, causing the speed of sound to increase. The zone at which sound travels slowest (~1,000 meters) is called the minimum velocity layer. Sound can travel very far distances in this layer because sound waves generated in this layer are refracted toward layers of lower velocity, causing them to stay within this zone.

Chapter 7

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

1. Oxygen is the primary component of air.


2. Air is never completely dry.


3. The uneven heating of the surface of Earth results in atmospheric convection currents.


4. The most intense summer monsoons occur in Asia.


5. Hadley atmospheric circulation cells are found at the mid-latitudes.


6. Tropical cyclones are most common in the equatorial South Atlantic.


7. Superstorm Sandy was the result of a collision between a nor’easter and an extratropical cyclone.


8. Due to the Coriolis effect, objects are deflected to the right or clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.


9. Cyclonic storms can form within or between air masses (a large body of air with a uniform density throughout).


10. The change in the angle of the sun with latitude does not influence heating at Earth’s surface.


Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

11. The dependable surface winds of Earth centered at about 15° north and south latitudes are called ____.

a.the westerlies
b.the northerlies
c.the trade winds
d.the doldrum winds

12. Which of the following statements is true with regard to air?

a.Cold air can hold more water vapor than warm air.
b.Humid air is denser than dry air.
c.Warm air is less dense that cold air.
d.Water vapor in air can occupy up to 30 percent of air’s volume.

13. Which statement is true regarding the solar heating of Earth?

a.The heating of Earth is uniform across all latitudes.
b.Ice absorbs almost all of the solar energy that reaches the poles.
c.At the poles, more incoming solar radiation is absorbed than is reflected.
d.At the equator, more incoming solar radiation is absorbed than is reflected.

14. According to the atmospheric circulation model developed in the text, air tends to ____.

a.rise at 30° north and fall at 60° north
b.rise at 60° north and fall at 30° north
c.rise at 30° north and fall at 0° north
d.rise at 30° north and rise at 60° north

15. The most abundant gaseous components of Earth’s atmosphere are ____.

a.carbon dioxide and oxygen
b.nitrogen and hydrogen
c.nitrogen and carbon dioxide
d.nitrogen and oxygen

16. Which of the following conditions contributed most to the destructive nature of Hurricane Katrina?

a.a severe drop in temperature after the storm
b.very strong winds, up to 125 miles per hour
c.its pass over cooler waters before making landfall, causing the storm to strengthen exceptionally cold pocket of water over the Gulf of Mexico

17. Calm equatorial areas of low pressure are referred to as the ____.

a.doldrums latitudes winds

18. Most of the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina was due to ____.

a.heavy rains
b.a huge storm surge
c.the low winds
d.the high temperatures

19. The power for tropical cyclones comes from ____.

a.static electricity
b.warm and cool air masses colliding
c.the Coriolis effect
d.the condensation of warm, moist air

20. Sunlight strikes polar latitudes at a ____ angle, spreading the incoming heat over a large area.


21. When viewed from above, tropical cyclones rotate ____ in the Southern Hemisphere.

b.counterclockwise either direction depending on the storm

22. The volume of gases, water vapor, and airborne particles that envelops Earth is the ____.
c.Coriolis Effect

23. A ____ is a pattern of wind circulation that changes with the seasons.


24. The atmospheric circulation cells that operate in the mid-latitudes are called ________ cells.

c.polar wind

25. The boundary between two air masses of different density is called a ____.

a.Hadley line
c.Hadley cell

26. The area of high pressure and little surface wind, located at 30
latitude, is referred to as the ____.

a.subtropical low
b.intertropical convergence zone latitudes

27. One of the driving forces of atmospheric circulation is ____.


28. Winds generally move across the United States ____.

a.from north to south
b.from east to west
c.from south to north
d.from west to east

29. Tropical cyclones are also called ____.


30. When air masses come together ____.

a.very little weather activity results
b.a tropical cyclone forms
c.the denser air mass slides beneath the lighter air mass forming a front.
d.the lighter air mass slides beneath the denser air mass forming a storm surge

31. Warm air ____ and cool air ____.

a.expands and sinks; expands and rises
b.contracts and rises; expands and sinks
c.expands and rises; contracts and sinks
d.expands and rises; expands and sinks

32. If you were standing on top of a high mid-Pacific island at 15° north latitude, from which direction would you expect the wind to come? (Hint: don’t forget to consider the Coriolis effect!)


33. Seasons are caused by ____.

a.changes in the weather
b.annual variation in the energy output of the sun
c.Earth’s orbital tilt relative to the plane of its orbit around the sun
d.our being closer to the sun in summer

34. Weather may be defined as ____.

a.long-term temperature and rainfall trends
b.short-term, localized states of the atmosphere
c.long-term changes in the composition of the atmosphere
d.short-term changes in the composition of the atmosphere

35. Extratropical cyclones typically form ____.

a.near the equator high latitudes, at the north or south pole high latitudes, at the junction between the polar cells and the Ferrel cells the tropics

36. In the world model of atmospheric circulation, the ____ cells are located nearest the equator.


37. The turbulent layer of Earth’s atmosphere in which nearly all weather occurs is called the ____.


38. The Coriolis effect causes objects moving in the northern hemisphere to veer off course ___. the right, or clockwise when viewed from above the left, or counterclockwise when viewed from above an upward direction a downward direction

39. The long-term statistical sum of weather in a geographic region is called ____.
b.cyclonic circulation
c.the Coriolis Effect

40. There are ____ major atmospheric circulation cells in each hemisphere of Earth.


41. Explain the distribution of solar heating across Earth. How does it vary? How are these variations balanced?

42. Describe atmospheric convection.

43. What is a hurricane and how are they formed?

44. Explain the Coriolis Effect.

45. Explain how the relationship between the atmosphere and the ocean affects weather and climate.

Answer Key

1. False

2. True

3. True

4. True

5. False

6. False

7. False

8. True

9. True

10. False

11. c

12. c

13. d

14. b

15. d

16. b

17. a

18. b

19. d

20. a

21. a

22. b

23. a

24. b

25. d

26. c

27. a

28. d

29. c

30. c

31. c

32. d

33. c

34. b

35. c

36. d

37. d

38. a

39. d

40. b

41. Earth’s heat budget is fueled by the sun’s energy. On an average day, about half of the solar energy that reaches the upper atmosphere is absorbed at Earth’s surface. This heat is not evenly distributed, however. Sunlight striking polar latitudes spreads over a greater area and reflects back to space more than sunlight striking the tropical latitudes does. This is due to differences in the angle that the sun’s rays strike Earth in these areas–the sunlight strikes polar regions at a low angle, and it strikes tropical regions at a near-vertical angle. The tropical regions, therefore, receive more radiation than they re-radiate (or reflect), causing a surplus. The polar regions re-radiate more radiation than they receive, causing a deficit. However, ocean currents and air masses move excess heat from the tropics toward the poles, helping to equalize the heat imbalance. Over long periods of time, the total incoming heat to equals the total heat radiating into space, making Earth, as a whole, in thermal equilibrium.

42. The primary source of heat for the atmosphere and planet is the sun. The sun heats Earth unevenly causing most of the heat to be absorbed near the equator and less moving towards the poles. This difference in heat gain and heat loss drives the formation of convection cells that control Earth’s atmospheric circulation patterns. For example, at the equator, warm air rises and travels in cells towards higher latitudes. As the air cools, it becomes denser and sinks. This happens at around 30
north and south of the equator. The cool air moves back toward the lower latitudes to warm up and eventually rise again, completing the cycle.

43. A tropical cyclone is a great mass of warm, humid rotating air and a hurricane is a large tropical cyclone located in the North Atlantic and eastern Pacific. A hurricane is defined as a tropical cyclone that has winds of 119 km/hour or greater (74 mph). Hurricanes start as tropical depressions over warm water near the equator. The warm winds increase evaporation and the humid air rises high into the atmosphere. Coriolis Effect and pressure gradients begin to rotate the moisture. The rising air eventually cools and condenses forming thunderstorms, which releases some of the energy. As long as the storm remains over the warm ocean, it continues to draw moisture through evaporation adding to the strength of the hurricane.

44. The Coriolis Effect is a phenomenon that causes large objects or bodies (such as water or air) to be deflected off of their course. There are many variables that are involved in explaining the Coriolis Effect; a rotating Earth, non-stationary fluids such as the atmosphere or the ocean and the mass of the object. Coriolis Effect causes winds and water to follow a curved path because of the rotation of Earth. If there was no rotation, the fluid would just move in a straight line from an area of low pressure to high pressure. In the northern hemisphere, winds, for example, are deflected in a clockwise direction around pressure centers (i.e. they appear to veer to the right) and the opposite is true for the southern hemisphere. At the equator, the Coriolis effect is nonexistent.

45. The atmosphere and the ocean are tightly coupled. At the surface, atmospheric gases diffuse freely into the ocean and gasses from the ocean enter the atmosphere. Water that evaporates out of the ocean is moved around in the atmosphere by winds and then in many cases, delivered back to the ocean as precipitation. This interaction plays a significant role in distributing heat around the planet, ultimately dictating weather and global climate conditions.

Only 0 units of this product remain

You might also be interested in