Ethics And The Conduct Of Business 7th Edition By Boatright – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Ethics And The Conduct Of Business 7th Edition By Boatright – Test Bank A+

Ethics And The Conduct Of Business 7th Edition By Boatright – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Ethics And The Conduct Of Business 7th Edition By Boatright – Test Bank A+

Chapter 6
Privacy
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Although privacy is a relatively recent concept—dating in American law to the 1890s—public concern is clearly increasing, primarily in response to privacy-invading technologies. The problems facing employees, consumers, and Internet users are similar, as are the solutions. There is greater agreement, however, on the ends than on the means, but even the ends are in dispute. Americans say that they value privacy, and yet they give up a great deal for convenience and material gain. Without question, the technologies that threaten privacy have brought us many benefits. Finding the right means is a great challenge to business firms which must meet employee and consumer expectations as they utilize new technologies. More than many business ethics problems, protecting privacy requires a coordinated solution involving many parties. Until a solution is found, though, the focus of businesses will remain on developing and implementing
privacy policies.
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
• I
dentify the arenas in which privacy concerns have come under increasing scrutiny.
• E
xplain the ethical meaning of the concept of privacy.
• E
xplain utilitarian and Kantian arguments for the protection of privacy.
SUGGESTED DISCUSSION PROMPTS
1.
What are some definitions of privacy? Is privacy a right unto itself, or is it a special case of a more general kind of right?
2.
Which do you think is the most sound ethical basis on which to defend privacy?
3.
To what extent do you think companies’ gathering of personal employee information is justifiable?
4.
Why is it ethically objectionable for companies to share employee information with outsiders?
5.
In what ways has privacy on the internet become a major concern?
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
18
ASSESSMENT FOR IN-CLASS USE
The following assessment has been created for in-class use. This assessment may be available through Pearson’s MyTest website—allowing for easy access for creating your own tests. This assessment may also be offered in a Blackboard/Angel/D2L/WebCT package. Please contact your local Pearson sales representative to learn about the options available. Visit, http://www.pearsonhighered.com....
Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the BEST possible answer for each of the following.
1.
The Freedom of Information Act of 1966 had the unforeseen consequence of .
A.
making government more transparent in their dealings
B.
making corporations more transparent in their dealings
C.
compromising confidentiality about private individuals
D.
making information more readily available to individuals
Answer: C
2.
Employers feel the need to monitor their employees at work primarily .
A.
to influence them
B.
to keep them safe
C.
to be competitive
D.
to maintain productivity
Answer: D
3.
Employers may want to use psychological testing on employees primarily .
A.
to gauge suitability for a job
B.
to detect potential sources of trouble
C.
for statistical reporting purposes
D.
to test for intelligence
Answer: A
4.
One of the biggest issues in consumer privacy is when .
A.
companies find out what customers most like
B.
companies sell their collected information to other companies
C.
companies use databases to store customer information
D.
companies keep personal information on employees
Answer: B
5.
The ethical meaning of privacy originates from .
A.
the Bill of Rights
B. t
he idea of freedom of thought
C.
the twentieth century
D.
the use of contraceptives
Answer: C
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
19
6.
Which of the following is the best definition of privacy?
A.
when certain facts are not known to others
B.
when information about ourselves is under our control
C.
to be free of to make choices
D.
to be free of supervision
Answer: A
7
. Utilitarian arguments for privacy focus on .
A
. the rights of individuals
B
. the harm in violation
C.
breaking the law
D.
justice
Answer: B
8.
A Kantian argument for privacy focuses on .
A.
not harming people
B.
contractual obligations
C.
violations of the law
D.
a setting of trust
Answer: D
9.
An example of an acceptable use of employees’ medical information would be .
A.
for reporting to the government
B.
to determine eligibility for employment
C.
for determining benefits that would be needed
D.
to gather companywide statistics to share with employees
Answer: C
10
. One way to protect people’s privacy on the internet is to .
A.
a. allow them to opt out of information collecting
B.
b. give them choices as to what will be done with their information
C.
c. only share information that people voluntarily provide
D.
d. only use information in a way that helps the free market
Answer: A
Essay Questions
1.
Describe ways in which the right of privacy to be protected has been argued.
2.
What are some reasons that employers collect personal employee information? In what ways might such collection raise ethical problems?
3.
What are some principles of internet privacy, and how are they implemented?
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
20
Chapter 7
Discrimination and Affirmative Action
CHAPTER SUMMARY
The ethical issues surrounding discrimination and affirmative action are very problematic. Rights figure prominently in these issues—both the rights of people who have been victimized by discrimination and the rights of people who now bear the burden of correcting past wrongs. Considerations of justice also play a role. Justice requires that people who have been wronged be compensated in some way and that all people be treated equally, but the concepts of just compensation and of equal opportunity or equal treatment are subject to differing interpretations. Finally, arguments based on utility provide strong support for antidiscrimination and affirmative-action policies, although the benefits of any given policy must be weighed against the harms. The ideal of a nondiscriminatory society is clear, but the pathway to it is strewn with formidable obstacles.
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
• I
dentify sources of discrimination.
• E
xplain the issues surrounding sexual harassment, and why it is a form of discrimination.
• E
xplain ethical approaches to identifying and avoiding discrimination.
• D
escribe the various justifications that have been made for affirmative action
SUGGESTED DISCUSSION PROMPTS
1.
Define discrimination. What forms of discrimination are unethical?
2.
Is sexual harassment a form of discrimination, or should it be identified as something else?
3.
What causes cases of sexual harassment? Can it be prevented?
4.
What do you think provides the best reason for thinking that discrimination is wrong?
5.
Is affirmative action a sufficient measure for correcting discrimination? Is it necessary?
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
21
ASSESSMENT FOR IN-CLASS USE
The following assessment has been created for in-class use. This assessment may be available through Pearson’s MyTest website—allowing for easy access for creating your own tests. This assessment may also be offered in a Blackboard/Angel/D2L/WebCT package. Please contact your local Pearson sales representative to learn about the options available. Visit, http://www.pearsonhighered.com....
Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the BEST possible answer for each of the following.
1.
Discrimination is widely considered unethical largely because it is .
A.
unjust
B.
illegal
C.
harmful
D.
merited
Answer: A
2.
It is not generally illegal to discriminate on the basis of .
A.
sex
B.
age
C.
ability
D.
nationality
Answer: C
3.
Employers can be found guilty of discrimination .
A.
only if they intend to discriminate
B.
any time an employee feels discriminated against
C.
if the effects were just as though discrimination had occurred
D.
even if they have not transgressed a particular law
Answer: C
4.
Religious discrimination is unique in that it that can involve .
A.
prejudice
B. s
pecific practices
C.
things beyond an employer’s control
D.
abilities
Answer: B
5.
Sexual harassment can be a form of discrimination .
A.
when it involves prejudice
B.
only when it is a condition for employment
C.
any time sex is not a qualification
D
. when it involves a hostile work environment
Answer: D
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
22
6
. A utilitarian in opposition to discrimination would say that discrimination is wrong because .
A.
it makes productivity suffer
B.
it violates the right to privacy
C.
it violates human dignity
D.
it is unfair
Answer: A
7.
A nonconsequentialist might argue against discrimination on the basis of .
A.
the disadvantage it gives to minorities
B.
the harm that it does to society
C.
its damage to the economy
D.
its being unjust
Answer: D
8.
Affirmative action plans are generally aimed towards .
A.
achieving certain quotas
B.
rectifying past injustices
C.
giving greater opportunities
D.
correcting prejudice
Answer: C
9.
One who supports affirmative action on the basis of compensation would argue on the basis of .
A.
fairness
B.
justice
C.
benefits
D.
consequences
Answer: B
10
. On what basis might one argue that affirmative action hurts those it is designed to help?
A.
It ensures minorities are hired on a basis other than their qualifications.
B.
People can always find ways to get around affirmative action policies.
C.
Affirmative action programs could give minorities too many positions.
D.
It is unjust to those who are qualified but not minorities.
Answer: A
Essay Questions
1.
Why is sexual harassment often considered a form of discrimination?
2.
How do people draw the line between job specifications that require discrimination on the one hand, and unfair discrimination on the other?
3.
Describe a case of affirmative action and the type of discrimination that it would be
intended to overcome.

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