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**KEY PRINCIPLES OF QUANTITATIVE DESIGN**

**Research study designs **(p. 144)

- In research studies using experimental designs, the purpose is to
**examine causality.**- explain relationships and differences among variables..
- observe a phenomenon after it has been manipulated..
- predict relationships among variables..

**Research study designs **(p. 144)

- In research studies using nonexperimental designs, the purpose is to
- explain relationships and differences among variables.
- predict relationships and differences among variables.
- describe a phenomenon in detail.
**all of the above.**

**Research study designs **(p. 144)

- The major difference between experimental and nonexperimental designs is the role of the

**Research study designs **(p. 144)

- A type of quantitative study is the ____________, which examines outcomes across a number of studies. (p. 124)
- case study
- controlled trial
- descriptive study
**meta-analysis**

**Research study designs **(p. 144)

- The researcher actively manipulates the independent (causal) variable to determine its effect on the dependent (outcome) variable when using a(n)

**experimental design**- meta-analysis
- nonexperimental design
- control group

**Quantitative designs **(p. 145)

- Causality is the ____________ that exists between a cause and its effect.
- balance
**relationship**- purpose
- outcome

**Quantitative designs **(p. 145)

- When outcomes have many causes, the situation is known as

**Quantitative designs **(p. 146)

- Probability is how likely it is that the effect of the dependent variable was caused by the ____________ variable.
**independent**- evaluated
- manipulated
- original

**Quantitative designs **(p. 146)

- Manipulation is the ____________, or treatment, that is being tested in an experimental study.
- medication
- proposition
**intervention**- maturation

**Quantitative designs **(p. 146)

- In health-related experimental designs, the group of subjects receiving the standard of care but not the intervention is the

**control group.**- intervention group.
- total population.
- total sample.

**Quantitative designs **(p. 146)

- Variables that confuse the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable are

- control variables.
**extraneous variables.**- random variables.
- within-group variables.

**Quantitative designs **(p. 147)

- When extraneous variables influence and distort the relationship between the independent variable (IV) and the dependent variable (DV) so that the findings do not reflect a true relationship between the IV and the DV, the result is

**Quantitative designs **(p. 147)

- What is an effective way to control extraneous variables?
- Research purpose
- Experimental treatment
- Informed consent
**Randomization**

**Quantitative designs **(p. 147)

- A method of sampling in which all subjects in the sample have an equal chance of being assigned to either the treatment group or the control group is

- between-group design.
- within-group design.
**random assignment.**- random sampling.

**Quantitative designs **(p. 147)

- A method of sampling in which all people in the population of interest have an equal chance of being selected to be included in the study is

- selected sampling.
- within-group sampling.
- random assignment.
**random sampling.**

**Validity **(p. 149)

- Study validity refers to
- the accuracy and peer-reviewed approval of the research design.
- the absence of forces that can alter the results of the study.
- the degree to which the researcher can prove that the results are accurate.
**the ability to accept that the research results are logical, reasonable, and justifiable based on the evidence presented.**

**Validity **(p. 150)

- The degree to which one can conclude that the independent variable, rather than extraneous variables, produced the change in the dependent variable is known as

- effectiveness.
**internal validity.**- statistical validity.
- Reliability.

**Validity **(pp. 150, 153)

- External validity refers to

- the degree to which confounding variables interfere with the study outcomes.
**the degree to which the findings can be generalized to other subjects, settings, and times.**- the influence of a specific event on the dependent variable.
- the relationship between the independent and dependent variable.

**Validity **(p. 151)

- A researcher interested in studying the effect of hearing loss on self-esteem in adolescents in grades 6 through 12 would need to be aware of what type of threat to internal validity?
- Testing
- History
- Mortality
**Maturation**

**Validity **(p. 151)

- Which type of bias occurs when the dependent variable is influenced by changes made in the way variables are measured?

- Threat of history
**Threat of instrumentation**- Threat of maturation
- Threat of selection bias

**Validity **(p. 154)

- In which type of designs do neither subjects nor individuals administering the treatments know if subjects are receiving experimental interventions or the standard of care?
**Double-blind experimental**- Longitudinal (prospective)
- Quasi-experimental
- Nonexperimental

**Validity **(p. 153)

- The ____________ occurs when changes noted in the dependent variable can be a result of subject reactivity and not a result of the independent variable.
- selection effect
- Type II effect
**Hawthorne effect**- placebo effect

*Short answer/fill-in*

**Categorizing designs according to time**

- Also referred to as “ex post facto,” ____________ designs start with the dependent variable and look back in time to determine possible causative factors.

Answer: **retrospective **(p. 156)

- Nonexperimental designs in which data is gathered from a group of subjects at only one point in time are known as ____________ studies.

Answer: **cross-sectional **(p. 157)

- When more than one group of subjects is studied at the same point in time, this nonexperimental study type is a ____________.

Answer: **cohort comparison **(p. 157)

- Also known as prospective designs, ____________ designs gather data about subjects at more than one point in time. They can be either ____________ or nonexperimental.

Answer: **longitudinal, experimental **(p. 158)

- In a follow-up study, subjects are followed into the ____________.

Answer: **future **(p. 158)

- A study in which subjects receive more than one experimental treatment and then are followed over time is based on the ____________ design.

Answer: **crossover **(p. 159)

**CHAPTER 7**

**QUANTITATIVE DESIGNS: USING NUMBERS TO PROVIDE EVIDENCE**

*Multiple Choice*

**Nonexperimenal designs **(p. 175)

- Researchers use nonexperimental, descriptive designs for a variety of purposes, including

- for early stages of theory development.
- when it is not practical to conduct an experiment on the subject.
- neither A nor B.
**both A and B.**

**Experimental designs **(p. 168)

- Why would a researcher need to be concerned about the administration of a pretest and posttest in a research study?

- It is a threat to external validity.
**It is a threat to internal validity.**- It is a form of selection bias.
- It is a form of maturation.

**Experimental designs **(p. 167)

- Which design type is considered to be the “classic” experimental design in which subjects are randomized into either the intervention group or the control group and measured before and after the intervention is implemented?

- Solomon four group
**Two group pretest-posttest**- Multiple group
- Two group posttest only

**Experimental designs **(p. 169)

- Which design type allows researchers to manipulate more than one intervention during the same experiment?

- Multiple group
- Crossover
**Factorial**- Quasi-experimental

**Experimental designs **(pp. 165-175)

- The three major categories of quantitative research designs are
- experimental, quasi-experimental, descriptive
**experimental, quasi-experimental, nonexperimental**- experimental, nonexperimental, exploratory
- experimental, descriptive, exploratory

**Quasi-experimental designs **(p. 171)

- Which design type is similar to experimental design but does not meet one of the other essential components of experimental design, lacking either randomization or a control group?
- Descriptive
- Crossover
- Factorial
**Quasi-experimental**

**Quasi-experimental designs **(p. 171)

- The advantage of using a quasi-experimental design in nursing is

- smaller sample size.
**to provide beginning evidence of causality.**- descriptive statistics can be used to analyze data.
- the design is stronger in determining causality.

**Nonexperimental designs (pp. 176-177)**

- Which type of design would be used by researchers interested in establishing relationships between two or more variables, for example, the type of coping used by caregivers of older adults having cognitive changes and the occurrence of elder abuse?
**correlational**- quasi-experimental
- multi-experimental
- factorial

**CHAPTER 6**

*Multiple choice*

- A
- D
- C
- D
- A
- B
- D
- A
- C
- A
- B
- D
- D
- C
- D
- D
- B
- B
- D
- B
- A
- C

*Short answer/Fill-in*

- retrospective
- cross-sectional
- cohort comparison
- longitudinal, experimental
- future
- crossover

**CHAPTER 7**

*Multiple choice*

- D
- B
- B
- C
- B
- D
- B
- A

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