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## Evolutionary Analysis 5th Edition Herron Freeman – Test Bank A+

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Evolutionary Analysis 5th Edition Herron Freeman – Test Bank A+

Evolutionary Analysis, 5e (Herron/Freeman)
Chapter 6 Mendelian Genetics in Populations I: Selection and Mutation
1) A hypothetical population has two alleles for a gene: A and a. In a random sample of 100
individuals, 20 are homozygous for a, 20 are homozygous for A, and 60 are heterozygous. What
is the frequency of A?
A) 20%
B) 25%
C) 50%
D) 60%
E) 80%
Section: 6.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
2) In the mating of an Aa female and an Aa male, the genotypic outcome predicted by a Punnett
square is ________.
A) three-quarters Aa and one-quarter AA
B) one-half AA and one-half aa
C) three-quarters Aa and one-quarter aa
D) one-quarter AA, one-quarter aa, and one-half Aa
E) All offspring will have the genotype Aa
Section: 6.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
3) The probability that two mutually exclusive events will occur is calculated by ________.
A) multiplying the probability of each individual event
B) adding the probability of each individual event
C) adding the probability of each individual event and subtracting 1
D) adding the probability of each individual event and multiplying by 2
Section: 6.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
4) If a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which of the following statements is
correct?
A) Each allele will be present at a 50% frequency.
B) Allele frequencies can vary from generation to generation, but the average frequency must
remain constant.
C) The size of the population must remain constant from generation to generation.
D) Allele frequencies must remain the same from generation to generation.
E) The rate of change of allele frequencies must be greater than 1 percent from generation to
generation.
Section: 6.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
2
5) The null hypothesis, which demonstrates that evolution is not occurring from generation to
generation, is known as the ________ model.
A) Bateman
B) Hardy-Weinberg
C) Fisher stability
D) Mendelian stability
Section: 6.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
6) In large populations, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle can be used to determine
whether evolution is occurring. For instances where allelic frequencies are indicated by p and q,
the resultant genotype frequencies are indicated by which of the following equations?
A) p2 + q2
B) p2 + pq + q2
C) p2 + 2pq + q2
D) p2 + (pq)2 + q2
Section: 6.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
7) Cavener and Clegg (1981) demonstrated natural selection by observing the cumulative change
in allele frequencies in populations of Drosophila melanogaster that were subjected to high
levels of ________.
A) mercury
B) carbon dioxide
C) alcohol
D) sugar
E) nitrous oxide
Section: 6.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
8) If there were a high allele frequency for the CCR5-32 coreceptor, and the rate of infection
with HIV was high as well, one would expect the frequency of the CCR5-32 coreceptor allele to
________.
A) remain the same due to the lethality of AIDS
B) remain the same due to the population maintaining Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
C) fall quickly due to heterozygote selection
D) rise quickly and confer resistance on a large part of the population
Section: 6.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
3
9) In experiments with laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster, Mukai and Burdick
(1959) observed that a lethal allele maintained a higher than expected frequency. The
explanation for this observation is that, at equilibrium, the selective advantage of the lethal allele
when it occurs in heterozygotes balances the disadvantage of the allele in homozygotes, and is
termed ________.
A) equilibrium distribution
B) underdominance
C) allelic frequency dependence
D) overdominance
E) terminal dominance
Section: 6.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
10) In the study of Gigord and colleagues using Elderflower orchids, the allele frequencies of
yellow and purple flowers varied such that when the yellow allele started to become rare, the
reproductive success of purple flowers decreased and the reproductive success of yellowflowered
individuals increased in a process known as ________.
A) overdominance
B) frequency-dependent selection
C) underdominance
D) Hardy-Weinberg stabilization
E) frequency depression
Section: 6.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
11) The point at which the rate that a deleterious allele is being eliminated from a population by
natural selection is in equilibrium with the rate at which the deleterious allele is being replaced
by a new mutation is termed ________.
A) mutation-dependent selection
B) frequency-dependent selection
C) mutation-dependent equilibrium
D) mutation-selection balance
Section: 6.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
4
12) Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common genetic diseases among individuals of European
ancestry, and affects one newborn in approximately how many?
A) 10
B) 100
C) 250
D) 2,500
E) 10,000
Section: 6.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
13) Cystic fibrosis is caused by a recessive loss-of-function mutation that encodes a protein
called the ________.
A) cystic fibrosis transmembrane ion channel
B) chloride ion transmembrane conductance regulator
C) cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
D) cystic fibrosis ion channel regulator
Section: 6.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
14) An analysis showing the heterozygote superiority of the ΔF508 allele of CFTR demonstrates
increased resistance to infections with the bacteria that cause ________.
A) pneumonia
B) typhoid fever
C) scarlet fever
D) bubonic plague
E) tuberculosis
Section: 6.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
15) Chun-Hong Chen and colleagues (2007) designed a new gene that would carry a strong
selective advantage and confer the resistance to malaria on free-living mosquitoes. The gene was
termed Medea, and this acronym stands for which of the following?
A) Maternal-effect depleted embryonic activation
B) Maternal-effect dominant embryonic activation
C) Maternal-effect deleterious embryonic arrest
D) Maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest
Section: 6.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
5
16) A group of interbreeding individuals and their offspring is known as a(n) ________.
Section: 6.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
17) The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle is known as the null hypothesis. List the five
assumptions that are required for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Answer: no selection, no mutation, no chance events, no migration, and mating occurs randomly
Section: 6.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
18) In biallelic populations, where allelic frequencies are indicated by p and q, the resultant
genotype frequencies are indicated by what algebraic formula?
Answer: p2 + 2pq + q2
Section: 6.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
19) The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle is often referred to as the ________, [two words]
which indicates that if a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, that population is not
evolving.
Section: 6.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
20) The statistical test used to determine whether the quantitative allele frequency results of an
experiment fall within reasonable limits, or whether the null hypothesis is violated and the
measured outcomes are significantly different than those expected is called the ________. [three
words]
Answer: chi-square test (χ2)
Section: 6.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension, Application/Analysis
21) Two processes that can maintain rare or deleterious alleles in populations are ________ [four
words] and ________. [two words]
Answer: negative frequency-dependent selection; heterozygote superiority
Section: 6.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
22) Although selection tends to eliminate deleterious alleles from populations, these mutations
often persist because they are frequently created again. The rate at which deleterious alleles are
being eliminated by selection is exactly equal to the rate at which new copies are being created
by creation is termed ________. [three words]
Section: 6.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
6
23) Cystic fibrosis in humans is caused by a recessive loss-of-function mutation in a locus on
chromosome 7 that encodes for a protein called ________. [five words]
Answer: cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)
Section: 6.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
24) Chun-Hong Chen and colleagues (2007) designed a new gene that would carry a strong
selective advantage and confer the resistance to malaria on free-living mosquitoes. What was the
acronym given this gene, and what does the acronym stand for?
Answer: The gene was termed Medea, and this acronym stands for maternal-effect dominant
embryonic arrest.
Section: 6.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
25) Explain the consequence of overdominance in maintaining a deleterious allele in a
population as it relates to genetic diversity.
Answer: Overdominance, or heterozygote superiority, helps prevent potentially deleterious
alleles from being lost in a population. Because the selective advantage of the deleterious allele
in heterozygotes is balanced by the disadvantage of maintaining the allele in the homozygous
state, allelic diversity within the population is maintained. This diversity enables more favorable
responses to changing selective pressures of the environment.
Section: 6.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
26) Briefly describe the structure of compound chromosomes, and explain how their behavior
during meiosis can be used to study underdominance.
Answer: Compound chromosomes are homologous chromosomes that have exchanged entire
arms; one homolog therefore contains two copies of one arm, whereas the other homolog
contains two copies of the other arm. During meiosis, four types of gametes are produced in
equal numbers; gametes with both homologous chromosomes, gametes with just one member of
the pair, gametes with the other member of the pair, or gametes containing no members of the
homologous pair. Heterozygotes produced are therefore not viable, so the resultant populations
consist of only homozygotes.
Section: 6.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
27) List the five assumptions made by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle that are
necessary to illustrate that evolution is NOT occurring from generation to generation, and
provide a one- or two- sentence explanation of the importance of each assumption.
Section: 6.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
7
28) Discuss the experiments Cavener and Clegg (1981) performed in order to demonstrate that
natural selection occurred by observing the cumulative change in allele frequencies in
populations of Drosophila melanogaster that were subjected to high levels of alcohol. Be sure to
discuss the methodology employed, and the significance of the AdhS and AdhF alleles in
reproductive success.
Section: 6.2
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
29) Explain the significance of the experiments of Mukai and Burdick (1959) with laboratory
populations of Drosophila melanogaster using the V (viable) and L (lethal) alleles. Be sure to
explain their observation that a lethal allele was maintained at a higher than expected frequency,
and the evolutionary significance of overdominance in these populations.
Section: 6.3
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
30) Explain the composition of the Drosophila melanogaster compound chromosomes used in
the experiments of Foster and colleagues (1972), the mechanism by which these chromosomes
segregate during meiosis, and the evolutionary implications of the strong underdominance that
was observed.
Section: 6.3
Skill: Application/Analysis

1
Evolutionary Analysis, 5e (Herron/Freeman)
Chapter 7 Mendelian Genetics in Populations II: Migration, Drift, & Nonrandom Mating
1) The assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle include all of the following
except ________.
A) random mating
B) no migration
C) limited population size
D) All of these are assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg.
Section: 7.1/7.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
2) Gene flow through migration ________.
A) has no effect on allele frequencies of populations
B) can go only in one direction
C) may have the largest impact on small populations, such as those on islands
D) maintains the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
Section: 7.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
3) Suppose a founding population carries an allelic frequency not typical of the original
population. Which of the following effects would most likely lead to homogenization?
A) genetic drift within the founding population
B) random mating within the founding population
C) no mutations within either population
D) migration between the original and founding populations
E) None of the above.
Section: 7.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
2
4) Data in the accompanying figure shows the results of allelic frequency analysis of an insectpollinated
plant whose seeds are transported by wind and water, therefore making this plant one
of the first colonizers of new islands. The data―particularly the lower variation of allele
frequencies of intermediate-aged populations―supports the hypothesis that ________.
A) genetic drift tends to homogenize populations
B) migration tends to homogenize populations
C) gene flow tends to homogenize populations
D) A, B, and C are all accurate.
E) B and C are both accurate.
Section: 7.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
3
5) Figure 7.6 from your text, shown below, is a set of histograms showing the frequency of
different color patterns of water snakes of Lake Erie (Nerodia sipedon). Type A snakes are
unbanded, Type B are strongly banded, and Types C and D are intermediates. Given that natural
selection favors unbanded snakes on the islands, how can you account for the
presence/perpetuation of banded snakes on the islands?
A) Mutation rates converting unbanded alleles to a banded form operate at high frequencies on
islands.
B) Natural selection favors unbanded snakes on the mainland.
C) Snakes on the islands represent a case of the so-called founder effect.
D) Natural selection favors banded snakes on the mainland, which occasionally migrate to the
islands.
Section: 7.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
6) In terms of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, genetic drift results from a violation of
________.
A) the random mating assumption
B) the lack of natural selection assumption
C) the infinite population size assumption
D) the lack of mutation assumption
E) the lack of migration assumption
Section: 7.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
4
7) Although most of the mechanisms of evolution are nonrandom, the one that is absolutely
random is ________.
A) sexual selection
B) natural selection
C) artificial selection
D) genetic drift
Section: 7.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
8) There are occasions when theoretical expectations do not match with actual outcomes, as you
see in the case of zygote formation leading to genetic drift. This discrepancy is known as
________.
A) sampling bias
B) sampling error
C) nonrandom mating
D) random mutations
Section: 7.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
9) The accompanying figure details the possible outcomes in a scenario in which 10 zygotes are
formed from a gene pool where frequency of the allele A1 is 0.6, and A2 is 0.4. This graph is
shown here. According to this graph, the probability that the frequency of A1 will remain the
same in the next generation is about ________.
A) 8%
B) 12%
C) 16%
D) 18%
E) none of the above
Section: 7.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
5
10) The accompanying figure details the possible outcomes in a scenario in which 10 zygotes are
formed from a gene pool where the frequency of the allele A1 is 0.6, and A2 is 0.4. This graph is
shown here. According to this graph, the probability that the frequency of A1 will increase to 0.7
in the next generation is about ________.
A) 8%.
B) 12%
C) 16%
D) 40%
E) 70%
Section: 7.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
11) Unusually high rates of rare heritable traits, such as achromatopsia in the Pingelapese people,
is often due to ________.
A) genetic drift
B) natural selection
C) hitchhiking
D) the founder effect
E) None of the above.
Section: 7.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
6
12) If genetic drift is not accompanied by natural selection, mutation, or migration, then the
frequencies of alleles will “wander” between 0 and 1. Using the accompanying figure, which of
the following is an accurate statement?
A) Random sampling error generates fluctuations in allelic frequencies over generations, so all
populations—both simulated and real—have been found to follow the same evolutionary
trajectory.
B) The effects of genetic drift are more immediate, and more pronounced, on small population
sizes.
C) Genetic drift will have no long-term effect on allelic frequencies if the population numbers
more than 40 individuals.
D) None of these is an accurate statement.
Section: 7.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
7
13) The results of an experiment on genetic drift on Drosophila melanogaster are illustrated in
the accompanying figure. These data show ________.
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9
A) the loss of heterozygosity in the population over time
B) the fixation of alleles in the population over time
C) the permanent loss of alleles from the population over time
D) All of the above are accurate.
E) None of the above is accurate.
Section: 7.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
14) With enough time and in the absence of other evolutionary mechanisms, genetic drift will
________.
A) reduce the genetic variation in a population
B) increase the genetic variation in a population
C) have no effect on the genetic variation of a population
D) None of the above.
Section: 7.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
15) The neutral theory of molecular evolution, as developed by Kimura, posits that ________.
A) functionally neutral mutations that become fixed in populations occur in much larger numbers
than those that become fixed by natural selection
B) functionally neutral mutations never become fixed in populations without some element of
selection also acting on them
C) functionally neutral mutations are not subject to genetic drift
D) functionally neutral mutations contribute very little to changes at the molecular level
Section: 7.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
16) At present, the neutral theory of molecular evolution ________.
A) is strongly supported by significant amounts of empirical evidence
B) has been disproven, as neutral mutations have not been shown to have been fixed in
populations
C) is inclusive, as enough data has not yet been evaluated
D) seems to work in some species but not others
Section: 7.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
10
17) The effects of inbreeding depression has been documented in ________.
A) plants only
B) animals only
C) both plants and animals
D) This is a hypothetical construct and has yet to be documented.
Section: 7.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
18) In an evolutionary sense, ________ is the transfer of alleles from one population to another.
Section: 7.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
19) The fact that blind luck (more technically known as sampling error) can account for changes
in allelic frequencies in populations is the evolutionary mechanism called ________. [two
words]
Section: 7.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
20) The random discrepancy between theoretical predictions and actual outcomes is called
________. [two words]
Section: 7.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
21) Suppose a large population exists on a continent, and a new population is formed by the
migration of a few individuals to an island some distance away. The fact that the alleles being
carried to this island are not going to be a complete and representative set, as compared to the
continental population, is a case of genetic drift known as the ________. [two words]
Section: 7.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
22) A locus at which different individuals in a population carry different alleles is known as a(n)
________.
Section: 7.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
11
23) A phenomenon known as ________ [one or two words] occurs under conditions where a
strong selection pressure acts on a particular change in an amino acid, which results in the
corresponding increase in frequency of a closely linked neutral (or even mildly deleterious)
mutation.
Answer: hitchhiking or selective sweep
Section: 7.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
24) A phenomenon known as ________ [two words] occurs under conditions where a selection
pressure works against deleterious mutations, resulting in the corresponding decrease in the
frequency of a closely linked neutral mutation.
Section: 7.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
25) When we track alleles from lineages backwards in time, we see them ultimately fuse into one
lineage. The result is a gene tree, which is produced by a process called ________.
Section: 7.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
26) ________, the most common type of nonrandom mating, will not change allelic frequencies,
but it will change genotypic frequencies toward homozygosity.
Section: 7.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
27) The survival and fertility rates of the offspring of related individuals are commonly reduced.
This is known as ________. [two words]
Section: 7.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
28) Compare and contrast natural selection with genetic drift as mechanisms of evolution.
12
29) A scenario in which 250 zygotes are formed from a gene pool in which the frequency of the
allele A1 is 0.6, and A2 is 0.4, generates the accompanying figure. Explain, in general terms,
what each of these graphs reveals. Is there a consistent pattern between all three graphs? If so,
describe and provide an explanation for it. Are there inconsistencies among graphs? Describe
and provide an explanation for these also.
30) The most common form of nonrandom mating is inbreeding. Despite the fact that inbreeding
will not change allelic frequencies, it can still have a significant impact on the evolution of a
lineage. Explain, using examples, why this is so

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