Experiencing the Lifespan 3rd Edition by Belsky -Test Bank A+

Experiencing the Lifespan 3rd Edition by Belsky -Test Bank A+

Experiencing the Lifespan 3rd Edition by Belsky -Test Bank A+

Experiencing the Lifespan 3rd Edition by Belsky -Test Bank A+

Neither Ramona nor Judy, both age 8, are able to get along with their classmates, although they have very different personalities. The school counselor has told the teacher that Ramona has externalizing tendencies, while Judy has internalizing tendencies. What behaviors would you expect from Ramona and Judy? What is the self-esteem risk for each girl?

2.Max is an exuberant child who has a very high opinion of himself and always seems to be in the center of any activity, whether his teacher wants him to be there or not. Minnie thinks very little of herself and has given up trying to make good grades. What steps should their teacher take to promote realistic self-esteem in Max and Minnie?

3.Highlight the risks faced by Black children once they become attuned to the racial stereotypes about academic abilities and then devise an intervention program.

4.A shy, anxious fourth-grade girl, a self-confident, happy child, and a child who has externalizing tendencies are shocked to see their classmate run past them with an angry bird pecking her on the head. Their classmate is clearly frightened and injured by the attack. What reactions would you expect from each child?

5.Describe the developmental changes in aggression that typically occur over childhood.

6.Todd is a 10-year-old boy who is always in trouble for hurting other children and has been labeled as an “antisocial child.” A major issue is that Todd has decided that the world is out to get him, and misreads even kind acts as insults. First, identify the developmental pathway that may have made Todd the person he is today, and then label his excessively paranoid worldview.

7.Wendell is 2 years old; his brother Roger is 5 years old. On a family vacation, they spend time playing with their same-age cousins. How will Wendell’s play differ from Roger’s? What is the name for Roger’s play?

8.You have accepted a job as a counselor at a coed summer day camp for ages 6 to 10. What gender differences would you expect to see in the children’s play?

9.Sam and Logan, both fifth graders, are best friends. Describe the main characteristics or qualities that made them “best buddies” and the developmental functions of their relationship.

10.Your niece, a third grader, is a rejected child. What might be causing her problems and how might her parents intervene?

Answer Key

1.Ramona’s behaviors are as follows: excessively aggressive, impulsive, and has trouble listening and sitting still. Ramona tends to take over social situations and boss her peers around. The self-esteem danger for Ramona is she ignores her flaws and passes off any failure as other people’s fault, producing unrealistically high self-esteem. Judy’s behaviors are as follows: anxious, shy, and depressed. Judy tends to hang back in social situations and be too timid to socially interact. The self-esteem danger for Judy is she exaggerates her flaws or sees deficiencies where none exist, producing unrealistically low self-esteem. Judy in particular is at risk of “learned helplessness”—that is, deciding she is hopelessly incompetent and, as a result, not trying in important areas of life.
2.Intervention for Max: Gently point out where he is having trouble—“It’s not working for you to barge in and take over. The kids get upset when you always must be center stage.” Then work to foster self-efficacy, by praising Max for working to control himself in these crucial areas. Intervention for Minnie: Once again, work to enhance reality—“You are doing well in areas X, Y, and Z. Here is where you really are a success.” Then try to foster self-efficacy by breaking school challenges into small steps and then pointing out successes. For both children emphasize you care and, most importantly, drum in the idea, “You can succeed, if you work.”
3.Risks—not trusting positive feedback from teachers as “true” (“She is just being kind, but she really thinks I’m dumb”); lowered self-efficacy on tasks supposedly tapping into basic academic talents; deciding to turn off to school, thereby ensuring failure. Intervention: focus heavily on pointing out the MANY Black academic role models—particularly those who triumphed over adversity throughout history and in our contemporary society.
4.Reaction from shy, anxious child: May run away or be paralyzed by fear, as excessive empathy and feelings of incompetence will prevent her from making a prosocial response. Reaction from self-confident, happy child: Apt to take action to comfort the child and actively take steps to help, as she can feel sympathy plus be confident about her ability to act effectively. Reaction from child with externalizing tendencies: May ignore or possibly laugh at the classmate, as she is unable to feel the empathy (and then muster the sympathetic reaction) crucial in deciding to act in a prosocial way.
5.From its life peak around age 2, as children get older, rates of aggression decline and wounds to “the self” become salient provocations for aggressive acts. Also, as children move into elementary school, overt aggression (hitting, yelling, and screaming) is replaced by more indirect modes. In particular, during late elementary school and middle school, relational aggression—spreading rumors, teasing, and acting to destroy relationships—becomes especially common.
6.Todd may have been an exuberant and/or difficult toddler, whose inability to control himself provoked harsh discipline from his parents. Constantly being spanked, yelled at, and told he was “impossible” led to clear-cut externalizing symptoms during preschool. Then, early in elementary school, Todd’s aggressive, out-of-control behavior caused him to be rejected by his peers and teachers, further amplifying his hostility, getting him defined as an antisocial child, and causing him generally to think “the world is out to get me.” The name for Todd’s paranoid worldview is a hostile attributional bias.
7.Wendell will just run around or fight over toys; at a minimum, he will play in a parallel universe from that of his cousins. Roger will make up pretend scenarios and truly relate to his cousins as he plays. Roger’s play style is called collaborative pretend play.
8.The boys will be more overtly competitive, bossy, and play in larger groups. They also will run around more (and really enjoy fighting with each other!). The boys will play with classically male toys. The girls will prefer quieter activities, relate more one-to-one, and tend to negotiate and interact in a more collaborative way. The girls may play with more classically female toys such as Barbie dolls. While some girls will enjoy male toys, if they try to cross the gender divide and join all-boy groups, they may get a harsh reception. Moreover, if a boy enjoys girl toys and prefers to play mainly with girls, he will be socially scorned.
9.Sam and Logan are apt to have similar interests, enjoy each other as people, and also support one another and be loyal. This friendship is teaching the boys the importance of loyalty and support, as well as how to negotiate and get along as equals. It’s training them in the core skills involved in having adult relationships, and offering them protection as they venture out into life. When the boys argue, they will be motivated to compromise to preserve their bond.
10.Your niece may be incredibly socially anxious, have externalizing problems, or may simply be very different from her group. If the child is socially anxious, connect her with a friend. If the child has externalizing problems, provide a nurturing environment and resist the tendency to spank, scream, or define the child as “bad.” If the issue is simply being unlike the group, one possibility is to move your niece to another school or a different class, where she might be more in “sync” with her peers.

Chapter 6- Fill-in-the-Blank

1.Children who are especially timid and self-conscious have ________ tendencies.

2.Children who are highly aggressive and disruptive have ________ tendencies.

3.According to Erik Erikson, the developmental task of early childhood is ________, while that of middle childhood is ________.

4.Garth is often in trouble at school, but denies that he is responsible for his difficulties. Garth MOST likely has ________ tendencies and unrealistically ________ self-esteem.

5.To improve self-esteem, parents and teachers must enhance children’s ________, their feelings that they can be competent.

6.A child who helps comfort an upset classmate is showing ________.

7.The term for directly feeling another person’s emotion is ________.

8.To promote altruism, caregivers should use ________, teaching a child to imagine how the other person she has hurt feels.

9.In contrast to shame, ________ connects us to other people and can help promote prosocial behavior.

10.Spreading rumors, tattling, and generally acting to destroy relationships is called ________ aggression.

11.________ aggression is hurtful behavior that we use to achieve a goal. ________ aggression is evoked in response to being hurt.

12.A person who sees threat in benign social situations has a(n) ________.

13.When Sally and Sara, both age 5, imagine that they are friends serving tea to a group of dolls, they are engaging in ________.

14.When children enter ________, their play interests tend to shift from pretending to structured games.

15.According to Vygotsky, fantasy play allows children to practice ________.

16.________ is the term for the fact that, during elementary school, boys play with boys and girls play with girls.

17.Gender-stereotyped play has both ________ and environmental causes.

18.According to ________ theory, when children understand their gender label they start selectively observing and modeling their own sex.

19.We tend to choose friends who are ________ to us.

20.Children who are rejected either have ________ problems or are ________ from the group.

21.A child who is highly socially anxious is likely to be ________ by her classmates.

22.A main quality that provokes bullying is being highly ________.

23.________ try to change the school norms to make bullying socially unacceptable.

Answer Key

3.initiative; industry
4.externalizing; high
5.efficacy feelings (or self-efficacy)
6.prosocial behavior
11.Instrumental; Reactive
12.hostile attributional bias
13.collaborative pretend play
14.concrete operations
15.adult roles
16.Gender-segregated play
18.gender schema
19.similar (or loyal)
20.internalizing and/or externalizing (or emotional); very different
22.unassertive (or anxious or shy or unable to fight back)
23.Bully-prevention programs

Chapter 6- Multiple Choice

1.“I’ll go to class today, even though I’d rather sleep.” “I’ll conquer my shyness and ask the teacher that question.” Pick the correct term for these challenges.
A)cognitive control
B)emotion regulation
D)internal tenacity

2.Children who have serious problems regulating and controlling their emotions:
A)tend to be unpopular.
B)tend to have troubles succeeding in life.
C)tend to be excessively aggressive and/or anxious.
D)All of the answers are correct.

3.Which behavior does NOT indicate that a child has externalizing tendencies?
A)Tony barges in and takes over social situations, so he has few friends.
B)Tom fights continually with his classmates and adults.
C)Sara cannot stop running around the classroom when she needs to focus on work.
D)Sally freely discusses her emotions.

4.Which behavior does NOT indicate that a child has internalizing tendencies?
A)Jim has trouble making friends because he is so self-conscious and shy.
B)Jan prefers to hide her emotions, rather than speaking out.
C)Judy is depressed and chronically dissatisfied with life.
D)Janet is too anxious to complete most tasks.

5.Which child does NOT have emotion regulation problems?
A)Sam barges in and takes over social situations, so he has few friends.
B)Samantha is so shy and self-conscious that she has trouble with children and adults.
C)Sara cannot stop running around the classroom when she needs to focus on work.
D)Sally freely discusses her emotions.

6.Give each child the correct “diagnosis” or label in order: “Judy is extremely anxious and depressed.” “Jane acts disruptively and regularly gets into fights.”
A)internalizing tendencies; externalizing tendencies
B)externalizing tendencies; internalizing tendencies
C)in both cases, internalizing tendencies
D)in both cases, externalizing tendencies

7.Carl is shy and withdrawn; Carlos is aggressive and unable to sit still. Predict what would happen socially if each boy moved to a collectivist culture such as India.
A)Carlos would have problems. Carl would be more apt to fit in.
B)Carl would have problems. Carlos would be more apt to fit in.
C)Both boys would have problems.
D)Can’t make general statements, as it depends on the boy.

8.If 10-year-old Carl has serious troubles controlling his anxiety, he would have problems succeeding:
A)around the world.
B)only in individualistic cultures like the United States.
C)only in elementary school.
D)only if he was aggressive.

9.In her research on the developing self, Susan Harter draws on:
A)Erikson’s ideas.
B)Piaget’s ideas.
C)Freud’s ideas.
D)Bowlby’s ideas.

10.According to Susan Harter, how would a 4-year-old describe himself?
A)“I am sometimes nervous around new people.”
B)“Although I am a good reader, I have trouble with numbers.”
C)“My hair is curly.”
D)“I try to be nice to everyone, but sometimes it is hard.”

11.When Susan Harter asks, “What are you like as a person?” pick the statement only a 10-year-old might make.
A)“I am one of the best readers in my class, but I sometimes have trouble with long division.”
B)“My favorite color is green.”
C)“I’m always nice to everyone.”
D)“I have long, straight hair.”

12.Marta is 4 years old. According to Susan Harter, Marta is likely to describe herself as:
A)the best kid in the world.
B)not so good compared to most kids.
C)the worst kid in the world.
D)You cannot make any predictions.

13.Pick the MAIN reason why reaching concrete operations tends to produce “self-esteem” issues.
A)Children can realistically compare their abilities with those of their peers.
B)Children can fully express their feelings.
C)Children are now getting disciplined for the first time.
D)Children are now expected to do homework.

14.An 8-year-old child is beginning to make negative comments such as “I’m not that smart or pretty.” What should you conclude?
A)The child has reached concrete operations.
B)The child is beginning to realistically scan her abilities.
C)The child is normal for her age.
D)You should conclude all of these.

15.If your 8-year-old is beginning to make negative comments such as “I’m not that smart or pretty,” based on Harter’s research, you should conclude that:
A)my child needs to go to therapy.
B)my child is acting normally.
C)my child is developing externalizing issues.
D)my child is being bullied by her teachers and her peers.

16.If a fourth grader is constantly evaluating her abilities compared to her classmates’, what should you conclude?
A)The child needs therapy.
B)The child is acting normally.
C)The child is developing an externalizing disorder.
D)The child is developing an internalizing disorder.

17.A teacher tells you that she’s horrified that her fourth graders are always making comparisons between one another. What should be your response?
A)“That’s normal when children reach concrete operations.”
B)“That’s normal, starting in preschool.”
C)“That’s a sign you are running the class poorly.”
D)“That’s a sign that the children may be having problems at home.”

18.Hank has always had high self-esteem. Lately, though, he’s begun to make negative comments about himself. Hank is MOST likely ________ years old.

19.According to Susan Harter, self-esteem first becomes an important issue for children:
A)around age three.
B)during elementary school.
C)around the teens.
D)only when children are not being raised well.

20.Your niece is in preschool (age 4). According to Erikson’s theory, her main challenge is to:
A)test her skills in the wider world.
B)learn to inhibit her behavior.
C)learn to work for what she wants.
D)learn to form letters and read.

21.According to Erikson’s theory, in preschool our challenge is to ________, while in elementary school, our challenge is to ________.
A)try new things, or test our skills; control ourselves and work hard for what we want
B)control ourselves and work hard for what we want; try new things or test our skills
C)obey our parents; obey the teacher
D)learn social skills; learn to read and do math

22.Why did Erik Erikson label the early childhood task “initiative”?
A)because at this age, kids need to be free to do what they want
B)because at this age, children’s mission is to test their abilities in the world
C)because at this age, children have a lot of guts
D)because at this age, children first have their own ideas

23.If you have a 3-year-old daughter, you can expect all of the following EXCEPT:
A)She may have low self-esteem.
B)She is apt to think she is the greatest person in the world.
C)She is apt to continually try out her skills.
D)She can’t realistically evaluate her abilities.

24.If you have a normal well-adjusted 9-year-old child, based on Harter’s and Erikson’s ideas, you can expect her to:
A)constantly compare herself to other kids.
B)realistically discuss the areas in which she isn’t doing well.
C)control herself and work hard for what she wants.
D)do all of these.

25.Why did Erikson label the developmental task of middle childhood “industry versus inferiority”?
A)It’s the time when we first need to work to be successful.
B)It’s the time when we first get to know about different industries.
C)It’s the time when we first fully relate to peers.
D)It’s the time when we first really go out in the world.

26.Which fifth grader is MOST vulnerable to low self-esteem?
A)Jerry, who is not doing well at academics, but doesn’t worry about it because he is a star at baseball
B)Kayla, who is a terrific student, but isn’t performing well in her top priority—art
C)Liam, the “class clown,” who doesn’t mind getting into trouble, as long as his classmates laugh at his jokes
D)Marlena, who is overweight, but passionate to become a biologist, and shrugs it off when the kids call her “Blimpy”

27.According to Susan Harter, which child is MOST vulnerable to low self-esteem?
A)a 4-year-old, who gets teased by her older sibs for being “dumb”
B)an 8-year-old, whose passion is sports, but isn’t good enough to make the team
C)a 4-year-old, whose passion is sports, but is too young to hit the ball
D)an 8-year-old, who gets teased by her peers for being “dumb”

28.A colleague regularly gets into trouble for his behavior; but when he messes up, he thinks, “It’s their fault, not mine.” Pick the issue/problem that does NOT apply to this person.
A)He will probably continue to fail.
B)He probably has externalizing tendencies.
C)He probably has internalizing tendencies.
D)He has unrealistically high self-esteem.

29.Nick is very self-critical, feels powerless to affect what happens to him, and doesn’t try to improve himself. Nick suffers from:
A)learned helplessness and probably has internalizing tendencies.
B)learned helplessness and probably has externalizing tendencies.
C)both internalizing and externalizing tendencies.
D)excessive emotion regulation and learned helplessness.

30.A child who believes that she will fail no matter how hard she tries has developed:
A)low self-esteem.
C)an industrial complex.
D)learned helplessness.

31.The danger with externalizing problems is ________, while the danger with internalizing problems is ________.
A)unrealistically high self-esteem; unrealistically low self-esteem
B)unrealistically low self-esteem; unrealistically high self-esteem
C)unrealistically high self-esteem; unrealistically high self-esteem
D)unrealistically low self-esteem; unrealistically low self-esteem

32.The bottom-line message of the research with regard to African Americans and academic performance is that:
A)Blacks face more emotional barriers to succeeding at school.
B)because of affirmative action, whites face more barriers to succeeding at school.
C)Blacks are now completely “equal” to whites in confronting the challenges of succeeding at school.
D)Blacks are basically less intelligent than whites.

33.If your child tells you “I feel totally dumb at school,” pick the MOST effective/helpful strategy.
A)Tell your child it doesn’t matter, as he is a wonderful person.
B)Get your child to experience success in some area, and/or to feel good about having really tried.
C)Tell your child he must have lousy teachers, because he is really smart.
D)Tell your child, “It doesn’t matter. You are good at sports.

34.If a child gets a terrible math grade, pick the LEAST effective/helpful response.
A)“Let’s face it. Some people just aren’t born to be good with numbers.”
B)“Let’s break this challenge into small steps, so you can succeed.”
C)“Do the best you can. “I’ll be proud of you if you try very hard.”
D)“Think of how well you are doing in Language Arts, if you start to lose confidence in your ability to do well in school.”

35.When your child fails in some important area, according to the text, you might give all of the following responses EXCEPT:
A)“I still love you.”
B)“If you work hard you may be able to improve.”
C)“If you did your best, that’s what most important.”
D)“Don’t worry. Some people just aren’t naturally talented in certain areas.”

36.Your daughter gets an A on her science test. According to the research, your response should be:
A)“I’m thrilled because you are brilliant in science!”
B)“I’m thrilled because you have been trying so hard!”
C)“I’m thrilled because you will probably do well in anything you do!”
D)“I’m thrilled because you probably have a high IQ!”

37.If your child gets a terrific math grade, based on the research, pick the MOST effective response.
A)“You are a total genius at math!”
B)“You must have worked so hard!”
C)“You might not get that grade next semester. It could be a fluke.”
D)“You should do better in English next time.’

38.As a teacher, how can you get your students to want to tackle challenging tasks?
A)Praise them when they work hard.
B)Praise them for being such wonderful kids.
C)Praise them for being so smart.
D)Praise them by giving out rewards for getting As.

39.Which child is MOST likely to recover from a blow to self-esteem?
A)Juana, whose father has high standards for success
B)Kent, whose mother abandoned him when he was three years old
C)Lilly, who has very few friends
D)Myron, who has a warm, close relationship with his parents

40.An African American and a White teenager both get praised by their science teacher for doing so well in class. According to the research:
A)the Black teen might believe the teacher is being condescending or not saying what she really feels.
B)the White teen might believe that the teacher is being condescending or not saying what she really feels.
C)both teens should be thrilled.
D)both teens should feel nervous.

41.According to the text, after they enter concrete operations, Black children face all of the following academic dangers EXCEPT:
A)feeling that because they are Black they can’t be smart.
B)feeling that teachers aren’t being honest when they praise them in class.
C)feeling that school “isn’t their thing” because they are “Black.”
D)feeling that they are far more capable academically than they really are.

42.Imagine you are Black teen at a mainly White upper middle-class school. According to the research, if you really work hard and do well you might be:
A)accused of acting White.
B)praised for being so exceptional for your race.
C)rejected by your peers for “selling out.”
D)Both a and c are correct.

43.By focusing on the lives of successful minority role models who have triumphed over adversity, teachers are:
A)encouraging self-efficacy in every student.
B)encouraging self-efficacy, but mainly in minority students.
C)acting racist.
D)not doing much except going along with the normal twenty-first century P.C. curriculum.

44.Which person is showing prosocial behavior?
A)Oscar, who doesn’t know a stranger, as he is incredibly outgoing
B)Patty, who would rather party than be alone
C)Quentin, who goes out of his way to be nice to the new boy in class
D)Rhoda, who plans to live in a more socialist nation than the United States

45.Rates of prosocial behavior:
A)decrease as children get older.
B)increase as children get older.
C)are higher in collectivist nations.
D)are higher in individualistic nations.

46.When your friend says, “I feel your pain,” she is expressing:

47.When your friend says, “I feel so sorry for you,” she is expressing:

48.The research on cultural differences in prosocial behavior suggests:
A)Japanese children and adults are more prosocial than Westerners.
B)Japanese children and adults are more reluctant to discuss their prosocial acts than Westerners.
C)Japanese children and adults are less prosocial than Westerners.
D)There are no cultural differences in prosocial behaviors.

49.Which prosocial act is genuinely altruistic?
A)You give your friend your notes, so she will give you hers next time.
B)You give your friend your notes, because she will be furious at you if you don’t.
C)You give your friend your notes, so she will understand what a great note taker you are.
D)You give your friend your notes, because you feel terrible that her car accident has kept her from coming to class.

50.To act prosocial, we need to:
A)consider different alternatives, and select an altruistic act.
B)feel confident that we can help.
C)use our emotion-regulating skills to mute empathy into sympathy.
D)We need to do all of these.

51.Pick the fifth grader who would NOT be particularly prosocial.
A)a child who was extremely prosocial in preschool
B)a child who is extremely happy
C)a child who is extremely self-confident
D)a child who gets extremely upset—or reacts incredibly intensely—when she sees another person’s pain

52.When a classmate screams that she has been stung by a hornet, which fifth grader is MOST likely to take a prosocial action?
A)Andrew, who is terrified by stinging insects
B)Bethany, who earned her first-aid badge in Girl Scouts
C)Carlos, who is very shy
D)Daphne, who likes to tease the other children

53.All of these qualities predict that Danny will act prosocially EXCEPT:
A)Danny has good executive functions.
B)Danny is basically happy.
C)Danny feels confident of having the skills to help.
D)Danny’s parents take him to church every week.

54.Which response involves induction?
A)“You made fun of that kid, so I’m putting you in time out.”
B)“You made fun of that kid, so you are a bad boy.”
C)“You made fun of that kid, so think of how terrible he must feel.”
D)“You made fun of that kid, so I’m going to make fun of you now.”

55.A group of fifth graders is torturing a first grader by playing Keep Away with his back pack. Which parent is using induction to deal with her child’s misbehavior?
A)Alice says to her son, “That’s the last straw! No video games for a week!”
B)Barney says to his daughter, “Because you damaged that little boy’s backpack, you will buy him a new one with the birthday money you got from Aunt June.”
C)Carlinda says to her daughter, “It is unkind to tease someone by snatching away something that belongs to him. Think how frightened that little boy must have felt when you kids ganged up on him.”
D)Darren thinks: Kids will be kids. Besides, that little child probably did something to tick the other kids off.

56.Pick the strategy that is LEAST effective at socializing prosocial behavior.
A)taking a child to church on Sunday
B)praising a child for being a caring person (when that child acts prosocially!)
C)getting a child to imagine how the other person will feel when that child behaves hurtfully
D)giving a child a chance to make amends when he behaves hurtfully

57.Which adult is socializing prosocial behavior?
A)A father says, “Because you teased your little brother, you are grounded.”
B)A mother says, “You are such a kind person to shovel the snow off Mrs. O’Connell’s driveway!”
C)An aunt says, “I’ll pay you if you are, nice to your baby cousin.”
D)A teacher says, “You are such a bad boy for acting mean in class!”

58.When you see a child making fun of a classmate, pick the MOST effective response for socializing prosocial behavior.
A)“It’s hurtful to tease; think of how that other child must feel.”
B)“It’s hurtful to tease, so I’m putting you in time out.”
C)“It’s hurtful to tease; you are a bad kid.
D)“It’s hurtful to tease; you really disappointed me.”

59.“You should be ashamed of yourself for being so mean”; “I’m surprised at you. You are usually such a nice kid.” Pick the terms that BEST fit each reaction.
A)guilt inducing; shame inducing
B)shame inducing; guilt inducing
C)guilt inducing; guilt inducing
D)shame inducing; shame inducing

60.Why is guilt particularly effective at socializing prosocial behavior?
A)It allows us to apologize and make amends.
B)It allows us to become closer to people.
C)It gives us a chance to feel good about ourselves.
D)All of the answers are correct.

61.Coach Shaw catches Matt, age 9, peeking into the girls’ locker room after gym. How should the Coach react that would BEST promote prosocial behavior?
A)“I am disappointed that you would violate someone’s privacy. I know you know better.”
B)“I’m going to tell your parents that you are a danger to other students.”
C)“Because you violated the girls’ privacy, you will have to stand in front of them wearing your gym shorts, while they laugh at you.”
D)“You cannot be trusted in the locker room, so you will spend gym in the principal’s office for the rest of the term.”

62.Dr. Garcia is giving a lecture on prosocial behavior. Which statement is he MOST likely to make?
A)“Parents can teach prosocial behavior by requiring children to volunteer with the homeless.”
B)“Although a loving home is best for producing prosocial children, some people become altruistic through experiencing early adversity.”
C)“Parents should give their children special privileges for acting prosocially.”
D)“A child who teases other children should be teased by her parents so that she knows how it feels.”

63.Two years ago, Amy was notorious for hitting and shoving her playmates. Lately, Amy has been less openly aggressive, but now teases the other children, and strikes back when she feels personally insulted. Amy is MOST likely ________ years old.

64.Dale wants a cupcake, so he shoves Tom aside. Tom reacts by bopping Dale over the head. First, label the type of aggression each child is showing and then identify which boy will be MOST angry.
A)Dale is showing relational aggression; Tom’s is instrumental aggression. Dale will be most infuriated.
B)Dale is showing instrumental aggression; Tom’s is relational aggression. Tom will be most infuriated.
C)Dale is showing instrumental aggression; Tom’s is reactive aggression. Tom will be most infuriated.
D)Dale is showing instrumental aggression; Tom’s is reactive aggression. Dale will be most infuriated.

65.Linda and Annie are swimming towards a raft, when Linda roughly pushes Annie’s head underwater, to get there first. As soon as Annie can speak after coming up for air, she says, “Go find yourself another best friend!” Linda is showing ________ aggression. Annie is showing ________ aggression.
A)direct and instrumental; reactive and relational
B)reactive and relational; direct and instrumental
C)instrumental and reactive; direct and relational
D)direct and relational; instrumental and reactive

66.Pick the example that does NOT illustrate the frustration-aggression hypothesis.
A)Joe is cut off in traffic, so he gets out of his car and curses the other driver out.
B)You get a bad grade on this test, so you go home and kick the dog.
C)Your Dad loses his job, so he begins to regularly yell at you kids.
D)Sara wants to get her friend’s boyfriend, so she starts a rumor that this friend is sleeping around.

67.Which “aggression” statement is MOST accurate?
A)“Aggression is vitally important in life; it only becomes a serious problem when you make that behavior your main life mode.”
B)“Aggression is typically unhealthy and needs to be stopped.”
C)“There are few downsides to being aggressive, provided it works.”
D)“Girls are more aggressive than boys.”

68.Juan and Jorge are candidates for president of their fifth-grade class. Jorge starts a rumor that, if elected, Juan plans to ask the teacher to shorten recess so that the class has more time for math. Juan’s behavior is an example of:
A)reactive aggression.
B)instrumental aggression.
C)direct aggression.
D)relational aggression.

69.Which child is MOST likely to engage in relational aggression?
A)a 4-year-old
B)a 5-year-old
C)a 6-year-old
D)a 9-year-old

70.All are TRUE of relational aggression EXCEPT:
A)It comes out strongly in later elementary school.
B)It is more common in girls than boys at every age.
C)It involves activities like spreading rumors in order to destroy the person’s relationships.
D)It is characteristic of political attack ads.

71.Romney is a rich guy who made his money by getting rid of jobs. Obama is a socialist who was born in Kenya. These statements are classic examples of:
A)reactive aggression.
B)instrumental aggression.
C)relational aggression.
D)a hostile attributional bias.

72.All are true of instrumental aggression EXCEPT:
A)This behavior allows us to get what we want, and is important in gaining status.
B)This behavior is generally “bad” and needs to be stopped.
C)This behavior is often accompanied by feeling excited and powerful.
D)This behavior occurs at every age.

73.Which child is most at risk of being labeled “highly aggressive” in elementary school?
A)Jake, a shy toddler, who was shamed by his parents
B)Jim, an exuberant toddler, who was catered to by his parents
C)Joe, a shy toddler, who was regularly spanked
D)James, an exuberant toddler, who was regularly spanked.

74.Sibyl, age 3, is an exuberant child who has terrible trouble controlling herself and “listening.” Due to an evocative process, when Sibyl misbehaves her parents may be likely to:
A)ignore her.
B)use induction.
C)employ time out.
D)yell, shame, and hit.

75.Pick the child for whom regular spanking is MOST apt to be terribly dangerous.
A)a fearless child who has trouble controlling her impulses
B)a shy, obedient child
C)a child who is behind academically
D)a child who is ahead of the rest of the class

76.Pick the pathway to producing a highly aggressive “antisocial” fourth grader:
A)yelling, screaming at, and spanking a difficult toddler and then the child gets rejected by his classmates in elementary school
B)overindulging a difficult toddler and then the child gets rejected in elementary school
C)yelling, screaming at, and spanking a difficult toddler and then the elementary school kids reinforce that child’s aggressive acts
D)overindulging a difficult toddler and then the elementary school kids reinforce that child’s acts

77.Which third-grader is MOST likely to have a hostile attributional bias?
A)As a toddler, Elliott was fearless and disciplined harshly. Now he is being rejected by his peers.
B)Francine is anxious, and her parents yelled a lot, but now she does well in school.
C)Guillermo has internalizing tendencies and only a few friends.
D)Hannah was born with a difficult temperament. Her father takes care to use induction when she misbehaves.

78.Carlo is the MOST aggressive “out of control” child in kindergarten. Predict Carlo’s likely fate in elementary school:
A)Carlo will be rejected by his teachers and his peers.
B)Carlo will be popular with peers.
C)Carlo will be popular with his peers but rejected by his teachers.
D)No predictions are possible, as children like Carlo often change dramatically when they enter real school.

79.How important is peer rejection in promoting aggression and antisocial behavior?
A)very important
B)fairly important
C)of minor importance

80.Shane interprets offhand remarks in the MOST negative way possible. When a classmate asks him, “What grade did you get on the spelling test?” his response is “You want to know if I’m stupid!” Shane is showing:
A)instrumental aggression.
B)relational reaction.
C)a hostile attributional bias.

81.When the first-grade boys wrestle and hit each other as they are in line for lunch, they are engaging in:
A)collaborative play.
B)exercise play.
C)rough-and-tumble play.
D)fantasy play.

82.Josh and Jim, age 5, love to wrestle and hit each other. What should you be thinking?
A)It’s normal.
B)It’s abnormal and needs to be stopped.
C)It predicts the boys will be highly aggressive adults.
D)Josh and Jim don’t like each other.

83.Which type of play ALMOST exclusively occurs with boys?
A)fantasy play
B)exercise play
C)collaborative play
D)rough-and-tumble play

84.Your friend complains that when her child has “friends” over, all they do is fight over toys. How old is this child MOST likely to be?
A)2 years old
B)4 years old
C)5 years old
D)6 years old

85.Children’s first “pretend partners” are:

86.Mary Ann and Catie are playing house. Catie, the Mommy, is calling the doctor because Mary Ann, the baby, is sick. First, name the type of play the girls are engaging in and then identify these children’s probable ages:
A)collaborative pretend play; about age 5
B)fantasy play; about age 8
C)rough-and-tumble play; about age 5
D)exercise play; about age 8

87.Ian loves to pretend with his friends; Carlo adores playing soccer. Roughly how old are these children?
A)2 years old; over age 8
B)7 years old; over age 10
C)5 years old; over age 8
D)1 year old; over age 8

88.According to Vygotsky, girls play house and boys like to play soldier because they are:
A)rehearsing adult roles.
B)expressing their feelings.
C)mimicking what’s on TV.
D)expressing their imagination.

89.Which preschooler exemplifies Vygotsky’s idea that children use fantasy play to feel a sense of control?
A)Jessie pretends she is Wonder Woman when she gets bossed around by her sibs.
B)After Mommy punishes him for breaking a dish, Keith pretends he is a daddy, and scolds his action figures for being messy.
C)Leila retreats to the top of her castle, and imagines she is a queen, when she is feeling hurt.
D)All of these exemplify his idea about children’s use of fantasy play!

90.According to Vygotsky, fantasy play has all of the following purposes EXCEPT:
A)It allows children to practice adult roles.
B)It allows young children a sense of control over their life.
C)It helps young children understand and master social norms.
D)It helps young children be more creative.

91.If you went to a preschool and watched pretend play, you would be MOST likely to find plots involving:
A)totally unfamiliar figures.
B)very violent activities.
C)just happy events.
D)mastering upsetting events.

92.As a nurse, you could use a child’s fantasy play to help:
A)her cope with her fears.
B)release her feelings.
C)control her pain.
D)take up her time.

93.Imagine you are a kindergarten teacher and a student is obsessed with playing very violently. Generalizing from the text, what might you be thinking?
A)This is normal.
B)This will change.
C)This may predict later problems.
D)This child is a boy.

94.A first-grade teacher—alarmed because her male students are constantly wrestling and shoving—asks you for advice. What should you say?
A)“It’s normal rough-and-tumble play. As long as no one gets hurt or bullied, it’s best not to intervene.”
B)“You have a budding youth gang on your hands! Call the school psychologist.”
C)“Offer strict rules to keep their aggression under control.”
D)“Put these boys in regular time outs.”

95.The term for boys playing with boys and girls playing with girls is:
A)gender-splitting play.
B)heterophilic intimacy.
C)gender-segregated play.
D)gender-aversion play.

96.Which of the following statements about gender and play is TRUE?
A)“The play patterns of girls and boys are very similar.”
B)“Compared to that of girls, boys’ play is more physical and rambunctious.”
C)“Girls’ play is more competitive than that of boys.”
D)“Boys play in smaller groups than girls do.”

97.Compared with boys, girls play more ________.

98.Generalizing from the research, pick the elementary school interaction you are LEAST likely to observe.
A)A third-grade boy and a girl are best friends.
B)Four 9-year-old boys enjoy playing Monopoly together.
C)A group of fourth-grade boys and girls play soccer every recess.
D)Four girls are best friends.

99.At what age do children begin to clearly prefer playing with their own sex?
A)as toddlers
B)in preschool
C)in first grade
D)in third grade

100.You are watching first-grade children at the playground. Pick the behavior you are LEAST likely to find.
A)The boys are playing more roughly.
B)The boys are competing in groups.
C)The girls are doing more negotiating and more one to one playing.
D)The boys and the girls are all playing together.

101.“Stick to your own gender.” This rule is MOST rigid for?
C)varies from child to child
D)neither sex

102.Which situation involving an 8-year-old child would you be MOST likely to witness at a toy store?
A)Diane is too embarrassed to go down the toy truck aisle to shop for her brother’s birthday gift.
B)Paul won’t be caught dead buying a Barbie, even though it is a present for his sister.
C)Andy and Jane like to shop together to be sure they get toys they both like.
D)Melissa uses her birthday money to buy action figures to go along with her dolls.

103.The play patterns of young rhesus monkeys are:
A)more gender-neutral than for humans.
B)more rough-and-tumble than for humans.
C)the same as with humans.
D)more gender-segregated than for humans.

104.Female rhesus monkeys that are exposed to high levels of prenatal testosterone:
A)engage in more rough-and-tumble play than their non-exposed female age-mates do.
B)are likely to be infertile.
C)become extremely nurturing to their own offspring.
D)are indistinguishable from females that have not been exposed to testosterone.

105.The research linking prenatal hormones to sex role behavior and interests suggests:
A)Exposure to testosterone has no effect on girls’ behavior.
B)Exposure to high levels of estrogen makes girls more feminine.
C)Exposure to high levels of testosterone makes boys more masculine.
D)Exposure to high levels of testosterone produces more “masculine” interests in girls.

106.What does the text research relating to prenatal testosterone and later gender role behavior imply about the cause of homosexuality?
A)It’s genetic.
B)It’s environmental.
C)It may be produced by hormone levels during prenatal development.
D)The text research implies nothing at all.

107.All of the following environmental forces promote gender-stereotyped behavior EXCEPT:
A)peer reinforcement.
B)the media.
C)the way teachers relate to girls and to boys.

108.Which 8-year-old child is MOST likely to be popular?
A)Gloria, who carries a purse, and takes ballet lessons
B)Hank, who has externalizing tendencies
C)Inez, who has short hair, wrestles with her brothers, and frequently skins her knees
D)Jose, who likes to sketch flowers

109.Pick the BEST example of gender schema theory.
A)When Marcie learns she is a girl, she imitates and plays close attention to how her mom and other women dress.
B)Marcie’s dad calls her his little princess.
C)When Marcie says, “Let’s play with trucks,” her friends make fun of her.
D)Marcie gets interested in fashion at around age 10.

110.Children typically understand that a person is born either female or male and stays that way for life:
A)around the time that they begin to talk.
B)by age 3.
C)toward the end of the preoperational stage.
D)in fifth grade.

111.Gender stereotyped behavior is MAINLY:
A)biological or genetically built-in.
B)shaped by a variety of environmental forces.
C)both biologically built-in and shaped by a variety of environmental forces.
D)biological for boys; shaped by environmental forces for girls.

112.Which children are MOST likely to be best friends in preschool?
A)two children who love to play with dolls
B)a quiet child and one who loves to run around
C)two children who like to share their feelings
D)a leader and a follower

113.All are core qualities involved older children’s friendships EXCEPT:
A)being similar in interests and attitudes.
B)trusting each other to be loyal.
C)supporting each other emotionally.
D)giving each other social status.

114.The core qualities we look for in friendships are being:
A)similar in interests and attitudes and being loyal (or trustworthy).
B)good looking and having a lot of money.
C)happy and living close by.
D)popular and never disagreeing.

115.Bettina says, “Lindy is my best friend because she’s always there when I need to talk to someone.” Bettina is probably ________ years old.

116.Natalie and Joyce are fifth-graders who are best friends. One day in the school cafeteria, a mean older girl trips Natalie, causing her lunch tray to go flying. Based on the text, if they are truly best friends Joyce might?
A)stand up to the bully—so it doesn’t happen again
B)laugh at Natalie
C)not take any action
D)run away

117.All are true of friends EXCEPT:
A)They teach us to manage our emotions.
B)They tend to be similar in interests and attitudes.
C)They support us as we move into the world.
D)They rarely fight or disagree.

118.Pick the core difference between friendships and popularity.
A)Friendships are close one-to-one relationships; popularity refers to group status.
B)Friendships are harder to establish than being popular.
C)Friendships are more enduring than popularity.
D)Friendships are less important in life than popularity.

119.Popularity FIRST becomes a totally absorbing concern at what age?
C)around age 9 or 10
D)around age 16

120.Jody is a popular second-grader. He is apt to have all of following traits EXCEPT:
A)being prosocial.
B)being outgoing.
C)being instrumentally aggressive, but also able to reach out in caring ways to the group.
D)being intelligent.

121.Lately, Barbara has become intensely focused on being popular. Barbara is MOST likely ________ years old.

122.If most of José’s classmates rank him among the two or three fifth-graders they most dislike, Jose is labeled:

123.After the whole class ranks their classmates, a few people put Shaun on my favorite person list and a few rank him as most disliked, but typically Shaun doesn’t appear in either category. Shawn’s social status is:

124.Which fourth grader is apt to be rejected?
A)Pedro, who is extremely aggressive
B)Paul, who likes to play with dolls
C)Peter, who is incredibly shy
D)All of these kids are apt to be rejected.

125.Which fourth grader is LEAST likely to be rejected?
A)Pedro, whose family is on food stamps but attends an upper middle-class school
B)Paul, who likes to play with dolls
C)Peter, who is instrumentally aggressive, but also socially skilled
D)Paulo, who is very socially anxious

126.Which boy may be popular in middle school but NOT in elementary school?
A)a very shy boy
B)the class rebel
C)a boy who loves to read
D)a boy who the teachers like

127.Dr. Jones is discussing the difference between being popular in elementary school and middle school. He can make all of these statements EXCEPT:
A)“In elementary school, popular kids are more apt to be prosocial and well-behaved; in middle school, it can be the rebellious kids.”
B)“In elementary school, popular kids are well-liked by their classmates; in middle school, kids in the in-crowd group may be disliked.”
C)“In elementary school shy kids tend to be popular; in middle school, it’s the outgoing kids.”
D)“In elementary school, prosocial kids are more apt to be popular; in middle school, being highly relationally aggressive can help you climb the social ranks.”

128.If Sara is in the in the seventh grade popular crowd, you can predict that:
A)she is apt to be well adjusted as an adult.
B)she is apt to have emotional problems as an adult.
C)she is apt to get married at a younger age.
D)No predictions are possible—as middle-school popularity has no relation to adult mental health.

129.Although Sammy was rejected in fourth grade, he became an incredible success in his thirties. Generalizing from the text, in elementary school, Sammy was MOST likely rejected for:
A)being different from his classmates.
B)being highly aggressive.
C)being incredibly shy.
D)having externalizing problems.

130.Which unpopular fourth grader has the BEST adult prognosis?
A)a highly physically aggressive kid
B)an extremely socially anxious kid
C)a child who has been rejected for being different
D)an extremely hostile kid

131.All are bottom-line messages about the long-term fate of childhood popularity EXCEPT:
A)Being rejected for being highly aggressive is a risk factor for later problems.
B)Being rejected for being different is a serious risk factor for later problems.
C)Being popular in middle school doesn’t predict much about adult life.
D)To look at a rejected child’s fate, consider the reasons why that child is unpopular with his peers.

132.________ children are most likely to be chronically bullied.
B)Unassertive and/or unusually aggressive

133.Who is MOST likely to be chronically bullied?
A)Tina and her best friend, Sharon, who keep to themselves
B)Cassius, who is highly aggressive, and Clara, who is very anxious and won’t fight back
C)Darryl, who spends his free time volunteering at a local animal shelter
D)Erica, who is often late to school and seldom has her homework done on time

134.Pick the child who is MOST apt to be classified as a bully-victim.
A)a very shy kid
B)a very aggressive, impulsive, unpopular kid
C)a very intellectual kid
D)a dork

135.In a classroom where bullying is always reinforced by the other kids, you can predict:
A)everyone is apt to bully.
B)only the nicest kids will refrain from bullying.
C)girls will bully more often than boys.
D)boys will bully more often than girls.

136.The REAL key to preventing bullying is to:
A)teach bullied kids to stand up for themselves.
B)have teachers say “you shouldn’t bully.”
C)train bullied kids in karate or another skill that allows them to effectively retaliate.
D)change the classroom norms, so bullying becomes a “no no” among the group.

137.Bullying-prevention programs focus on:
A)punishing bullies.
B)getting victimized kids to stand up for themselves.
C)offering lectures on the evils of bullying.
D)changing classroom norms so peers don’t reinforce this behavior.

138.The bottom-line message of the bullying discussion is that:
A)it exists at every age—because it’s part of human nature—but we can reduce its frequency, by changing the social norms.
B)it can be totally stamped out, if we vigorously intervene.
C)it is mainly a childhood problem.
D)it’s ineffective at gaining status.

139.Suzie is a shy 5-year-old. What should her parents do to reduce her social anxiety?
A)Nothing. She will outgrow her shyness as she moves through elementary school.
B)Expose her to large groups of children her own age.
C)Help her to make a friend in kindergarten or first grade.
D)Homeschool her until she overcomes her anxiety.

140.If you have a fearless explorer toddler:
A)he could turn out to be a tremendous success with the right person–environment fit.
B)avoid power assertion.
C)offer lots of love.
D)All of the answers are correct.

Answer Key


Chapter 6- True-False

1.A child who has externalizing tendencies tends to be highly disruptive and argumentative.

2.Children with serious internalizing tendencies are well-liked in collectivist cultures.

3.Self-esteem first becomes an issue during early childhood.

4.Children with externalizing tendencies are at risk of having unrealistically high self-esteem.

5.The key to raising self-esteem is to keep telling children they are special and wonderful.

6.The key to getting children to tackle challenging tasks is to tell them that they are incredibly intelligent.

7.Being praised for one’s academic abilities and performance have similar effects for both Black and White elementary schoolers and teens.

8.Prosocial behavior is always motivated by altruism.

9.Prosocial behavior in children is promoted by using induction.

10.Parents who want to raise prosocial children should avoid using shame as a discipline strategy.

11.Boys are more likely than girls to engage in relational aggression.

12.Instrumental aggression refers to aggressive acts used in the service of “getting something.”

13.The term rough-and-tumble play refers to physical games such as baseball or soccer.

14.Children’s first experiences with fantasy play typically involve their mothers.

15.Collaborative pretend play helps children learn important social skills.

16.Fantasy play has nothing in common with real life.

17.To best promote emotional growth, teachers and parents should actively manage children’s fantasy play.

18.Gender-segregated play begins during preschool.

19.Boys and girls who behave in gender-atypical ways tend to be less popular than children whose behavior is stereotypically “male” or “female.”

20.Young rhesus monkeys segregate themselves by gender and play in “male” and “female” ways, just as human children do.

21.Gender schema theory refers to the fact that we are reinforced by parents and peers for acting in classically “female” or “male” ways.

22.Preschoolers’ friendships are based on common interests and activities.

23.Friendships help teach us how to act as adults.

24.Being popular is exactly the same thing as having a friend.

25.Children can be popular and also instrumentally aggressive.

26.Being in the middle-school “popular kids” group means your classmates automatically like you as a person.

27.The characteristics associated with being popular in middle school and elementary school are identical.

28.Efforts to reduce school bullying focus on helping bullied children stand up for themselves.

29.Exuberant toddler explorers (even those who have trouble as kids!) can sometimes be prosocial heroes as adults.

Answer Key


Chapter 7- Essay

1.Molly wants to stay up after her bed time to go to a party where she will meet a famous athlete. Quote a likely answer if Molly’s parents are (1) authoritative, (2) authoritarian, (3) permissive, and (4) rejecting-neglecting.

2.Contrast (1) Diana Baumrind’s parenting styles framework; (2) the behavioral genetics point of view; (3) Judith Harris peer group theory; and (4) give your ideas about how important “parenting” is children’s development.

3.You are a second-grade teacher at a school in a neighborhood very different from the middle-class one in which you grew up. Your class is filled with new immigrants and people of different cultural groups, and is in a dangerous part of town. As part of your orientation to the job, the school counselor conducts a session on understanding parents. What advice will he offer?

4.Make the case for and against spanking as discussed in the text, then lay out what cautions researchers might spell out when arguing that spanking “can be” OK. Finally, give your own opinion on the subject.

5.Your brother has been in an unhappy marriage for years, and is now contemplating divorce, but he is concerned about possible effects on his two school-aged children. What advice would you offer him? Base your answer on research cited in the text.

6.Discuss the likely reasons for poor school achievement among low-income children in the United States.

7.The school counselor told Rick and Deanna that their 9-year-old daughter Samantha scored 135 on the WISC. Although they both are very pleased to hear this, they disagree about whether to tell Samantha her score: Deanna wants to tell her, and Rick does not. Give Rick’s argument, using research findings cited in the text (and your own ideas).

8.(1) Summarize the “g” concept, and Sternberg and Gardner’s ideas; (2) offer a short critique of the latter two theories; and finally (3) explain which concept of intelligence is MOST appealing to you and why.

9.Discuss the characteristics of successful schools.

10.Tiffany is a new third-grade teacher who comes to you for advice on how to be the best possible teacher. What will you say to Tiffany?

Answer Key

1.Authoritative parent—“Sure, because it’s a special occasion; but call me at 10”; Authoritarian parent—“No, a rule is a rule.” Permissive parent—“You have no bedtime, honey.” Rejecting-neglecting parent—“Oh, I didn’t notice you were away!”
2.(1) Baumrind believes that parents’ “style of discipline” is vital in how children turn out, with authoritative parents (those who provide high structure and lots of love) producing the most well-adjusted successful adults. (2) Behavioral geneticists question Baumrind’s assumption that parents are either simply authoritative (or “good’ and “not so good”), believing that children’s personalities shape parenting styles. (3) Harris questions the whole parenting idea. She argues that peer groups and the requirements of the wider society are a far more powerful influence on development than what happens at home. (4) Students will then give their own opinions, but I’d bet from personal experience, that they might agree totally with Baumrind as its very hard to convince my classes that genetics and the wider society make a significant impact on development!
3.“Don’t impose your own child-rearing values on student’s parents. Look at the norms of the culture, and the conditions of people’s lives before you judge. Also, you might expect that your student’s parents would need to be a bit more authoritarian, to make sure their children are safe.”
4.Never spank—Hitting a child models violence; it’s a shame-inducing technique that impairs conscience development; it’s better to provide positive reinforcement for good behavior than any punishment; spanking can get out of hand and lead to child abuse. Finally, the very children most likely to be spanked (exuberant, active kids) are most at risk of having serious acting-out problems when corporal punishment is used.

Spanking can be OK—Spanking is highly effective at getting immediate compliance, particularly when the child is doing something dangerous and parents need to immediately intervene. If we rule out spanking, parents may use more poisonous discipline methods such as telling children “I hate you” or humiliating them. Cautions: Never spank a baby; try to spank as a backup technique; always explain what the child has done wrong when you do use this discipline strategy. (With regard to student’s giving their own opinion, my classes are heavily in favor of “selective” spanking. . . . But it might be interesting to poll your particular classes.)

5.First, tell your brother he might consider staying together for the sake of the children but only if he and his partner are not chronically embroiled in fights. If he does decide to divorce, take these steps: (1) Explain the situation to the children in a nondestructive way (“Mommy and I just haven’t been getting along… We love you more than anything . . . ,” and so forth); (2) Try not to uproot the children from their neighborhood or school; (3) Consider giving the children some input into custody arrangements; (4) Most important, avoid battling over custody and NEVER badmouth the former spouse; and (5) Try to help the custodial parent be the best possible caregiver.
6.Parents who are stressed out and have to work too hard; lack of access to computers, books, and other learning experiences; going to low-quality preschools (or no preschools); being more likely to have parents who are unacculturated immigrants and so don’t know the language or know it imperfectly and cannot help children with their homework; and definitely going to low-quality elementary schools. And, possibly genetic differences too (sorry)!
7.Rick’s argument: If Samantha learns her IQ, she might decide she is so smart she doesn’t need to work, thereby ensuring that she won’t do well. Or, Samantha might be afraid to work because if she does try and doesn’t get all A’s, she would find out the score is “wrong.” The idea here is that it’s vitally important to convey the message that the key to any achievement in life lies in working hard (“genius is 99% perspiration, and 1% inspiration.”) Finally, telling Samantha she is a genius can make her feel she is basically superior to the other kids, potentially wreaking havoc on her personality and social relationships.
8.(1) Proponents of “g” believe that the standard IQ test taps into an all-encompassing (genetic) “intelligence” that applies to every life domain. Sternberg feels that IQ tests do damage because if you label someone as average or below average, you treat them as if they were “not so good” and their IQ really does decline. He also argues that IQ tests are too narrow, only measuring analytic intelligence, not creativity, or practical intelligence, and each of these intelligences are separate, important, and weigh heavily in being “successful in life.” Gardner, in contrast, believes there are eight or nine separate “intelligences”; (2) The problem is that these alternate ideas about intelligence are arbitrary in themselves, and they don’t offer better information than the IQ test about that all-important childhood criterion for being intelligent: school; and (3) This is up to the students, but look for a cogent argument!
9.Successful schools are incredibly nurturing to both students and teachers. Staff members collaborate with each other and believe that all students can succeed. These teachers give students high-quality creative work, rather than relying just on standard worksheets. The administration encourages teachers to be creative in how they teach. Successful schools also reach out to parents and embed them in the life of the school.
10.Tell Tiffany to try to teach to children’s different intelligences, and not to rely heavily on standardized test scores to define and label students. She should try to minimize competition for grades and give creative work to everyone, rather than using simply rote worksheets. To foster intrinsic motivation, she should teach to student’s passions, give them choices (within reason) about how to do assignments and what to study and learn; and foster a secure attachment with every child. The children in her class should want to learn for learning sake and want to learn to make their teacher proud.

Chapter 7- Fill-in-the-Blank

1.________ parents set high standards for their children and provide plenty of warmth.

2.If your family lived in a dangerous environment you might need to adopt a more ________ parenting style.

3.________ children thrive despite growing up in terrible environments.

4.According to behavioral geneticists, children’s ________ basically determine parenting styles.

5.Sensitive parenting is especially vital when children have ________ temperaments.

6.The term for physical discipline is ________.

7.Spanking is absolutely forbidden during ________.

8.The three categories of problems that raise the risk of child maltreatment are ________, ________, and ________.

9.Teachers, nurses, and health care professions must report suspected child abuse to ________.

10.As couples are in the process of divorcing, their parenting often becomes ________.

11.Low-income children entering kindergarten score ________ on school readiness tests and go to ________ schools than do their more affluent peers.

12.________ tests measure knowledge of school subjects, while ________ tests measure academic potential.

13.________ refers to serious problems learning to read.

14.If a test measures what it is supposed to measure, it is ________.

15.For low-income children, IQ scores are MORE apt to mainly reflect ________ causes.

16.Spearman called his general intelligence factor ________.

17.According to Sternberg, the three types of intelligence are ________, ________, and ________.

18.Sternberg believes that IQ tests can ________ to students.

19.Gardner’s multiple intelligences model spells out ________ distinct types of “intelligences.”

20.In successful schools, teachers provide ________ work to all their students.

21.________ activities are pursued for their pure joy, not an outside reward.

22.Learning tasks that are inherently extrinsic (such as courses we “have” to take to graduate) can be made more intrinsic if we relate the material to students’ ________.

23.Controlling or micromanaging learning tasks is particularly poisonous to intrinsic motivation because it interferes with our basic need for ________.

Answer Key

2.authoritarian (or rule-oriented)
4.personalities or temperaments
5.at-risk or difficult
6.corporal punishment
8.parent personality issues; severe life stress; children’s temperamental difficulties
9.child protective services
10.worse or more disorganized
11.lower, worse
12.Achievement, IQ
17.analytic; creative; practical
18.do damage
19.eight or nine
20.challenging and or creative/high-level
21.Intrinsically motivated
22.basic interests or goals

Chapter 7- Multiple Choice

1.The majority of families with children in the United States are:
A)Latino families.
B)two-parent families.
C)single-parent families.
D)blended families.

2.With regard to immigrant families, which stereotype or statement is FALSE?
A)Immigrants don’t want to learn our nation’s customs or language.
B)Immigrants are typically poorly educated.
C)Immigrants commit a larger share of crimes in the United States.
D)All of these ideas are false.

3.José’s discussing some statistical facts about first- and second-generation Latino Americans. He can make all of the following statements EXCEPT:
A)“They tend to be younger than the rest of the population.”
B)“They tend to commit more crimes than the rest of the population.”
C)“They tend to be less well-educated than the rest of the population.”
D)“They typically live in two-parent families.”

4.If you grew up in a single parent, mother headed family, your odds of living in poverty were roughly ________ greater than if you grew up in a two-parent married couple family.
A)10 times
B)4 times
C)2 times
D)1 times

5.According to the parenting styles framework, we can classify parents along what two dimensions?
A)providing rules or discipline; being child-centered or nurturant
B)providing food and clothes; being permissive
C)providing safety; being playful
D)providing care; being child-centered

6.John and Martha have clear rules and expectations. When a child breaks a rule, they listen to their son or daughter’s side of the story before deciding on a consequence. According to Baumrind’s parenting styles framework, John and Martha are probably:

7.Mick and Gretchen require their children to do homework right after school. If a son or daughter asks, “Can you make an exception today, as I have a party?” they always say “No.” According to Baumrind’s parenting styles framework, these parents might be classified as:

8.Name each parenting style: “The Smith’s provide incredible love, but no discipline.” “The Jones’s are very strict, and don’t allow deviations from the rules.” “The Johnson’s home is chaotic, with parents MIA in their children’s lives.”
A)Smith—authoritative; Jones—authoritarian; Johnson—permissive
B)Smith—permissive; Jones—authoritarian; Johnson—rejecting-neglecting
C)Smith—rejecting-neglecting; Jones—authoritarian; Johnson—permissive
D)Smith—permissive; Jones—authoritative; Johnson—rejecting-neglecting

9.Name the permissive dad, using Baumrind’s parenting styles framework.
A)Morty allows his daughter to set her own bedtime and to take a bath only when she “feels dirty”—but offers unconditional love.
B)Mack monitors his son’s Internet searches via a special device.
C)Oswald rarely knows where his 10-year-old daughter is. When she comes home, he doesn’t seem to notice or care.
D)David requires his son to call if he is going to be home late, and wants homework done by 6. When he arrives, he is very loving.

10.Name the authoritative mom or dad, using Baumrind’s parenting styles framework.
A)Morty allows his daughter to set her own bedtime, to interrupt adult conversations, and to take a bath only when she “feels dirty.”
B)Nadine sets firm rules and makes no exceptions—and wears a shirt that says “Because I’m the mommy.”
C)Oswald rarely knows where his 10-year-old daughter is. When she comes home, he doesn’t seem to notice or care.
D)Petula wants homework done before dinner and has a firm bedtime at 10, but she relaxes the rules for special occasions and gives her child input into family decisions.

11.Using the parenting styles framework, pick the rejecting-neglecting mom or dad.
A)Morty allows his daughter free reign of the house, but offers lots of love.
B)Nadine has very rigid household rules
C)Oswald rarely knows where his daughter is and doesn’t seem to notice or care.
D)Clarisa won’t tolerate any “backtalk” from her son.

12.Given that family discipline styles can be inconsistent, pick the kind of inconsistency that causes children MOST distress?
A)Mom is strict and dad is permissive (or vice versa).
B)The rules in a house randomly change; so children get punished for doing something on one occasion and another time the same behavior is “fine.”
C)Parents are strict in certain areas and more permissive in others.
D)Each of the these inconsistencies is equally
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