Health Psychology (B&B Psychology) 9th Edition By Shelley Taylor – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Health Psychology (B&B Psychology) 9th Edition By Shelley Taylor – Test Bank A+

Health Psychology (B&B Psychology) 9th Edition By Shelley Taylor – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Health Psychology (B&B Psychology) 9th Edition By Shelley Taylor – Test Bank A+

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 113)Stress is a _____ experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral changes that are directed either toward altering the stressful event or accommodating to its effects.
    A. positive physical
    B. negative physical
    C. positive emotional
    D. negative emotional

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 113)Stressful events are called _____.
    A. appraisals
    B. syndromes
    C. resources
    D. stressors

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 113)Most definitions of stress focus on _____.
    A. stressful events
    B. physiological changes
    C. emotional changes
    D. the relationship between the person and the environment

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 113)The process of primary appraisal involves the evaluation of one’s _____.
    A. current emotional state
    B. meaning of the event
    C. coping ability
    D. resources

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 113)The process of secondary appraisal involves the evaluation of one’s _____.
    A. current emotional state
    B. perception of the event
    C. personal resources
    D. physical state in the past

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 113)The fight-or-flight response _____.
    A. is never adaptive.
    B. involves arousal of the parasympathetic nervous system.
    C. involves arousal of the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system.
    D. is subject to large individual differences.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 113-114)Selye’s (1956, 1976) studies of the general adaptation syndrome investigated _____ responses to stress.
    A. psychological
    B. gastrointestinal
    C. adrenomedullary
    D. adrenocortical

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 114)The first phase of the general adaptation syndrome is _____.
    A. appraisal
    B. exhaustion
    C. resistance
    D. alarm

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 114)The last phase of the general adaptation syndrome is _____.
    A. resistance
    B. alarm
    C. appraisal
    D. exhaustion

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 114)The correct sequence of phases of the general adaptation syndrome is _____.
    A. alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
    B. exhaustion, resistance, and alarm
    C. resistance, alarm, and exhaustion
    D. resistance, exhaustion, and alarm

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 114)According to Selye (1956, 1976), the _____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome is responsible for the person becoming mobilized to meet the threat.
    A. exhaustion
    B. flight
    C. resistance
    D. alarm

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 114)According to Selye (1956, 1976), the _____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome is responsible for the person making efforts to cope with the threat.
    A. exhaustion
    B. flight
    C. alarm
    D. resistance

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 114)According to Selye (1956, 1976), the _____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome occurs if the person fails to overcome the threat and depletes its physiological resources in the process of trying.
    A. alarm
    B. resistance
    C. exhaustion
    D. flight

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 114)According to its critics, Selye’s (1956, 1976) model _____.
    A. fails to offer a general theory of reactions to a wide variety of stressors over time
    B. fails to offer a physiological mechanism for the stress-illness relationship
    C. places too much emphasis on individual differences in response to stress
    D. fails to consider the role of psychological appraisal in stress

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 114)One of the criticisms of Selye’s model concerns the fact that _____ produce the same endocrinological responses.
    A. all stressors
    B. all the phases
    C. not all the phases
    D. not all stressors

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 115)The _____ response to stress is especially characteristic of females, related to the release of the stress hormone, oxytocin, and may be necessary in the protection of offspring.
    A. awe-and-shock
    B. divide-and-conquer
    C. fight-or-flight
    D. tend-and-befriend

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 115)The primary biological factor in the tend-and-befriend mechanism is _____.
    A. HPA activation
    B. oxytocin
    C. cortisol
    D. GSA

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 115)The rapid release of oxytocin in response to some stressful events, and its effects are especially influenced by _____.
    A. lactose
    B. pepsin
    C. testosterone
    D. estrogen

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 115)Animals with high levels of _____ are calmer and more relaxed, which may contribute to their social and nurturing behavior.
    A. lactose
    B. testosterone
    C. pepsin
    D. oxytocin

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 115)Of the four most important pathways by which stress affects health, the first one to occur is usually related to _____.
    A. health care
    B. psychosocial resources
    C. health behaviors
    D. physiology

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 116)Of the four most important pathways by which stress affects health, the last one to occur is usually related to _____.
    A. physiology
    B. psychosocial resources
    C. health behaviors
    D. health care

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 115-116)The correct order of the pathways by which stress affects health is _____.
    A. health care, psychosocial resources, health behaviors, and physiology
    B. psychosocial resources, health behaviors, physiology, and health care
    C. health behaviors, physiology, health care, and psychosocial resources
    D. physiology, health behaviors, psychosocial resources, and health care

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 116)When events are perceived as harmful or threatening, they are first identified by the _____.
    A. hypothalamus
    B. medulla oblongata
    C. isthmus
    D. cerebral cortex

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 117)The adrenal cortex produces _____ in response to stress.
    A. epinephrine and norepinephrine
    B. glucocorticoids
    C. endogenous opioids
    D. ACTH

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 117)Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis results in the secretion of _____.
    A. catecholamines
    B. norepinephrine
    C. cortisol
    D. pepsin

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 118)_____ is the degree of change that occurs in autonomic, neuroendocrine, and/or immune responses as a result of stress.
    A. Stressor
    B. Physiology
    C. Oxytocin
    D. Reactivity

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 119)Research suggests that individual differences in reactivity to stress are related to individual differences in _____.
    A. acute and chronic illness.
    B. psychological responses to stressors.
    C. primary and secondary appraisal.
    D. epinephrine and norepinephrine production

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 119)A high waist-to-hip ratio is an indication of a:
    A. high pendicular load.
    B. low pendicular load.
    C. high allostatic load.
    D. low allostatic load.

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 119)A low plasma fibrinogen is an indication of a _____.
    A. high pendicular load
    B. low pendicular load
    C. high allostatic load
    D. low allostatic load

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 120)Particularly for women in disadvantaged groups, _____ can endanger human pregnancy.
    A. high levels of social support
    B. high levels of stress
    C. high levels of self-esteem
    D. low levels of stress

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 120-121)Which of the following situations would be LEAST stressful?
    A. Jill has filed for divorce after 25 years of marriage.
    B. Joe arrives at his first class of the day to find that the professor will administer a pop quiz.
    C. Linda, a full-time college student, learns that she will have to find a second part-time job due to cuts in financial aid packages.
    D. Karl, a file clerk, has been working intensively for three weeks on a new job responsibility.

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 122)Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with _____.
    A. temporary changes in the brain, involving the amygdala
    B. decreased cortisol, norepinephrine, and epinephrine
    C. biochemical and hormonal alterations that last over a long period
    D. physical and sexual changes that are temporary

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 123)Studies of vulnerable populations, e.g., children, older adults, exposed to a chronic stressor indicate they _____.
    A. eventually habituate to high levels of the stressor
    B. exhibit little adaptation to chronic stressors
    C. exhibit few cognitive decrements but do show signs of helplessness
    D. eventually learn to change their task strategies and attention focus to accommodate the noise in their environments

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 124)The _____ paradigm takes people into the laboratory, exposes them to short-term stressful events, and then observes the impact of that stress on their physiological, neuroendocrine, and psychological responses.
    A. acute stress
    B. induced disease
    C. SRRS
    D. hassles

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 124)Professor Woster brings his participants into the laboratory, attaches electrodes and sensors to them, and has them play a computer game. One group of participants hears six loud bursts of noise at random intervals. The second group hears the same bursts of noise also at random intervals but just before each burst occurs a bluebird flies across the computer screen. Professor Woster is using the _____ paradigm to study the effect of noise on physiological responses.
    A. disease induction
    B. stressful life events
    C. acute stress
    D. daily stress

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 125)According to Holmes and Rahe (1967), an event is potentially stressful if it _____.
    A. is negative
    B. threatens one’s self-concept
    C. is long-term
    D. requires adaptation

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 125)Which of the following would be considered a stressful life event?
    A. Lack of career fulfillment
    B. A significant change in job responsibilities
    C. Questioning one’s identity and goals
    D. A religious festival in a neighboring nation

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 125)The relationship between scores on the Stressful Life Events (SLE) inventory and illness is _____.
    A. negligible
    B. modest
    C. robust
    D. unpredictable

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 125)Which of the following is a valid criticism of Holmes and Rahe’s (1967) Stressful Life Events (SLE) inventory?
    A. It is not correlated with illness and health behaviors.
    B. It fails to consider individual differences in the experience and reporting of events.
    C. It only counts unresolved stressful events.
    D. It fails to consider that the number of illnesses experienced over a period of time is more important than the severity and the duration of these illnesses.

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 125)Which of the following is an invalid criticism of Holmes and Rahe’s (1967) Stressful Life Events (SRE) inventory?
    A. Some of the items on the list are too specific.
    B. Individual differences in the experience of events are not taken into account.
    C. It treats both positive and negative events in a similar fashion.
    D. It does not assess whether events have been resolved or not.

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 126)The occurrence of daily hassles _____.
    A. bears no relationship to physical health.
    B. reduces psychological well-being over the short term.
    C. markedly enhances reports of physical symptoms.
    D. are poor predictors of physical health than major life events.

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 126)Hassles are minor life events that _____.
    A. have a cumulative effect on health and illness.
    B. are not confounded with mental and physical illness.
    C. have an objective, but not subjective, component.
    D. do not have any considerable effect on most people

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 126)Individuals who are prone to react to stress with _____ report more daily hassles than are those who do not react in this manner.
    A. optimism
    B. narcissism
    C. anxiety
    D. depression

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 127)Risky families are those that _____.
    A. are high in conflict or abuse and low in warmth and nurturance
    B. have financial problems
    C. experience major, chronic, recurrent stress as opposed to more modest family stress
    D. have no long term impact on the family members

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 128)Terry is involved in a long-term but ultimately unsatisfying relationship with Lee. This is an example of a _____.
    A. stressor
    B. life event
    C. daily hassle
    D. chronic stress

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 128)Chronic stress appears to _____.
    A. contribute to psychological distress and physical illness
    B. habituate people to negative life events
    C. be unrelated to negative life events
    D. be unrelated to illness

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 128)Workers who suffer from work overload _____ compared with workers who do not experience overload.
    A. feel less stressed
    B. practice better health habits
    C. have a better circadian rhythm
    D. sustain more health risks

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 128)A relationship between discrimination and poor health has been found for _____.
    A. Caucasian women
    B. happily-married women
    C. Asian adults and children
    D. African American men and women

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 130)Karoshi is a Japanese term which refers to _____.
    A. sudden nocturnal death
    B. death from overwork
    C. stress-related mental illness
    D. euthanasia

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 130)Mike has been having difficulty meeting the demands of the two executives who oversee his work area and communicate different expectations. One executive is concerned about production and constantly urges Mike to meet performance quotas. The other is concerned about quality assurance and would like Mike to slow down and focus on the quality of his work. This is an example of _____.
    A. role ambiguity
    B. role conflict
    C. work pressure
    D. overwork

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 130)In one study, air traffic controllers who _____ were more likely to become ill or to experience an accidental injury than their colleagues.
    A. were single
    B. were married
    C. were 50 or older
    D. had few social contacts

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 130)The effects of unemployment _____.
    A. are unaffected by social support.
    B. include psychological and physical symptoms.
    C. include psychological but not physical symptoms.
    D. include physical but not psychological symptoms.

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 132)Researchers investigating the effects of multiple roles on women conclude that _____.
    A. outside employment can be harmful for women’s well-being
    B. having control and flexibility over the work environment increases the likelihood of stress
    C. having adequate child care reduces the likelihood of stress
    D. combining motherhood with employment can help improve self-esteem

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 132)Who of the following is MOST likely to experience illness due to the stress associated with their job?
    A. Susie, a single mother of a five-year old boy, works long hours in a low-paying position.
    B. Mary Lou, a married mother of two young children, works in a low-paying service job 40 hours per week.
    C. Sally, a single mother of a five-year old daughter, is a lawyer with flexible hours.
    D. Miranda, a married mother with two young children, is a lawyer with flexible hours.

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 132)Who of the following is LEAST likely to experience illness due to the stress associated with their job?
    A. Susie, a single mother of a five-year old boy, works long hours in a low-paying position.
    B. Mary Lou, a married mother of two young children, works in a low-paying service job 40 hours per week.
    C. Sally, a single mother of a five-year old daughter, is a lawyer with flexible hours.
    D. Miranda, a married mother with two young children, is a lawyer with flexible hours.

Level: Applied

True / False Questions

  1. (p. 113)The earliest contribution to stress research was Hans Selye’s fight-or-flight response.
    FALSE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 114)During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome, the organism makes efforts to cope with the threat.
    FALSE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 119)Recent studies have suggested that psychobiological reactivity to stress is an important factor in determining the likelihood that stress will contribute to illness.
    TRUE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 119)Allostatic load refers to the physiological costs of chronic exposure to the physiological changes that result from repeated or chronic stress.
    TRUE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 123)Research suggests that habituation may not occur after exposure to long-term stressors and that the immune system may be compromised by long-term stress.
    TRUE

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 125)The Stressful Life Events (SLE) inventory currently is the most commonly used paper-and-pencil measure of stress.
    FALSE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 127)Chronic strain is strongly related to depression.
    TRUE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 129)African American men are more likely to die from a heart attack than white men.
    TRUE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 130)Job control is a major stressor.
    FALSE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 131)Research on multiple roles and stress among working parents indicates that men and women report being distressed by similar types of events.
    FALSE

Level: Conceptual

Essay Questions

  1. (p. 113)Define and describe stressors and the methods of appraisal of stressors.

Students’ answers will vary. Stressful events are called stressors. Stress is the consequence of a person’s appraisal processes: primary appraisal occurs as a person is trying to understand what the event is and what it will mean. Events may be appraised for their harm, threat, or challenge. Secondary appraisals assess whether personal resources are sufficient to meet the demands of the environment.

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 116-117)Explain how the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis are implicated in the physiological response to stress.

Students’ answers will vary. Sympathetic arousal stimulates the medulla of the adrenal glands, which, in turn, secrete the catecholamines epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE). These effects result in the cranked-up feeling we usually experience in response to stress: increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, increased sweating, and constriction of peripheral blood vessels, among other changes. The hypothalamus releases corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which, in turn, stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids. Of these, cortisol is especially significant. It acts to conserve stores of carbohydrates and helps reduce inflammation in the case of an injury. It also helps the body return to its steady state following stress.

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 120-121)What makes events stressful? Discuss.

Students’ answers will vary. Negative events produce more stress than do positive events. Uncontrollable or unpredictable events are more stressful than controllable or predictable ones especially if they are also unexpected. Ambiguous events are more stressful than clear-cut events. When a potential stressor is ambiguous, a person cannot take action, but must instead devote energy to trying to understand the stressor, which can be a time-consuming, resource-sapping task. Overloaded people experience more stress than people with fewer tasks to perform.

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 125-126)A group of friends is discussing the different ways in which life can “get at you.” Pat says it’s the milestones in life that are most stressful, illustrating this point by describing several traumatic divorces and untimely deaths from which family members have yet to recover. On the other hand, Lee asserts that it’s the little, constant annoyances in life that are most harmful to psychological and physical health, citing the annoyance experienced while commuting to work every day or coping with an intrusive landlord. Evaluate both of these arguments, citing research from the text.

Students’ answers will vary. One line of stress research assesses stressful life events. Two pioneers in stress research, T. H. Holmes and R. H. Rahe (1967), maintained that when a person must adjust to a changing environment, the likelihood of stress increases. They created an inventory of stressful life events by developing ratings of stressful events based on the amount of change those events cause. In addition to major stressful life events, researchers have studied minor stressful events, or daily hassles, and their cumulative impact on health and illness. Such hassles include being stuck in a traffic jam, waiting in a line, doing household chores, and having difficulty making small decisions. Daily minor problems produce psychological distress, adverse physiological changes, physical symptoms, and use of health care services.

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 131-132)Some working parents cope well with their multiple roles, whereas others do not. Explain the factors that are associated with positive and negative outcomes in juggling family and work roles.

Students’ answers will vary. Because concessions to working parents are rarely made at work and because mothers take on more household tasks and child care than fathers, home and work responsibilities may conflict with each other, increasing stress. Working women who have children at home have higher levels of cortisol, higher cardiovascular reactivity, and more home strain than those without children at home. Single women raising children on their own are most at risk for health problems, whereas women who are happily married are less likely to show these negative effects. Combining motherhood with employment can be beneficial for women’s health and well-being, improving self-esteem, feelings of self-efficacy, and life satisfaction. Being a parent also confers resistance to colds. Studies show that men are more distressed by financial strain and work stress, whereas women are more distressed by adverse changes in the home. For both men and women, the research on multiple roles is converging on the idea that stress is lower when one finds meaning in one’s life. The protective effects of employment, marriage, and parenting on psychological distress and the beneficial effects of social support on health attest to the beneficial effects of social roles. When these sources of meaning and pleasure in life are challenged, as through role conflict and role overload, health may suffer.

Level: Conceptual

Chapter 07

Coping, Resilience, and Social Support

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 135)Which of the following statements best defines coping?
    A. The information from others that one is loved and cared for, esteemed and valued, and part of a network of communications and mutual obligations
    B. The belief that one can determine one’s own behavior, influence one’s environment, and bring about desired outcomes
    C. The modification of how stress is experienced and the impact it has on illness and other aspects of life
    D. The thoughts and behaviors used to manage internal and external demands of situations that are appraised as stressful

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 135)The relationship between coping and a stressful event is a _____ process.
    A. divergent
    B. synergistic
    C. dynamic
    D. static

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 135)Coping is known to have two important aspects. Which of the following is the second important aspect of coping?
    A. Impact of psychological control
    B. Use of stress moderators
    C. Dynamism of stressful events
    D. Breadth of emotional reactions

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 135)Individuals who display high negative affectivity are:
    A. more likely to have a disease-prone personality.
    B. more likely to seek out medical care when they are fatally ill.
    C. more likely to reject medical treatments that cure terminal diseases.
    D. more likely to create a false impression of good health.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 135)Neuroticism coupled with social inhibition and isolation is usually referred to as the _____ personality.
    A. Type A
    B. Type B
    C. Type D
    D. Type E

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 136)Positive emotional states are known to reduce levels of _____ which is a stress indicator.
    A. serotonin
    B. cortisol
    C. dopamine
    D. oxytocin

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 137)According to Scheier, Weintraub, and Carver, optimists cope more effectively in stressful situations because they are likely to use _____ coping strategies.
    A. proactive
    B. emotional approach
    C. problem-focused
    D. emotion-focused

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 137)Psychological control is a belief that:
    A. people positively affirm values that make them feel better about themselves and show lower physiological activity and distress.
    B. one can determine one’s own behavior, influence one’s environment, and bring about desired outcomes.
    C. opportunities for rest, relaxation, and renewal can help people cope more effectively with stressors.
    D. people strive for a state of mind marked by heightened awareness of the present and focus on the moment.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 137)When optimists’ expectations are not met or when they face resistance in pursuing their goals, they are likely to experience:
    A. long-term physical conditions.
    B. short-term psychological problems.
    C. long-term psychological problems.
    D. short-term physiological conditions.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 137)M. F. Scheier, C. S. Carver, and M. W. Bridges developed a scale of dispositional optimism to:
    A. measure affectivity from familial relationships.
    B. measure indirect social relationships.
    C. measure coping strategies.
    D. measure pervasive individual differences.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 138)Sarah is scheduled for a hysterectomy. A health psychologist visits her in the hospital and finds that she is worried about the pain involved in the surgery. The psychologist clearly explains the procedure to Sarah and answers her questions to ease her worries. Also, he teaches her a relaxation technique that she could use before the surgery to control her anxiety. The psychologist explains the drug-delivery method to her so she understands when and how much of the pain-relief drug she will receive. In this case, the health psychologist is conducting a(n) _____ intervention.
    A. control-enhancing
    B. informational support
    C. expressive-writing
    D. tangible assistance

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 138)High self-esteem is closely related to:
    A. higher levels of defense mechanisms.
    B. poor health behaviors.
    C. higher levels of stress indicators.
    D. lower levels of HPA axis activity.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 138)It is found that cheerful people die sooner than those who are not cheerful. This may be because:
    A. they regularly use effective coping strategies that eventually lead to physiological stress.
    B. they grow up being more careless about their health and encounter health risks.
    C. they engage in more risky physical activities and are more prone to accidents.
    D. they have unrealistic expectations about the future that promotes psychological distress and disease.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 138)A personality style characterized by optimism, a sense of control, conscientiousness, self-esteem, and positivity is the _____ personality.
    A. disease-prone
    B. selective-coping
    C. health-prone
    D. stress-preventive

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 138)_____ maintains that through collaboration with family and friends or with medical practitioners, one may successfully cope with a stressful event.
    A. Self-control
    B. Secondary control
    C. Primary control
    D. Thought control

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 138)People that are most likely to benefit from control-based interventions are those who:
    A. have self-control.
    B. have no personal control.
    C. dislike having control.
    D. desire having control.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 139)According to a survey, nearly half the people in the United States were found using _____ to deal with their health problems.
    A. exercise
    B. prayer
    C. coping
    D. laughter

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 139)_____ is the ability to bounce back from bad experiences and adapt flexibly to the changing demands of stressful situations.
    A. Extraversion
    B. Mindfulness
    C. Resilience
    D. Conscientiousness

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 139)Organized religion provides a sense of _____ to people.
    A. inhibition
    B. negative affectivity
    C. institutionalism
    D. group identity

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 140)_____ is a general propensity to deal with stressful events in a particular way.
    A. Primary response style
    B. Individual difference
    C. Direct effect
    D. Coping style

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 140)James is a lawyer who used to work in the World Trade Center until the 9/11 incident took place. He survived the building collapse but was diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) soon after. Over the next few months, he spent time gathering information on the attack, talking to other survivors, and organizing resources for them. Which of the following coping styles is James using?
    A. Avoidant
    B. Projection
    C. Approach
    D. Regression

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 140)_____ is defined as involving efforts to regulate emotions experienced due to a stressful event.
    A. Emotion-focused coping
    B. Problem-focused coping
    C. Appraisal-focused coping
    D. Proactive coping

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 141)Which of the following is a reason for people to use emotional approach coping?
    A. It is more useful in the long-term than in coping with daily life stressors.
    B. It leads people to affirm important aspects of their identity.
    C. It provokes the stress regulatory system.
    D. It is especially beneficial for men.

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 141)When people anticipate potential stressors and act in advance either to prevent them or to reduce their impact, it is known as _____.
    A. problem-focused coping
    B. proactive coping
    C. appraisal-focused coping
    D. emotional approach coping

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 141)People living in low socioeconomic circumstances who are unable to modify the stressors that affect them may be especially benefitted by _____ reappraisal.
    A. positive
    B. detached
    C. negative
    D. desegregated

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 142)Which of the following is assessed by the Brief COPE?
    A. Inflammatory responses to relaxation therapies
    B. Health effects of emotional disclosure
    C. Commonly used coping styles for managing stressful events
    D. Potential costs of receiving social support and enhancing emotional support

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 143)People who are high in socioeconomic status (SES) have:
    A. more medical and psychiatric disorders.
    B. lower physical activity.
    C. more negative events or realities.
    D. lower mortality rates.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 143)Which of the following is a successful coping outcome?
    A. Tolerating negative realities
    B. Extricating from relationships with others
    C. Wavering in one’s emotional equilibrium
    D. Maintaining a negative self-image

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 145)A college professor had his psychology class write a paper about their most traumatic and stressful events in their lives. Although, this may have caused immediate psychological distress to the students, the professor was confident that long-term stress related to these events would eventually reduce. In this case, the professor had most likely conducted a(n) _____ intervention with his class.
    A. expressive writing
    B. control-enhancing
    C. stress inoculation
    D. debriefing

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 145)____ can undermine defensive reactions to health threats.
    A. Self-actualization
    B. Self-control
    C. Self-affirmation
    D. Self-reliance

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 145)The goal of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is to:
    A. help notice thoughts from a distance and avoid response to them.
    B. teach people to ignore their thoughts in a mindful manner.
    C. change the private experience of stress and maintain commitment.
    D. help people challenge their thoughts directly.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 146)Stress management programs typically involve _____ phases.
    A. two
    B. three
    C. four
    D. five

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 147)In the self-monitoring phase of the CSN program, students are trained to:
    A. recognize and eliminate the negative self-talk they go through when they face stressful events.
    B. focus on what happens just before they experience feelings of stress.
    C. observe their own behavior closely and to record the circumstances that they find most stressful.
    D. experience their stressful events in a strong manner to understand the extent of the symptoms.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 147)_____ forces a person to distinguish among stressful events that need to be avoided, tolerated, or overcome.
    A. Goal setting
    B. Time management
    C. Relaxation training
    D. Self-instruction

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 147)Recording negative self-statements or irrational thoughts that accompany the stressful experience usually occur in the _____ phase of the Combat Stress Now program.
    A. acquiring skills
    B. completing take-home assignments
    C. engaging in positive self-talk and self- instruction
    D. setting new goals

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 147)_____ helps people to set specific goals, establish priorities, and learn what to ignore.
    A. Self-instruction
    B. Emotional support
    C. Time management
    D. Tangible assistance

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 148)_____ involves the provision of services, financial assistance, or goods.
    A. Emotional support
    B. Tangible assistance
    C. Invisible support
    D. Informational assistance

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 148)A patient with AIDS decides to approach his friend, who is a health therapist, for treatment. He feels that the therapist helps him in ways that his family is unable to. The therapist helps him in finding ways to cope with the disease and the resulting social pressures. This is an example of _____.
    A. psychological control
    B. informational support
    C. tangible assistance
    D. emotional support

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 148)The assurance that a person is a valuable individual who is cared for is characteristic of _____.
    A. emotional support
    B. tangible assistance
    C. invisible support
    D. informational assistance

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 148)Sarah is taking a stress management class. Her instructor provides her with a variety of techniques to combat stress and identify the stress carriers in her environment. Sarah is instructed to try the techniques to identify the ones that work best for her so she can confront the stressful situations. In this case, the instructor is using _____ training.
    A. promotional
    B. relaxation
    C. remedial
    D. assertiveness

Level: Applied

  1. (p. 148)Invisible support is when:
    A. one receives help from another but is unaware of it.
    B. there is a perception that social support will be available.
    C. there is a provision of material assistance.
    D. one receives reassurance that he or she is a valuable person.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 150)Studies have found that social support has beneficial effects on the _____ system.
    A. lymphatic
    B. muscular
    C. integumentary
    D. endocrine

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 150)The _____ hypothesis maintains that social support is generally beneficial during nonstressful as well as stressful times.
    A. matching
    B. working
    C. buffering
    D. direct effects

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 151)According to Ditzen, Hoppman, and Klumb, which of the following is one of the best protectors against stress?
    A. Having a pet
    B. Being unmarried
    C. Having children
    D. A satisfying marriage

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 151)Experiencing the divorce of one’s parents in childhood predicts:
    A. excessive resilience in adolescence.
    B. premature death in middle age.
    C. cardiovascular diseases in old age.
    D. early ageing.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 151)Different kinds of stressful events create different needs, and social support is most effective when it meets those needs. This is called the _____.
    A. direct effects hypothesis
    B. buffering hypothesis
    C. matching hypothesis
    D. working hypothesis

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 151)The benefits of social support are greatest when:
    A. an individual is facing an uncomfortable medical procedure and receives invisible support.
    B. the person from whom one is seeking support is perceived to be responsive to one’s needs.
    C. the person who is receiving the support has at least above average intelligence.
    D. an individual does not have a problem but finds the appropriate form of social support.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 151)In which of the following conditions is a man’s health likely to improve substantially?
    A. In a successful marriage
    B. In bachelorhood
    C. During his wife’s pregnancy
    D. During retirement

Level: Conceptual

  1. (p. 152)Negative and competitive social interactions are associated with:
    A. chronic inflammation.
    B. lower levels of inflammation.
    C. normal levels of inflammation.
    D. higher levels of inflammation.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 152)_____ social contact may actually worsen the experience of stress.
    A. Negative
    B. Overly passive
    C. Modest
    D. Overly intrusive

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 152)Inflammation in response to a short-term stressor can be _____.
    A. inhibited
    B. painful
    C. adaptive
    D. maladaptive

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 152)When an individual grows up in a harsh family, he or she displays:
    A. resilience in handling relationships during old age.
    B. greater coping mechanisms in stressful situations during adulthood.
    C. a risk of developing chronic illnesses during childhood.
    D. stronger inflammatory response to stress in adolescence.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 153)Health psychologists view social support as an important resource in _____.
    A. multimodal prevention
    B. primary prevention
    C. secondary prevention
    D. tertiary prevention

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 153)Relationships that produce _____ can compromise health.
    A. dissent
    B. ambivalence
    C. conjecture
    D. synergy

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 154)Coping efforts are considered to be successful if:
    A. they provoke the stress regulatory system.
    B. they increase physiological indicators of arousal.
    C. they restrict a person from performing desired activities.
    D. they reduce psychological distress.

Level: Factual

True / False Questions

  1. (p. 135)Emotional reactions including anger and depression are part of the coping process.
    TRUE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 136)Negative affectivity has been related to alcoholism, depression, and suicidal behavior but not to poor health.
    FALSE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 137)Optimistic people use problem-focused coping and seek social support from others.
    TRUE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 139)People with strong spiritual beliefs have greater life satisfaction and a slower course of illness.
    TRUE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 139)Well-being is defined as a sense of adapting flexibly to the changing demands of stressful situations.
    FALSE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 139)Celebrating positive events with other people improves mood in the short-term but does not show significant benefits over the long-term.
    FALSE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 141)It is more beneficial to use emotion-focused coping while dealing with work-related problems.
    FALSE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 144)Mindfulness engages the prefrontal cortical regions of the brain, which regulate affect and downregulate activity in the limbic areas related to anxiety and other negative emotions.
    TRUE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 151)Emotional support is most beneficial when it comes from experts who are responsive to an individual’s needs.
    FALSE

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 153)Networking may be an added source of social support for people, but those who use it to express distress may drive others away.
    TRUE

Level: Factual

Essay Questions

  1. (p. 135)Explain coping and the relationship between personality and coping.

Answers will vary

Feedback: Coping is defined as the thoughts and behaviors used to manage the internal and external demands of situations that are appraised as stressful. Coping has several important characteristics. The relationship between coping and a stressful event is a dynamic process. It is not a one-time action that someone takes, but a set of responses, occurring over time, by which the environment and the person influence each other. Another important aspect of coping is its breadth. Emotional reactions, including anger or depression, are part of the coping process as are actions that are voluntarily undertaken to confront the event. The personality characteristics that each person brings to a stressful event influence how he or she will cope with that event.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 135)Explain the term stress moderators, and provide an example of a stress moderator.

Answers will vary

Feedback: Stress moderators modify how stress is experienced and the effects it has. Moderators of the stress experience may have an impact on stress itself, on the relation between stress and psychological responses, on the relation between stress and illness, and on the degree to which a stressful experience intrudes into other aspects of life. Social support, self-esteem, and sense of humor are examples of stress moderators. For example, having a supportive life partner while undergoing treatment for a disease can act as a stress moderator.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 146-148)Explain the Combat Stress Now (CSN) program, and cite a few advantages of using this program.

Answers will vary

Feedback: The CSN program is a stress management program that makes use of the various phases of education, skill acquisition, and practice to overcome stress. These phases in this program are further divided into identifying stressors, monitoring stress, identifying stress antecedents, avoiding negative self-talk, completing take-home assignments, acquiring skills, setting new goals, engaging in positive self-talk and self-instruction, and using other cognitive-behavioral techniques. The advantages of using this program are that it imparts an array of valuable skills for living in a world with many sources of stress, each person can find a particular technique that works for him or her, and it helps to effectively deal with stress by improving mental and physical health.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 148-149)Define social support, and elucidate the different forms of social support.

Answers will vary

Feedback: Social support is defined as information from others that one is loved and cared for, esteemed and valued, and part of a network of communication and mutual obligations. Social support can come from parents, a spouse or partner, other relatives, friends, social and community contacts or even a devoted pet. Social support can take any of several forms.
Tangible assistance involves the provision of material support such as services, financial assistance, or goods. Family and friends can provide informational support about stressful events. Supportive friends and family can provide emotional support by reassuring the person that he or she is a valuable individual who is cared for. When one receives help from another but is unaware of it, that help is most likely to benefit the recipient. This kind of support is called invisible support.

Level: Factual

  1. (p. 150)What is a biopsychosocial pathway, and how is it beneficial in promoting health?

Answers will vary

Feedback: Biopsychosocial pathways are channels of social support by which social contacts exert beneficial or health-compromising effects. Studies suggest that social support has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems. Social support can reduce physiological and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Psychologists often study the effects of social support using the acute stress paradigm. This paradigm takes people into the laboratory and puts them through stressful tasks. It then measures their biological stress responses. Social support is tied to reduced cortisol responses to stress which can have beneficial effects on illness. Social support is also associated with better immune functioning. These biopsychosocial pathways provide the links between social support and reduced risk of illness.

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