Industrial Relations In Canada 3rd Edition By Hebdon Brown -Test Bank +A

$35.00
Industrial Relations In Canada 3rd Edition By Hebdon Brown -Test Bank +A

Industrial Relations In Canada 3rd Edition By Hebdon Brown -Test Bank +A

$35.00
Industrial Relations In Canada 3rd Edition By Hebdon Brown -Test Bank +A
1. Under a master –servant relationship there was rarely interference by courts, and when there was, it was usually in the employers’ favour.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

2. Scientific management argues that workers went from performing a large number of tasks to becoming specialists in a small number of tasks, and in some cases, a single task.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

3. Human relations is grounded in the belief that managers and workers have conflicting views and values, and that these differences could not be resolved using effective policies and procedures.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False

4. It has been argued that human resources management minimizes workplace democracy.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

5. TThe strategic choice framework can be used to examine how management makes strategic choices.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

6. There is general agreement that a business/organizational strategy process includes three phases.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False

7. Strategic HRM can be defined in terms managing of HRM philosophies, policies, and practices in a manner that supports the achievement of the organizational strategy.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

8. TA strategy of union acceptance is grounded in the belief that unionization is somewhat inevitable.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

9. TUnion removal strategies include paying unionized workers more than nonunionized workers.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False

10. An example of union avoidance behaviour would include illegally firing union organizers.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

11. The strategy of union substitution applies to nonunion operations and workplaces.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

12. While the evidence of a positive relationship exists, researchers have struggled to prove causation, namely that these HPWPs cause organizational performance improvements.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

13. Evidence suggests that more than 40 percent of Canadians are employed in some form of nonstandard work arrangement.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

14. Nonunion employment–management programs are illegal by labour law legislation in Canada.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False

15. Evidence to date suggests that employees in nonstandard work arrangements are better paid than workers in standard jobs.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False

16. Which approach reflects common-law employment relationships pertaining to non-union workplaces?

a.scientific management
b.human relations
c.master–servant relationship
d.human resources management

ANSWER: c

17. According to the textbook, why did employers hold more power than employees in the master–servant relationship even though common law required employers to pay wages?

a.Collective bargaining enhanced their power.
b.There were no rules about how much/how often employees were paid.
c.Court decisions favouring employees were ignored by employers.
d.Common law explicitly states that employers hold more power.

ANSWER: b

18. How did Taylorism perpetuate the master–servant relationship?

a.Early assembly lines were small operations with few employees.
b.Time and motion studies required master–servant interaction.
c.Management planning and decision making resulted in control of work and the workplace.
d.Productivity studies showed how to address social needs of workers.

ANSWER: c

19. Why was scientific management a logical evolution from the master–servant model of management?

a.Large numbers of factory employees were more challenging to manage.
b.Frederick Taylor’s theory built on earlier management theories.
c.Simple tasks of an earlier time gave way to more complex tasks.
d.Large numbers of factory workers were more easily managed.

ANSWER: a

20. Which management approach is grounded in the belief that effective management techniques can minimize employer–employee conflict?

a.human relations
b.master–servant relationship
c.human resources management
d.Taylorism

ANSWER: a

21. Which view is centred on the relationship between individual employees and their employers?

a.human relations
b.master–servant relationship
c.human resources management
d.Taylorism

ANSWER: c

22. How does the textbook describe the way employees view the fairness of workplace procedures?

a.interactional justice
b.organizational justice
c.distributive justice
d.procedural justice

ANSWER: d

23. What factors do human resources professionals seek to achieve balance between?

a.fairness and performance
b.efficiency and inequity
c.fairness and efficiency
d.equity and opportunity

ANSWER: c

24. Freely negotiated collective agreements fill the vacuum between which competing interests?

a.employee rights and firm success
b.management rights and labour tribunal rights
c.government’s need for labour peace and political agendas
d.exploitation and unsafe work practices

ANSWER: a

25. What does Barbash’s concept of equity have in common with organizational justice theory?

a.secure employment
b.meaningful work
c.equitable treatment at work
d.non-discrimination at work

ANSWER: c

26. Which organizational justice concept corresponds to Dunlop’s concept of substantive rules?

a.strategic choice
b.procedural justice
c.equity
d.due process

ANSWER: b

27. How are human resources management and industrial relations similar?

a.Both were founded on human relations theory.
b.Both separate strategy from function.
c.Both believe that bargaining is the best way to ensure equity.
d.Both were founded on organization justice theory.

ANSWER: d

28. Which view emphasizes the importance of management and strategies in industrial relations?

a.master–servant
b.human relations
c.strategic choice framework
d.Taylorism

ANSWER: c

29. At what level does strategic choice theory highlight the importance of decision making?

a.union
b.firm
c.individual employee
d.high performance work group

ANSWER: b

30. Back-to-work legislation is often justified as an example of government action at which level of the strategic choice model?

a.collective bargaining
b.workplace
c.long-term strategic
d.procedural justice

ANSWER: a

31. Which argument suggests that the strategic choice framework applies in Canada?

a.There is a low level of union density in the private sector.
b.There is a rise in nonunionized industries in Canada.
c.There is a rising union density in Canada’s private sector.
d.Governments have shifted toward supporting labour issues.

ANSWER: b

32. Which argument suggests that the strategic choice framework does NOT apply in Canada?

a.Labour legislation in Canada is pro-management.
b.Canada’s union density rate has fallen rapidly.
c.Union organizing has avoided new sectors of the economy.
d.Canada’s public sector is heavily unionized.

ANSWER: d

33. Which management strategy is grounded in the belief that unionization is a democratic right?

a.union resistance
b.union acceptance
c.union substitution
d.union removal

ANSWER: b

34. In which management strategy does management partly accept employees’ right to unionize and yet seeks to limit the spread of unions in the firm?

a.union resistance
b.union removal
c.union substitution
d.union acceptance

ANSWER: a

35. According to the textbook, which management strategy regarding unionization is Canada leaning towards?

a.We have not seen a radical shift toward union removal policies.
b.There is a trend toward nonunion approach in older operations.
c.There is no clear evidence to support any strategy.
d.New firms are unionizing at a greater rate.

ANSWER: b

36. What is a comprehensive human resources strategy designed to improve organizational performance?

a.strategic human resources management
b.human relations
c.high-performance work practices
d.participative management

ANSWER: c

37. Which cluster includes high-performance practices?

a.ability enhancing practices
b.employer acceptance practices
c.management-by-objectives
d.human relations practices

ANSWER: a

38. According to the textbook, what effect have unions had on companies who have adopted HRWPs?

a.Results are inconclusive whether a union facilitates or impedes the implementation of HRWP.
b.Unions impede the development of HRWPs.
c.Unions facilitate the development of HRWPs.
d.Unions are indifferent to the development of HRWPs.

ANSWER: a

39. What characteristic do nonunion employee–management plans share with unionized workplaces?

a.Workers pay dues similar to union dues.
b.Employee representatives are democratically elected by workers.
c.Employers pay workers for attendance at association meetings.
d.Minutes of meetings are edited by management.

ANSWER: b

40. Which group would not have access to grievance arbitration under labour laws?

a.Newfoundland and Labrador Medical Association
b.Canadian Union of Public Employees
c.Dofasco
d.Ford Motor Company

ANSWER: c

41. What reason does the text give for arguing that many professional organizations are quasi-union in nature?

a.They can go on strike.
b.They include skilled tradespersons.
c.They are certified by labour relations boards.
d.Employers and employees can agree to an arbitration process.

ANSWER: d

42. Why are nonstandard work arrangements popular as a management strategy?

a.They can align labour levels to match business production needs.
b.They provide work–life balance.
c.They standardize work schedules for employees.
d.They enhance the relationship between pay and performance.

ANSWER: a

43. Which of the following do employees in nonstandard work arrangements experience more often than those in standard jobs?

a.better benefits and wages
b.more job security
c.increased unionization
d.low wages

ANSWER: d

44. Which term refers to “precarious employment”?

a.professional employment
b.sales employment
c.management occupations only
d.non-standard work arrangements

ANSWER: d

45. Name three of the key principles of Barbash’s concept of equity.

ANSWER: 11. Employees need to have a say in the work they perform (“voice”).
2. Employees require due process in the handling of complaints.
3. Employees are entitled to fair treatment at work.
4. Employees are entitled to meaningful work.
5. Employees need fair compensation and secure employment.

46. Name three elements of organizational justice theory.

ANSWER: 1. Distributive justice
2. Procedural justice
3. Interactional justice

47. The strategic choice framework states that IR decisions are made at three levels. What are the three levels?

ANSWER: 1. The business level (i.e., long-term strategic level)
2. The collective bargaining level
3. The day-to-day workplace level

48. Name the four phases of business/organizational strategy process.

ANSWER: 1. Assessments of external and internal environment
2. Strategy formation
3. Strategy implementation
4. Strategy evaluation

49. What are the three key elements of human resources strategies?

ANSWER: 1. Specific practices (e.g., selection, promotion)
2. Specific policies (e.g., policies and procedures related to performance appraisal)
3. Overall human resources philosophy

50. List the four specific management strategies related to unions according to Thompson (1995).

ANSWER: 1. Union acceptance
2. Union resistance
3. Union removal
4. Union substitution

51. Describe the two high-performance models that have emerged in Canada.

ANSWER: 1.TCompensation-based: This focuses on rewards (e.g., compensation) as a way to improve firm productivity and innovation. It often includes forms of incentive pay (skill-based pay, profit-sharing, etc.).
2.TParticipative management: This focuses on increasing employee participation/involvement as a way to improve firm productivity. As such, it examines how giving front-line employees more decision making and control can improve firm performance. It often uses teams and TQM.

52. Employers argue that nonstandard work provides many advantages to both workers and employers. Discuss (1) the advantages of nonstandard work as proposed by employers, and (2) the research evidence concerning these jobs versus “standard” jobs.

ANSWER: 1. Employers argue that nonstandard work arrangements can offer the advantages of increased flexibility, better work–life balance, improved ability to recruit and retain employees, lower turnover rates, less employee stress and anxiety, less commuting time, and lower child-care costs.
2. The evidence to date suggests that employees in nonstandard work arrangements have fewer benefits, lower wages, and less job security relative to workers in “standard” jobs.

53. Explain the concept of scientific management as it relates to employer–employee relationships.

ANSWER: The Industrial Revolution brought forth a new form of workplace organization. We saw a movement toward large-scale industrial workplaces employing large groups of workers. In these workplaces, much of the focus was on mass production through assembly lines. Workers went from performing a large number of tasks to becoming specialists in a small number of tasks, and in some cases, a single task. Much of the push for task specialization started in the early 1900s with the advent of Frederick Taylor’s theory of scientific management.

Two key principles of Taylor’s theory follow. First, work should be divided into simple tasks, and workers should be trained to perform a small number of these simple tasks. Second, managers should perform all planning and decision-making tasks while workers merely perform simple tasks in accordance with the plans and decisions made by management. Given the role of management in the planning and decision making, and the employees’ role of following directions, we see that elements of the master–servant relationship remained in this industrial-based perspective. That is, the master made the rules, and the worker followed with little say in work processes or the workplace as a whole. In many ways, this perspective saw the employee as an extension of the machines they ran; the goal was to reduce costs by making the production line (and those running it) as efficient as possible. This quest for efficiency exists today.

54. Explain the concept of human resources management as it relates to employer–employee relationship.

ANSWER: Many of the concepts of the HRM perspective grew out of the human relations school and the closely associated field of organizational behaviour. At the core of this view is the relationship between individual employees and their employers, often represented by management. Most HRM practitioners and scholars focus on issues associated with the selection, performance appraisal, training, and compensation of individual employees. In this role, the HRM professional seeks to balance the need for fairness in workplace procedures with the organization’s need to remain efficient and productive. It can be argued that the HRM perspective minimizes the elements of industrial democracy, or democratic processes in the workplace (since it is not focused on collective representation), as well as the inherent conflict between management and worker as they attempt to achieve their competing needs.

55. Explain the three elements of the strategic choice framework as it relates to industrial relations.

ANSWER: The strategic choice framework highlighted three elements. First, IR decisions are made at three levels: the business level (i.e., long-term strategic level); the collective bargaining level; and the day-to-day workplace level. The (or strategic) level would represent the senior management of the organization where long-term strategies are developed and implemented. The collective bargaining level would represent the level of the firm where collective agreements are negotiated and implemented. The workplace level focuses on the front-line management group that deals with day-to-day workplace issues within the organization. Second, effective strategies require these three levels (i.e., strategic, collective bargaining, and workplace) to work in one direction in order to achieve major goals. Thus, these strategic choices must be designed to achieve a significant goal, planned and executed from the highest level, and must have a long-term focus. Third, strategic choices can have a longer-term impact on all actors of the industrial relations system. The key here is that the strategic choice of one actor can impact the other actors and indeed the IR system.

56. Explain 2 management strategies related to unions.

ANSWER: A strategy of union acceptance is grounded in the belief that unionization is somewhat inevitable. Management accepts the fact that unionization is a democratic right and part, if not all, of the company’s operations will be unionized. However, this does not mean that management will relinquish control of the operation to the union. Rather, the goal is for management to obtain the best deal that it can to meet its operational needs.

A union resistance strategy in essence contains two somewhat contrasting elements. On one hand, management accepts the right of employees to organize and may follow a union-acceptance strategy in the parts of the organization that are currently unionized. In such unionized workplaces, management will seek to get the best deal that it can and will negotiate in good faith without any attempt to remove the union. On the other hand, management will oppose any further unionization of its workforce. This attempt to stop union inroads may include active opposition to union drives and challenging certification procedures. Examples of union avoidance behaviours include illegally firing union organizers or supporters, restricting union access to the workplace, hiring consultants to assist in an anti-union campaign, training managers to oppose the drive, and threatening to close the operation if it becomes unionized.

Union removal seeks to remove the union wherever it exists in the workforce. This is also sometimes called “union busting.” Again, it essentially has two elements. In unionized workplaces, management endeavours to ensure that unionized employees’ working conditions, wages, and benefits are not superior to those of nonunion employees. In so doing, they attempt to send a message to union members that the union is not getting them a better employment package than they would receive if they were not union members. In nonunionized workplaces, management will try to discourage union activity by sending the message that there is little to gain from unionization and will openly resist any union certification drives.

The strategy of union substitution applies to nonunion operations and workplaces. In essence, taken to its fullest, union substitution is designed to give nonunion employees all of the due process elements (e.g., appeal procedures, clear policies applied consistently), representation (e.g., teams), and compensation advantages of unionization. Take for example the fact that many nonunion employers have employee handbooks that contain policies concerning discipline, discrimination, hours of work, wages, benefits, appeal processes, and performance expectations. In essence, these handbooks are very similar to a collective agreement with the exception that each individual employee signs the book as there is no collective agreement negotiated by a union. Therefore, it can be argued that management, through its HRM policies and practices, attempts to provide a substitute to unionization that makes employees see unionization as unnecessary. This strategy is also called a union avoidance strategy in that one avoids unionization through a substitution strategy.

Chapter_7_Negotiations

1. An important assumption of the employment relationship is the existence of a conflict of interests between managers and those they manage.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

2. Cooperative and adversarial negotiations often take place at the same time.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

3. Individual negotiations are similar to bargaining over the terms of a collective agreement.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False

4. Individual negotiations are bilateral in nature.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

5. Distributive bargaining is a category of negotiations usually characterized by an adversarial or competitive style.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

6. An example of a distributive issue is wages.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

7. Integrative bargaining is founded on the assumption that bargaining outcomes can expand the pie to enable both sides to win.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

8. The bottom line represents the best possible outcome short of a lockout for the employer.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False

9. A focus on real cases, a joint problem-solving approach, and sharing information are common tactics of building trust.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False

10. Katz, Kochan, and Hicks created a collective bargaining model that takes into account all aspects of collective bargaining, not just monetary issues.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False

11. The first step in bargaining occurs when management and the union prepare for bargaining.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

12. Tough and high-priority issues should always be resolved first.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False

13. Interest-based bargaining is a positive sum game.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

14. Today’s negotiator needs to know both integrative and distributive negotiating styles.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

15. Fisher and Ury assume a dichotomy between integrative and interest-based bargaining processes.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: False

16. The three steps in Interest-based bargaining are to identify the problem, search for alternative solutions, and systematically compare alternatives.

a.True
b.False

ANSWER: True

17. Which term refers to “attitudinal structuring”?

a.distributive bargaining
b.integrative bargaining
c.intra-organizational bargaining
d.building trust

ANSWER: d

18. What is the conflict of interest assumption?

a.There is a conflict of interests between union and management.
b.There is a conflict of interests between managers and those they manage.
c.There is a conflict of interests between unions and union members.
d.There is a conflict of interests between managers and the employer.

ANSWER: b

19. Which term describes an aspect of collective bargaining that is different from individual negotiations?

a.multilateral
b.adversarial
c.short-term
d.bilateral

ANSWER: a

20. What features of collective bargaining make it more complex than individual negotiations?

a.It lasts longer and costs more.
b.The issues are not all the same.
c.It is secret and contentious.
d.It involves exaggerated positions and trust.

ANSWER: b

21. What type of bargaining is usually characterized by an adversarial style?

a.integrative
b.collective
c.distributive
d.principled

ANSWER: c

22. What are distributive bargaining and attitudinal structuring examples of?

a.elements of the triangle of pressures
b.steps in an IBB process
c.components of Hicks’ model
d.subprocesses of collective bargaining

ANSWER: d

23. Which form of negotiations involves two parties competing over a limited resource?

a.zero-sum bargaining
b.integrative bargaining
c.principled bargaining
d.intra-organizational bargaining

ANSWER: a

24. What feature do collective bargaining and individual negotiations have in common?

a.There may be no satisfactory conclusion.
b.There is always a resolution.
c.They can be adversarial.
d.They are repetitive processes.

ANSWER: c

25. What is zero-sum game associated with?

a.competitive bargaining
b.intra-team bargaining
c.principled bargaining
d.building trust

ANSWER: a

26. Which assumption about the IR system is highlighted in distributive bargaining?

a.mutual interests
b.a shared ideology
c.tripartite negotiations framework
d.inherent conflict between labour and management

ANSWER: d

27. What are the parties trying to distribute in distributive bargaining?

a.costs of arbitration
b.control over work rules
c.roles during bargaining
d.equal participants on bargaining teams

ANSWER: b

28. Which form of bargaining is also referred to as “principled negotiations”?

a.distributive
b.intra-team
c.positive-sum
d.individual

ANSWER: c

29. Which of the following is an example of a hybrid issue?

a.newsletters
b.employee development
c.pay
d.health and safety

ANSWER: b

30. What are plant closures, pensions, and technological changes examples of?

a.distributive issues
b.hybrid issues
c.integrative issues
d.principled issues

ANSWER: b

31. Which of the following are examples of integrative issues?

a.health and safety, pensions
b.plant closures, technological change
c.rest breaks, health and safety
d.wages, overtime rates

ANSWER: c

32. Which of the following are examples of distributive issues?

a.wages, vacations
b.pensions, technological changes
c.pensions, vacations
d.rest breaks, benefits

ANSWER: a

33. Which subprocess of collective bargaining commonly uses the tactic of employing one spokesperson?

a.integrative bargaining
b.distributive bargaining
c.building trust
d.intra-team bargaining

ANSWER: b

34. In which form of bargaining will a discussion of options and alternatives be included in the bargaining process?

a.distributive
b.hybrid
c.intra-team
d.mutual gains

ANSWER: d

35. Where are intra-team conflicts of interest resolved?

a.at the bargaining table
b.at arbitration
c.in team caucus
d.at conciliation

ANSWER: c

36. Which type of bargaining uses consideration of the bargaining mandates as a common tactic?

a.win-win
b.zero-sum
c.mutual gain
d.intra-team

ANSWER: d

37. What is the purpose of having a single spokesperson during collective bargaining?

a.protects management and union relationships
b.eliminates conflict within bargaining teams
c.protects confidential information
d.manages unrealistic expectations

ANSWER: c

38. What did Katz, Kochan, and Hicks develop?

a.collective bargaining model
b.subprocesses of collective bargaining
c.triangle of pressures
d.elements of IBB

ANSWER: a

39. Under what circumstances does a contract zone exist?

a.There is no overlap between each side’s bottom line.
b.The union has the highest expected strike wage.
c.There is overlap between each side’s bottom line.
d.Management has the lowest expected strike cost package.

ANSWER: c

40. Which of the following contributes to achieving a contract zone?

a.The parties share an understanding that there will be the potential to strike or lockout.
b.The economic conditions change dramatically.
c.The parties are new to the relationship.
d.The parties share an understanding of an acceptable wage package.

ANSWER: d

41. What happens when parties have divergent expectations of the outcome wage?

a.estimated cost of a strike rises
b.no contract zone
c.estimated cost of stockpiling rises
d.strike cost per worker falls

ANSWER: b

42. Why is a third-party intervention particularly helpful in first contract negotiations?

a.The parties may have unrealistic expectations of the process.
b.The parties do not know each other and need introductions.
c.The parties may not have a conflict resolution process.
d.The parties may not have credibility.

ANSWER: a

43. According to the textbook, which of the following applies when parties are negotiating for the first time?

a.Their first contract will be established quickly.
b.They are more likely to have unrealistic expectations.
c.They will avoid tactical bargaining mistakes.
d.They are more likely to have built strong trust.

ANSWER: b

44. What are the three processes that reflect the triangle of pressures?

a.community, employee, and union consultation
b.conciliation, mediation, and arbitration
c.collective bargaining, human resources, and intra-union dynamics
d.recruitment, selection, and compensation

ANSWER: c

45. Which of the following is an example of employer–union member pressure?

a.decreased stock price
b.temporary replacement employees
c.settlements by rival unions
d.loss of income during a strike

ANSWER: b

46. What is the first step in bargaining?

a.The union and management serve notice to bargain.
b.The parties meet.
c.The momentum builds for settlement.
d.Management and the union prepare for bargaining.

ANSWER: d

47. What is the process of ratification?

a.The parties agree to suspend negotiations.
b.Each party approves the tentative settlement.
c.Management approves the negotiated settlement but the union does not.
d.The union approves the negotiated settlement but management does not.

ANSWER: b

48. What is another term for “positive-sum bargaining”?

a.principled bargaining
b.distributive bargaining
c.distanced bargaining
d.attitudinal structuring

ANSWER: a

49. What is Interest-based bargaining?

a.bargaining in which the parties explore what they have in common
b.a form of bargaining in which there is a winner and a loser
c.bargaining within management and union teams
d.a form of third-party bargaining that is binding on the parties

ANSWER: a

50. According to the textbook, what is required in order for integrative bargaining to be successful?

a.a strict control over exchange of information
b.ignorance about the other party’s needs
c.a partisan approach to trust
d.a free exchange of information

ANSWER: d

51. Which statement best reflects recent research into IBB?

a.Management and labour both prefer IBB.
b.A mutual gains approach works well for highly distributive issues.
c.On average, female and newer negotiations give IBB a higher rating.
d.IBB reduces the risk that unions will be forced to accept concessions.

ANSWER: c

52. When has distributive bargaining been shown to be a more effective approach than IBB?

a.in a crisis
b.in an exceptionally bad relationship
c.when monetary issues are present
d.when there is a high level of trust

ANSWER: c

53. What are the main differences between individual and collective bargaining?

ANSWER: 1. Individual negotiations are bilateral in nature, but collective bargaining involves multiple parties (i.e., employees, unions, supervisors, managers) with different pressures and interests.
2. Issues may be inherently adversarial, or have potential for a win-win outcome, or even be a combination of both. This makes collective bargaining complex because all three types of issues are negotiated at the same time.
3. In collective bargaining, the relationship between the parties is ongoing, whereas in individual bargaining the parties may never see each other again.

54. Define and describe the four subprocesses of collective bargaining.

ANSWER: 1. Distributive bargaining:A form of negotiations in which two parties compete over the distribution of some fixed resource. An adversarial or competitive style is used, and monetary issues are common in this type of bargaining.
2. Integrative bargaining:A form of bargaining in which there is potential for a solution that produces a mutual gain. This approach is also known as win-win bargaining, interest-based bargaining, and principled bargaining. Issues such as health and safety are common in this type of bargaining.
3. Intra-team bargaining:Bargaining within union and management teams during the collective bargaining process. Each team member may represent specific issues for particular workers.
4. Building trust:The difficult process of building the mutual respect and trust for an enduring and positive collective bargaining relationship. This may include, for example, permanent joint union–management committees.

55. Discuss three reasons why Interest-Based Bargaining so difficult to achieve?

ANSWER: Mixed-issue bargaining: Any round of collective bargaining discusses distributive, integrative and hybrid issues, which makes it very complex. Given this, it’s sometimes difficult to fully exploit integrative potential. Negotiators who use an adversarial style ignore integrative potential or hybrid issues. Negotiators need to be able to adapt to each style depending on each issue, but this is easier said than done.

Bargaining history: The parties may have a long history of adversarial negotiations. In this climate, it’s common for bargaining positions to harden. Also, some unions oppose all forms of cooperation for ideological reasons.

Theory: Unless there is complete certainty that the other side will also use a cooperative style, the risk of adopting this style may be too great. A party that switches to the distributive style during negotiations will end up with more at the expense of the other party.

56. Discuss two dos and don’ts of bargaining?

ANSWER: Do not start with tough or high priority issues first.

Tactical: Parties may not be able to generate any momentum and talks could collapse. Starting with lesser issues can produce positive momentum, getting negotiations started in the right direction.

Strategic: Neither side will want a strike or lockout over issues of lesser importance. If wages and benefits are resolved, the parties are likely to encounter difficulties in generating support for any noneconomic issues.

57. Define interest-based bargaining, state its assumptions and main elements, and briefly describe the steps involved.

ANSWER: IBB is a cooperative form of bargaining in which the parties focus on their interest, not on positions. It’s also known as principled, integrative, positive-sum, and collaborative bargaining.

Based on four assumptions: Management and labour can both win; they can assist each other to win; open discussion expands the area of mutual interest; and decision making is based on options, not power.

Its main elements: Focus on issues not personalities, problem-solving approach, free exchange of information, emphasis on interests not positions, create options to satisfy mutual interests.

Steps:
1. Identify the problem: Frequent sessions, agenda items with joint problem-solving potential, formulate specific problems rather than general concerns
2. Search for alternative solutions: Exploratory discussion before formal proposals, tackle issues that are easy to resolve first
3. Systematically compare alternatives: Report preferences, combine proposals to make patterns of agreement, consider remedial actions that improve relationship

+
-
Only 0 units of this product remain

You might also be interested in