Introduction To Clinical Psychology 8th Edition By Geoffrey P. Kramer – Test Bank A+

Introduction To Clinical Psychology 8th Edition By Geoffrey P. Kramer – Test Bank   A+

Introduction To Clinical Psychology 8th Edition By Geoffrey P. Kramer – Test Bank A+

Introduction To Clinical Psychology 8th Edition By Geoffrey P. Kramer – Test Bank A+
  1. How are psychological tests similar to, and different from, other forms of assessment?
  2. What are standardization samples and test norms?
  3. What are the main categories of tests used by clinical psychologists?
  4. How are tests constructed using analytic and empirical procedures?
  5. How can test developers determine if their test is biased against specific ethnic or cultural


  1. What ethical standards and guidelines should clinicians follow in using tests?
  2. Which specific tests are most commonly used by clinical psychologists?
  3. What are general, specific, and hierarchical models of intelligence?
  4. What do intelligence tests used by clinical psychologists actually measure?
  5. What is the Stanford-Binet 5, and what scores are derived from it?
  6. What are the Wechsler scales, and what scores are derived from them?
  7. What other tests of intelligence, achievement, and aptitude do clinicians commonly use?
  8. What are the differences between objective and projective personality tests?
  9. What is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and what measures are derived

from it?

  1. What other tests do clinicians use to measure psychopathology or emotional distress?
  2. What tests are commonly used to measure normal personality?
  3. How are the Rorschach and the Thematic Apperception Test constructed and


  1. Why are projective tests controversial?
  2. How do the validities of psychological tests compare with the validities of tests used in

other areas of health care?

  1. What do clinical utility and treatment utility mean, and why are they significant for testing?



What Is a Test?

What Do Tests Measure?

How Are Tests Constructed?

Avoiding Distortion in Test Scores

Cultural Fairness and Bias in Psychological Tests

Ethical Standards in Testing


Theories of Intelligence

The Binet Scales

The Wechsler Scales

Other Intelligence Tests

Aptitude and Achievement Tests



Objective Tests of Psychopathology

Objective Tests of Personality

Projective Personality Tests


The Validity of Psychological Testing Versus Medical Testing

Clinical Utility and Evidence-Based Assessment



  • objective measures (p. 117)
  • standardization (p. 117)
  • Mental Measurement Yearbook (p. 117)
  • analytical test construction (p. 119)
  • empirical test construction (p. 119)
  • sequential systems approach (p. 119)
  • scales (p. 120)
  • standardization sample (p. 120)
  • norms (p. 120)
  • criterion (p. 120)
  • ipsative measurement (p. 121)
  • response set (p. 121)
  • response style (p. 121)
  • social desirability bias (p. 121)
  • malingering (p. 121)
  • cultural fairness (p. 122)
  • 80% or four-fifths rule (p. 123)
  • ethical standards (p. 124)
  • psychometric approach (p. 125)
  • triarchic theory of intelligence (p. 125)

factor analytic studies (p. 126)

Binet scales (p. 126)

intelligence quotient (p. 126)

Wechsler scales (pp. 126-128)

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (p. 129)

achievement (p . 130)

aptitude (p. 130)

values (p. 131)

objective personality measurement (p. 132)

projective personality assessment (p. 132)

MMPI-2 (pp. 133-134)

Personality Assessment Inventory (p.136)

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (p. 136)

Beck Depression Inventory (p. 136)

NEO-PI (p. 137)

California PI (p. 137)

projective hypothesis (p. 137)

Rorshach test (p. 138)

protocol (p. 139)

Thematic Apperception Test (p. 140)

treatment utility (p. 143)

clinical utility (p. 143)



  1. Have students explore the role testing has played in their lives (e.g., the SAT, employment tests, etc.) What have their reactions been to these tests? What are their concerns about how tests have been used in their personal experiences?
  1. Most college students have had personal experience with “high stakes” testing during their elementary and high school education as a result of the “No Child Left Behind” legislation. Do they have any concerns about testing related to this experience and to such issues as cultural fairness, and score interpretation?


  1. In groups, have students develop a definition of intelligence. Then, based on their definition, have them develop some sample test items or activities to assess that type of intelligence. Have the groups share these items with the class.
    1. Intelligence tests have been misused in the past. Discuss how this has happened and what needs to be done to assure it doesn’t happen in the future.


  1. Have students explore the website and possibly take some of the measures available there. Can they see utility in providing means of exploring such aspects of the personality as values and interests?
  1. Attitude, interest, and preference tests are used most commonly by counseling psychologists in academic and employment settings. What do the students think about this? Should clinical psychologists take a more active interest in these measures as they complete assessments or not?


  1. Illustrate the fundamentals of projective testing by presenting a glass of water filled to the halfway mark and ask the students to describe the glass. Discuss the validity and reliability of this projective measure of optimism and pessimism.
  1. Discuss the reasons that projective drawing tests are still used regularly in psychological assessments, especially with children. Do the students have concerns about this? How can these concerns be addressed?


  1. Have students consider the role of psychological testing in a managed care world. What role should financial constraints play in the development of a testing protocol? Is a truncated battery acceptable? Or should traditional testing be eliminated completely in these circumstances?
  1. If medical assessment and psychological assessment share similar levels of validity, is it possible that the same factors influence both types of assessments? What might these factors be?


  1. How many of the students in class are interested in learning to conduct psychological testing? What proportion of their clinical training do they think should be dedicated to testing? As technological advances continue, should testing become the domain of technicians rather than clinical psychologists? Why or why not?
  1. Does testing alter the relationship between therapist and client? Would repeated assessment of treatment efficacy influence the process of therapy? Why or why not?


  1. Access the searchable database of tests from Buros Institute of Mental Measurements at Have students list the most surprising measures they find there.
  1. Explore the websites for several clinics or mental health centers in your area, as well as the counseling center on campus. Do they offer psychological testing? What types of tests are currently in use?
  1. The Meyers-Briggs personality test is available online at Although there are concerns about this measure’s validity, it can still be used to illustrate the impact that theoretical orientation often has on measures of personality.
  1. Access information about “quantitative psychology” as an emerging field at the website for APA Division 5: Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics at Should this field be separate from clinical psychology or integrated into it?
  1. Explore the website for the Learning Disabilities Association of America (, as well as your state chapter. What testing resources are available for individuals seeking a determination of disability? Do these seem adequate?


  • Video: Testing and intelligence. (2001). Discovering Psychology, Vol. 16. WGBH Boston with the American Psychological Association. 30 minutes. Phillip Zimbardo, contributor.
  • Video: Evidence-Based treatment. (Undated). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. Approx. 100 minutes. Larry E. Beutler, Ph.D.
  • Block, J. (2008). The Q-Sort in character appraisal: Encoding subjective impressions of persons qualtitatively. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.
  • Hoffman, E. (2002). Psychological testing at work: How to use, interpret, and get the most out of the newest tests in personality, learning styles, aptitudes, interests, and more! New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Naglieri, J., Drasgow, F., Schmit, M., Handler, L., Prifitera, A., Margolis, A., et al. (2004). Psychological testing on the Internet: New problems, old issues. American Psychologist, 59(3), 150-162.



  1. A test is
    1. a systematic procedure for observing and describing a person’s behavior.
    2. a method for assigning people to various groups.
    3. usually the starting point of treatment.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: a Page: 117
  1. Two principles that facilitate the elimination of extraneous variables in testing are
    1. objectivity and projectivity.
    2. standardization and elaboration.
    3. objectivity and standardization.
    4. explicity and implicity.
    • Answer: c Page: 117
  1. Psychologists using the analytic approach are most likely to
    1. ascertain the qualities they want to measure.
    2. define the qualities they want to measure.
    3. create test items that measure the qualities they have defined.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: d Page: 119
  1. When a test contains items that seem odd or unrelated to the construct being measured, it is likely that it has been constructed using the
    1. analytic approach.
    2. empirical approach.
    3. psychometric approach.
    4. random question approach.
  • Answer: b Page: 119
  1. Standardization refers to
    1. consistency in the administration of a test.
    2. consistency in the scoring of a test.
    3. the sample on which the test was originally developed.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: d Page: 120
  1. Test results can be interpreted based on the scores to the standardization sample, a________, or compared to a level of proficiency, a__________.
    1. norm; criterion.
    2. criterion; norm.
    3. scale; norm.
    4. valid group; reliable measure.
  • Answer: a Page: 120
  1. When a person is given a pre-test before an intervention, and then another test after an intervention or training, and his or her results are compared to determine progress, this is called
    1. standardized measurement.
    2. criterion measurement.
    3. ipsative measurement.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: c Page: 121
  1. According to Domino and Domino (2006), when is cultural bias likely to affect test performance?
    1. before the test
    2. during the test
    3. after the test
    4. both before and during the test
  • Answer: d Page: 122
  1. The 80%, or four-fifths rule, is a guideline the courts have used
    1. to determine which 20% of the population a measure is appropriate for.
    2. to label a test item as biased.
    3. to ascertain the number of passing grades appropriate for criterion measurements.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: b Page: 123
  1. Which of the following is NOT part of the ethical standard for psychologists’ use of tests?
    1. competence and professional responsibility
    2. respect for rights and dignity
    3. protecting test materials from unauthorized dissemination and misuse
    4. all of the above are included in the ethical standards
  • Answer: d Page: 124

  1. The two types of theories of intelligence presented in the text are
    1. theories positing intelligence as a general characteristic and theories of specific intelligences.
    2. theories of cognitive intelligence and theories of emotional intelligence.
    3. triarchical theories and hierarchical theories.
    4. theories positing intelligence as a practical attribute and theories of intelligence as abstract reasoning.
  • Answer: a Page: 125
  1. The triarchic theory of intelligence
    1. was developed by Howard Gardner.
    2. argues that there are three kinds of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical.
    3. is measured by the STAT, which has been well-researched to establish its validity and reliability.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: b Page: 125
  1. Which statistical method is used to determine what specific abilities or traits cluster together?
    1. cluster analysis
    2. correlational analysis
    3. ipsative analysis
    4. factor analysis
  • Answer: d Page: 126
  1. The current revision of the Stanford Binet (SB5)
    1. is not considered reliable.
    2. is no longer used to diagnose gifted, learning-disordered, or intellectually-impaired children.
    3. is built around a hierarchical model of intelligence.
    4. postulates eight different intelligences or frames of mind.
  • Answer: c Page: 126
  1. The most popular intelligence test in the United States is the
    1. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children.
    2. WAISIII
    3. STAT
  • Answer: c Page: 126

  1. Kaufman describes intelligence as both
    1. verbal and visual motor abilities.
    2. intuitive and objective understanding.
    3. higher order and basic functions.
    4. the ability to solve problems and “crystallized” intelligence.
  • Answer: d Page: 128
  1. In what ways are values different from attitudes and interests?
    1. They are fewer in number and more central to a person’s belief system.
    2. They have a much more clearly pronounced effect on a person’s behavior.
    3. They are much more directly related to intelligence.
    4. Research indicates that values aren’t different from attitudes and interests.
  • Answer: a Page: 131
  1. Values, interest, and attitude assessment instruments remain in wide use, largely because
    1. they have an exceptionally high reliability and validity.
    2. they can be administered, scored, and interpreted by almost anyone.
    3. they can be used to stimulate personal and career exploration.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: c Page: 131
  1. The pattern of behavioral and psychological characteristics by which a person can be compared with other people is a definition of
  • Answer: c Page: 131
  1. The two major types of personality tests are
    1. self-report and observational.
    2. objective and projective.
    3. intrapsychic and theory-driven.
    4. empirical and analytical.
  • Answer: b Page: 132

  1. The _______ is the most influential psychological test available for the objective measurement of personality.
    1. Rorschach
    2. MMPI-2
    3. WAISIII
    4. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
  • Answer: b Page: 133
  1. The hypothesis that states that an individual’s personality will influence how he or she responds to ambiguous stimuli is called
    1. the projective hypothesis.
    2. the triarchic theory.
    3. the psychodynamic theory of response.
    4. the “big five” trait hypothesis.
  • Answer: a Page: 137
  1. Training in the administration of the _____________is no longer required in some graduate psychology programs, even though many clinicians still find it a useful diagnostic measure.
    1. WAIS-III
    2. MMPI-2
    3. Rorschach
    4. Thematic Apperception Test
  • Answer: c Page: 138
  1. The extent to which tests can be used to specify treatment approaches or measure treatment outcomes is referred to as
    1. treatment or clinical utility.
    2. external or criterion validity.
    3. clinical efficacy.
    4. psychotherapy/assessment integration.
  • Answer: a Page: 143
  1. Instruments that attempt to tie testing directly to treatment
    1. should be developed by identifying the most important treatment variables and then developing tests specifically to measure those variables.
    2. have already been developed, such as the outcome Questionnaire-45.
    3. may come about only by reversing the traditional relationship between psychotherapy and testing.
    4. all of the above

Answer: d Page: 143


  1. According to the Mental Measurements Yearbook, there are often several different tests designed to measure the same characteristic.
  • Answer: True Page: 117
  1. When a test developer uses the sequential system approach, groups of correlated items are identified as scales.
  • Answer: True Page: 120
  1. Ipsative measures can be useful to clinicians because they can be used to measure the outcomes of treatments.
  • Answer: True Page: 121
  1. Both the social desirability bias and malingering can affect or bias test results.
  • Answer: True Page: 121
  1. There is concern that Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences overextends the definition of intelligence.
  • Answer: True Page: 125
  1. Alfred Binet was the first person to develop a measure of intelligence.
  • Answer: False Page: 126
  1. Aptitude tests measure proficiency at certain tasks or how well a person can perform in specific areas.
  • Answer: False Page: 130
  1. One difficulty for clinicians posed by the MMPI-2 is that there are very few interpretative and scoring manuals available.
  • Answer: False Page: 134
  1. The MMPI-2 is so well-established that relatively few empirical studies are currently being conducted with it.
  • Answer: False Page: 136
  1. The popularity of the Rorschach test has declined in recent years due to concerns about its reliability and validity. However, many clinicians continue to consider it useful.

Answer: True Page: 138


  1. Discuss the reasons why psychological testing lost much of its appeal during the early 1970s. (Page: 116)
  1. What are some of the ways that testers can minimize response distortions? (Page: 117)
  1. Discuss the factors that have affected patterns of test usage in clinical psychology. (Page: 118)
  1. Multifaceted intelligence tests are among the most popular psychological tests in use today. Discuss what types of diagnoses or descriptions can be made based on these measures, and which ways the scores should not be used. (Page: 128)
  1. What are some reasons that projective personality tests are still used, even though their psychometric properties are fairly poor? (Page: 138)


Psychodynamic and Humanistic Psychotherapies


  1. How did psychoanalysis develop?
  2. What is the structural model of personality in psychoanalytic theory?
  3. What is meant by psychic determinism?
  4. What roles do anxiety and defense mechanisms play in the production of psychological


  1. What are transference and countertransference? How are they viewed by the various

psychodynamic approaches?

  1. How do psychodynamic psychotherapies attempt to help clients stop repeating the past?
  2. What role do the following play in psychoanalysis: resistance, interpretation, and insight?
  3. What major changes or variations in psychoanalytic thought have occurred after Freud?
  4. How does the practice of contemporary psychodynamic therapists differ from the

practice of psychoanalysts?

  1. How do humanistic psychologists view personality and psychological problems?
  2. What special role does the self have in humanistic psychotherapy?
  3. What are unconditional positive regard, empathy, and congruence, and why are they

important in person-centered psychotherapy?

  1. What role does the therapeutic relationship play in person-centered and other humanistic


  1. How does Gestalt therapy differ from person-centered therapy?
  2. What is the major focus of the existential humanistic psychotherapies?
  3. Compared with other major approaches to psychotherapy, how prevalent are the

humanistic approaches among practicing clinical and counseling psychologists?



Theoretical Foundations

Goals of Psychoanalysis

Clinical Applications


Psychoanalytically Oriented Psychotherapy

Early Alternatives to Classical Psychoanalysis

Ego Psychology

Object Relations and Self-Psychology

Relational Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

Common Features and Variations Is Psychodynamic Therapies

The Current Status of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy


Person-Centered Therapy

The Goals of Person-Centered Therapy


Gestalt Therapy

Existential and Other Humanistic Approaches

The Current Status of Humanistic Psychotherapy


  • psychoanalysis (p. 176)
  • hypnosis (p. 176)
  • cathartic method (p. 176)
  • free association (p. 177)
  • topographical model (p. 177)
  • id, ego, superego (p. 177)
  • structural model (p. 178)
  • defense mechanisms (p. 179)
  • transference (p. 179)
  • countertransference (p. 179)
  • psychic determinism (p. 181)
  • resistance (p. 181)
  • interpretation (p. 181)
  • insight (p. 182)
  • working through (p. 182)
  • dream work (p. 185)
  • transference neurosis (p. 185)
  • resistance (p. 185)
  • Alfred Adler (p. 189)
  • Carl Jung (p. 189)
  • ego analysts (p. 189)
  • ego strengths (p. 189)
  • object relations (p. 189)
  • self-psychology (p. 190)
  • Harry Stack Sullivan (p. 190)
  • intersubjectivism (p. 190)
  • constructivism (p. 190)
  • postmodernism (p. 190)

short-term dynamic psychotherapy (p. 191)

interpersonal psychotherapy (p. 250)

supportive/expressive continuum (p. 192)

corrective emotional experience (p. 192)

humanistic psychotherapy (p. 193)

person-centered psychotherapy (p. 193)

actualizing tendency (p. 193)

self-actualization (p. 193)

Carl Rogers (p. 193)

unconditional positive regard (p. 194)

real vs. ideal self (p. 195)

empathic understanding (p. 196)

external frame of reference (p. 196)

congruence (p. 197)

Gestalt therapy (p. 200)

Fritz and Laura Perls (p. 200)

role-playing (p. 201)

existential psychotherapy (p. 202)

Rollo May (p. 265)

Viktor Frankl (p. 265)

motivational interviewing (p. 202)

emotion-focused therapy (p. 203)



  1. Have the students look for stereotypical portrayals of psychoanalysis (bearded therapist taking notes, client laying on couch, word association tests, inkblots, etc.). They should be able to find them easily in the comics, as postcards, in magazines and, of course, online. Use this to discuss how psychoanalysis has shaped the public perceptions of what psychotherapy is.

  1. Ask students to keep track of their dreams for a week. This should demonstrate three things: that there are common themes to most individuals’ dreams, that each individual will have dreams that repeat themselves, and that by being encouraged to remember their dreams, they should begin to recall more of their dreams.


  1. In groups, have the students stage two types of interviews. In one, the “therapist” should sit out of visual range during the interview (as in traditional psychoanalysis). In the other condition, the “therapist” should be sitting where he or she can maintain eye-contact (as in psychodyanamic and ego-analytic styles). What are the “client” perceptions in these two situations? Does one feel more engaging? How about for the “therapist?” Is one situation more comfortable than the other?
    1. Consider the Victorian era during which Freud developed his libidinal-based theory. Is it surprising that Adler, Erikson, and even daughter, Anna, sought other driving forces? Do the students think that Freud would have been such a sensation in another era?
  1. Have students discuss the basic concepts of brief psychodynamic therapy (BPT). How do therapists decide to use BPT instead of longer-term or more open-ended approaches? Which style do the students feel they would be more comfortable with in their work?


  1. This is a good time to use the classic “Who are you?” interview. The students pair up and one asks the other the question repeatedly for ten minutes. The students then switch roles. Rogers used this exercise to explore how complicated the self is, how it is reliant on social feedback, and how powerful it is to contemplate the vagaries of how we experience our “self.”
  1. Have the students practice “empathic responding” with one another. This would be a good time to discuss some of the new findings on mirror neurons and how our brains seem to be wired for empathy. (See Additional Resources section.)


  1. Gestalt therapy fell into decline after research indicated that the direct expression of anger (such as hitting pillows, shoving bobo dolls, etc.) actually led to increased anger, rather than a dissipation of anger. However, many therapists still use Gestalt techniques in their practices. What information might a therapist seek when including such techniques in their treatment approach? Where would they find this information?
    1. Invite a therapist who uses Gestalt techniques to demonstrate some of these to the class. Alternatively, have the students try the “empty chair” technique with one another, or the “unmailed letter” technique.


  1. Explore the sections of the APA website that address psychoanalysis. Start at and follow the links to the subsections and research divisions. Does the amount of information on this site reflect clinical psychology’s early relationship with psychoanalysis?
  1. APA Division 32 is dedicated to humanistic psychology. Explore these pages starting at Compare this material to that presented on the website for the Association for Humanistic Psychology at How do these sites compare?
  1. Visit for information about brief psychodynamic therapy and case examples. What impact do you foresee brief therapeutic approaches having on the practice of clinical psychology?
  1. Information about Viktor Frankl is available at What impact do you think his early life experiences had on the development of his theoretical orientation?
  1. Visit the website for the Association for the Advancement of Gestalt Therapy at, and the Gestalt therapy section of Do you think Gestalt therapy will regain a prominent role in clinical work? Why or why not?


  • A video segment about mirror neurons is available at This 14-minute clip was aired on FrontlineNow in January 2008.
  • The APA videotape series Systems of psychotherapy includes videos and DVDs illustrating Adlerian therapy, brief dynamic therapy, client-centered therapy, existential therapy, Gestalt therapy, psychoanalytic therapy and short-term dynamic therapy. They are available from the APA website at Each video is approx. 100 minutes long.
  • Epstein, M. (1995). Thoughts without a thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist perspective. New York: Basic Books. Presents a discussion of the “working through” phase in psychoanalysis as assisted by meditative processes.
  • Stern, D. (2004). The present moment in psychotherapy and everyday life. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
  • Wallin, D. (2007). Attachment in Psychotherapy. New York: Guilford. A detailed discussion that integrates John Bowlby’s and Mary Main’s work with psychodynamic psychotherapy.



  1. Which of the following is NOT an essential proposition of the psychoanalytic approach?
    1. Mental life is best understood as a dynamic interaction of competing forces.
    2. Mental life occurs mainly at an unconscious level.
    3. There is a relationship between a client’s developmental history and current problems.
    4. Most learning is observational.
  • Answer: d Page: 178
  1. Defense mechanisms
    1. are conscious strategies that the ego employs to contain anxiety.
    2. are always successful and adaptive.
    3. can be at the root of behaviors that cause client distress.
    4. are always problematic and must be eradicated as a goal of treatment.
    • Answer: c Page: 179
  1. _________________ is the process of bringing maladaptive patterns of relating into the therapy, whereby typical patterns of relationships are re-enacted with the therapist.
    1. Dynamic conflict
    2. Catharsis
    3. Transference
    4. Countertransference
  • Answer: c Page: 179
  1. Which of the following are listed in the correct order of occurrence in psychoanalysis?
    1. transference, resistance, interpretation, working through
    2. defensiveness, resistance, working through, transference
    3. interpretation, defensiveness, psychic determinism, working through
    4. none of the above, there is no predictable course of therapy in psychoanalysis
  • Answer: a Page: 182
  1. Which of the following is NOT a goal of psychoanalysis?
    1. repairing the mother-child rupture
    2. intellectual and emotional insight into the causes of problems
    3. strengthening the ego’s control over the id and superego
    4. working through the implications of insights into causes of problems
  • Answer: a Page: 182

  1. Which of the following are sources of unconscious material that psychoanalysts utilize?
    1. free association material
    2. slips of the tongue, body language
    3. accidents, memory lapses, humor
    4. all of the above would be material that would interest an analyst
  • Answer: d Page: 182
  1. After a trip to New York City, a client shares a dream in which she fell off the Empire State Building. In analyzing this dream, the Empire State Building would be considered the ______________ and the falling off would be the __________________.
    1. manifest content; latent content
    2. latent content; manifest content
    3. phallic symbol; dream work
    4. structural dimension; transference fear
  • Answer: a Page: 185
  1. What was a significant characteristic of Alfred Adler’s approach to psychotherapy?
    1. Adler focused on exploring and altering maladaptive lifestyles.
    2. Adler used homework and modeling as ways to help clients become aware of their lifestyle.
    3. Adler focused more on the social and relational aspects of psychopathology and less on intrapsychic conflicts.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: d Page: 189
  1. The theorists who sought to use psychoanalytic techniques to understand and explore clients’ strengths and adaptive ego functions are collectively called
    1. individual psychologists.
    2. object-relations therapists.
    3. ego analysts.
    4. reverse psychoanalysts.
  • Answer: c Page: 189
  1. In object relations therapy, “object relations” refer to
    1. the importance placed on things the client owns.
    2. how individuals relate to the social world and things around them.
    3. relationships that develop from the earliest infant-caregiver interactions.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: c Page: 189

  1. A similarity between Kohut’s self-psychology practitioners and the object relations therapists is that they both
    1. remain relatively passive in the therapeutic relationship.
    2. attempt to provide remedial nurturing and attachment experiences.
    3. view therapy as a short-term endeavor.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: b Page: 190
  1. Relational psychodynamic psychotherapies
    1. stress the importance of early relationships.
    2. borrow heavily from psychoanalysis, ego-analysis, person-centered, and humanistic approaches.
    3. are often referred to as “two-person theories.”
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: d Page: 190
  1. Which of the following approaches stress pragmatic goals, establishing a therapeutic alliance as quickly as possible, and focusing on a current crisis or problem?
    1. relational psychodynamic psychotherapy
    2. object relations psychotherapy
    3. ego psychoanalytic therapy
    4. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy
  • Answer: d Page: 191
  1. Which of the following is true about psychodynamic psychotherapy?
    1. It is practiced by only 2% of clinicians.
    2. Its foundations have been largely challenged and discredited.
    3. It has failed to evolve to keep up with the demands of modern clinical practice.
    4. It is the second most popular approach to therapy among faculty at accredited graduate programs.
  • Answer: d Page: 192
  1. Humanistic approaches to psychotherapy emphasize _________________, while psychodynamic therapies emphasize__________________.
    1. immediate experience; unconscious conflict
    2. man’s inherent goodness; man’s tendency towards evil
    3. childhood experiences; adult trauma
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: a Page: 193

  1. Which of the following statements would NOT be supported by a humanistic therapist?
    1. Humans are naturally good and able to make choices about their lives.
    2. Humans are creative and will guide their own behavior towards their full potential.
    3. The therapeutic relationship is not very important because growth towards potential is inevitable.
    4. Clients are equal partners in the therapeutic endeavor.
  • Answer: c Page: 193
  1. Which of the following would be a likely goal a person-centered therapist would set for his or her client?
    1. improving interpersonal communication
    2. increased satisfaction with work and play
    3. the ability to love unconditionally
    4. none of the above, person-centered therapists don’t set goals for their clients
  • Answer: d Page: 195
  1. When an empathic therapist tries to understand what it would be like to be his client, Rogers would say he is using a(n)
    1. internal frame of reference.
    2. external frame of reference.
    3. empathic congruence.
    4. reflective stance.
  • Answer: a Page: 195
  1. The person-centered therapist’s primary responsibility is to
    1. encourage the client to explore positive directions for growth.
    2. provide an atmosphere in which the client is comfortable exploring thoughts and feelings.
    3. truly like the client.
    4. plan homework assignments that will encourage growth activities between sessions.
  • Answer: b Page: 196
  1. Congruence in person-centered therapy means
    1. that the therapist must say whatever is on her mind.
    2. that the therapist must maintain a professional facade, so as not in influence the client’s understanding of his own feelings.
    3. the therapist is genuine; his or her feelings and actions are consistent with one another.
    4. “going with the gut” in reacting to the material the client brings up.
  • Answer: c Page: 197

  1. A primary goal of Gestalt therapy is to
    1. help clients become aware of genuine feelings they have disowned.
    2. recognize the feelings and values that they have borrowed from other people.
    3. both a and b
    4. neither a nor b
  • Answer: c Page: 201
  1. A Gestalt therapist is likely to be _________________ and _________________that a person-centered therapist.
    1. more directive; less confrontative
    2. less confrontative; less directive
    3. more directive; more confrontative
    4. more empathic; less concerned about avoidance
  • Answer: c Page: 201
  1. The therapeutic approach developed in Europe following the World Wars than helps clients explore fully what it means to be alive is called
    1. existential psychotherapy.
    2. Gestalt therapy.
    3. humanistic determinism.
    4. postmodern humanism.
  • Answer: a Page: 202
  1. The therapeutic approach that is often used with resistant clients, such as substance abusers, is called
    1. Gestalt therapy.
    2. existential psychotherapy.
    3. postmodern humanism.
    4. motivational interviewing.
  • Answer: d Page: 202
  1. Relative to psychodynamic approaches, humanistic approaches
    1. were among the earliest at attempting empirical research on the therapeutic endeavor.
    2. are more likely to be utilized in counseling psychology programs than clinical psychology programs.
    3. are less appealing to practitioners who seek a more active role in therapy.
    4. all of the above

Answer: d Page: 203


  1. By developing psychoanalysis, Freud can be considered the founder of psychotherapy as we know it today.
  • Answer: True Page: 176
  1. The psychoanalytic continuum from unconscious to preconscious, to conscious thought is called the structural model of the mind.
  • Answer: False Page: 177
  1. Transference is useful in therapy because of the fact that to the extent that a new relationship is similar to an old one, reactions based on the old relationship are likely to occur.
  • Answer: True Page: 179
  1. A transference neurosis occurs when the client unconsciously replicates other relationships with the therapist.
  • Answer: True Page: 179
  1. Short-term psychodynamic therapy emphasizes pragmatic goals and attempts to meet them in less than 10 sessions.
  • Answer: False Page: 191
  1. In order to express unconditional positive regard, the therapist must approve of all the things the client says.
  • Answer: False Page: 194
  1. Gestalt therapists tend to be much more dogmatic and active than person-centered or psychoanalytic therapists.
  • Answer: True Page: 200
  1. Existential therapists encourage clients to develop a sense of meaning and purpose in their lives.
  • Answer: True Page: 202
  1. Emotion-focused therapy helps clients avoid feelings of vulnerability.

Answer: False Page: 203

  1. Carl Rogers was the first to recognize the need for scientific research to substantiate the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions.
  • Answer: True Page: 203


  1. Discuss the ways in which psychoanalytic theory continues to influence most approaches to psychotherapy today. (Page: 177)
  1. What are some reasons why therapists might gravitate away from strict psychoanalytic approaches toward object relations or ego-analytic approaches? (Pages: 189-192)
  1. Discuss the interaction between the level of disturbance a client is exhibiting and the therapist’s decision to use supportive or expressive approaches. (Page: 192)
  1. Discuss the dual role of reflection in person-centered therapy. (Page: 196)
  1. What could be considered the main contribution of humanistic therapies to the larger field of psychotherapy? (Page: 204)
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