Juvenile Justice in America 8th Edition by Bartollas And Milleredolder – Test Bank +A

$35.00
Juvenile Justice in America  8th Edition by Bartollas And Milleredolder – Test Bank +A

Juvenile Justice in America 8th Edition by Bartollas And Milleredolder – Test Bank +A

$35.00
Juvenile Justice in America 8th Edition by Bartollas And Milleredolder – Test Bank +A

1) The premise of parens patriae at the Cook County Juvenile Court was that it allowed the juvenile courts to ________.

  1. A) treat youthful offenders
  2. B) punish the families of youthful offenders
  3. C) isolate youthful offenders from society
  4. D) punish youthful offenders

Answer: A

Page Ref: 4

Objective: Retrace the journey of juvenile justice in the United States

Level: Intermediate

2) In colonial times, youths were punished by ________.

  1. A) sheriffs
  2. B) watchmen
  3. C) magistrates
  4. D) their families

Answer: D

Page Ref: 4

Objective: Retrace the journey of juvenile justice in the United States

Level: Intermediate

3) In Europe during the middle ages, who assumed control over children and their welfare before it was turned over to the Chancery Court?

  1. A) constables
  2. B) shire reeves
  3. C) the landowners
  4. D) circuit judges

Answer: C

Page Ref: 4

Objective: Retrace the journey of juvenile justice in the United States

Level: Basic

4) Parens patriae focused on the ________ as the one who protected his or her subjects.

  1. A) self
  2. B) sovereign
  3. C) god
  4. D) family

Answer: B

Page Ref: 4

Objective: Retrace the journey of juvenile justice in the United States

Level: Basic

5) In the late 1700s and early 1800s, the ________ was believed to be the primary source of youths’ problems.

  1. A) school
  2. B) peer group
  3. C) family
  4. D) community

Answer: C

Page Ref: 8

Objective: Summarize the history of juvenile confinement

Level: Basic

6) Early Houses of Refuge were run using a ________.

  1. A) family model
  2. B) deterrence model
  3. C) rehabilitation model
  4. D) punishment and penitence model

Answer: A

Page Ref: 9

Objective: Summarize the history of juvenile confinement

Level: Intermediate

7) The penal system of the colonies was modeled after the ________ system.

  1. A) German
  2. B) Spanish
  3. C) Norwegian
  4. D) English

Answer: D

Page Ref: 7

Objective: Summarize the history of juvenile confinement

Level: Basic

8) Which of the following services did John Augustus instigate?

  1. A) truth in sentencing
  2. B) arranging for employment for youths on probation
  3. C) placing children on probation in houses of refuge
  4. D) domestic violence round up

Answer: B

Page Ref: 10

Objective: Summarize the history of juvenile confinement

Level: Intermediate

9) The liberal agenda of the 1960s and 1970s emphasized the ________.

  1. A) increased focus on punishment
  2. B) support of long-term confinement of juveniles
  3. C) diversion of minor offenders from the juvenile justice system
  4. D) increased use of training school

Answer: D

Page Ref: 13

Objective: Summarize the historical themes that guided the development of juvenile justice in the United States.

Level: Intermediate

10) Studies on hidden delinquency and middle-class law breaking has taught that nearly all juveniles ________.

  1. A) are unhappy
  2. B) get caught
  3. C) break the law
  4. D) are followers

Answer: C

Page Ref: 14

Objective: Summarize the historical themes that guided the development of juvenile justice in the United States.

Level: Intermediate

11) Which of the following would proponents of the “get tough” philosophy support?

  1. A) ensuring increased long-term confinement for juveniles
  2. B) providing juveniles with all the procedural safeguards given to adults
  3. C) keeping status offenders out of the juvenile justice system
  4. D) urging the use of community resources in working with juvenile offenders

Answer: A

Page Ref: 13

Objective: Summarize the historical themes that guided the development of juvenile justice in the United States.

Level: Intermediate

12) Early in the history of this nation, the poor newcomers were viewed as ________.

  1. A) allies
  2. B) honest
  3. C) criminals
  4. D) religious

Answer: C

Page Ref: 14

Objective: Summarize the historical themes that guided the development of juvenile justice in the United States.

Level: Intermediate

13) Which of the following is a required function of the juvenile court?

  1. A) obtain taped confessions from juveniles
  2. B) prepare juveniles for their return to the community
  3. C) supervise juveniles who have been released from training schools
  4. D) deal with child neglect

Answer: D

Page Ref: 16

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Intermediate

14) The processing of juveniles by the juvenile justice system usually begins when ________.

  1. A) an intake official of the court decides to hold a youth in detention
  2. B) police refer a youth to the juvenile court
  3. C) a judge decides that a youth should be held and tried for a crime
  4. D) the youth is moved to residential placement

Answer: B

Page Ref: 18

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Intermediate

15) Which of the following is a responsibility of an agency other than corrections?

  1. A) using residential programs to prepare youths for release
  2. B) caring for youthful offenders sentenced by the courts
  3. C) making sentencing decisions
  4. D) supervising offenders released to probation by the courts

Answer: C

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Intermediate

16) Which of the following terms is synonymous with an indictment?

  1. A) disposition
  2. B) custody
  3. C) respondent
  4. D) petition

Answer: D

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Basic

17) Which of the following concepts is in line with the justice model?

  1. A) Juveniles should not be rewarded with procedural safeguards.
  2. B) Community service should not be a substitute for confinement.
  3. C) Juveniles must be punished in proportion to the seriousness of the offense.
  4. D) The basic mission of juvenile justice is to rehabilitate youthful offenders.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 21

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Intermediate

18) Which of the following correctional models emphasizes punishment as the remedy for juvenile misbehavior?

  1. A) due process
  2. B) least restrictive
  3. C) rehabilitation
  4. D) crime control

Answer: D

Page Ref: 21

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Basic

19) Which of the following is an objective of the balanced and restorative justice model?

  1. A) Juvenile offenders should receive therapy rather than be institutionalized.
  2. B) Indeterminate sentencing should be implemented for increased effectiveness.
  3. C) Decision-making alternatives to formal court or other adversarial processes should be provided.
  4. D) Procedural safeguards should be granted to juveniles who have broken the law.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 22

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Intermediate

20) Which of the following is most concerned that juvenile offenders receive therapy rather than institutionalization?

  1. A) treatment model
  2. B) justice model
  3. C) crime control model
  4. D) balanced and restorative model

Answer: A

Page Ref: 20

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Basic

1.2 True/False Questions

1) Juvenile justice in the United States began with the formation of the juvenile court in 1899.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 4

Objective: Retrace the journey of juvenile justice in the United States

Level: Intermediate

2) The Illinois court was set up to operate on a formal basis.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 6

Objective: Retrace the journey of juvenile justice in the United States

Level: Basic

3) The parens patriae philosophy permitted the Cook County Juvenile Court to take charge of juveniles (children) in need.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 6

Objective: Retrace the journey of juvenile justice in the United States

Level: Basic

4) Houses of refuge were started in the mid 1700s.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 9

Objective: Summarize the history of juvenile confinement

Level: Basic

5) John Augustus is considered the father of probation.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 10

Objective: Summarize the history of juvenile confinement

Level: Basic

6) Juvenile aftercare is as old as the juvenile institution.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 11

Objective: Summarize the history of juvenile confinement

Level: Basic

7) The liberal agenda of the 1960s and the 1970s emphasized the increased use of training schools for status offenders.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 13

Objective: Summarize the historical themes that guided the development of juvenile justice in the United States.

Level: Intermediate

8) The Reagan administration’s crime control policy for juveniles emphasized a significant use of rehabilitation.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 13

Objective: Summarize the historical themes that guided the development of juvenile justice in the United States.

Level: Intermediate

9) The “get tough” strategy for juvenile offenders is part of the least restrictive philosophy.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 14

Objective: Summarize the historical themes that guided the development of juvenile justice in the United States.

Level: Intermediate

10) A disposition hearing is basically a sentencing.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Basic

11) An adjudicatory hearing is a trial that can result in a conviction.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Basic

12) A petitioner in a juvenile court case is the prosecutor.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Basic

13) The treatment model is based on the belief that the basic mission of juvenile justice is to rehabilitate youthful offenders.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 20

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Intermediate

14) Those promoting the crime control approach wanted to give juveniles better protection through procedural safeguards.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 21

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Intermediate

15) In the balanced and restorative justice model, competency refers to the rehabilitation of offenders.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 22

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Intermediate

1.3 Short Answer Questions

1) The emerging ________ school contended that people were pushed into crime by forces beyond their control.

Answer: positivist

Page Ref: 5

Objective: Retrace the journey of juvenile justice in the United States

Level: Difficult

2) The concept that gives the courts a legal basis for intervening in the lives of children is parens ________.

Answer: patriae

Page Ref: 6

Objective: Retrace the journey of juvenile justice in the United States

Level: Basic

3) The first juvenile institutions were called Houses of ________.

Answer: Refuge

Page Ref: 9

Objective: Summarize the history of juvenile confinement

Level: Basic

4) ________ schools are also called reformatories or industrial schools.

Answer: Training

Page Ref: 10

Objective: Summarize the history of juvenile confinement

Level: Intermediate

5) Ever since the colonial period, society has gradually taken authority away from the ________ and given it to the state for correcting the behavior of children.

Answer: family

Page Ref: 12

Objective: Summarize the historical themes that guided the development of juvenile justice in the United States.

Level: Difficult

6) The ________ agenda emphasized the reduced use of training schools.

Answer: liberal

Page Ref: 13

Objective: Summarize the historical themes that guided the development of juvenile justice in the United States.

Level: Intermediate

7) The “get ________” approach argues that juveniles should be punished rather than treated.

Answer: tough

Page Ref: 14

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Basic

8) Most juvenile court codes now require two types of hearings: the adjudicatory and ________ hearings.

Answer: disposition

Page Ref: 18

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Difficult

9) The justice model requires that punishment offenders receive must be ________ to the seriousness of the offense.

Answer: proportionate

Page Ref: 21

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Difficult

10) The crime control model supports the view that ________ can be helpful in teaching a youth to be responsible, diligent, and honest.

Answer: punishment

Page Ref: 22

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Difficult

1.4 Matching Questions

Match each term with its description.

  1. A) a trial that can result in a conviction
  2. B) a sentencing hearing
  3. C) parole
  4. D) a sentence to confinement

1) Adjudicatory hearing

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Intermediate

2) Aftercare

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Intermediate

3) Commitment

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Intermediate

4) Dispositional hearing

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Intermediate

Answers: 1) A 2) C 3) D 4) B

Match each term with its description.

  1. A) a defendant
  2. B) a prosecutor
  3. C) a defense attorney
  4. D) a probation officer

5) Juvenile court officer

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Intermediate

6) Petitioner

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Intermediate

7) Respondent

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Intermediate

8) Minor

Page Ref: 17

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Intermediate

Answers: 5) D 6) B 7) C 8) A

Match each term with its description.

  1. A) emphasizes punishment as the remedy for crime
  2. B) accountability, competency, and community protection
  3. C) advocates for “just deserts”
  4. D) Parens patriae, is the philosophical basis

9) Treatment Model

Page Ref: 20-22

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Intermediate

10) Justice Model

Page Ref: 20-22

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Intermediate

11) Crime Control Model

Page Ref: 20-22

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Intermediate

12) Balanced and Restorative Justice Model

Page Ref: 20-22

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Intermediate

Answers: 9) D 10) C 11) A 12) B

1.5 Essay Questions

1) What was the main difference between houses of refuge and reformatories?

Answer: The new Reformatories were essentially a continuation of the house of refuge.

  • In houses of refuge:

(i) discipline was severe when the rules were disobeyed

(ii) treatment of the youths paralleled the routine nature of the facility’s physical plant

(iii) the youths were dressed in institutional clothing and given identical haircuts

(iv) troublemakers were punished; placing offenders on a diet of bread and water or depriving them of meals altogether

(v) milder forms of discipline were coupled with solitary confinement if a severe punishment was deemed necessary

(vi) corporal punishment was used alone or in combination with other corrections

(vii) the worst offenders were shipped off to sea

In the nineteenth century Hutchins Hapgood the New York House of Refuge as a “school for crime.”

  • Reformatories, also called training schools or industrial schools, were:

(i) developed in the mid-nineteenth century

(ii) stressed a longer period of schooling compared to houses of refuge

(iii) more exploitative, as manufacturers often inflicted cruelty and violence on juveniles during working hours

(iv) punished the youths who slacked off on their work in the reformatory shops with the cat-o’nine-tails

Page Ref: 9-10

Objective: Summarize the history of juvenile confinement

Level: Intermediate

2) Describe the differences in the appropriate application of the get tough and go soft approaches to sentencing.

Answer:

  • Get tough approach:

(i) was triggered by the failure of the reform agenda of the 1970s to address violent youth crime and repeat offenders

(ii) is associated with the Reagan administration’s crime control policy for juveniles

(iii) focuses on preventive detention, transfer of violent and repeat juvenile offenders to the adult court, mandatory and determinate sentences for serious and repeat juvenile offenders, increased long-term confinement for juveniles, and enforcement of the death penalty for juveniles who commit “brutal and senseless” murders

(iv) led to a number of federal juvenile justice initiatives in the 1990s that went beyond those implemented in the 1980s such as: establishing curfews; passing parental responsibility laws; increasing efforts to combat street gangs; moving toward graduated sanctions; creating juvenile boot camps; maintaining and strengthening current laws restricting juveniles’ use of guns; opening juvenile proceedings and records; transferring juveniles to criminal or adult courts; and expanding sentencing authority over juveniles

  • Go soft approach:

(i) first became popular in the 1960s when professionals and students became aware of the extent of youth crime, the negative impact of delinquency labels, and the criminogenic and violent nature of juvenile institutions

(ii) urges a least-restrictive philosophy, implying ‘do not do any more than necessary with youthful offenders’

(iii) entails keeping status offenders out of the juvenile justice system

(iv) provides juveniles with all the procedural safeguards given to adults

(v) supports use of community resources in working with juvenile offenders

Page Ref: 14

Objective: Present the structure and procedures of juvenile justice agencies in this nation

Level: Intermediate

3) Name the four basic correctional models in the juvenile justice system and briefly describe their philosophical bases.

Answer: Treatment model: the state must step in and exercise guardianship over a child found under adverse social or individual conditions

Justice model: both juvenile and adult offenders are volitional and responsible human beings and, consequently, deserve to be punished if they violate the law. The punishment they receive must be proportionate to the seriousness of the offense. Fogel’s model proposed:

  • end of the indeterminate sentence and parole
  • the initiation of uniform sentencing, and
  • the establishment of correctional programming based solely on the compliance of inmates

Crime control model: punishment deters crime

Balanced and restorative justice model: refers to system-level decision making by administrators to “ensure that resources are allocated equally among efforts to ensure accountability to crime victims, to increase competency in offenders, and to enhance community safety.” The three goals are accountability, competency, and community protection.

Page Ref: 20-23

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Intermediate

1.6 Critical Thinking Questions

1) You are a juvenile probation officer with a 16 year-old female client whose initial crime was a joy-ride vehicle theft. While on probation your client commits an aggravated assault. The judge asks you to work with the prosecutor to come up with an appropriate disposition to recommend for the offender. You are a supporter of the least-restrictive approach and the prosecutor is an advocate of the get-tough approach. The prosecutor adamantly pushes for incarceration. Would you be likely to agree with her recommendation? Why or why not?

Answer: Yes.

  • The least-restrictive approach is not completely anti-incarceration. This approach is somewhere in-between get-tough and go-soft approaches. An important factor in deciding the disposition of an offender is the seriousness of the crime.
  • Normally, an advocate of the least-restrictive approach would ask the court to do no more than necessary with youthful offenders, but juveniles who commit serious crimes or continue to break the law are presumed to deserve punishment rather than treatment because they possess free will and know what they are doing.
  • Their delinquencies are viewed as purposeful activity resulting from rational decisions in which the pros and cons are weighed and the acts that promise the greatest potential gains are performed.

Page Ref: 14

Objective: Summarize the historical themes that guided the development of juvenile justice in the United States.

Level: Difficult

2) Suppose there were an opening for a judge in your town. The city council asks you to serve on the committee who will interview the candidates and then recommend a judge that would be a good fit for your community. They tell you they want someone who believes in rehabilitating offenders and not too quick to incarcerate. These are your four candidates:

John Smith, an advocate of the treatment model

Harold Reed, and advocate of the justice model

Jim Jones, an advocate for the crime control model

Thomas Wu, an advocate for the balanced and restorative justice model

Which of these candidates would likely be the best fit for what the city council is looking for? Why?

Answer: John Smith, an advocate of the treatment model

  • In the treatment model, the state is represented by the juvenile court and deals with children differently than it does with adults, by substituting a more informal and flexible procedure.
  • In the treatment model, a fatherly and benevolent juvenile judge would gently, and in a friendly manner, probe the roots of the child’s difficulties in the court room.
  • The mental, physical, and social needs of the child are the focus of the treatment model, and many rehabilitation efforts are implemented before the juvenile is processed into the

system.

  • The treatment model encountered considerable criticism in the late twentieth century, but it is experiencing a resurgence of research and interest in the early twenty-first century.

Page Ref: 20-23

Objective: Examine the various philosophies and strategies for correcting juveniles

Level: Difficult

Juvenile Justice in America, 8e (Bartollas/Miller)

Chapter 2 Measurement and Nature of Juvenile Crime

2.1 Multiple Choice Questions

1) The Uniform Crime Reports are compiled by the ________.

  1. A) National Opinion Research Center
  2. B) International Association of Chiefs of Police
  3. C) Federal Bureau of Investigation
  4. D) Bureau of Justice Statistics

Answer: C

Page Ref: 30

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Basic

2) Robbery, rape, auto theft, and murder are examples of ________.

  1. A) Misdemeanors
  2. B) Part I offenses
  3. C) Part II offenses
  4. D) Status offenses

Answer: B

Page Ref: 30

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Intermediate

3) The UCR classifies crimes into ________.

  1. A) juvenile and status offenses
  2. B) CIUS reports and victimization reports
  3. C) delinquency and adult crimes
  4. D) Part I and Part II offenses

Answer: D

Page Ref: 30

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Intermediate

4) Which of the following statements is correct?

  1. A) Juvenile murder rates increased substantially between 1987 and 1993.
  2. B) Juvenile arrest rates climbed nearly 50 percent over the past ten years.
  3. C) Drug use among juveniles has been decreasing since 1992.
  4. D) Female crime rates dropped between 1993 and 1994.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 32

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Intermediate

5) The UCRs does NOT provide data on which of the following categories?

  1. A) age
  2. B) gender
  3. C) Social class
  4. D) race

Answer: C

Page Ref: 31

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Intermediate

6) Self-report studies indicate ________.

  1. A) lower rates of victimization than other sources
  2. B) much higher rates of youth crime than the UCR
  3. C) very little of any statistical interest
  4. D) that most youth crime comes to the attention of authorities

Answer: B

Page Ref: 36

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Intermediate

7) The representatives of the Bureau of the Census collect data for the National Crime Victimization Survey by ________.

  1. A) interviewing hospital emergency room personnel to determine the number of victims of violent crime
  2. B) conducting classroom surveys in all higher education programs
  3. C) interviewing all household residents twelve years of age or older in the selected sample
  4. D) collating news reports on violent crimes across all media channels

Answer: C

Page Ref: 39

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Intermediate

8) The National Crime Victimization Survey shows that ________.

  1. A) older females are more likely to be victimized than any other age group
  2. B) the centers of U.S. cities are less probable sites of violent crimes
  3. C) those between the ages of 19 and 29 experience the highest rape victimization rates
  4. D) Juveniles between the ages of twelve and fourteen experienced the highest rape victimization rate of any age group for all violent crimes.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 39

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Intermediate

9) Which of the following statements is TRUE of juvenile victimization?

  1. A) Juveniles are more likely to be victimized than any other age group.
  2. B) Crimes against adolescents are more likely to be reported to the police than are crimes against adults.
  3. C) Adults are more likely than adolescents to commit violent crimes against peers.
  4. D) African Americans are less likely than Caucasians to be victims of violence.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 39

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Intermediate

10) Victimization surveys find that ________.

  1. A) victimization rates are consistent among demographic groups across the United States
  2. B) more crime is committed than is recorded
  3. C) crimes committed and reported are more or less equal in number
  4. D) juveniles are less likely to be victimized than any other age group

Answer: B

Page Ref: 39

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Intermediate

11) Cohort studies revealed ________.

  1. A) delinquents have the highest likelihood of specialization
  2. B) there is no specialization at all
  3. C) there is little or no specialization of offenses among delinquents
  4. D) specialization is unlikely among status offenders

Answer: C

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

12) Which of the following is TRUE of chronic offenders?

  1. A) They most often are minority males.
  2. B) They contribute very little to the high rate of unemployment among urban African Americans.
  3. C) Usually the police have never or rarely picked up these youths.
  4. D) They only expect to engage in criminal careers for a very short time.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 41

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

13) Cohort studies have shown that ________.

  1. A) whites have more serious and more frequent contact with police than African Americans
  2. B) justice system intervention tends to lower juvenile delinquency
  3. C) females actually have more police contacts than males
  4. D) one of the factors predicting who became chronic offenders was offending at an early age

Answer: D

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

14) According to the Philadelphia cohort study, which of the following would be accurate about the age of onset?

  1. A) Juveniles first convicted at the earliest age consistently offended at a lower rate and for a shorter time period.
  2. B) Juveniles first convicted at later ages consistently offended at a higher rate and for a longer time period.
  3. C) The average number of offenses tended to decline almost uniformly as the age of onset increased.
  4. D) The earlier the juveniles began law-violating behaviors the less likely they were to continue such behaviors.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

15) Cohort studies tend to show that ________.

  1. A) delinquent careers are devoid of crime-free intervals
  2. B) status offenders typically specialize more than delinquents
  3. C) the later juveniles begin delinquent activity, the more likely they are to continue in crime
  4. D) the incidence of arrest decelerates at age thirteen and is lowest at about age seventeen

Answer: B

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

16) Which of the following holds that adolescents become delinquent by virtue of some personal flaw?

  1. A) Boston Gun Project (BGP)
  2. B) Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)
  3. C) Evidence-based Rational Model (ERM)
  4. D) Positive Youth Development (PYD)

Answer: D

Page Ref: 42

Objective: Analyze evidence-based policy and the prevention of delinquency

Level: Intermediate

17) Which of the following is TRUE about youth violence?

  1. A) Youths who carried guns were more likely to live in communities with a high presence of gun ownership.
  2. B) Youths who lived in communities with high rates of violence were less likely to carry guns so they wouldn’t get blamed for the crimes.
  3. C) Youths who carried guns were surprisingly less likely to engage in robberies than those who did not have guns.
  4. D) Youths who carried guns were surprisingly less likely to engage in serious assaults because others would avoid them.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 43

Objective: Analyze evidence-based policy and the prevention of delinquency

Level: Intermediate

18) Which of the following is a basic principle of Positive Youth Development (PYD)?

  1. A) Youth developments must provide participants with an opportunity to learn without always having to be fun.
  2. B) Youth developments must break down racial/ethnic, gender, disability, sexual orientation, and class barriers and stereotypes.
  3. C) Youth development activities must transform outside communities, and not those in which youths live.
  4. D) Youth developments must separate individual and community capacities.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 43

Objective: Analyze evidence-based policy and the prevention of delinquency

Level: Difficult

19) The national epidemic of youth violence ________.

  1. A) began in the 1950s
  2. B) is not directly related to the availability of guns
  3. C) increased after the 1990s
  4. D) peaked in the 1990s

Answer: D

Page Ref: 43

Objective: Analyze evidence-based policy and the prevention of delinquency

Level: Basic

20) Which statement is TRUE about youth violence?

  1. A) The police have not made much of an impact in the decline of gun use by juveniles.
  2. B) Operation Ceasefire wasn’t considered an attempt to deter to gang violence.
  3. C) The Boston Gun Project has been one of the most successful projects.
  4. D) Sadly, youth homicides saw no decrease after implementing Operation Ceasefire.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 44

Objective: Analyze evidence-based policy and the prevention of delinquency

Level: Intermediate

2.2 True/False Questions

1) Uniform Crime Reports provide information on the age, sex, and race of offenders.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 31

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Basic

2) Juvenile murder rates declined between 1987 and 1993.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 32

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Basic

3) Non-petitioned cases may be handled informally.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 33

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Basic

4) Victimization surveys indicate that significantly more crime is committed than recorded.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 39

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Basic

5) Victimization surveys include information on status offenses.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 39

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Difficult

6) Among all age groups, juveniles are least likely to be victimized.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 39

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Basic

7) Official crime statistics tend to show that the differences between African Americans and whites are greater than self-report studies indicate.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 38

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Intermediate

8) According to the National Crime Victim Survey, juveniles between the ages of twelve and fourteen experience the highest rape victimization rate of any age group for all violent crimes.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 39

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

9) Several studies have found that the earlier the juveniles began law-violating behaviors the less likely they were to continue such behaviors.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

10) Official studies have typically found that the incidence of arrest accelerates at age thirteen.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

11) Evidence exists that specialization is much more typical of status offenders.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

12) From the perspective of PYD, adolescents are seen as self-directed, independent individuals.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 43

Objective: Analyze evidence-based policy and the prevention of delinquency

Level: Intermediate

13) Studies show that youths who sold large amount of drugs at an early age were more likely to carry guns than those who did not sell drugs.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 43

Objective: Analyze evidence-based policy and the prevention of delinquency

Level: Basic

14) The police have not played a major role in the decline of guns use by juveniles.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 44

Objective: Analyze evidence-based policy and the prevention of delinquency

Level: Basic

15) Studies reveal that youths who were members of gangs had a lower probability of carrying a hidden gun than those who were not members of gangs.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 44

Objective: Analyze evidence-based policy and the prevention of delinquency

Level: Intermediate

2.3 Short Answer Questions

1) The primary source of information in the United States about crime since the 1930s are the ________ Crime Reports.

Answer: Unified

Page Ref: 30

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Basic

2) Traditionally, the Uniform Crime Reports, collated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), were known as official ________.

Answer: statistics

Page Ref: 30

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Intermediate

3) The most serious questions about self-report studies relate to their ________ and reliability.

Answer: validity

Page Ref: 36

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Difficult

4) The National Youth ________ concluded, “There are few if any substantial and consistent differences between the delinquency involvement of different racial groups.”

Answer: Survey

Page Ref: 36

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Intermediate

5) Official statistics tend to show that the differences between ________ Americans and whites are greater than self-report studies indicate.

Answer: African

Page Ref: 36

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Basic

6) The National ________ Victimization Survey gives policy makers a better idea of just how much crime is actually committed.

Answer: Crime

Page Ref: 38

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Basic

7) The time when a juvenile begins law-violating behavior is referred to as the age of ________.

Answer: onset

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Basic

8) An increase in the number of crimes committed by an individual is referred to as an ________ of offenses.

Answer: escalation

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Basic

9) Positive ________ Development is a comprehensive way of thinking about adolescents that challenges the traditional deficit-based perspective.

Answer: Youth

Page Ref: 42

Objective: Analyze evidence-based policy and the prevention of delinquency

Level: Basic

10) Of the most important issues facing juvenile justice at the present time is the continued reduction of youth ________.

Answer: violence

Page Ref: 43

Objective: Analyze evidence-based policy and the prevention of delinquency

Level: Difficult

2.4 Matching Questions

Match each term with its description.

  1. A) Utilizes raw police files and other data
  2. B) Administered by the U.S. Census Bureau
  3. C) Used to measure hidden youth crime
  4. D) Major source of crime information

1) Self-reported studies

Page Ref: Multiple

Objective: Multiple

Level: Basic

2) Uniform Crime Reports

Page Ref: Multiple

Objective: Multiple

Level: Basic

3) Cohort studies

Page Ref: Multiple

Objective: Multiple

Level: Basic

4) National Crime Victimization Survey

Page Ref: Multiple

Objective: Multiple

Level: Basic

Answers: 1) C 2) D 3) A 4) B

Match each term with its description.

  1. A) An increase in the number of crimes by the offender
  2. B) When juvenile begins law-violating behavior
  3. C) The tendency to repeat one type of crime
  4. D) The termination of delinquency

5) Age of onset

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

6) Escalation of offenses

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

7) Specialization of offenses

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

8) Desistance from crime

Page Ref: 40

Objective: Interpret the variables and patterns of offending

Level: Intermediate

Answers: 5) B 6) A 7) C 8) D

Match each term with its description.

  1. A) An arm of the U.S. Department of Justice
  2. B) A part II crime
  3. C) Recommended the collection of national crime data
  4. D) A part I crime

9) Murder

Page Ref: 30

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Difficult

10) OJJDP

Page Ref: 30

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Difficult

11) Possession of stolen property

Page Ref: 30

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Difficult

12) IACOP

Page Ref: 30

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Difficult

Answers: 9) D 10) A 11) B 12) C

2.5 Essay Questions

1) Explain what the Uniform Crime Reports are.

Answer: Uniform Crime Report (UCR)

  • previously known as official statistics
  • have been the primary source of knowledge relating to crime
  • now called Crime in the United States (CIUS)
  • derived from reports sent by various police departments
  • are published by FBI on a quarterly and a yearly basis
  • classify crimes into Part I and Part II offences

Page Ref: 30

Objective: Summarize juvenile crime trends and how the data is categorized, measured, and reported

Level: Intermediate

2) What is the purpose of self-report studies?

Answer: Self-report studies

  • provide fuller and more accurate picture of the amount of crime
  • contradict or expand on the UCR
  • detail offenders’ demographic characteristics such as:
  • age
  • gender
  • race
  • social class
  • the amount of gang delinquency
  • the extent of drug and alcohol abuse
  • aid evaluation: greater reliance on self-report studies due to limitations of official statistics on juvenile delinquency

Page Ref: 36

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Intermediate

3) What is the National Crime Victimization Survey?

Answer: National Crime Victim Survey (NCVS)

  • In 1972, the U.S. Bureau of the Census began victimization studies to determine as accurately as possible the extent of crime in the United States.
  • This data was needed because of the limited information that was available through the UCR.
  • Gives policy makers a better idea of just how much crime is actually committed.
  • Conducted annually by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and administered by the U.S. Census Bureau.
  • Victimization surveys are not as widely used, as are the other means of measuring youth crime.
  • They add to what is known about delinquency in the United States.
  • Limitations include:

o Information on status offenses is not included.

o Victims may forget the victimizations they experienced.

o Victims may state that a specific crime took place within the research year when it actually took place before or after that period.

Page Ref: 38-39

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Intermediate

2.6 Critical Thinking Questions

1) Suppose a victim reports a crime to the police and then later reports the same crime during a phone survey by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Which report would likely be the most accurate?

Answer: The police report would likely be more accurate.

  • A police report is generally made close in time to the incident, whereas the National Crime Victimization Survey could be conducted a long time later.
  • The victim could forget or confuse details because of the amount of time that has past.
  • A victim would also be less likely to purposely give false information to the police as opposed to a phone call that has no negative consequences.

Page Ref: 39

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Intermediate

2) If the government wanted to reduce youth violence and there were extra funds available for anti-violence programs, would it be more beneficial to dedicate the funding to violence against females or violence against males? Explain!

Answer: Violence against males.

  • Males are more likely than females to become victims of violent crime, which is mostly caused by other males.
  • A reduction in violence against males might make a noticeable difference in the general category of violence.
  • If the government were interested in preventing sexual assault, it would be best to increase the funding for violence against females because they are sexually assaulted more than males.

Page Ref: 39

Objective: Describe the methods, benefits, and limitations of self-reporting

Level: Difficult

Juvenile Justice in America, 8e (Bartollas/Miller)

Chapter 3 Causes of Juvenile Crime

3.1 Multiple Choice Questions

1) The Classical School argues that ________.

  1. A) punishment would deter criminal behavior, provided it was made appropriate to the crime
  2. B) the characteristics of individuals should be taken into consideration with the punishments they should receive
  3. C) humans do not have free will and are governed by theological determinism
  4. D) human beings are governed by static calculus

Answer: A

Page Ref: 50

Objective: Summarize the principles and influences of the classical school of criminology

Level: Intermediate

2) Rational choice theory in criminology recently ________.

  1. A) applied more to juveniles than adults
  2. B) moved away from a strictly rational reasoning model for rational thought
  3. C) moved toward a very strict reasoning and rational model of criminal behavior
  4. D) held that individuals do not have free will

Answer: B

Page Ref: 51

Objective: Summarize the principles and influences of the classical school of criminology

Level: Intermediate

3) Which of the following is TRUE of positivism as it applies to juvenile justice?

  1. A) It argues that criminal and non-criminal youths are the same type of person.
  2. B) It focuses on the power of positive thinking in treating juveniles.
  3. C) It rejects the view that the individual exercises freedom, possesses reason, and is capable of making choices.
  4. D) It argues that individuals are able to discern and apply reason.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 54

Objective: Summarize the principles and influences of the classical school of criminology

Level: Intermediate

4) A judge who imposes a strict sentence upon a criminal in hopes that other criminals who hear about it will choose not to commit a similar crime has exercised what type of deterrence?

  1. A) direct
  2. B) just deserts
  3. C) specific
  4. D) general

Answer: D

Page Ref: 53

Objective: Summarize the principles and influences of the classical school of criminology

Level: Intermediate

5) Positivist reformers, feeling confident they knew how to find its cause, set out to deal with the problem of delinquency and looked at which of the following factors?

  1. A) bio-social, economical, and deterministic
  2. B) bio-psychological, physiological, and scientific
  3. C) medical, social, and instrumental
  4. D) environmental, biological, and psychological

Answer: D

Page Ref: 54

Objective: Describe biological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Difficult

6) If you were to predict inner qualities from people’s physical appearance, you would be a proponent of which of the following studies?

  1. A) psychoanalytic
  2. B) socio-analogy
  3. C) physiognomy
  4. D) psychiatry

Answer: C

Page Ref: 54

Objective: Describe biological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

7) Which of the following would best describe the positivist approach?

  1. A) The Freudian approach holds the major insights into human behavior.
  2. B) Human behavior can be modified to ameliorate crime.
  3. C) The cause of crime is free will and cannot be discovered.
  4. D) Delinquents and non-delinquents are basically the same.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 54

Objective: Describe biological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

8) Which of the following theories posits that individuals do NOT exercise freedom when committing criminal or delinquent acts?

  1. A) deterministic view
  2. B) felicific calculus
  3. C) free will
  4. D) biological positivism

Answer: A

Page Ref: 54

Objective: Describe biological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Basic

9) One of the flaws in Wilson’s and Herrnstein’s approach is ________.

  1. A) that their theory basically rejects the complex mechanisms of society as contributing to delinquency
  2. B) its inability to relate the approach to variables such as gender, age, schools, communities, and labor markets
  3. C) it combines biosocial and psychological research with rational choice theory
  4. D) it takes the social context of crime into consideration which is inconsistent

Answer: A

Page Ref: 57

Objective: Describe psychological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

10) A 10-year-old’s inability to control sexual and aggressive drives would be best explained by which theory?

  1. A) reinforcement
  2. B) psychoanalytical
  3. C) social process
  4. D) rational choice

Answer: B

Page Ref: 55-56

Objective: Describe psychological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

11) Each of these psychologists took the insights of psychoanalysis and applied them to the situations of delinquents, EXCEPT for whom?

  1. A) William Healy
  2. B) Kate Friedlander
  3. C) Marcus Felson
  4. D) August Aichhorn

Answer: C

Page Ref: 56

Objective: Describe psychological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

12) If you believed that the motivation to become involved in criminal activities is intrinsic in lower-class culture, you would be a proponent of which theory?

  1. A) life style
  2. B) psychoanalytical
  3. C) biological
  4. D) cultural deviance

Answer: D

Page Ref: 58

Objective: Describe sociological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

13) Which theory helps explain why a young male with tattoos and body piercings that is stopped often by police because of his appearance might turn to crime?

  1. A) differential association
  2. B) social control
  3. C) containment
  4. D) kabeling

Answer: D

Page Ref: 61

Objective: Describe sociological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

14) Which of the following refers to theories that examine the interactions between people and their environments?

  1. A) social power theories
  2. B) power conflict
  3. C) social process theories
  4. D) social strain

Answer: C

Page Ref: 60

Objective: Describe sociological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

15) Which of the following fields have linked environmental and genetic factors?

  1. A) socio-economics
  2. B) sociobiology
  3. C) biochemistry
  4. D) psychiatry

Answer: B

Page Ref: 55

Objective: Describe sociological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

16) Sociobiology has looked to neuropsychological factors in relation to ________.

  1. A) temperament and negative behavior
  2. B) disorders manifested in adults
  3. C) sex-linked traits
  4. D) social conditioning

Answer: A

Page Ref: 55

Objective: Describe sociological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

17) Which of the following paths would Moffitt argue is how delinquency proceeds?

  1. A) early-onset, persistent offenders, and adolescence-limited offenders
  2. B) late-onset, non-persistent offenders, and adolescence-limited offenders
  3. C) late-onset, persistent offenders, and lifelong offenders
  4. D) early-onset, persistent offenders, and lifelong offenders

Answer: A

Page Ref: 63

Objective: Summarize integrated theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Difficult

18) Which theory’s initial impetus toward delinquency comes from a weakening of the person’s bond to conventional society?

  1. A) Karl Marx weakening theory
  2. B) Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime.
  3. C) Elliott and colleagues’ integrated social process theory
  4. D) Thornberry’s interactional theory.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 64

Objective: Summarize integrated theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

19) What do longitudinal studies about delinquent careers usually reveal?

  1. A) Males usually begin later than females.
  2. B) They differ by gender.
  3. C) Female members are less likely than male members to leave the gang if they have a child.
  4. D) Males extend their careers much shorter into the adult years than females.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 65

Objective: Explain why delinquency across the life course is important in studying theories of juvenile crime

Level: Intermediate

20) Which of the following studies would work best for Life Course Criminology?

  1. A) classical experimental studies
  2. B) cross-sectional studies
  3. C) longitudinal studies
  4. D) sociobiological studies

Answer: C

Page Ref: 65

Objective: Explain why delinquency across the life course is important in studying theories of juvenile crime

Level: Intermediate

3.2 True/False Questions

1) The psychological origins of delinquency came to be more widely accepted than either the environmental or the biological origins.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 54

Objective: Summarize the principles and influences of the classical school of criminology

Level: Basic

2) The free-will view is that offenders decide rationally to commit crime.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 51

Objective: Summarize the principles and influences of the classical school of criminology

Level: Difficult

3) The study of physiognomy attempts to discern inner qualities through outward appearance.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 54

Objective: Summarize the principles and influences of the classical school of criminology

Level: Basic

4) Jeremy Bentham, a nineteenth-century Italian forensic psychiatrist, is frequently regarded as the founder of biological positivism.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 54

Objective: Describe biological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Difficult

5) Reinforcement theory states that behavior is governed by its consequent rewards and punishments, as reflected in the history of the individual.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 57

Objective: Describe psychological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

6) A psychopath is the opposite of a sociopath.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 56

Objective: Describe psychological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

7) Social control theory argues that the lower-class culture is characterized by a set of focal concerns, or values, that command widespread attention and a high degree of social involvement.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 60

Objective: Describe sociological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Difficult

8) Cultural deviance theory links delinquent behavior to the bond an individual has with conventional social groups, such as the family and the school.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 58

Objective: Describe sociological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Difficult

9) The Marxist perspective views the state and the law itself as ultimate tools of the economic interests of the ownership class.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 62

Objective: Describe sociological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

10) An explanatory model that expands and synthesizes traditional strain, social control, and social learning perspectives into a single paradigm is the integrated social process theory.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 64

Objective: Summarize integrated theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Difficult

11) General Theory of Crime defines lack of self-control as the common factor underlying problem behaviors.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 62

Objective: Summarize integrated theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Basic

12) In Thornberry’s interactional theory of delinquency, the initial impetus toward delinquency comes from a strengthening of the person’s bond to conventional society.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 64

Objective: Summarize integrated theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Difficult

13) A turning point involves a gradual or dramatic change and may lead to a transition from one state, condition, or phase to another.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 65

Objective: Explain why delinquency across the life course is important in studying theories of juvenile crime

Level: Intermediate

14) The project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods lacked support from the National Institute of Justice.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 66

Objective: Explain why delinquency across the life course is important in studying theories of juvenile crime

Level: Difficult

15) Longitudinal studies reveal that female delinquent careers usually begin earlier and extend longer into the adult years than males.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 65

Objective: Explain why delinquency across the life course is important in studying theories of juvenile crime

Level: Difficult

3.3 Short Answer Questions

1) According to ________, human behavior is but one more facet of a universe that is part of a natural order.

Answer: positivism

Page Ref: 53

Objective: Summarize the principles and influences of the classical school of criminology

Level: Intermediate

2) The doctrine of free will was substituted for the widely accepted concept of theological ________, which saw humans as predestined to do certain actions.

Answer: determinism

Page Ref: 50

Objective: Summarize the principles and influences of the classical school of criminology

Level: Difficult

3) According to Lombroso, the born ________ was atavistic.

Answer: criminal

Page Ref: 55

Objective: Describe biological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Difficult

4) In the second half of the twentieth century, sociobiologists began to link ________ and environmental factors.

Answer: genetic

Page Ref: 55

Objective: Describe biological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Difficult

5) Sigmund Freud’s ________ theory was based on a biological determinist view of human behavior.

Answer: psychoanalytic

Page Ref: 56

Objective: Describe psychological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

6) ________ seeking is defined “as an individual’s need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experiences and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experience.

Answer: Sensation

Page Ref: 56

Objective: Describe psychological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Difficult

7) Social ________ theory views crime as resulting from the breakdown of social control.

Answer: disorganization

Page Ref: 57

Objective: Describe sociological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Difficult

8) The cultural goal of American society, according to Merton, is ________.

Answer: success

Page Ref: 58

Objective: Describe sociological theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Difficult

9) The two constructs of self-control and ________are intended to capture the simultaneous influence of external and internal restraints on behavior.

Answer: opportunity

Page Ref: 62

Objective: Summarize integrated theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

10) ________ control is the degree to which an individual is “vulnerable to the temptations of the moment.”

Answer: Self

Page Ref: 62

Objective: Summarize integrated theories of juvenile crime and delinquency

Level: Intermediate

11) The Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LAFANS) seeks to answer the question of what makes a neighborhood a ________ place to live?

Answer: positive

Page Ref: 67

Objective: Explain why delinquency across the life course is important in studying theories of juvenile crime

Level: Difficult

12) A gradual or dramatic change that leads to reshaping of a youth’s life from one state to another is called a ________ point.

Answer: turning

Page Ref: 65

Objective: Explain why delinquency across the life course is important in studying theories of juvenile crime

Level: Intermediate

3.4 Matching Questions

Match each term with its description.

  1. A) Human behavior is part of a natural order
  2. B) Seeking a balance of pleasure and pain
  3. C) Sociopath
  4. D) Reverting to an earlier evolutionary time

1) Positivism

Page Ref: Multiple

Objective: Multiple

Level: Intermediate

2) Atavism

Page Ref: Multiple

Objective: Multiple

Level: Intermediate

3) Psychopath

Page Ref: Multiple

Objective: Multiple

Level: Intermediate

4) Felicific calculus

Page Ref: Multiple

Objective: Multiple

Level: Intermediate

Answers: 1) A 2) D 3) C 4) B

Match each term with its description.

  1. A) Co-founder of social disorganization theory
  2. B) Co-founder of the classical school
  3. C) Psychoanalytic theorist
  4. D) The father of criminology

5) Cesare Beccaria

Page Ref: Multiple

Objective: Multiple

Level: Difficult

6) Cesare Lombroso

Page Ref: Multiple

Objective: Multiple

Level: Difficult

7) Sigmund Freud

Page Ref: Multiple

Objective: Multiple

Level: Difficult

8) Clifford R. Shaw

Page Ref: Multiple

Objective: Multiple

Level: Difficult

Answers: 5) B 6) D 7) C 8) A

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