Leadership Theory and Practice 7th Edition by Peter G. Northouse – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Leadership Theory and Practice 7th Edition by Peter G. Northouse – Test Bank A+

Leadership Theory and Practice 7th Edition by Peter G. Northouse – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Leadership Theory and Practice 7th Edition by Peter G. Northouse – Test Bank A+
  1. Path–goal theory could be best described as a
  2. Great person theory
  3. Transformational theory
  4. Motivational theory
  5. Behavioral theory

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Using the path-goal approach, expectancy theory suggests that
  2. Leaders’ needs and followers’ needs overlap
  3. Followers are motivated if they think completing a task will result in a valuable payoff.
  4. A leader should try to help followers reach their fullest potential.
  5. Followers are motivated regardless of ability.

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. In path-goal theory, the main components are ______, ______, and ________.
  2. Leader style, follower characteristics, work setting
  3. Supportive leadership, directive leadership, participative leadership
  4. Follower characteristics, task characteristics, supportive leadership
  5. Leadership, followers, task

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. The researcher who consistently studied path-goal theory from the 1970s to 1990s is
  2. Bass
  3. Hersey
  4. Vroom
  5. House

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory is similar to the situational approach in that
  2. Path-goal does not suggest leaders should be flexible
  3. Path-goal does not take followers into consideration
  4. Path-goal requires leaders to adapt to followers’ needs
  5. Path-goal and situational both take the work setting into account

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Motivation in path-goal theory is conceptualized using
  2. Psychodynamic theory
  3. Great man theory
  4. Expectancy theory
  5. Leader–member exchange theory

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Leadership generates motivation by
  2. Adjusting style to commitment of followers
  3. Setting high expectations
  4. Using only directive behaviors
  5. Clarifying the path to goal accomplishment

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Leaders adjust their behaviors based on
  2. Follower characteristics and work-setting characteristics
  3. Follower characteristics and follower productivity
  4. Follower characteristics and leader characteristics
  5. Follower characteristics and team prototype

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Expectancy theory is about
  2. Clearing the path for followers
  3. Rewarding followers for meeting their goals
  4. Establishing work group norms
  5. Anticipating leaders’ needs

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. The path-goal leader adjusts to the characteristics of the follower and
  2. The characteristics of the work setting
  3. The characteristics of the team members
  4. The prototype of the in-group members
  5. The skills of the followers

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory integrates into which of the following theories of leadership?
  2. Leader emergence theory
  3. Contingency approach
  4. Expectancy theory
  5. Transformational theory

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. The underlying assumption of expectancy theory is that followers will be motivated if
  2. They believe their leaders are capable
  3. They believe their leaders are motivated
  4. They believe they are doing the right thing
  5. They believe their efforts will result in a certain outcome

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Expectancy theory, when applied in path-goal leadership says
  2. Leaders need to find the right reward to motivate followers
  3. Make the same rewards available to all followers
  4. Leaders should show motivation in multiple ways
  5. Followers are expected to motivate other followers.

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Which researcher (s) focused on how leaders motivate followers to accomplish designated goals.
  2. Kotter
  3. Fisher
  4. Hersey and Blanchard
  5. House

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Which researcher (s) conceptualized motivation from the perspective of the expectancy theory of motivation?
  2. Kotter and Bennis
  3. Vroom
  4. Hersey and Blanchard
  5. House

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Which two path-goal leader behaviors are also leader behaviors in the situational approach?
  2. Participative and directive
  3. Supportive and authoritative
  4. Supportive and directive
  5. Achievement-oriented and directive

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Which of the following leadership theories expects the leader to continually be concerned about subordinate motivation?
  2. Situational leadership theory
  3. Contingency theory
  4. Path-goal theory
  5. Leader–member exchange theory

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory is about how leaders _________ subordinates to accomplish designated ________.
  2. Encourage; tasks
  3. Develop; goals
  4. Motivate; goals
  5. Influence; tasks

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. The directive leadership behavior is similar to
  2. Delegating in the SLII model
  3. Initiating structure in the Ohio State studies
  4. Consideration in the University of Michigan studies
  5. Employee orientation in the University of Michigan studies

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Directive Leadership

Question Type: MC

  1. It is accurate to say that directive leadership
  2. Attempts to make work challenging.
  3. Provides performance standards.
  4. Invites shared decision making.
  5. Is feedback oriented.

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Directive Leadership

Question Type: MC

  1. Your supervisor gives you a new project. You are informed that you have exactly 1 week to complete it and are handed an outline of what the final project should resemble. According to path-goal theory, which behavior best describes your supervisor?
  2. Supportive
  3. Directive
  4. Participative
  5. Achievement oriented

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Directive Leadership

Question Type: MC

  1. Each week your supervisor holds a meeting in which he invites you and all the other employees to give feedback regarding current projects. According to path-goal theory, which behavior best describes your supervisor?
  2. Supportive
  3. Directive
  4. Participative
  5. Achievement oriented

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Participative Leadership

Question Type: MC

  1. What best resembles the consideration behavior construct?
  2. Supportive
  3. Directive
  4. Participative
  5. Achievement oriented

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Participative Leadership

Question Type: MC

  1. Challenging followers to perform work at the highest levels possible is an example of which leadership behavior?
  2. Supportive
  3. Directive
  4. Participative
  5. Achievement oriented

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Achievement-oriented Leadership

Question Type: MC

  1. Followers who have strong needs for affiliation prefer which type of leadership behavior?
  2. Supportive
  3. Directive
  4. Participative
  5. Achievement oriented

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. As the followers’ perception of their own ability and competence increases
  2. Need for supportive leadership goes down.
  3. Need for supportive leadership goes up.
  4. Need for directive leadership goes up.
  5. Need for directive leadership goes down.

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. The need for directive leadership increases when employees
  2. Believe that outside circumstances control their lives.
  3. Believe they are in charge of their lives.
  4. Feel competent to complete their work.
  5. Want to help make decisions.

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory suggests that leaders should respond to dogmatic/authoritarian followers from a
  2. Directive style
  3. Supportive style
  4. Participative style
  5. Achievement style

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Followers with an internal locus of control believe
  2. That leaders are in charge of events that occur in their lives.
  3. That fate and change are in charge of events that occur in their lives.
  4. That they are in charge of the events that occur in their lives.
  5. That the organization is in charge of the events that occur in their lives.

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. House introduced new behaviors in his reformulated path-goal theory in 1996. These include all of the following except
  2. Inherent trait approach.
  3. Group-oriented decision process.
  4. Work facilitation.
  5. Work-group representation and networking.

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Task Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. In contexts where the group norms are weak or non-supportive, leadership assists in building __________ and ____________.
  2. Rules; clarification
  3. Cohesiveness; role responsibility
  4. Roles; responsibility
  5. Psychological structure; task clarity

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory suggests that leaders should respond to autonomous group members with unstructured tasks from a
  2. Directive style.
  3. Supportive style.
  4. Participative style.
  5. Achievement style.

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: MC

  1. Tasks that are unclear and ambiguous call for leadership input that
  2. Provides structure.
  3. Provides support.
  4. Removes obstacles.
  5. Is achievement oriented.

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory suggests all of the following except
  2. That task and subordinate characteristics affect leadership effectiveness.
  3. That leaders should help subordinates around their difficulties by removing obstacles.
  4. That subordinates with an external locus of control should be directed.
  5. That leaders need confidence and articulateness.

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: MC

  1. With path-goal theory incorporating so many different aspects of leadership within its model, which of the following could be argued?
  2. The practical use of the theory is not valid.
  3. It fails to determine the role of motivation.
  4. It allows the leader to have a wider range of options as leader.
  5. It is difficult to use the theory fully when trying to improve the leadership process.

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory does not clearly show how
  2. Leader behaviors affect follower motivation levels.
  3. Motivation is achieved by followers.
  4. Whether or not leaders can adapt behaviors to different situations.
  5. The best context for supportive behaviors.

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory suggests that leaders should respond to followers who need affiliation from a(n)
  2. Achievement style
  3. Supportive style
  4. Directive style
  5. Participative style

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory suggests that leaders should respond to followers who need clarity and control from a(n)
  2. Achievement style
  3. Supportive style
  4. Directive style
  5. Participative style

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory suggests that leaders should respond to followers who need to excel from a(n)
  2. Achievement style
  3. Supportive style
  4. Directive style
  5. Participative style

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Followers with external locus of control believe
  2. That fate is in charge of life’s events
  3. That they are in charge of life’s events
  4. That interactions with others control life’s events
  5. That personal relationships control life’s events

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Manuel has a good sense of who he is and is confident that what he does and how he responds to situations will help him achieve his goals. Manuel has
  2. External locus of control
  3. Need for affiliation
  4. Internal locus of control
  5. Authoritarian disposition

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Susan feels that others in her organization and in her personal life have more influence over her and her career and life path. Susan has
  2. Autonomous locus of control
  3. Need for affiliation
  4. Internal locus of control
  5. External locus of control

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. The new behaviors House identified in his reformulated path-goal review in 1996 have the same essential premise as the original work which is
  2. To match leader behavior to follower competence and commitment
  3. To describe task and relationship behaviors
  4. To identify competencies of leaders
  5. To give followers what is missing in their workplace

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Task Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Leaders who invite their followers to share in the decision-making process are using
  2. Directive behaviors
  3. Achievement behaviors
  4. Supportive behaviors
  5. Participative behaviors

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leader Behaviors

Question Type: MC

  1. Leaders who challenge their followers to perform their very best are using
  2. Directive behaviors
  3. Achievement behaviors
  4. Supportive behaviors
  5. Participative behaviors

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leader Behaviors

Question Type: MC

  1. Leaders who are friendly and approachable are using
  2. Directive behaviors
  3. Achievement behaviors
  4. Supportive behaviors
  5. Participative behaviors

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leader Behaviors

Question Type: MC

  1. Leaders who give followers instructions about task accomplishment are using
  2. Directive behaviors
  3. Achievement behaviors
  4. Supportive behaviors
  5. Participative behaviors

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leader Behaviors

Question Type: MC

  1. Your supervisor expresses concern for your well-being when he learns of the passing of your father. He is using
  2. Directive behaviors
  3. Achievement behaviors
  4. Supportive behaviors
  5. Participative behaviors

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leader Behaviors

Question Type: MC

  1. Your supervisor is happy with your work and expresses confidence that you will bring the project in ahead of time and under budget. She is using
  2. Directive behaviors
  3. Achievement behaviors
  4. Supportive behaviors
  5. Participative behaviors

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leader Behaviors

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory is
  2. Descriptive
  3. Prescriptive
  4. Leader centered
  5. Follower centered

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does PGT work?

Question Type: MC

  1. I am doing a task I do not really understand and wish my leader would clear up my confusion by telling me the first few steps. Which leadership style would help me the most?
  2. Directive behaviors
  3. Achievement behaviors
  4. Supportive behaviors
  5. Participative behaviors

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: MC

  1. I am doing a task I find very boring and unchallenging. Which leadership style would help me the most?
  2. Directive behaviors
  3. Participative behaviors
  4. Supportive behaviors
  5. Achievement behaviors

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: MC

  1. I am doing a task that is really difficult to understand, and I want to clarify the task and work out the details myself. Which leadership style would help me the most?
  2. Directive behaviors
  3. Participative behaviors
  4. Supportive behaviors
  5. Achievement behaviors

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: MC

  1. This challenging new project is exciting and I cannot wait to see how great it is going to be when I am finished. Which leadership style would help me the most?
  2. Directive behaviors
  3. Participative behaviors
  4. Supportive behaviors
  5. Achievement behaviors

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: MC

  1. For task characteristics that are ambiguous, how many possible leader behaviors might be used?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 3
  5. 4

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Task Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. For task characteristics that are complex, how many possible leader behaviors might be used?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 3
  5. 4

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Task Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. For task characteristics that are mundane and repetitive, how many possible leader behaviors might be used?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 3
  5. 4

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Task Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Followers who need a high level of human interaction need
  2. Directive leadership
  3. Participative leadership
  4. Supportive leadership
  5. Achievement-oriented leadership

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Followers who have internal locus of control benefit from
  2. Directive leadership
  3. Participative leadership
  4. Supportive leadership
  5. Achievement-oriented leadership

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Followers with the desire to exceed expectations benefit from
  2. Directive leadership
  3. Participative leadership
  4. Supportive leadership
  5. Achievement-oriented leadership

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. Followers who prefer authoritarian leadership benefit from
  2. Directive leadership
  3. Participative leadership
  4. Supportive leadership
  5. Achievement-oriented leadership

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. My job is data entry, which I do all day long every day of the week. This is a(n)
  2. Complex task characteristic
  3. Ambiguous task characteristic
  4. Challenging task characteristic
  5. Mundane task characteristic

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Task Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. My job’s policies and procedures change regularly. This is a(n)
  2. Complex task characteristic
  3. Unclear task characteristic
  4. Challenging task characteristic
  5. Mundane task characteristic

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Task Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. My job does not have set ways of doing each task. This is a(n)
  2. Complex task characteristic
  3. Ambiguous task characteristic
  4. Repetitive task characteristic
  5. Unchallenging task characteristic

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Task Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. My job has many pieces that stretch my ability every day. This is a(n)
  2. Challenging task characteristic
  3. Repetitive task characteristic
  4. Unclear task characteristic
  5. Mundane task characteristic

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Task Characteristics

Question Type: MC

  1. My job as a leader using path-goal theory is to use a style that
  2. That best fits the followers’ needs
  3. That best fits the followers’ needs and the type of job they are doing
  4. That best fits the leader’s style and the followers’ work style
  5. That best fits the followers’ characteristics

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: MC

  1. I am really frustrated and unsatisfied with my work right now. I need my leader to
  2. Nurture me
  3. Involve me
  4. Challenge me
  5. Direct me

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: MC

  1. I am tired of doing the same old boring job. I need my leader to
  2. Challenge me
  3. Involve me
  4. Support me
  5. Direct me

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: MC

  1. I am doing a job that has ambiguous rules for which I need clarity. I need my leader to
  2. Challenge me
  3. Involve me
  4. Nurture me
  5. Direct me

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: MC

  1. A strength of the path-goal theory is
  2. It is very complex and has many aspects to it
  3. Empirical research partially supports its validity
  4. It attempts to integrate motivation from expectancy theory
  5. It clearly explains the relationship between motivation and leader behaviors

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory
  2. Is not a practical model
  3. Is a practical model
  4. Is not prescriptive
  5. Has high validity

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: MC

  1. Which is not a criticism of the path-goal theory?
  2. It attempts to integrate motivation from expectancy theory
  3. Empirical research only partially supports its validity
  4. It is very complex and has many aspects to it
  5. It does not clearly explain the relationship between motivation and leader behaviors

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

  1. There are multiple leader behaviors, task characteristics, and follower characteristics in path-goal theory that must be assessed correctly and integrated for effective leadership. This is a
  2. Strength of path-goal theory
  3. Criticism of path-goal theory
  4. Leader benefit of path-goal theory
  5. Organizational benefit of path-goal theory

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

  1. Principles of path-goal theory
  2. Are applied in many leadership training programs
  3. Easy for leaders to apply to their followers
  4. Consistent with organizational leadership training topics
  5. Can be used for all types of tasks at all levels of leadership

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Application

Question Type: MC

  1. An advantage of using path-goal theory is
  2. It connects both work tasks and leader-member exchanges for effective leadership
  3. It connects both work setting and skill development of followers
  4. It connects the work tasks and follower needs for effective leadership
  5. It connects leaders with followers by focusing on followers first

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Application

Question Type: MC

  1. Path-goal theory was developed to
  2. Explain how leaders motivate followers to be satisfied and successful in their work
  3. Explain how to get all followers in the in-group
  4. Explain how motivation improves follower service orientation
  5. Explain how authoritarian leader behaviors are inappropriate in the work setting

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Summary

Question Type: MC

Multiple Selection

  1. The leader behaviors in path-goal include
  2. Directive
  3. Coaching
  4. Delegating
  5. Participative

Ans: A, D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MS

  1. Which of the following is not a leader behavior in path-goal theory?
  2. Directive
  3. Coaching
  4. Delegating
  5. Participative

Ans: B, C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MS

  1. The underlying assumption in expectancy theory is that followers will be motivated
  2. If they can do the work
  3. If they have good exchanges with their leaders
  4. If their efforts will result in a likely outcome
  5. If they get a reward that has value to them

Ans: A, C, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Expectancy Theory

Question Type: MS

True/False

  1. Path-goal theory is based on motivation principles drawn from expectancy theory.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: TF

  1. A disadvantage of path-goal theory is that its approach could foster subordinate dependency.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Criticism

Question Type: TF

  1. According to path-goal theory, directive communication is least effective when followers are inexperienced and when the task is unstructured.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: How Does Skills Approach Work

Question Type: TF

  1. Once a leader adjusts his/her style to match a follower’s needs, he/she should continue to use that style with that follower.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does Skills Approach Work

Question Type: TF

  1. According to path-goal theory, achievement-oriented leadership is most effective in settings where followers are required to perform unambiguous tasks.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: How Does Skills Approach Work

Question Type: TF

  1. Path-goal leadership is not a trait approach that locks leaders into only one kind of leadership.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: TF

  1. According to path-goal theory, when jobs are very complex, supportive leadership should be provided.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Task Characteristics

Question Type: TF

  1. In work settings where the formal authority system is weak, leadership becomes a tool that helps subordinates by making the rules and work requirements clear.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Task Characteristics

Question Type: TF

  1. Path-goal theory predicts that subordinates who have strong needs for affiliation prefer directive leadership.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: TF

  1. Participative leadership is effective with subordinates who have a strong need to control (internal locus of control).
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: TF

  1. Path-goal leadership is an approach to leadership for which many management-training programs have been developed.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: TF

  1. Path-goal theory is a lot like coaching and mentoring in Mumford’s Skills Model.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: TF

  1. Supportive behaviors in path-goal theory are similar to supportive behaviors in the situational approach.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: TF

  1. Path-goal theory predicts that subordinates who are authoritarian prefer directive leadership.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: TF

  1. According to path-goal theory, when jobs are very complex, participative leadership should be provided.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Task Characteristics

Question Type: TF

  1. Research on path-goal theory found significant validity for the model.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: TF

Essay

  1. In path-goal theory, when tasks are ambiguous, three different styles of leadership are prescribed. How would a leader know which one to choose?

Ans: After assessing task characteristics, the leader should assess group members’ orientations. If they like psychological structure and certainty, then the leader should use a directive style. If members have a strong sense of agency and like to be involved in decision making, then a participative style of leadership is called for. For members who are self-motivated and strive to excel, an achievement-oriented leadership style would be most effective.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: Essay

  1. How can a leader’s style affect a follower’s motivation?

Ans: The path-goal approach is based on expectancy theory, “which suggests that subordinates will be motivated if they think they are capable of performing their work, if they believe their efforts will result in a certain outcome, and if they believe that the payoffs for doing their work are worthwhile.” Leaders motivate by making subordinates’ paths to their goals clear and their work conditions more satisfying. This involves choosing the leader behaviors that best fit subordinate needs (affiliation, etc.) and task characteristics (formal authority, group norms, etc.).

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Leader Behaviors

Question Type: Essay

  1. Path-goal theory is criticized for its over-emphasis on the leader and not so much on the follower. This may lead to follower dependence on the leader. What would you recommend to an organization wanting to avoid such outcomes? Use specific behaviors of the leader and give examples.

Ans: Answer should give an overview of the following behaviors and then offer supported suggestions: directive behavior, supportive behavior, participative behavior, achievement-oriented behavior.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: Essay

  1. Both the directive and supportive leader behaviors in the path-goal approach are quite similar to the leader behaviors of the same name in the situational approach. Participative and achievement-oriented behaviors are different from the other two behaviors in situational approach (coaching and delegating). Compare and contrast these four behaviors using your knowledge of both the situational approach and path-goal approach.

Ans: Answers will vary but should include a discussion of each of the four behaviors.

Coaching–is high supportive and high directive. There is a high level of involvement with the follower, which is somewhat similar to participative in path-goal. However, in coaching the leader makes the final decision, and in participative behavior the decisions are made with input from the followers. Delegating– is low supportive and low directive. It is used in situational approach when the leader trusts the followers because they are competent and committed. The achievement-oriented style in path-goal might have some similarities because leaders use this style with followers who have a high need to excel and are welcoming of challenges.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: How Does PGT Work?

Question Type: Essay

  1. One of the follower characteristics in path-goal theory is perception of ability. As perception of ability goes up, directive leadership should go down. Why is this? And what is the effect on the follower if directive leadership continues to be used?

Ans: When followers feel as if they know what they are doing, having a leader that tells them what to do and how to do it can feel punitive and redundant. Continuing to direct this follower may make them resentful of the leader and it could actually decrease their motivation, exactly the opposite of the focus of path-goal, which is to keep motivation of followers high.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Follower Characteristics

Question Type: Essay

Test Bank Chapter 7 Leader Member Exchange-EB

Multiple Choice

  1. Which leadership approach is not leader centered?
  2. Trait
  3. LMX
  4. Skills
  5. Behavioral

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Which leadership theory centered on the interaction between leaders and followers?
  2. Trait
  3. Skills
  4. LMX
  5. Style

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. LMX focuses on
  2. Matching leader behaviors to followers’ development levels
  3. The integration of task and relationship behaviors
  4. Matching the leader behavior to follower characteristics
  5. The dyadic relationship between the leader and follower

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. In LMX leaders treat followers
  2. Equally
  3. In a collective way
  4. Independently
  5. According to group average

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Which theory challenges the assumption that leaders treat followers in a collective way?
  2. LMX
  3. Skills
  4. Trait
  5. Style

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Which of the following leadership theories emphasizes the specific relationship between the leader and each subordinate?
  2. Transformational leadership theory
  3. Path-goal leadership theory
  4. Situational leadership theory
  5. Leader-member exchange theory

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. Before LMX theory, researchers treated leadership as something
  2. Leaders did toward all of their followers
  3. Present within the individual actions of followers
  4. Existing between the leader and each of his or her followers
  5. As an exclusively two-way, one-dimensional form of communication

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. The early research on LMX theory was called
  2. Group classification theory
  3. Vertical dyad linkage theory
  4. Didactic linkage theory
  5. Horizontal dyad linkage theory

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

  1. What is it called in LMX when leaders form a relationship with each of their followers?
  2. In-group
  3. Out-group
  4. Vertical dyad
  5. X-Y axes integration

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. The early studies in LMX reported that
  2. After the in-groups are formed, the vertical dyads are formed
  3. After the out-groups are formed, the vertical dyads are formed
  4. The vertical dyads form the basis for in-group and out-group formation
  5. The vertical dyads are independent from in-group and out-group formation

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. According to early LMX theory, which of the following is false?
  2. The out-group has less influence with the leader than does the in-group
  3. The leader usually expects extra duties from out-group members
  4. In-group members are chosen on the basis of compatibility with the leader
  5. Out-group members may not want to be in-group members

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. A leader who invites a follower to take on more responsibility is
  2. Attempting to help the follower into the in-group
  3. Attempting to determine whether the follower will fail at the task
  4. Attempting to help the follower into the out-group
  5. Attempting to make in-group members resentful of this follower

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. How many vertical dyadic relationships can occur in LMX?
  2. Only one, the relationship between leader and all followers
  3. Only one, the relationship between the leader and the in-group
  4. Two, the relationship between the leader and the in-group and out-group
  5. As many linkages as there are followers

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. The vertical dyadic relationship in LMX is established by
  2. The leader
  3. The follower
  4. The leader and follower
  5. The leader and the organizational structure

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. The dyadic relationships in LMX occur between
  2. The leader and other leaders
  3. The leader and the in-group followers
  4. The leader and each follower
  5. The followers and each other follower

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. I am a leader of a team of eight employees. In LMX, what is the maximum number of groups this team could be categorized into based on vertical dyadic relationships?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 3
  5. 8

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. A follower asks to lead the next team brainstorming session and you let him/her do this. You and the follower are
  2. In the stranger phase of leadership-making
  3. In a dyadic in-group relationship
  4. In a dyadic stranger phase
  5. In the mature-partnership phase of leadership-making

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. There is a mutual personality conflict between you and one of your followers. If this continues, the follower will end up in the
  2. In-group
  3. Out-group
  4. Mature group
  5. Acquaintance group

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. All of the following are characteristics of out-group members except
  2. Defined roles
  3. Non-negotiating behavior
  4. Innovative ideas
  5. Operation strictly within role

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. In the early stages of leader-member relationship development, leaders look for followers who exhibit all of the following except
  2. Enthusiasm
  3. Agreeableness
  4. Participation
  5. Gregariousness
  6. Extraversion

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. Which theory of leadership suggests that it is important to recognize the existence of in-groups and out-groups within an organization?
  2. Path-goal theory
  3. Expectancy theory
  4. Servant leadership
  5. Leader-member exchange theory

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. Which of the following is not a reason followers become part of the in-group?
  2. How well they work with the leader
  3. How well the leader works with them
  4. The amount of interest they show toward negotiating with the leader
  5. Willingness to stay within job and task guidelines

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. I go to work, get the job done and go home. I am most likely in the
  2. In-group
  3. Out-group
  4. Mature partnership phase
  5. Acquaintance phase

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. The later LMX studies shifted focus from describing in- and out-groups to
  2. How LMX relates to organizational effectiveness
  3. How LMX assesses leader behaviors
  4. How LMX and servant leadership are similar
  5. How LMX relates to follower skill development

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Later Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. The later LMX studies focused on
  2. Follower locus of control
  3. Positive outcomes for both the leader and followers
  4. Determining out-group characteristics
  5. Task characteristics of the job

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Later Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. Gerstner and Day’s meta-analysis found
  2. The stranger phase is an invalid construct
  3. High LMX is not correlated with job satisfaction
  4. Support for the psychometric properties of the LMX 7 questionnaire
  5. LMX measures followers’ exchanges, not leaders’

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Later Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. Later studies of LMX found all of the following except
  2. Positive relationship between quality of LMX and citizenship behaviors
  3. High-quality LMX was positively related to employee feelings of energy
  4. Interest in studying LMX has diminished
  5. High LMX correlates to positive organizational outcomes

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Later Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. Which researcher(s) measured the relationship between LMX and citizenship behaviors?
  2. Komives
  3. Ilies et al.
  4. Greenleaf
  5. Graen and Uhl-Bien

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Later Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. According to Atwater and Carmeli, a study of employees in a variety of jobs in Israeli organizations found
  2. High-quality leader-member exchanges were directly correlated with creativity
  3. High-quality leader-member exchanges were negatively correlated with employee feelings of energy
  4. LMX was directly correlated with creativity
  5. LMX correlated with employee feelings of energy, which then enhanced their creativity

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Later Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. Studies of LMX have concluded all but the following
  2. Empowerment moderates the impact of LMX on job outcomes
  3. Citizenship behaviors and LMX are positively correlated
  4. High-quality leader-member exchanges foster positive job outcomes
  5. All employees are in the in-group to some degree

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Later Studies

Question Type: MC

  1. During the stranger phase of leadership making, the roles are
  2. Scripted
  3. Tested
  4. Negotiated
  5. Implied

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. During the acquaintance phase of leadership making, the roles are
  2. Scripted
  3. Tested
  4. Negotiated
  5. Implied

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. Roles being tested in leadership-making means
  2. The leader and follower have already tested their interactions and found them satisfactory
  3. The leader and follower are assessing desire for the follower to take on new responsibilities
  4. The leader and follower are focused on the rules of interaction
  5. The leader and follower are comfortable depending on each other

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. During the mature partnership phase of leadership making, the roles are
  2. Scripted
  3. Tested
  4. Negotiated
  5. Implied

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. During the mature partnership phase of leadership making, the exchanges are
  2. Low quality
  3. Medium quality
  4. Moderately high quality
  5. High quality

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. During the stranger phase of leadership making, the exchanges are
  2. Low quality
  3. Medium quality
  4. Moderately high quality
  5. High quality

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. During the acquaintance phase of leadership making, the exchanges are
  2. Low quality
  3. Medium quality
  4. Moderately high quality
  5. High quality

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. During the acquaintance phase of leadership making,
  2. Roles are scripted
  3. Exchanges are negotiated
  4. Influences are mixed
  5. Influences are one-way

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. During the mature partnership phase of leadership making,
  2. Roles are tested
  3. Exchanges are medium quality
  4. Influences are mixed
  5. Interests are group focused

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. During the stranger phase of leadership making,
  2. Interests are mixed
  3. Exchanges are high quality
  4. Influences are one-way
  5. Interests are group focused

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. During the acquaintance phase of leadership making, interests are
  2. Self-focused
  3. Group focused
  4. Focused on group and self
  5. Reciprocal

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. According to Graen and Uhl-Bien, leadership making develops progressively over time in how many phases?
  2. 3
  3. 4
  4. 5
  5. 6

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. The leadership-making model is
  2. Prescriptive
  3. Descriptive
  4. Unscripted
  5. Transactional

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. Who is responsible for making the offer for improved career-oriented interactions?
  2. Leader
  3. Follower
  4. Leader or follower
  5. Followers’ coworkers

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. The prescriptive nature of LMX
  2. Is described by the in-group and out-group
  3. Relies on leaders adjusting to follower characteristics
  4. Is found in the leadership-making phases
  5. Relies on followers making a social connection with the leader

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. The dyadic relationship in LMX is
  2. Descriptive
  3. Prescriptive
  4. Unscripted
  5. Both descriptive and prescriptive

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. Out-group members act differently from in-group members in that they
  2. Interact often with the leader
  3. Perform their job duties but no extra work
  4. Ask for additional responsibility
  5. Receive special attention from their leaders

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. In-group members
  2. Get more information from leaders
  3. Are focused on themselves rather than the team
  4. Have low-quality leader-member exchanges
  5. Do their jobs and nothing more

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. During the early phases of leadership making, leaders look for what qualities in followers?
  2. Agreeableness and cooperation
  3. Good humor and intelligence
  4. Enthusiasm and participation
  5. Pleasantness and trustworthiness

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. During the acquaintance phase of leadership making, subordinates tend to focus
  2. Less on their own self-interests
  3. Mostly on their own self-interests
  4. Less on the group’s interests
  5. On both their own and the group’s interests

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. The mature partnership phase is not characterized by
  2. Tasks
  3. Respect
  4. Reciprocity
  5. Transformational relationships

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. What is a key predictor of relationship quality for both leaders and followers?
  2. Extraversion
  3. Performance
  4. Agreeableness
  5. Trust

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. According to Harris, Wheeler, and Kacmar, what moderates the impact of leader-member

exchange on job outcomes?

  1. Empowerment
  2. Enthusiasm
  3. Cooperation
  4. Amount of experience

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. You have been working at your job for over a year. Your boss starts offering you new

assignments with weekly meetings in order to exchange valuable information regarding

the tasks. The result is that you and your boss are able to redefine your working relationship and

find new ways of relating. According to the LMX theory, you are now in a _____ role.

  1. Tested
  2. Mixed
  3. Scripted
  4. Negotiated

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. Which of the following is not a subordinate benefit of high LMX?
  2. Increased performance-related feedback
  3. Preferential treatment
  4. Social interaction outside of the work setting
  5. Ample access to supervisors

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of LMX theory?
  2. It runs counter to the human value of fairness.
  3. It discriminates against some subordinates.
  4. It directs our attention to the importance of the leader-member dyad.
  5. It supports the advantage of privileged groups in the workplace.

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticism

Question Type: MC

  1. You have been working at your job for over a year. Your boss starts offering you new

assignments with weekly meetings in order to exchange valuable information regarding

the tasks. According to the LMX theory, you are now in a _____ role.

  1. Tested
  2. Low-quality
  3. Scripted
  4. Negotiated

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. You have been working at your job for over a year. Your boss started offering you new

assignments with weekly meetings for the past two months in order to exchange valuable

information regarding the tasks. According to the LMX theory, you are having _________ exchanges.

  1. High-quality
  2. Low-quality
  3. Medium-quality
  4. Negotiated-quality

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. You have been working at your job for over a year. Your boss starts offering you new

assignments with weekly meetings in order to exchange valuable information regarding

the tasks. According to the LMX theory, the influence between you is __________.

  1. Tested
  2. Medium quality
  3. Mixed
  4. Negotiated

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. The leader of your work team consistently shows she trusts and respects you and depends on you to help the team accomplish established goals. You show her through your reliable actions and communication that her trust is warranted. You and your supervisor are in the
  2. Mature partnership phase
  3. Acquaintance phase
  4. Medium-quality phase
  5. Tested stranger phase

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. Ray is the leader of a non-profit organization that supports education for underserved populations in your community. You volunteer regularly with this organization and see Ray almost every day you are volunteering. Yesterday Ray asked you to take on a lead volunteer role, stating that your commitment to the organization and interaction with Ray have shown him he can count on you. You agree to step into this lead volunteer role. You and Ray have just entered which phase of leadership making?
  2. Mature partnership phase
  3. Acquaintance phase
  4. Scripted partnership phase
  5. Stranger phase

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. Beth and James are in a dyadic relationship on a work team in which both of them are focused on the group’s goals and outcomes. Beth and James are in
  2. Tested roles
  3. Low-quality exchange
  4. Stranger phase
  5. Mature partnership phase

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. I focus on getting my job done and satisfying my needs and also think about the needs of my team members. I also consider my influence with my leader as mixed and one in which we are both testing my role in the organization. We are in the
  2. Mature partnership phase
  3. Acquaintance phase
  4. Stranger phase
  5. Negotiated phase

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MC

  1. Out-group members
  2. Act differently than in-group members
  3. Operate outside of their job descriptions
  4. Have better relationships with their leaders
  5. Are treated unfairly by their leaders

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does LMX Work?

Question Type: MC

  1. I feel as though I do not fit into my new work group. To which strength of LMX does this apply?
  2. Leadership making ostracizes some employees
  3. LMX is descriptive
  4. LMX is prescriptive
  5. Research on LMX is fully developed

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: MC

  1. Which is not a strength of LMX?
  2. It looks at dyadic relationships in the leadership process
  3. It accurately describes the in- and out-group process
  4. Research substantiates how LMX is related to organizational outcomes
  5. It runs counter to the human value of fairness

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: MC

  1. Potential for discrimination in LMX comes from
  2. The high-quality LMX dyadic relationships
  3. When followers are in either the in- or out-groups
  4. When leaders are open to followers switching in- or out-groups
  5. When leaders attempt to have all followers in the in-group

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

  1. Which of the following is a criticism of LMX?
  2. It alerts leaders to their biases
  3. It is a unique approach that looks at dyadic relationships
  4. LMX does not fully explain the creation of high-quality exchanges
  5. It directs our attention to the importance of communication in leadership

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

  1. Which of the following is not a criticism of LMX?
  2. LMX does not fully explain the creation of high-quality exchanges
  3. It runs counter to the human value of fairness
  4. It looks at dyadic relationships in the leadership process
  5. The measurement of LMX is questionable

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

  1. LMX theory can be applied
  2. By leaders at all levels of an organization
  3. By mid-level leaders only
  4. By upper-level leaders only
  5. By lower-level leaders only

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Application

Question Type: MC

Multiple Selection

  1. Higher-quality exchanges produce
  2. Higher employee turnover
  3. Less positive performance evaluations
  4. Better job attitudes
  5. Faster career progress
  6. More out-group than in-group members

Ans: C, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Later Studies

Question Type: MS

  1. Phase 1 in leadership making
  2. Is hierarchical
  3. Is contractual
  4. Is reciprocal
  5. Is transformational

Ans: A, B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MS

  1. Dyadic relationships in the acquaintance phase
  2. Begin to develop trust
  3. Begin to develop respect
  4. Place focus on the group’s greater good
  5. Focus less on self and more on group goals

Ans: A, B, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MS

  1. Leaders should try to
  2. Create high-quality leader-member exchanges with all followers
  3. Get all followers in the in-group
  4. Offer all followers opportunities for new roles and responsibilities
  5. Offer only in-group followers opportunities for new roles and responsibilities

Ans: A, B, C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: MS

  1. When high-quality relationships occur between leaders and followers
  2. Goals of the organization are advanced
  3. Organizational performance is high
  4. Benefits outside employment are decreased
  5. Positive outcomes for greater good occur

Ans: A, B, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does LMX Work?

Question Type: MS

  1. Applying LMX in the workplace
  2. Makes things fair for all followers
  3. Helps followers understand in- and out-groups
  4. Can appear unfair to some followers
  5. Does not work in the real world

Ans: B, C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does LMX Work?

Question Type: MS

  1. LMX strength(s) is/are
  2. It is a unique approach that looks at dyadic relationships
  3. Exchanges in all work contexts have been studied
  4. It appears unfair
  5. It alerts leaders to their biases

Ans: A, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: MS

  1. LMX theory can help leaders
  2. To be aware of potential biases toward some of our followers
  3. To be aware of who in the organization they can trust and depend upon
  4. To be aware of trying to help all followers into the in-group
  5. To be aware that some followers may not want to be in the in-group

Ans: A, B, C, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Application

Question Type: MS

True/False

  1. The acronym VDL stands for variation dependent leadership.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: TF

  1. In LMX theory, the dyadic relationship is the focal point of the leadership process.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: TF

  1. LMX challenged the assumption that leaders treated followers in a collective way, as a group, using an average leadership style.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: TF

  1. In-group relationships are based on the formal employment contract (defined roles).
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: TF

  1. Subordinates in the out-group receive more information and concern from their leaders than do in-group members.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: TF

  1. Later studies of LMX showed that high-quality relationships between leaders and

subordinates produced less employee turnover.

  1. True
  2. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Later Studies

Question Type: TF

  1. In LMX theory, leadership making suggests that leaders help everyone to be in the in-group.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: TF

  1. During the first phase of leadership making, the interactions within the leader-subordinate dyad are generally low quality.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: TF

  1. During the early phases of leadership making, a key predictor of relationship quality for both

leaders and followers is follower performance.

  1. True
  2. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: TF

  1. In LMX, it is usually the leader who makes an offer to the subordinate for improved career-

oriented exchanges.

  1. True
  2. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: TF

  1. The problem with the LMX approach is that it gives little attention to the importance of

communication in leadership.

  1. True
  2. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: TF

  1. A problem with LMX theory is that it appears to be unrelated to positive organizational

outcomes.

  1. True
  2. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: TF

  1. Personality and other personal characteristics are unrelated to the process of how in-groups

are formed.

  1. True
  2. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: TF

  1. During the partner phase of leadership making, the leader and subordinate have reciprocal

influence on each other.

  1. True
  2. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: TF

  1. LMX can be criticized for failing to fully explain the way high-quality leader-member

exchanges are created.

  1. True
  2. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: TF

  1. Studies have shown that high LMX has a direct impact on employee creativity.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: TF

Essay

  1. What is the relationship between LMX and employee empowerment?

Ans: In Harris, Wheeler, and Kacmar (2009) empowerment moderates the impact of LMX on job outcomes (i.e., job satisfaction, turnover, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors). They found that empowerment and leader-member exchange quality had a slight synergistic effect on job outcomes. The quality of LMX mattered most for employees who felt little empowerment. For these employees, high-quality leader-member exchange appeared to compensate for the drawbacks of not being empowered.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Later Studies

Question Type: Essay

  1. Briefly describe the three stages of LMX theory development.

Ans: Stage 1: vertical dyad linkage theory and identified in-groups and out-groups based on

relational role exchanges. Stage 2: LMX was applied to organizational effectiveness, such as

employee performance. Stage 3: leadership making, which studies how leader-member relations

develop over time from the stranger phase to the mature phase.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: Essay

  1. What is the benefit to the leader of having a high-quality relationship with employees?

Ans: Group members are viewed as dependable and more committed. Group members may take on tasks beyond their job descriptions. Group members may perform better and have less turnover.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Later Studies

Question Type: Essay

  1. LMX theory assumes that improved exchanges between leaders and followers are desirable. When might a follower not want “improved career-oriented social exchanges” with a leader?

Ans: When they are planning on leaving the job. If they do not respect the leader and do not want a relationship with them.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Leadership Making

Question Type: Essay

  1. What are the advantages of studying group leadership from a dyadic perspective?

Ans: Emphasizes importance of communication in leadership. Effective leadership is contingent on effective leader-member exchanges.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Early Studies

Question Type: Essay

  1. Compare the earlier LMX studies, which described in-groups and out-groups to the leadership-making studies in which there are three phases. How is it more helpful to describe LMX in three phases instead of categorizing in- and out-groups?

Ans: Answers will vary but should include a discussion/definition of both in- and out-groups. Rather than reiterating what happens in each phase in leadership-making, good answers will describe the process of developing from low- to high-quality relationships between leaders and followers. These descriptions should include the roles, exchanges, interests, and influences of the three phases.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Early Studies and Leadership Making

Question Type: Essay

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