Life The Science of Biology 10th Edition by David E. Sadava, David M. Hillis – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Life The Science of Biology 10th Edition by David E. Sadava, David M. Hillis – Test Bank   A+

Life The Science of Biology 10th Edition by David E. Sadava, David M. Hillis – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Life The Science of Biology 10th Edition by David E. Sadava, David M. Hillis – Test Bank A+

Life: The Science of Biology, Tenth Edition

Sadava • Hillis • Heller • Berenbaum

Chapter 3: Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Lipids

TEST FILE QUESTIONS

(By Amy Burnside)

Multiple Choice

Large biological molecules that contain carbon and are held together by covalent bonds are categorized as

proteins.

polymers.

nucleic acids.

macromolecules.

monomers.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.0 Chapter Introduction

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

In large polymeric macromolecules, atoms are held together by _______ bonds.

hydrogen

peptide

disulfide

covalent

ionic

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.0 Chapter Introduction

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

All of the following are macromolecules except for

RNA.

DNA.

vitamins D, E, and K.

protein.

salt.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following is not a correct monomer/polymer pairing?

Monosaccharide/polysaccharide

Amino acid/protein

Cellulose/triglyceride

Nucleotide/nucleic acid

Monosaccharide/oligosaccharide

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?; 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?; 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Amino and carboxyl functional groups tend to form bases and acids by gaining or losing

a neutron.

a proton.

an electron.

Both a and b

Both b and c

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Aldehydes and ketones are very similar in that they both contain

phosphorus atoms.

sulfur atoms.

a carbonyl group (C=O).

nitrogen atoms.

two “R” groups.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Molecules containing a large number of hydroxyl groups are

basic.

structurally less stable than those with fewer hydroxyls.

complex macromolecules.

nonpolar.

soluble in water.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

An essential functional group involved in cellular energy transfer is the _______ group.

phosphate

amino

sulfhydryl

hydroxyl

saccharide

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following statements regarding the functional groups of carbon-based molecules is false?

They determine how the molecule interacts with other molecules in the environment.

They determine the shape of the molecule.

They determine the specific properties of the molecule.

They may have interactions with specific functional groups on the same molecule.

They repel each other.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

In condensation reactions, the atoms that make up a water molecule are derived from

oxygen.

one of the reactants.

both reactants.

carbohydrates.

the enzyme.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Polymerization reactions in which polysaccharides are synthesized from monosaccharides

require the formation of phosphodiester bonds between the monosaccharides.

release phosphate.

are hydrolysis reactions.

depend upon van der Waals forces to hold the monosaccharides together.

result in the formation of water.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?; 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

What do polysaccharides, polypeptides, and polynucleotides have in common?

They contain simple sugars.

They are broken down in hydrolysis reactions.

They are located in cell membranes.

They contain nitrogen.

They have molecular weights less than 30,000 daltons.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

During the formation of a peptide linkage, a(n) _______ is formed.

molecule of water

disulfide bridge

hydrophobic bond

hydrophilic bond

ionic bond

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Each amino acid has a unique _______ group.

amino

hydroxyl

carboxyl

“R”

phosphate

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following statements about proteins is true?

They are insoluble in water.

Some are the structural units of glycogen.

Some possess glycosidic linkages between amino acids.

Some function as enzymes.

They are involved in information storage.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

All of the following amino acids have an optical isomer except for

arginine.

cysteine.

alanine.

glycine.

methionine.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Leucine and valine have side chains that do not interact with water; therefore, they

are hydrophilic.

are nonpolar.

have sulfur atoms in their side chains.

are electrically charged.

form only left-handed isomers.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Aspartate and glutamate can form hydrogen bonds with water because they

are hydrophobic.

have sulfur atoms in their side chains.

have electrically charged side chains.

are nonpolar.

form only left-handed isomers.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

If all of the cysteine residues of a protein were changed to threonines,

the structure of the protein would not change because both residues have hydrophobic properties.

the protein would lose activity but the structure would remain the same.

the protein would lose peptide bond formation and thus it would lose its primary structure.

the protein would lose disulfide bond formation, which would affect its tertiary structure.

the hydrogen bonds would be lost, affecting α helix and β pleated sheet formation.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Amino acids can be classified by the

number of monosaccharides they contain.

number of carbon–carbon double bonds in their fatty acids.

number of peptide bonds they can form.

number of disulfide bridges they can form.

characteristics of their side chains, or “R” groups.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

What type of amino acid side chains would you expect to find on the surface of a protein embedded in a cell membrane?

Short

Hydrophobic

Hydrophilic

Charged

Polar, but not charged

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following amino acids is small enough to fit into tight corners of protein molecules?

Proline

Glycine

Cysteine

Asparagine

Glutamine

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The shape of a folded protein is determined by

its tertiary structure.

the sequence of its amino acids.

whether the peptide bonds have a or b linkages.

the number of peptide bonds.

the base-pairing rules.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Peptide chains have a(n) _______ and a(n) _______ end.

start; stop

plus; minus

N terminus; C terminus

5ʹ; 3ʹ

A; Z

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Suppose you want to construct a protein that is 50 amino acids long. What is the theoretical number of different proteins that you could make?

1050

2050

20 × 50

5020

50 × 50

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

How many different types of tripeptides (molecules of three amino acids linked together) can be synthesized from the 20 common amino acids?

3

20

60

900

8,000

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The amino acids of the protein keratin are arranged in a helix. This secondary structure is stabilized by

covalent bonds.

peptide bonds.

glycosidic linkages.

polar bonds.

hydrogen bonds.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A b pleated sheet organization in a polypeptide chain is an example of _______ structure.

primary

secondary

tertiary

quaternary

coiled

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A protein embedded in the plasma membrane has four distinct regions of hydrophobic residues separated by hydrophilic regions. It also has hydrophilic C and N terminals. This protein most likely has _______ extracellular region(s) and _______ cytoplasmic region(s).

two; three

three; two

two; one

one; two

Either a or b

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

A macromolecule that is isolated from the bone of dinosaurs and found to have nitrogen-carbon-carbon repeats would be classified as a(n)

polysaccharide.

oligosaccharide.

polypeptide.

triglyceride.

lipid.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The tertiary structure of a protein is determined by its

interactions among R groups.

right-handed coil.

size.

branching.

glycosidic linkages.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following does not contribute to the overall structure of proteins?

Charge differences between R groups

The formation of disulfide bonds between glycines

Interactions between R groups and the environment

The N—H from the peptide backbone

The C=O groups from the peptide backbone

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The magnesium chelatase protein has quaternary structure. This means that magnesium chelatase

is composed of subunits.

binds to the surface of membranes.

forms part of a quadruple complex.

changes over time.

has four-fold symmetry.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

An enzyme that has become nonfunctional due to the loss of its three-dimensional structure is said to be

permanently disabled.

reversible.

denatured.

hydrolyzed.

environmentalized.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following protein structures is destroyed by denaturation?

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Both b and c

All of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following solutions is least likely to denature an enzyme?

Urea

Vinegar

Milk

Boiling water

Bleach

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

When an egg is exposed to extreme heat, it turns from a liquid into a solid. Even when the egg is allowed to cool, these changes are not reversible. Which of the following is not one of the reasons that they are irreversible?

Water has been removed from the egg proteins.

The hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions in the egg proteins have been broken.

Denatured proteins in the egg have lost secondary and tertiary structure.

Denatured proteins in the egg have aggregated due to lack of chaperone proteins in the egg.

Fats in the egg have become saturated and less fluid.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

If an amino acid involved in the ability of an enzyme to bind a substrate were changed from a tyrosine to a phenylalanine, what would happen to the enzyme?

Nothing would change because both residues have hydrophobic properties.

The change in amino acid would cause disulfide bonds to form, thus increasing its binding ability.

Nothing would change because both residues have polar side chains.

Quaternary structure would be affected because subunits would not be able to bind together.

The ability of the substrate to bind to the enzyme would be affected because of the change in R groups.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

If a hydrophilic amino acid on the surface of an enzyme were changed to hydrophobic instead, a number of results could be possible. Which of the following is not one of these possible results?

The activity of the enzyme could remain unchanged.

The enzyme could alter its folding to imbed the hydrophobic region in the membrane.

The function of the enzyme could be affected because it would no longer be able to bind the correct substrate.

The tertiary structure could be affected due to the interaction between the environment and the R group

The protein’s ability to form peptide bonds could be affected.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Researchers find that removing an enzyme from a neutral pH environment and placing it in an acidic pH environment causes a loss of activity. However, when the enzyme is returned to its original neutral pH, its activity has doubled from its original state. What is one possible explanation for this observation?

The enzyme has refolded differently due to an absence of chaperones, and now the active site is more available to the substrate.

The R groups were chemically altered with a phosphate group from the acid, increasing the energy of the enzyme.

The temporary decrease in pH cleaved all of the disulfide bonds, giving the enzyme more energy.

The pH change increased the mobility of the enzyme, allowing it to process more substrate.

None of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

When an organism is exposed to extreme heat, _______ can help return its enzymes to their proper functions.

hydrolysis reactions

condensation reactions

protein chaperones

amino acids

carbohydrates

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A type of protein that functions by helping other proteins fold correctly is called a

foldzyme.

renaturing protein.

chaperone.

hemoglobin.

denaturing protein.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A molecule with the formula C15H30O15 is a

hydrocarbon.

carbohydrate.

lipid.

protein.

nucleic acid.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The atoms that make up carbohydrates are

C, H, and N.

C and H.

C, H, and P.

C, H, and O.

C, H, O, and N.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A carbohydrate with 12 oxygen molecules would have _______ hydrogen molecules.

6

12

18

24

None of the above; the number of hydrogen molecules cannot be determined from the number of oxygen molecules.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

What is the difference between α-glucose and b-glucose?

They have different numbers of covalent bonds.

They differ in the placement of their OH and H groups.

They have a different R group attached to the terminal carbon.

a-glucose is polar, whereas b-glucose is nonpolar.

a-glucose is a pentose, whereas b-glucose is a hexose.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Glucose and fructose both have the formula C6H12O6, but the atoms in these two compounds are arranged differently. Glucose and fructose are therefore

isomers.

polysaccharides.

stereosaccharides.

pentoses.

isotopes.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The monomers that make up polymeric carbohydrates like starch are called

nucleotides.

trisaccharides.

monosaccharides.

nucleosides.

fatty acids.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A simple sugar with the formula C5H10O5 can be classified as a

hexose.

polysaccharide.

disaccharide.

pentose.

lipid.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

DNA and RNA both include

pentoses.

hexoses.

fructoses.

maltoses.

amyloses.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Lactose, or milk sugar, is composed of one glucose unit and one galactose unit. It can therefore be classified as a

disaccharide.

hexose.

pentose.

polysaccharide.

monosaccharide.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Maltose and sucrose are similar in that they both are

simple sugars.

amino acids.

insoluble in water.

disaccharides.

hexoses.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Seeds contain dense aggregates of starch. Water is needed to

break the hydrogen bonds in the starch aggregates, facilitating the seeds’ access to energy storage.

break the peptide bonds in the starch polymers in order to release more water for the plant.

activate enzymes that will dissolve the starch into its disaccharide monomers that are used for plant growth.

dissolve the starch so that it can mix with fats and create new energy compounds utilized by the growing plant.

help transport starch across membranes, allowing communication between the newly growing plant cells.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Why does a starchy food, like bread, become hard when it dries out?

Cellulose molecules in the cells aggregate in the absence of water.

In the absence of water, unbranched starch molecules aggregate together by forming hydrogen bonds.

The release of carbon dioxide from drying starch causes the bread to harden.

The remaining water and heat cause the polysaccharide chains to bind together.

Mold growth interferes with α linkages, causing the bread to harden.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Starch and glycogen are different in that only one of them

is a polymer of glucose.

contains ribose.

is made in plants.

is an energy storage molecule.

can be digested by humans.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Starch and glycogen are similar in that they

both store genetic information.

are both polymers of amino acids.

are both composed of fructose monomers.

both contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

both denature into a peptide backbone.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Starch and glycogen, which are both polysaccharides, differ in their functions in that starch is _______, whereas glycogen _______.

the main component for plant structural support; is an energy source for animals

a structural material found in plants and animals; forms external skeletons in animals

the principle energy storage compound of plants; is the main energy storage of animals

a temporary compound used to store glucose; is a highly stable compound that stores complex lipids

is the main energy storage of animals; a temporary compound used to store glucose

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The main function of cellulose, the most abundant organic compound on Earth, is

to store genetic information.

as a storage compound for energy in plant cells.

as a storage compound for energy in animal cells.

as a component of biological membranes.

to provide mechanical strength to plant cell walls.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

If you chew a cracker long enough, it eventually tastes sweet. This is because the amylase enzyme in your saliva is

breaking down the starch into monosaccharides.

causing the release of glucose from glycogen stores.

breaking down the quaternary structure of the starch.

emulsifying the lipids.

chemically modifying your taste buds.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

If an unknown substance dissolves when placed in water, this substance is least likely

glycogen.

a starch.

composed of chitin.

a lipid.

Any of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

Chitin is a polymer of

galactosamine.

glucose.

glucosamine.

glycine.

All of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Lipids are

insoluble in water.

important for energy storage.

hydrophobic.

important constituents of biological membranes.

All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Oil and water do not mix easily because _______ cause the fat molecules of the oil to aggregate together in water.

van der Waals forces

covalent bonds

disulfide bonds

ester linkages

glycosidic linkages

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following statements about fatty acids molecules is true?

They contain three fats bonded to a glycerol.

They are composed of hydrocarbon tails and a carboxyl group.

They are carbohydrates linked to a hydrocarbon chain.

They contain glycerol and a carboxyl group.

They become saturated at low pH.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A fat contains fatty acids and

glycerol.

a base.

an amino acid.

a phosphate.

glucose.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Lipids play an important role in a number of functions. Which of the following is not one of those functions?

Vision

Energy storage

Membrane structure

Storing of genetic information

Chemical signaling

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following statements about lipids is false?

They are readily soluble in water.

They may help capture light energy.

They release large amounts of energy when broken down.

They may form two layers when mixed with water.

They can act as an energy storehouse.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

You have isolated an unidentified liquid from a sample of beans. You add the liquid to a beaker of water and shake vigorously. After a few minutes, the water and the other liquid separate into two layers. To which class of large biological molecules does the unknown liquid most likely belong?

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Proteins

Enzymes

Nucleic acids

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

A molecule that has an important role in limiting what gets into and out of cells is

glucose.

maltose.

phospholipid.

fat.

phosphohexose.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

You look at the label on a container of shortening and see the words “hydrogenated vegetable oil.” This means that during processing, the number of carbon–carbon double bonds in the oil was decreased and the

oil now has a lower melting point.

oil is now solid at room temperature.

fatty acid chains now have more “kinks.”

oil is now a derivative carbohydrate.

fatty acid is now a triglyceride.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The portion of a phospholipid that contains the phosphorous group has one or more electric charges. The charged region of the molecule is

hydrophobic.

hydrophilic.

nonpolar.

unsaturated.

saturated.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Unsaturated fatty acids do not pack together due to the _______ in their hydrocarbon chains.

double bonds

glycosidic linkages

peptide bonds

disulfide bridges

van der Waals forces

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

You are given two fatlike solid substances and determine that sample A has a higher melting point than sample B. Sample A, therefore,

has a higher number of carbon–carbon double bonds.

has a lower number of carbon–carbon double bonds.

is a saturated fat and sample B is an unsaturated fat

is an unsaturated fat and sample B is a saturated fat

is a triglyceride and sample B is a simple lipid.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Lipids form the barriers surrounding various compartments within an organism. Which property of lipids makes them a good barrier?

Many biologically important molecules are not soluble in lipids.

They contain fatty acids.

They contain glycerol.

They are the basis for hormones and other signaling molecules.

Large amounts of energy are released when they are broken down.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

In a biological membrane, the phospholipids are arranged with the fatty acid chains facing the interior of the membrane. As a result, the interior of the membrane is

hydrophobic.

hydrophilic.

charged.

polar.

filled with water.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Molecules that are both attracted to water and repel water are called

hydrophilic.

hydrophobic.

amphipathic.

amphoric.

glycosidic.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Cholesterol is soluble in ether, a nonpolar organic solvent, but it is not soluble in water. Based on this information, to which class of biological macromolecules does cholesterol belong?

Nucleic acids

Carbohydrates

Proteins

Enzymes

Lipids

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Steroids are classified as lipids because they

have a ring structure similar to glucose.

are amphipathic.

are composed of nonpolar and hydrophobic molecules.

are composed of molecules that are bound together with glycosidic linkages.

form a and b isomers.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following vitamins is excreted in urine instead of being stored in fatty tissue in your body?

Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

None of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Waxes are formed by the

addition of water to fatty acids.

removal of water from fatty acids.

combining of fatty acids with alcohol.

condensing of fatty acids with glycerol.

combining of fatty acids with vitamin A.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Fill in the Blank

Starch is a polymer of glucose subunits. The subunits of any polymer are called _______.

Answer: monomers

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The functional group written as —COOH is called the _______ group.

Answer: carboxyl

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Due to its six hydroxyl groups attached to its six-carbon backbone, the carbohydrate compound inositol can be classified as a(n ) _______.

Answer: alcohol

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The reaction H—A—OH + H—B—OH ® H—A—B—OH + H2O represents a(n) _______ reaction.

Answer: condensation

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

All amino acids have a hydrogen atom, an amino group, an R group, and a(n) _______ group.

Answer: carboxyl

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

In proteins, amino acids are linked together by _______ bonds.

Answer: peptide

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The linear arrangement of amino acids in the polypeptide chain is referred to as the _______ structure of the protein.

Answer: primary

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

van der Waals forces can form between _______ side chains in proteins.

Answer: hydrophobic

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The covalent bond formed between the sulfur atoms of two cysteine side chains is called a(n) _______.

Answer: disulfide bridge

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Carbohydrates made up of two simple sugars are called _______.

Answer: disaccharides

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The bonds that link sugar monomers in a starch molecule are _______ bonds.

Answer: glycosidic

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Fructose has a five-member ring like deoxyribose and ribose. However, fructose is not classified as a pentose because it has _______ total carbon atoms.

Answer: six

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

In response to low blood sugar, the body breaks down _______ stored in the liver into monomers of _______.

Answer: glycogen; glucose

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The highly branched polysaccharide that stores glucose in the muscles and the liver of animals is _______.

Answer: glycogen

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Glucosamine and galactosamine are monosaccharides in which a hydroxyl group has been replaced by a(n) _______ group.

Answer: amino

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A(n) _______ linkage connects the fatty acid molecule to glycerol.

Answer: ester

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Fatty acids with more than one carbon–carbon double bond are called _______.

Answer: polyunsaturated

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The fluidity and melting point of fatty acids are partially determined by the number of _______ bonds.

Answer: unsaturated (or carbon double)

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Cholesterol is classified as a(n) _______.

Answer: lipid (or steroid)

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Vitamins D, E, and K have a multiple-ring structure and are classified as _______.

Answer: lipids

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Diagram

1.‒2. Refer to the figure below.

The molecules in the figure are

structural isomers.

optical isomers.

hydrophobic.

hydrophilic.

Both b and d

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The molecules in the figure are joined in polymeric chains with other amino acids by _______ bonds.

peptide

hydrogen

glycosidic

ionic

disulfide

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

3.‒5. Refer to the diagram below showing a condensation reaction.

Fill in the gray box with the correct molecule.

Answer: Water (or H2O)

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The reaction shown in the diagram does not occur during the formation of a(n)

peptide bond.

glycosidic linkage.

disulfide bond.

ester linkage.

polypeptide chain.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?; 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?; 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The reaction shown in the diagram occurs during the formation of which protein structure?

Peptide backbone

a helix

b sheet

Disulfide bridge

Ionic bond

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

6.‒7. Refer to the figure below.

The three amino acids shown

are hydrophilic.

are hydrophobic.

have positively charged R groups.

form disulfide bridges.

are smaller than the other amino acids.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

During the creation of a peptide backbone, these amino acids will form

disulfide bridges.

ester linkages.

hydrogen bonds.

peptide bonds.

glycosidic linkages.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

8.‒9. Refer to the figure below of a hemoglobin protein.

The hemoglobin protein has four subunits. If it were exposed to high temperatures, it would most likely

remain unchanged, since it is protected by the interaction of the R subunits.

become covalently modified.

become denatured into four peptide backbones.

release amino acids when the peptide bonds break.

show increased function in activity assays.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

If a hemoglobin exposed to high temperatures is returned to normal temperature in the presence of chaperone proteins, it will refold _______ and _______ function.

correctly; lose

correctly; regain

incorrectly; lose

incorrectly; regain

incorrectly; gain new

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

10.‒12. Refer to the diagram below of a polysaccharide.

The polysaccharide shown in the diagram contains five molecules of _______.

Answer: glucose

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The monosaccharides shown in the diagram are linked by

disulfide bridges.

glycosidic linkages.

peptide bonds.

noncovalent bonds.

ionic bonds.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The formation of bonds or linkages, as shown in the diagram, result in the production of _______ as a by-product.

energy

heat

CO2

water

light

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

13.‒15. Refer to the figure below showing the chemical structures of cis– and trans-isomers of oleic acid. The trans-oleic, also known as elaidic acid, is the main trans fat in the hydrogenated vegetable oil found in food. (Note: Each single line represents a single covalent bond. Carbons are at the vertices and are not labeled).

What kind of bond leads to a “kink” in the cis-oleic acid but not in the trans-oleic acid, as shown in the figure?

C—C

C=C

C—O

C=O

C—OH

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

These fatty acids are acidic because of the presence of a _______ in the molecules.

carboxyl group (—COOH)

hydroxyl group (—OH)

C—OH bond

C=C double bond

All of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which part of the cis-oleic acid molecule is hydrophobic?

The carboxyl group (—COOH)

The hydrocarbon chain (—[CH2]n)

The C—OH bond

The C=C double bond

All of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

16.‒17. Refer to the diagram below of a phospholipid bilayer.

The membrane structure shown in the diagram forms in water because the individual phospholipids

have a hydrophilic head.

have a hydrophobic head.

are amphipathic.

have a hydrophobic tail.

have a hydrophilic tail.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

With reference to the diagram, a steroid hormone would be found in region _______, a hydrophobic protein would be found in region _______, and a hydrophilic protein would be found in region _______.

Answer: A; A; B or C

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

DIAGNOSTIC QUIZ QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)

(By Amy Burnside)

Cholesterol is soluble in chloroform, a nonpolar organic solvent, but it is not soluble in water. Based on this information, what class of biological macromolecules does cholesterol belong to?

Oligosaccharides

Carbohydrates

Proteins

Enzymes

Lipids

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?; 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

There are a number of functional groups in biological molecules. Which of the following about their presence in different classes of molecules is most accurate?

Hydroxyl groups are only present in carbohydrates.

Aldehyde groups are common in proteins.

Amino groups may be found in modified carbohydrates and in proteins.

Carboxyl groups are found in small molecules but not in macromolecules.

Sulfhydryl groups are important features of fats.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?; 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?; 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?; 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following physiological functions is not usually served by proteins?

Catalysis

Energy reserve

Structural support

Defense

Hormone binding

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following amino acids would, when incorporated into a polypeptide chain (not at the N or C terminus), make the charge of the polypeptide more positive?

Alanine

Arginine

Aspartate

Serine

Cysteine

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which of the following functional groups is found in the R group of the amino acid cysteine?

—SH

—OH

—NH2

—COO

—CHO

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Where would the leucine side chain most likely be found in a protein dissolved in water?

In the interior of the protein in contact with nonpolar side chains

In the interior of the protein in contact with polar side chains

On the exterior of the protein

In the interior of the protein in contact with water

Either on the interior or exterior of the protein

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The primary structure of proteins is the _______. The primary structure contains the information necessary for the formation of secondary structure, including the _______ and the _______. Secondary structure of proteins is stabilized by the formation of _______ bonds.

amino acid sequence; β pleated sheet; α helix; disulfide

α helix; amino acid sequence; β pleated sheet; hydrophobic

amino acid sequence; α helix; β pleated sheet; hydrogen

amino acid sequence; α helix; β pleated sheet; peptide

β pleated sheet; α helix; amino acid sequence; hydrogen

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Quaternary structure of proteins refers to

the arrangement of the protein’s atoms in three-dimensional space.

whether the polypeptide chain is an α helix or β pleated sheet.

the number and kind of polypeptide subunits the protein has.

the four-fold symmetry of the protein.

the lipids or carbohydrates that are attached to the proteins.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following statements about to protein structure is false?

Chaperones may assist in folding proteins.

Most of the interactions that stabilize folded proteins are covalent.

α helix and β pleated sheets are common secondary structures in proteins.

Proper folding is essential to the function of a protein.

Some proteins contain more than one polypeptide chain.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Molecular chaperones

are small molecules present in the cytoplasm.

are made in lesser amounts after exposure of an organism to high temperatures.

are enzymes that add functional groups onto polypeptides.

can prevent harmful interactions caused by improperly folded proteins.

bind proteins irreversibly to denature them.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following biological molecules is/are linked by covalent bonds formed by the removal of water from the reactants (condensation reaction)?

Oils

Waxes

Proteins

Starch

All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?; 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?; 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The “building blocks” of polysaccharides are _______ and the blocks are covalently linked together by _______ bonds.

glycerol and fatty acids; ester

amino acids; peptide

monosaccharides; glycosidic

phospholipids; ester

disaccharides; glycosidic

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following statements about starch is false?

It may be partially branched.

It is a polymer of glucose.

It is formed by the condensation of monomers.

It has properties very similar to those of cellulose.

It can be digested by humans.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Chitin is

a polymer of glucose.

present in the cell walls of plants.

a soluble molecule.

used as an energy reserve in fungi.

a polymer of a modified sugar.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The main function of cellulose is

to provide mechanical strength to plant cell walls.

as a storage compound for energy in plant cells.

as a storage compound for energy in animal cells.

as a component of biological membranes.

to provide mechanical strength to insect cell walls.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Oils and fats

form membranes.

are triglycerides.

all contain the same fatty acids.

are good for humans in large amounts.

have peptide bonds.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Based on its structure, a fat is most closely related to which of the following molecules?

A wax

A phospholipid

An oil

Cholesterol

A carotenoid

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Fatty acids are

carboxylic acids with long hydrocarbon tails.

linked to glycerol in fats by phosphodiester bonds.

saturated hydrocarbons.

large polymers of monosaccharides.

generally present in water-soluble proteins.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Olive oil melts at a lower temperature than beef fat because

oils contain glycerol whereas fats do not.

fats contain more saturated fatty acids than oils do.

fats contain more unsaturated fatty acids than oils do.

oils are made by plants whereas fats are made by animals.

olive trees occur in warmer climates than beef cattle do.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Phospholipids differs from triglycerides in that phospholipids

are not derivatives of glycerol.

are amphipathic.

do not have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.

are used to store energy for the cell.

do not contain fatty acids.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

LEARNINGCURVE QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)

(By Amy Burnside)

Proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids are large molecules made up of monomers linked together by

covalent bonds.

ionic bonds.

hydrogen bonds.

disulfide bonds.

van der Waals bonds.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

2. Hydroxyl groups are polar, and thus a molecule that contains multiple hydroxyl groups will be

basic.

soluble in water.

involved in reactions forming more complex molecules.

nonpolar.

hydrophobic.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The reactive _______ contributes to the ability of aldehydes and ketones to be involved in energy reactions.

phosphate

C=O (carbonyl)

sulfur

“R” group

nitrogen

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The functional groups of organic molecules help to determine all of the following except

interaction of the molecule with the environment.

the shape of the molecule.

specific properties of the molecule.

interactions with other specific functional groups of the same molecule.

antagonistic interactions among molecules, creating multiple forces that drive chemical reactions.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Molecules with the same chemical formula but different arrangement of atoms are

macromolecules.

isomers.

nucleic acids.

amino acids.

partners.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A structural isomer for the molecule NaOCH2CH3 would be expected to have how many carbon atoms?

1

2

3

5

9

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Optical isomers

are centered around carbon double bonds.

come in cis and trans forms.

have a different arrangement but the same number of atoms.

are mirror images of each other in structure.

do not exist in nature.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

8. Cis and trans isomers

have similar properties despite opposite orientations in structure.

have the same structure, but the cis form has an extra double bond.

have the same structure but the trans form has an extra double bond.

are mirror images of each other in structure.

are centered around a double bond with atoms on either side in different orientations with respect to each other.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Of the nonmineral components of a living organism, the most prevalent macromolecule is

water.

polypeptides.

polysaccharides.

nucleic acids.

lipids.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A hydrolysis reaction requires

water.

oxygen.

hydrogen.

hydroxyl group.

carboxyl group.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Monomers are joined together by _______ and broken down by _______.

proteins; lipids

condensation; hydrolysis

phosphorylation; dephosphorylation

acids; bases

hydrogen; oxygen

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A condensation reaction

uses carboxyl groups in beginning catabolism.

requires oxygen when forming glycosidic linkages.

removes water when linking together amino acids.

gives hydrogen during the formation of hydrogen bonds.

adds hydroxyl groups to nucleic acid linkages.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

All of the following are typical functions of proteins except

defense.

transport.

movement.

information storage.

protection.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The three-dimensional structure of a protein(s)

is determined by the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain.

always contains multiple polypeptide chains.

cannot be altered once folded by chaperone proteins.

will be different in different organisms, despite the same amino acid sequence.

is not related to its function.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

An amino acid is considered both an acid and a base because it has an amino and a carboxyl functional group, which are ionized by the addition or loss of

an oxygen.

a hydrogen ion.

an electron.

a hydroxyl.

a phosphate.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A peptide linkage forms between

a phosphate group and a hydroxyl group.

R groups.

the two peptide chains of a protein dimer.

an amino group and a carboxyl group.

sulfhydryl groups.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The “R” groups of amino acids have certain properties and allow for amino acids to be organized into all of the following groups except

positively charged and hydrophilic.

negatively charged and hydrophilic.

uncharged hydrophilic.

positively charged and hydrophobic.

nonpolar hydrophobic.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following amino acids does not have a charged R group?

Arginine

Histidine

Lysine

Asparagine

Glutamic acid

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which amino acid substitution for alanine would least likely affect the three-dimensional shape of the resulting protein?

Tyrosine

Cysteine

Isoleucine

Histidine

Aspartic acid

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Amino acids with a six carbon ring are known to have fluorescent properties where they absorb light of a short wavelength and give off light at a longer wavelength. Therefore, peptides made of these amino acids are also fluorescent. Given this information, all of the following peptides would be fluorescent except

AKD.

MFR.

VWN.

CGY.

SRF.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following peptides could be found inside a phospholipid bilayer membrane due to its hydrophobic properties?

RKE

HGD

GTC

LMV

STA

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

A molecule that has an N—C—C repeat in its structure is classified as a

carbohydrate.

lipid.

protein.

polysaccharide.

fat.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Protein function

is independent of three-dimensional structure.

will not be affected by changes in pH.

is determined by interaction of surface R groups with other molecules.

is the same even with covalent modifications.

will not change in a nonpolar environment.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

In an alpha helix, the coiling is stabilized by

the hydrophobic nature of the R chains, which causes the chain to coil with the R groups inward.

hydrogen bonding of the N—H groups on one amino acid and the C=O groups on another.

repulsion of the R chains from each other causing the coil to form with the R groups on the outside.

disulfide bond formation between cysteines that are regularly spaced along peptide chains.

the N—C—C repeat of the peptide backbone, allowing for regularly spaced peptide bonds between chain segments.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

All of the following contribute to the three dimensional shape of a protein except

temperature.

ester linkages.

pH.

R groups.

peptide backbone.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following interactions are not involved in the formation of a protein’s tertiary structure?

Hydrogen bonds

van der Waals interactions

Disulfide bridges

Salt bridges

Peptide bonds

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Salt bridges are a part of a protein’s tertiary structure and can occur between

glutamic acid and arginine.

tryptophan and valine.

serine and threonine.

histidine and lysine.

two cysteines.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

All of the following require water to break except

peptide bonds.

ester linkages.

glycosidic bonds.

starch aggregates.

salt bridges.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following statements is true about the three-dimensional structure of a protein?

If you disturb the hydrogen bonding, only the primary structure will be left.

If you disturb the van der Waals forces, only the quaternary structure will be affected.

Tertiary and quaternary structures are held together by similar types of interactions.

Tertiary structure is independent of primary structure.

All proteins have primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Tertiary and quaternary structures share all of the following properties except

disulfide bridges.

multiple subunits.

hydrogen bonding.

ionic interactions.

van der Waals interactions.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

You are trying to determine something about the structure of a particular enzyme. For one of your experiments, you mutate the protein to include some cysteine residues in sections you think might be folded close to each other. You place properly folded original and mutant proteins into a denaturing solution (urea), then back into a physiological solution. You discover that your mutant has recovered more of its enzymatic activity than the nonmutant protein. What is the best explanation for this phenomenon?

Urea bound to cysteine residues, stabilizing the protein structure.

The cysteine residues formed a bond between the R groups that was not broken during denaturation, thus stabilizing protein structure.

The cysteine residues destabilized the structure.

Proteins that contain cysteine were resistant to urea denaturation.

Adding cysteine residues gave the enzyme higher activity.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following is true about the substrate binding pocket of a protein?

The R groups inside the pocket determine interactions with substrate.

The secondary structure components of the pocket should be a mirror image of the substrate.

The shape of the pocket should match the substrate.

Both a and b

Both a and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

If a protein is placed in urea, it will retain only its

peptide bonds.

alpha sheets.

beta sheets.

hydrogen bonds.

ionic interactions.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

All of the following will affect the shape of a protein except

interaction with another protein.

a covalent modification.

temperature.

an amino acid substitution.

a polar environment.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Proteins can change their structure when they interact with other molecules. This is

true, because binding of a molecule to a protein alters the shape of the protein.

true, because van der Waals forces between molecules can change interactions between R groups within a protein.

true, because covalent modifications can alter intramolecular interactions.

false, because only a change in solvent can change protein structure.

a, b, and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

All of the following can result in the misfolding of a protein except

the addition of chaperones.

denaturation.

placement in a polar substance.

a pH of 9.

placement in a nonpolar substance.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Chaperones

assist protein shuttling across a cell.

prevent folded proteins from interacting with other molecules.

are involved in proper protein folding.

monitor peptide bond formation.

are only needed in times of cellular stress.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

You are designing an experiment that requires a protein to be exposed to high heat, yet remain functional. You find, however, that the protein has lost its function on returning to its normal physiological temperature. You determine that the loss of function is due to an error in refolding of the protein. To remedy this, you could

covalently modify the protein.

add a chaperone.

change the peptide backbone.

increase the pH.

add mercaptoethanol.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

How many unique polypeptide chains are there of 50 amino acids in length?

220

240

2020

2040

2050

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A molecule with the formula C6H12O6 can be classified as

a protein.

a carbohydrate.

a lipid.

a fat.

Classification cannot be determined by formula alone.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

A carbohydrate with 24 carbon atoms can be expected to have how many hydrogen and oxygen atoms?

24 H and 24 O

48 H and 24 O

48 H and 48 O

48 H and 64 O

64 H and 48 O

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Carbohydrates

are a store of genetic information.

are the main structure of the plasma membrane.

are a base from which other molecules can be made.

cannot be chemically modified.

aid in the folding of proteins.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

All of the following are simple sugars except

mannose.

galactose.

fructose.

glucose.

sucrose.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Glucose

is a disaccharide.

is broken down for energy.

is a pentose.

has six hydrogens.

is a polysaccharide.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

All of the following are structural isomers except

mannose.

fructose.

galactose.

glucose.

maltose.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Monosaccharides are joined together by

hydrolysis.

glycosidic linkages.

peptide bonds.

salt bridges.

hydrophobic reactions.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

An example of a structural isomer pairing is

ribose and deoxyribose.

maltose and sucrose.

glucosamine and galactosamine.

vitamin A and cholesterol.

isoleucine and valine.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Oligosaccharides are commonly

cell surface recognition signals.

structural isomers to polysaccharides.

main sources of cellular energy.

highly branched carbohydrates.

monomers from which complex carbohydrates are synthesized.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A substance that is soluble in water and turns sweet in the presence of amylase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes glycosidic linkages, is most likely

hemoglobin.

glycogen.

starch.

glycerol.

collagen.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

All starches are

insoluble in water.

linear polymers.

aggregates in the presence of water.

the principal energy storage for all organisms.

composed of only glucose monomers.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Glycogen is all of the following except

a form of energy storage.

composed of glucose monomers.

highly branched.

a base from which cellulose is made.

insoluble in water.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Two important polysaccharides made up of glucose monomers are _______ and _______.

guanine; cytosine

RNA; DNA

sucrose; lactose

cellulose; starch

testosterone; cortisone

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Cells break down stored energy into the usable monosaccharide glucose using

combustion.

hydrolysis.

salt bridges.

condensation.

glycoproteins.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Starch and glycogen, which are both polysaccharides, differ structurally in that glycogen _______, whereas starch _______.

is highly branched; is moderately branched

consists of parallel strands; is highly branched

consists of a combination of branching and parallel strands; is moderately branched

is moderately branched; consists of parallel strands

is highly branched; consists of parallel strands

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Starch and glycogen, which are both polysaccharides, differ in that starch is _______, while glycogen _______.

the main component for plant structural support; is an energy source for animals

a structural material found in plants and animals; forms external skeletons in animals

the principal energy storage compound of plants; is the main energy storage in animals

a temporary compound used to store glucose; is a highly stable compound that stores complex lipids

the main energy storage in animals; is a temporary compound used to store glucose

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Cellulose is

a structural organic compound.

made up of α-glycosidic linkages.

readily soluble in water.

a form of energy storage.

highly unstable.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

An essential functional group involved in cellular energy reactions is the _______ group.

phosphate

amino

sulfhydryl

hydroxyl

saccharide

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

All of the following are chemically modified carbohydrates except

glucosamine.

galactosamine.

chitin.

glucuronic acid.

cellulose.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Carbohydrates are chemically modified in all of the following ways except

oxidation–reduction reactions.

phosphate addition.

amino substitution.

sulfhydryl reactions.

glycosidic reaction.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Chemical modification of macromolecules

affects structure not function.

affects structure and function.

affects function not structure.

does not occur.

only occurs in plants, not animals.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Fats and proteins share _______ in establishing their three-dimensional structure.

van der Waals forces

ester linkages

peptide bonds

ionic interactions

hydrolysis reactions

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Lipids differ from polysaccharides in that they

store energy.

have important structural roles.

are insoluble in water.

contain carbon.

can aggregate.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

All of the following are examples of lipids except

chlorophylls.

steroids.

wax.

glucosamine.

oil.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Butter is solid at room temperature yet liquid at higher temperatures because

heat causes formation of double bonds in the fatty acid molecules.

butter is more saturated at room temperature.

temperature breaks the van der Waals forces holding the fat molecules together.

addition of the milk protein helps the fat molecules aggregate at room temperature.

loss of chaperone molecules allows for the separation of the monomers.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

In the creation of trans fats, hydrogen is added to unsaturated fats causing them to become more saturated and causing

the fat to soften.

the fat to lose carbon double bonds.

glycosidic bonds to be broken.

ester linkages to be broken.

the formation of water molecules.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following turns unsaturated fat solid at room temperature?

Adding hydrogen to break carbon bonds

Removing water to cause aggregation of the lipid molecules

Adding hydroxyl ions to increase carbon double bonds

Adding water to break the ester linkages

Adding glycerol

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Triglycerides are composed of

glycerol and fatty acids.

phosphatidylcholine and linoleic acid.

carotenoids and palmitic acid.

aggregates of glycerol.

steroids and saturated fats.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Compared to synthesis of a disaccharide, synthesis of a triglyceride produces _______ water molecules.

more

fewer

an equal number of

The number varies, depending on the disaccharide.

Neither triglycerides or disaccharides produce water molecules.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Phospholipids are

a type of triglyceride.

amphipathic with hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.

a functional group.

saturated.

rigid.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Phospholipids form a bilayer that

dissolves in a liquid environment.

is impermeable to other molecules.

is held together by covalent interactions.

is broken down by hydrolysis.

has a hydrophobic core.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Fats are able to perform all of the following functions except

signal from one part of the body to the other.

color the leaves of a tree.

prevent feathers from getting wet.

store energy.

dissolve polar substances.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Vitamins D, K, and E would be found stored in fatty tissues because they are

made from proteins.

glycogen intermediates.

hydrophilic.

lipids.

minerals.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Cholesterol

is a vitamin.

is classified as a carbohydrate.

can only be consumed by animals and is not synthesized.

is involved in membrane integrity.

is hydrophilic.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

You are given an orange substance that has been isolated from plants. After several experiments, you determine that you are able to synthesize vitamin A from this substance. Thus, you determine that your original substance must have been

beta-carotene.

cholesterol.

chitin.

glycogen.

maltose.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Wax is all of the following except

a component of bee hives.

a barrier to pathogens.

a waterproofer.

an extremely short molecule.

made by animals and plants.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS

(By Mark Sarvary)

Which of the following statements about polymers is false?

Polymers are synthesized from monomers during condensation.

Polymers are synthesized from monomers during dehydration.

Polymers consist of at least two types of monomers.

Both a and c

Both b and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A macromolecule with many hydrogen and peptide bonds is most likely a

carbohydrate.

lipid.

protein.

nucleic acid.

vitamin.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

An a helix is an example of the _______ level of protein structure.

primary

secondary

tertiary

quaternary

hepternary

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following statements about isomers is true?

They all have different chemical formulas but the same arrangement.

They are found only in proteins.

They can only be structural.

They all have the same chemical formula but different arrangements.

None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Cellulose and starch are composed of the same monomers but have structural and functional differences. Which of the following is the characteristic that accounts for those differences?

Different types of glycosidic linkages

Different numbers of glucose monomers

Different types of bonds holding them together

A linear shape in one versus a ring shape in the other

None of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following statements about proteins is false?

Enzymes are proteins.

Proteins are part of the phospholipid bilayer.

Some hormones are proteins.

Proteins are structural components of the cell.

All of the above are true of proteins.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A disulfide bridge is formed by

two cysteine side chains.

two glycerol linkages.

two proline side chains.

condensation.

hydrolysis.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Triglycerides are synthesized from ______ and _______.

glycerol; amino acids

amino acids; cellulose

steroid precursors; starch

cholesterol; glycerol

fatty acids; glycerol

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Proteins consist of amino acids linked together by

noncovalent bonds.

peptide bonds.

phosphodiester bonds.

van der Waals forces.

Both a and b

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following characteristics distinguishes carbohydrates from other macromolecule types?

Carbohydrates are constructed of monomers that always have a ring structure.

Carbohydrates never contain nitrogen.

Carbohydrates consist of a carbon bonded to hydrogen and a hydroxyl group.

Carbohydrates contain glycerol.

None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following statements about carbohydrates is false?

Monomers of carbohydrates have six carbon atoms.

Monomers of carbohydrates are linked together during dehydration.

Carbohydrates are energy-storage molecules.

Carbohydrates can be used as carbon skeletons.

All of the above are true; none is false.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

One could predict that the R groups of amino acids located on the surface of protein molecules embedded in the interior of biological membranes would be

hydrophobic.

hydrophilic.

polar.

able to form disulfide.

electrically charged.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The characteristic of phospholipids that allows them to form a bilayer is their

hydrophilic fatty acid tail.

hydrophobic head.

hydrophobic fatty acid tail.

hydrophilic glycogen acid tail.

All of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A five-carbon sugar is known as a

glutamine.

glucose.

hexose.

pentose.

None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following statements about lipids is false?

Lipids are a major component of the phospholipid bilayer.

Lipids provide waterproofing for the surfaces of organisms.

Steroid hormones are lipids.

A number of vitamins are lipids.

All of the above statements are true; none is false.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS (from Textbook)

The most abundant molecule in the cell is

a carbohydrate.

a lipid.

a nucleic acid.

a protein.

water.

Answer: e

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

All lipids are

triglycerides.

polar.

hydrophilic.

polymers of fatty acids.

more soluble in nonpolar solvents than in water.

Answer: e

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

All carbohydrates

are polymers.

are simple sugars.

consist of one or more simple sugars.

are found in biological membranes.

are more soluble in nonpolar solvents than in water.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following statements about the primary structure of a protein is not true?

It may be branched.

It is held together by covalent bonds.

It is unique to that protein.

It determines the tertiary structure of the protein.

It is the sequence of amino acids in the protein.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The amino acid leucine

is found in all proteins.

cannot form peptide linkages.

has a hydrophobic side chain.

has a hydrophilic side chain.

is identical to the amino acid lysine.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The amphipathic nature of phospholipids is

determined by the fatty acid composition.

important in membrane structure.

polar but not nonpolar.

shown only if the lipid is in a nonpolar solvent.

important in energy storage by lipids.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A single amino acid change in a protein can change its shape. Normally, at a certain position in a protein is the amino acid glycine (see Table 3.2). If glycine is replaced with either glutamic acid or arginine, the protein shape near that amino acid changes significantly. There are two possible explanations for this:

A small amino acid at that position in the polypeptide is necessary for normal shape.

An uncharged amino acid is necessary for normal shape.

Further amino acid substitutions are done to distinguish between these possibilities. Replacing glycine with serine or alanine results in normal shape; but replacing glycine with valine changes the shape. Which of the two possible explanations is supported by the observations? Explain your answer.

Answer: The observations support explanation “a.” Glycine is small and nonpolar. Glutamic acid and arginine are larger and polar (charged). Serine and alanine are small: the protein retains its shape. But serine is polar (it has –OH as its R group), and that does not affect the structure. Valine is larger and nonpolar, and this affects shape. So the issue is size.

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Examine the hexose isomers mannose and galactose below. What makes them structural isomers of one another? Which functional groups do these carbohydrates contain, and what properties do these functional groups give to the molecules?

Answer: Mannose and galactose have the same atomic formula, C6H12O6, but the arrangement of atoms is different: compare carbons 2 and 4. These sugars have the hydroxyl (–OH) functional group. Its polarity helps the sugars dissolve in water. The –OH group also can participate in bonding the sugar to other molecules through condensation reactions (see Figures 3.4 and 3.17).

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

How does high temperature affect protein structure? When an organism is exposed to high temperature, it often makes a special class of molecular chaperones called heat shock proteins. How do you think these proteins work?

Answer: High temperature disrupts weak interactions such as hydrogen bonds. Heat shock proteins might work by stabilizing the protein so that the weak interactions are not necessary to preserve its structure.

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Suppose that, in a given protein, one lysine is replaced by aspartic acid (see Table 3.2). Does this change occur in the primary structure or in the secondary structure? How might it result in a change in tertiary structure? In quaternary structure?

Answer: A change from lysine is a change in primary structure. The change could affect tertiary structure if the protein folds as a result of electrostatic attractions between charged amino acids (+ to –). In this case, the presence of a negatively charged amino acid (aspartic acid) where there should be a positively charged one (lysine) might prevent correct folding if a negatively charged amino acid elsewhere in the polypeptide chain is involved in folding (it is attracted to a + amino acid). The same forces might be at work in the interaction of separate chains for quaternary structure.

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

Human hair is composed of the protein keratin. At the hair salon, two techniques are used to modify the three-dimensional shape of hair. Styling involves heat, and a perm involves cleaving and re-forming disulfide bonds. How would you investigate these phenomena in terms of protein structure?

Answer: See Figure 3.10. Heat breaks hydrogen bonds and other weak interactions that maintain protein shape. Disulfide bonds also required for normal protein shape. Styling and perms partially denature keratin, then renature the protein in a new shape. Your investigation might involve measuring keratin protein structure of hair before and after disrupting hydrogen bonds and disulfide bonds.

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Test Bank

to accompany

Life: The Science of Biology, Tenth Edition

Sadava • Hillis • Heller • Berenbaum

Chapter 5: Cells: The Working Units of Life

TEST FILE QUESTIONS

(By Amy Burnside)

Multiple Choice

Most plant and animal cells are

smaller than a chloroplast.

smaller than most bacteria.

large enough to be seen with a light microscope.

larger than most fungal cells.

large enough to be seen with the unaided eye.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The surface area-to-volume ratio of a cell

increases with increasing volume of the cell.

decreases with decreasing surface area of the cell.

accounts for the size limit of cells.

is of little significance in maintaining cell homeostasis.

affects how molecules are distributed across the cell.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

How does the surface area-to-volume ratio of a 1-mm sphere compare to the surface area-to-volume ratio of a 3-mm sphere?

The 1-mm sphere has a ratio three times larger than that of the 3-mm sphere.

The comparison would depend on the components of the two spheres.

The 1-mm sphere has a higher ratio than the 3-mm sphere.

The 1-mm sphere has a ratio that is one-third of the 3-mm sphere’s ratio.

The ratios are the same.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which of the following spherical cells would carry out the most chemical activity in one minute (all else being equal)?

A 1-mm cell

A 2-mm cell

A 3-mm cell

A 4-mm cell

All cells would have the same amount of chemical activity.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which of the following spherical cells would exchange the greatest amount of substances and waste products with its environment relative to its internal chemical activity?

A 1-mm cell

A 2-mm cell

A 3-mm cell

A 4-mm cell

All cells exchange substances and waste products with the environment at the same rate with respect to their ability to carry out chemical activity, irrespective of size.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following molecules will cross a plasma membrane most easily?

Hemoglobin

Glucose

DNA

Water

Testosterone

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

A general function of all cellular membranes is to

regulate which materials can enter or leave the cell.

support the cell and determine its shape.

produce energy for the cell.

produce proteins for the cell.

move the cell.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The technique of _______ microscopy can be used to visualize the embedded components of a plasma membrane.

light

scanning-electron

freeze-fracture

phase-contrast

confocal

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Researchers can use _______ to distinguish the structure of a ribosome from that of a Golgi body.

direct examination with the naked eye

a hand-held magnifying glass

a bright-field microscope

a phase-contrast microscope

an electron microscope

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The role of cellular organelles is to

provide structural support for the cell.

decrease the flow of materials into and out of the cell.

increase the efficiency of cellular activities.

provide a means of cellular reproduction.

regulate the flow of traffic inside the cell.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

What is the major distinction between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell?

The DNA in a prokaryotic cell is not separated from the ribosomes.

A prokaryotic cell does not have DNA in a chromosome.

A prokaryotic cell is larger than a eukaryotic cell.

Prokaryotic cells have not prospered, whereas eukaryotic cells are evolutionary “successes.”

A prokaryotic cell cannot obtain energy from its environment the same way a eukaryotic cell does.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?; 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The cytosol and _______ are two components of the cytoplasm in a prokaryotic cell.

ribosomes

the Golgi apparatus

chloroplasts

mitochondria

the smooth ER

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The _______ of a prokaryote is/are its most primitive feature.

cell wall

internal membranes

flagella

nucleoid

cytoskeleton

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following represents the correct order of the outer layers found on some prokaryotes, from the interior to the exterior?

Plasma membrane, peptidoglycan cell wall, polysaccharide-rich phospholipid membrane, capsule

Plasma membrane, polysaccharide-rich phospholipid membrane, peptidoglycan cell wall, capsule

Capsule, polysaccharide-rich phospholipid membrane, peptidoglycan cell wall, plasma membrane

Capsule, plasma membrane, peptidoglycan cell wall, polysaccharide-rich phospholipid membrane

Peptidoglycan cell wall, plasma membrane, polysaccharide-rich phospholipid membrane, capsule

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

An unknown organism is discovered and found to lack a membrane-bound nucleus in its cell. This unknown organism is most likely

extraterrestrial.

a protest.

a plant.

a fungus.

a bacterium.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The DNA of prokaryotic cells is found in the

plasma membrane.

nucleus.

ribosome.

nucleoid region.

mitochondria.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The cytosol of a prokaryotic cell

is a static region of the cell.

organizes the DNA.

is composed largely of water.

supports the cell and determines its shape.

chemically modifies proteins and other molecules.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

If a bacterial cell were fed radioactive sulfur such that all of its proteins were labeled, all of the following specialized structures would contain the labeled protein except for the

pili.

capsule.

flagella.

fimbriae.

cytoskeleton.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Ribosomes are made up of

DNA and RNA.

DNA and proteins.

RNA and proteins.

proteins only.

DNA only.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A specialized structure surrounding the cell wall in some prokaryotes is the

capsule.

ribosome.

cytosol.

mitochondrion.

chloroplast.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

In some prokaryotic organisms, the plasma membrane folds to form an internal membrane system that is able to

carry out photosynthesis.

engulf and phagocytize bacteria.

synthesize proteins.

propel the cell.

hydrolyze carbohydrates to ATP.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Some bacteria are able to propel themselves through liquid by means of a structure called the

flagellum.

pilus.

cytoplasm.

cell wall.

peptidoglycan molecule.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following statements about a cell wall is false?

It is a specialized structure found in most prokaryotes.

It is a semi-rigid structure that provides support in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

It is a barrier to infection in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

It is made of peptidoglycan in bacteria.

It is composed of cellulose in plants.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

If you removed the pili from a bacterial cell, the bacterium would

no longer be able to swim.

lose some of its ability to adhere to other cells.

no longer be able to regulate the movement of molecules into and out of the cell.

dry out.

change its shape.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Prokaryotic cells are generally smaller than eukaryotic cells because

prokaryotes have more diverse energy sources.

prokaryotes have a capsule that limits cell growth.

the rigid cell wall of prokaryotes limits cell size.

prokaryotes lack the genetic material needed to support larger cells.

prokaryotic cells do not have compartments, a feature of eukaryotic cells that takes up more space in the cell.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

An unidentified membrane-bound body containing no membrane-bound organelles is placed in cell culture, but it does not grow or divide there. However, when it is placed inside a cell that has had its own genetic information removed, both the body and the cell begin to divide. This unknown object is most likely a

prokaryote.

nucleus.

peroxisome.

mitochondrion.

chloroplast.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

Which of the following statements about the nuclear envelope is true?

It contains pores for the passage of large molecules.

It is composed of two membranes.

It contains ribosomes on the inner surface.

Both a and b

All of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A large organelle found in a eukaryotic cell that genetically controls the cell’s activities is the

chloroplast.

nucleus.

flagellum.

vacuole.

centriole.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Of the following structures of an animal cell, the one with the largest volume is the

cilium.

mitochondrion.

lysosome.

nucleus.

ribosome.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

If the organelles of an animal cell were separated by centrifugation, which organelle would require the least amount of centrifugal force to sediment at the bottom of the centrifuge tube?

Mitochondria

Nuclei

Golgi apparatus

Lysosome

Chloroplasts

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

In a mixture of cellular structures, which structure would require the greatest amount of centrifugal force in order for it to sediment at the bottom of a centrifuge tube?

Mitochondria

Nuclei

Golgi apparatus

Chloroplast

Ribosome

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

A ribosome is a specialized structure but is not considered an organelle because it

does not contain its own genetic material.

does not produce its own energy.

lacks a lipid bilayer.

is present in prokaryotes.

is not made up of proteins.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

What is the difference between “free” and “attached” ribosomes?

Free ribosomes are in the cytoplasm, whereas attached ribosomes are anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum.

Free ribosomes produce proteins in the cytoplasm, whereas attached ribosomes produce proteins that are inserted into the ER for processing and transport.

Free ribosomes produce proteins that are exported from the cell, whereas attached ribosomes make proteins for mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Both a and b

Both a and c

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Chromatin is a series of entangled threads composed of

microtubules.

DNA and protein.

fibrous proteins.

cytoskeleton.

membranes.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The function of the nuclear pores is to

synthesize and repair DNA.

assemble ribosomes from raw materials that are synthesized in the nucleus.

communicate with components of the endomembrane system.

regulate movement of materials across the nuclear membrane.

support the nuclear envelope.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following is not a component of the endomembrane system?

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes

Plastids

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

In what way do the membranes surrounding the organelles in a eukaryote differ from the plasma membrane surrounding the cell?

They are not selectively permeable and are easily crossed by multiple molecules.

They are composed of collagen instead of phospholipids.

They lack protein constituents.

Both a and c

None of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The rough ER is the portion of the ER that

lacks ribosomes.

is the oldest and was once the smooth ER.

has ribosomes attached to it.

is connected to the Golgi apparatus.

is the site of steroid synthesis.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Proteins that are transported in vesicles are made by

the Golgi apparatus.

ribosomes within the mitochondrion.

the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

ribosomes within chloroplasts.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Proteins packaged by the Golgi apparatus are delivered to the correct location by means of

identifying carbohydrate groups covalently bound to the packaged proteins.

the general flow of vesicles within the cell.

the control provided by the nucleus.

motor proteins that direct the Golgi apparatus.

microfilaments.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Proteins produced by ribosomes pass through several cellular structures before reaching their targeted destination. Which of the following represents the structures, in the correct order, that will be encountered by a newly synthesized protein targeted for outside the cell?

RER ® SER ® cis Golgi ® vesicle ® trans Golgi ® lysosome ® plasma membrane

SER ® cis Golgi ® vesicle ® trans Golgi ® vesicle ® plasma membrane

Nuclear membrane ® RER ® vesicle ® trans Golgi ® cis Golgi ® phagosome ® plasma membrane

SER ® RER ® trans Golgi ® cis Golgi ® vesicle ® plasma membrane

RER ® vesicle ® cis Golgi ® trans Golgi ® vesicle ® plasma membrane

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Steroids are synthesized by

chloroplasts.

lysosomes.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

the Golgi apparatus.

mitochondria.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

An organelle consisting of a series of flattened sacks stacked somewhat like pancakes is the

mitochondrion.

peroxisome.

Golgi apparatus.

rough endoplasmic reticulum.

flagellum.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Cells that synthesize a large amount of protein, such as _______ cells, are packed with rough endoplasmic reticulum.

liver

glandular

red blood

skin

brain

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Cells that perform little protein synthesis but are involved with protein modification typically have large numbers or amounts of

rough endoplasmic reticulum.

mitochondria.

ribosomes.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

lysosomes.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A particle of food encounters a series of cellular structures upon digestion by a cell. In what order does this encounter occur, starting from the exterior of the cell?

Plasma membrane ® phagosome ® primary lysosome ® secondary lysosome

Phagosome ® secondary lysosome ® primary lysosome ® plasma membrane

Secondary lysosome ® primary lysosome ® phagosome ® plasma membrane

Plasma membrane ® primary lysosome ® secondary lysosome ® phagosome

Phagosome ® plasma membrane ® primary lysosome ® secondary lysosome

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following structures is not involved in the breakdown of food particles by the cell?

Phagosome

Primary lysosome

Secondary lysosome

Golgi apparatus

Mitochondria

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes must transform energy from the environment into energy that can be used. Which of the following is not one of the processes by which energy is transformed by these organisms?

Cellular respiration (in mitochondria of eukaryotes)

Photosynthesis (in chloroplasts of eukaryotes)

Photosynthesis (on membrane infoldings of some prokaryotes)

Enzymatic processes (on the inner surface of the plasma membrane in prokaryotes)

All of the above processes are used to transform energy.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

In the mitochondria, energy storage molecules are converted to ATP by a process known as

cellular respiration.

metabolism.

diffusion.

metabolic processing.

catabolism.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane

increase the volume of the mitochondrial matrix.

create membrane-enclosed compartments within the mitochondrion.

increase the surface area for the exchange of substances across the membrane.

anchor the mitochondrial DNA.

have no known purpose.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The DNA of mitochondria

is needed to hydrolyze monomers.

is used to make proteins needed for cellular respiration.

directs photosynthesis.

controls the cell’s activities.

synthesizes polysaccharides for the plant cell wall.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following are components of chloroplasts?

Grana and thylakoids

Chromatin and nucleoplasm

Cristae and matrix

A trans region and a cis region

Lysosomes and phagosomes

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Chloroplasts are the structures in which

chemical energy is stored in the form of ATP.

cell division is controlled.

genetic information is used to make proteins.

sunlight energy is converted into chemical energy.

new organelles are made.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The carotenoid pigments that give ripe tomatoes their red color are contained in organelles called

chloroplasts.

proplastids.

protoplasts.

leucoplasts.

chromoplasts.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Starch molecules are stored inside

chromoplasts.

peroxisomes.

chloroplasts.

glyoxysomes.

leucoplasts.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

In a mixture of ground-up plant cells, one structure containing a membrane stains positive for hydrogen peroxide. This structure is a

peroxisome.

vacuole.

chloroplast.

glyoxysome.

amyloplast.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which of the following organelles is found only in plant cells?

Cilium

Nucleus

Mitochondrion

Glyoxysome

Peroxisome

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

In which of the following locations would you not expect to find RNA?

Nucleolus

Mitochondrion

Vacuole

Ribosome

Prokaryotic cell

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following plant cell structures is most likely to have the greatest volume?

Glyoxysome

Lysosome

Nucleus

Mitochondrion

Vacuole

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The overall shape of a cell is determined by its

cell membrane.

cytoskeleton.

nucleus.

cytosol.

endoplasmic reticulum.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

If the vacuole in a plant cell experiences a large loss of water,

the cell will divide to make smaller cells.

the cell will decrease in size proportionally to the amount of water lost.

its waste products will be released into the cytoplasm and kill the cell.

there will be no effect on the cell due to the rigidity of the cell wall.

the cell will experience a decrease in turgor pressure.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The cytoskeleton is composed of three major components, each with distinct functions. Which of the following represents the correct order of these components, from smallest to largest size?

Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules

Microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments

Microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments

Intermediate filaments, microtubules, microfilaments

Intermediate filaments, microfilaments, microtubules

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The microvilli of intestinal cells

increase the ability of the intestine to move nutrients through the intestinal tract.

slow down the movement of nutrients through the intestinal tract.

increase the surface area of the cells to allow increased uptake of nutrients.

decrease the surface area of the cells relative to their volume to prevent loss of nutrients.

increase the movement of nutrients across the cells and into the blood stream.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Time-lapse photography of a cell shows that its normally stationary nucleus appears to be floating around within the cell. What is one possible explanation for this occurrence?

The cell has an abundance of motor proteins that increase the movement of the nucleus.

The intermediate filaments composing the nuclear lamina are nonfunctional or absent.

The activity of the microfilaments has increased cytoplasmic streaming and is moving the nucleus around the cell.

Microtubules are polymerizing and depolymerizing at a faster rate than usual.

The nucleus has formed cilia and is using them to move around the inside of the cell.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

Which of the following statements about microfilaments and microtubules is false?

Both are made up of the same protein monomers.

Both are involved in movement of cells.

Both have a plus end and a minus end.

Both are components of the cytoskeleton.

Both help maintain and support cellular structures.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

If the cells that line the intestine lost their microvilli structure, what could be a possible result?

Decreased movement of nutrients through the intestinal tract

Loss of nutrients from the cell into the intestinal tract due to a decrease in surface area-to-volume ratio

No effect, since cells would continue their normal cellular activity

Decreased absorption of nutrients into the cell due to a decrease in surface area-to-volume ratio

Increased transport of nutrients into the blood stream

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which of the following protein types is not part of the structure of a cilium?

a-tubulin

Keratin

Nexin

Dynein

b-tubulin

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

A cell structure with an internal cross section showing a characteristic “9 + 2” morphology is the

mitochondrion.

vacuole.

Golgi apparatus.

flagellum.

cytoskeleton.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Researchers observe that while the actin microfilaments in an amoeba seem to be intact, the organism appears incapable of forming pseudopods for movement. They conclude that its immobility may be caused by the absence of the protein

dynein.

kinesin.

tubulin.

collagen.

myosin.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

If an amoeba treated with an experimental drug loses its shape and ability to move, the drug has likely affected the cell’s

motor protein activity.

energy production.

microfilament assembly.

ability to photosynthesize.

communication with the environment.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

After labeling the plus and minus ends of microtubules in a mutant cell, researchers observe that the cell is moving vesicles only toward the plus ends. The most likely explanation is that the mutation has caused a defect in

microtubule formation.

the kinesin motor protein.

the microfilaments involved in cytoplasmic streaming.

cytoplasmic dynein activity.

the myosin motor protein.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The semirigid structure that supports the plant cell and determines its shape is the

capsule.

flagellum.

cell wall.

cytosol.

cytoplasm.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A small dye molecule injected into a plant cell can pass into adjacent plant cells because of the presence of

plasmodesmata.

a cell wall.

the endoplasmic reticulum.

nuclear pores.

vacuoles.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Transport of cytoplasmic materials in plants is facilitated by

motor proteins such as kinesin.

membrane-lined channels called plasmodesmata.

the semirigid cell wall.

constantly-beating cilia.

an internal cytoskeleton.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A type of cell that always lacks a cell wall is a(n) _______ cell.

bacterial

plant

animal

fungal

prokaryotic

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The extracellular matrix of animal cells

is composed of cellulose.

contains lysosomes.

limits the cell volume by remaining rigid.

helps orient cell movements during embryonic development.

acts as a barrier to disease-causing fungi.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following is not an argument for the endosymbiotic theory?

Mitochondria and chloroplasts are about the same size as prokaryotic cells.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts cannot be grown in culture, free of a host cell.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts have DNA and ribosomes.

Mitochondrial ribosomes synthesize proteins similar to those synthesized by bacterial ribosomes.

All of the above are arguments for the endosymbiotic theory.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following organelles were once independent prokaryote organisms?

Mitochondria and lysosomes

Mitochondria and chloroplasts

Chloroplasts and peroxisomes

Golgi apparatus and nucleus

Nucleus and lysosomes

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Fill in the Blank

The fundamental unit of life is the _______.

Answer: cell

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The three principle tenets of biology—that all organisms are composed of cells, that all cells come from preexisting cells, and that cells are the fundamental units of life—make up the unifying principle known as the _______.

Answer: cell theory

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

When you cut an orange in half, you _______ the surface area-to-volume ratio.

Answer: increase

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The ability of living organisms to maintain a constant internal environment is known as _______.

Answer: homeostasis

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The light microscope has glass lenses that focus visible light for imaging, whereas the electron microscope has _______ that focus electrons for imaging.

Answer: electromagnets

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Archaea and Bacteria do not typically have membrane-enclosed internal compartments; therefore, they are known as _______.

Answer: prokaryotes

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The DNA in a prokaryotic cell can be found in the _______ region.

Answer: nucleoid

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Some bacteria are not detected by the human immune system because they possess an outer layer of slime known as a(n) _______.

Answer: capsule

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Membrane-bound compartments with distinctive shapes and functions are termed _______.

Answer: organelles

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

RNA is able to carry information for protein synthesis from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm by passing through small perforations in the nuclear membrane called _______.

Answer: nuclear pores

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The shape of the nucleus is maintained by a protein meshwork called the _______.

Answer: nuclear lamina

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Lipids and steroids are synthesized in the _______.

Answer: smooth ER

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The _______ is an organelle that serves as a sort of “post office,” where some of the proteins synthesized on ribosomes and the rough ER are processed and sent to their destinations.

Answer: Golgi apparatus

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The side of the Golgi apparatus facing the ER is the _______ region.

Answer: cis

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The substances that enter the Golgi apparatus come from the _______ in vesicles.

Answer: ER (or endoplasmic reticulum)

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The organelle with many folds, called cristae, is the _______.

Answer: mitochondrion

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The process by which light energy is converted into chemical energy is called _______.

Answer: photosynthesis

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Toxic peroxides that are formed unavoidably as side products of important cellular reactions are collected and neutralized in _______.

Answer: peroxisomes

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

_______ are involved in cytoplasmic streaming, in the “pinching” of a cell that ultimately divides an animal cell into two daughter cells, and in the formation of pseudopodia.

Answer: Microfilaments

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Tough ropelike filaments that stabilize cell structure and resist tension are called _______ filaments.

Answer: intermediate

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The main difference that helps to classify portions of the endomembrane system as RER or SER is the presence or absence of _______ on the surface.

Answer: ribosomes

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The extracellular matrix surrounding many animal cells is made up of various proteins, including glycoproteins and _______.

Answer: collagen

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The _______ theory proposes that some organelles originated when one cell ingested another cell, creating a mutually beneficial relationship.

Answer: endosymbiosis

Textbook Reference: 5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Diagram

1.‒2. Refer to the figure below.

The very large organelle shown in the figure has genetic control of a cell’s activities. What is the name of this structure?

Answer: Nucleus

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Visible in this figure is a structure resembling tubes and flattened sacs that surrounds the organelle, appears to share a membrane with it, and synthesizes proteins. It is the

mitochondrion.

endoplasmic reticulum.

nucleus.

vacuole.

cytoskeleton.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

3.‒4. Refer to the figure below.

The organelle shown in the figure is found in all cells but is most numerous in cells requiring a large amount of energy (e.g., liver cells). What is the name of this organelle?

Answer: Mitochondrion

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Ribosomes can be found in which section of the organelle shown in the figure?

Inner membrane

Outer membrane

Cristae

Matrix

Both a and c

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

5.‒6. Refer to the figure below.

What is the structure depicted in the figure?

Answer: Chloroplast

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

It is said that the structure shown in the figure has the ability to “feed the world.” The reason is that it

can convert light energy into chemical energy from which glucose is made, providing energy to its host organism and any organisms that consume it.

helps all organisms, both eukaryotic and prokaryotic, convert food particles into energy for cellular function.

can travel from cell to cell and break down food particles into simple molecules, thus feeding the entire organism.

is capable through cellular respiration of making ATP, an energy rich-molecule needed by all organisms.

helps cells engulf and digest food particles from which energy can be made and supplied to the host organism and any organisms that consume it.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

7.‒8. Refer to the diagram of a plant cell below.

What is the structure that takes up the largest amount of space in the cell shown in the diagram?

Answer: Vacuole

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The presence of the large structure occupying most of the cell would cause the cell to be classified as a(n) _______ cell.

bacterial

plant

animal

archaea

human

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

9.‒10. Refer to the figure below.

This is a cross section of a(n) _______.

Answer: cilium or flagellum

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The arrangement of the circles in the figure is termed a “9 + 2” array because there are

nine pairs of pores surrounding two inner pores.

nine pairs of fused microtubules surrounding two central unfused microtubules.

nine sets of tubules made of a-tubulin plus two tubules composed of b-tubulin.

nine pairs of microfilaments surrounding two intermediate filaments.

nine pairs of intermediate filaments surrounding two microtubules.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

DIAGNOSTIC QUIZ QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)

(By Amy Burnside)

Which of the following is not a function of the plasma membrane of eukaryotes?

Receiving signals from other cells

Creating energy

Adhering to other cells

Homeostasis

Selective uptake

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Prokaryotes

have a cell wall similar in composition to that of plant cells.

have a nucleus.

do not have ribosomes.

are surrounded by a plasma membrane.

are typically larger than eukaryotic cells.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Plant cells do not have lysosomes. Which of the following structures likely fulfills the function of lysosomes in a plant cell?

Vacuole

Peroxisome

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

Chloroplast

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following about the nucleus in animal cells is false?

It occupies the largest volume of the cell.

DNA replication takes place in the nucleus.

It is the site of protein synthesis.

DNA in the nucleus combines with proteins.

The nucleolus is located in the nucleus.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following organelles is involved in energy gathering?

Lysosomes

Vacuoles

Chloroplasts

Peroxisomes

Nuclei

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Nucleic acids are found in

the nucleus.

mitochondria.

ribosomes.

prokaryotic cells.

All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The endomembrane system

is present in prokaryotes.

includes the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus.

includes the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum.

functions to make ATP.

does not exist in plant cells.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following processes is not carried out by the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

Protein synthesis

Modification of proteins

Chemical modification of foreign molecules, including drugs

Lipid biosynthesis

Steroid biosynthesis

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Some proteins that are on the surface of mammalian cells contain carbohydrates. These proteins are synthesized by _______ and the sugars are added in the _______.

mitochondrial ribosomes; smooth endoplasmic reticulum

the rough endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi apparatus

cytoplasmic ribosomes; smooth endoplasmic reticulum

the Golgi apparatus; rough endoplasmic reticulum

cytoplasmic ribosomes; plasma membrane

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Lysosomes

are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum.

are derived from the nucleus.

contain enzymes that synthesize proteins.

have a lower internal pH than the cytoplasm.

are derived from the plasma membrane.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Plastids are

present in all eukaryotes.

always green.

only present in photosynthetic prokaryotes.

present in nearly all plant cells.

very similar to mitochondria.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The cytoskeleton

includes flagella.

is fully present in prokaryotes.

moves organelles within cells.

is composed of polymers of nucleotides.

surrounds cells much like cell walls.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The vacuole occupies the largest volume in a mature plant cell so as to

make space for a lot of chlorophyll and thus light-gathering potential.

retain water and thus create turgor pressure.

maintain a large space for protein synthesis.

allow a large amount of ATP production.

allow digestion of a large amount of external material.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which of the following statements best describes what happens to the organelles within pepper fruit cells as the fruit turns from green to red?

Leucoplasts become chloroplasts

Chloroplasts become leucoplasts

Chromoplasts become chloroplasts

Leucoplasts become chromoplasts

Chloroplasts become chromoplasts

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which of the following structures is involved with the movement of organelles within a cell?

Golgi apparatus

Endoplasmic reticulum

Mitochondrion

Microtubules

Intermediate filaments

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Cilia and eukaryotic flagella

propel cells by rotation of the structures.

contain microfilaments.

contain microtubules that are sufficient to drive movement.

have a motor protein that uses chemical energy to power movement.

contain centrioles.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which of the following protein families contains members that power the movement of both cilia and vesicles within a cell?

Myosin

Actin

Keratin

Dynein

Kinesin

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The extracellular matrix of animal cells

holds cells together.

contains collagen.

contains proteoglycans.

is involved in chemical signaling between cells.

All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following provides evidence for the endosymbiosis theory?

Mitochondria and plastids contain their own unique sets of genes.

Observation of endosymbiotic events in the eukaryote Hatena.

Transfer of genes from endosymbionts to the host’s nucleus.

Similarity of ribosomes found in mitochondria and plastids to those of bacteria.

All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following organelles is thought to have arisen from an endosymbiotic relationship with a prokaryote?

Mitochondria

Nuclei

Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes

Peroxisomes

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

LEARNINGCURVE QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)

(By Amy Burnside)

An organism made up of many small cells as opposed to one large cell has all of the following advantages except

increased uptake of necessary nutrients from the environment.

compartmentalization of functions within the organism.

increased exchange of waste products to the environment.

decreased diffusion between nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm.

more efficient transport of materials.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which of the following would best allow an organism to increase its ability to exchange products with the environment relative to its amount of chemical activity?

Increase its size.

Engulf another cell.

Divide into as many small cells as possible.

Adhere itself to another cell.

Move around quickly in its environment.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Ribosomes are not visible under a light microscope, but they can be seen with an electron microscope because

electron beams have more energy than light beams.

electron microscopes focus light with magnets.

electron microscopes have more resolving power than light microscopes.

electrons have such high energy that they pass through biological samples.

electron microscopes can be used to observe living cells.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of these functions is not carried out by the plasma membrane?

Compartmentalization

Adhesion

Communication

Active transport

Protein production

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The plasma membrane

separates the cell from its environment.

regulates movement of substances into and out of the cell.

helps maintain a constant internal environment.

communicates with adjacent cells.

All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

What type of molecule will cross a plasma membrane most easily?

A protein with multiple charged regions

A nonpolar small molecule

A nonpolar large molecule

A polar small molecule

A nucleic acid

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

In order to visualize subcellular structures, such as mitochondria, what type of microscopy should be used?

Phase-contrast microscopy

Bright-field microscopy

Differential interference contrast microscopy

Electron microscopy

None; the eye can see these structures unaided.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

In order to see an entire bacterial cell after viewing an entire plant cell on a light microscope, you would need to

increase the magnification.

decrease the magnification.

change the light source.

This cannot be done, because an electron microscope is needed to view the bacteria.

This cannot be done, because an electron microscope is needed to view a plant cell.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

All of the following are benefits of electron microscopy except

the ability to image live cells.

ultrafine resolution.

the ability to visualize 3-D topography with scanning electron microscopy.

the ability to resolve internal compartments of organelles.

None; all of the above are benefits.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

You are designing a drug that you want to be taken up by cells by permeating the plasma membrane. What is the most important property the substance should have for entry into the plasma membrane?

Polar, large molecule

Multisubunit protein

DNA based

Nonpolar small molecule

Hydrophilic protein

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which type of microscopy has the greatest resolution?

Phase-contrast microscopy

Freeze fracture electron microscopy

Fluorescence microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy

Confocal microscopy

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Of the following microscope parts, which is shared by the electron microscope and the light microscope?

Light beam

Magnets

Objective lens

Electron beam

Fluorescent screen

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

In order to increase the ability of a cell to bind to other cells, what kind of alterations should you make to the plasma membrane?

Create holes in the membrane so the sticky cytoplasm can leak out and adhere to other cells.

Change the protein content of the plasma membrane to allow increased intracellular adhesion.

Change the lipid content of the plasma membrane to decrease its polarity, making it more attractive to other cells.

Coat the outer layer of the plasma membrane with a nonpolar substance that increases adhesiveness.

Coat the cell with slimy polysaccharides to attract other cells.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A prokaryotic cell does not typically have a _______ or _______.

nucleus; membrane-bound organelles

nucleus; DNA

nucleus; ribosomes

nucleus; membranes

cell wall; membranes

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which would be considered an ancestral cell type?

An E. coli bacterium

A mushroom spore

A chicken egg

A fern cell

Human sperm

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

In order to classify an organism as eukaryotic, it cannot contain

ribosomes.

chloroplasts.

mitochondria.

plasmodesmata.

a nucleoid.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a prokaryotic cell?

A plasma membrane

A nuclear envelope

A nucleoid

Ribosomes

Enzymes

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following is(are) found in prokaryotic cells?

Mitochondria

Chloroplasts

Nuclear membrane

Ribosomes

Endoplasmic reticulum

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

You are given an unknown cell with a flagellum and asked to classify it as either prokaryote or eukaryote. Compilation of all the following characteristics of your cell can help you except the

size of the cell.

presence or absence of ribosomes.

presence or absence of a nucleus.

presence or absence of a peptidoglycan layer.

type of protein monomer in the flagellum.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Members of the domains Bacteria and Archaea have all of the following except

nuclei.

ribosomes.

DNA.

a plasma membrane.

cytoplasm.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

To protect themselves from attack by a host’s immune system, some bacteria cover themselves with a specialized structure known as a(n)

plasma membrane.

capsule.

lamina.

envelope.

endoplasmic reticulum.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

As you travel through a prokaryotic cell in a matrix or biofilm that contains a plasma membrane, cell wall, capsule, and an outer membrane, in what order would you encounter the layers from outside to inside?

Phospholipid bilayer, slimy polysaccharide layer, peptidoglycan layer, polysaccharide-rich phospholipid membrane

Peptidoglycan layer, polysaccharide-rich phospholipid membrane, slimy polysaccharide layer, phospholipid bilayer

Slimy polysaccharide layer, polysaccharide-rich phospholipid membrane, peptidoglycan layer, phospholipid bilayer

Polysaccharide-rich phospholipid membrane, peptidoglycan layer, phospholipid bilayer, slimy polysaccharide layer

Slimy polysaccharide layer, phospholipid bilayer, peptidoglycan layer, polysaccharide-rich phospholipid membrane

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

You examine an unknown organism using freeze fracture electron microscopy and discover that it has a double-layer outer membrane and ribosomes. You also find that it has inner membranes, but it is difficult to tell if they are contiguous with the plasma membrane or not. Finding which of the following on the organism would allow you to be able to classify this as a prokaryote?

DNA

A distinct mitochondrion

A capsule

Plastids

None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

You discover a mutant bacterium that on close examination appears to contain an intact flagellum yet is unable to use the flagellum for motility. You also discover that a protein at the base of the flagella that is normally anchored to the plasma membrane is missing. You thus conclude that the bacterium must be either lacking or producing a mutant form of

flagellin.

myosin.

dynein.

transport apparatus.

peptidoglycan.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

While examining the plasma membrane of a bacterium using electron microscopy, you have discovered the presence of complex motor protein assembly. You do not find any evidence of a proper flagellum. You can conclude that the bacteria most likely has lost its ability to make

flagellin.

tubulin.

actin.

keratin.

myosin.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

You want to design a drug that helps prevent bacterial infections that specifically derive from motile bacteria. Which of the following structures could be a target of your new drug?

Flagella

Fimbriae

Pili

Cilia

Conjugative pili

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Specialized cellular appendages of prokaryotes that help bacteria adhere to one another when they exchange genetic material are called

the Golgi apparatus.

cilia.

flagella.

pili.

capsules.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

You are given an unknown organism to classify. The presence of which of the following structures would eliminate the possibility that your organism is an animal?

A nucleus

A nucleolus

Mitochondria

Chloroplasts

Golgi apparatus

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following techniques could you use to determine if the flagellum-like structure you are observing is made of the protein flagellin or tubulin?

Cell fractionation

Microscopy

Biochemical analysis

Both b and c

All of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

You discovered what looks to be a new organelle that is smaller than a mitochondrion, but you need to do further testing to best determine its cellular function. What would be your best plan of action?

Use a light microscope under normal culturing conditions and watch its movement through the cell to see if you can determine its cellular role.

Observe the organelle with freeze fracture electron microscopy.

Isolate the organelle using cell fractionation and follow with further biochemical analysis.

Use a chemical against actin to prevent organelle transport within the cell and observe cellular function.

Use a detergent to break up the lipid membrane of the organelle in the cell and observe the resulting cell function.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Ribosomes are not found in

mitochondria.

chloroplasts.

the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

prokaryotic cells.

the Golgi apparatus.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A new protein with a molecular weight of 25,000 is discovered and found to reside only in the nucleus. For this to happen, the protein must

be made in the nucleolus.

pass through the nuclear pore.

contain a specific short amino acid sequence.

travel through the plasmodesmata.

be involved in translation.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum are continuous with the membranes of the

nuclear envelope.

Golgi apparatus.

nucleolus.

plasma membrane.

mitochondria.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The membrane surrounding each organelle

is composed of hydrophobic proteins.

regulates traffic into and out of the organelle.

is studded with ribosomes.

allows for interactions among molecules.

is perforated with pores.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

An unknown cell is cultured in a solution that contains a stain that binds to protein. It is found that this cell excretes quite a large amount of protein to its environment as compared to a typical liver cell. Based on this information, you determine that this cell must have a large amount of

rough endoplasmic reticulum.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

chromosomes.

nuclear pores.

peptidoglycan.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

A secondary lysosome is a lysosome that

provides a backup to the primary lysosomes.

is smaller than a primary lysosome.

will become a primary lysosome when it fuses with a phagosome.

is a primary lysosome that has fused with a phagosome.

has exocytosed.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Lysosomes are important to eukaryotic cells because they contain

photosynthetic pigments.

starch molecules for energy storage.

their own DNA molecules.

cell waste materials.

digestive enzymes.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Although plant and animal cells are both classified as eukaryotic, they do have some differences. Of the following, which denotes a correct pairing of an animal and a plant cell structure that serve the same function?

Animal nuclear pore: plant plasmodesmata

Animal mitochondria: plant leucoplast

Animal lysosome: plant vacuole

Animal peroxisome: plant glyoxysomes

Animal cytoskeleton: plant cell wall

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

A mutant cell line is found and examined. Under normal conditions this cell type excretes the steroid estrogen, but it is found that this particular line does not. Where should a researcher look to determine if the cells’ defect is in the excretion of the hormone or in the synthesis?

The smooth ER

The rough ER

Mitochondria

Free ribosomes

The Golgi apparatus

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

A moss cell is placed in culture with an unknown chemical substance. It is found that the cell appears able to “divide” because the cell is observed to grow and replicate its internal organelles and nuclei, but it does not form primary cell walls. It appears that the substance has affected the synthesis of the polysaccharides that compose the cell wall. Which organelle is possibly targeted by the unknown chemical?

Nucleus

Plasmodesmata

Mitochondria

Golgi apparatus

Chloroplast

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which structure is not involved in the breakdown of food particles by the cell?

Phagosome

Primary lysosome

Secondary lysosome

Golgi apparatus

Ribosome

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Muscle cells need large amounts of calcium and ATP for contraction. Based on these requirements, you would expect that muscle cells would have an increased amount of what type of organelles (per unit volume)?

Chloroplasts and rough endoplasmic reticulum

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles

Golgi apparatus and mitochondria

Peroxisomes and Golgi apparatus

Mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following statements about lysosomes is true?

They are the sites where autophagy occurs.

They provide turgor in plant cells.

They may contain anthocyanins that aid in pollination.

They are found only in plants.

They may have arisen through endosymbiosis.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which is the series of structures that a macromolecule would encounter after it is engulfed into a cell until its monomers are used as an energy source?

Rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicle, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria

Primary lysosome, secondary lysosome, peroxisome, plasma membrane

Primary lysosome, peroxisome, secondary lysosome, mitochondria

Phagosome, secondary lysosome, cytoplasm, mitochondria

Phagosome, cytoplasm, cisternae, secondary lysosome, mitochondria

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Chloroplasts are a kind of

leucoplast.

endoplasmic reticulum.

chromoplast.

Golgi apparatus.

plastid.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which type of cell structure is found in plants but not in animals?

Ribosomes

Mitochondria

Nuclei

Plastids

None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The source of the most abundant type of lipid in the world is

animal fat.

cisternae.

thylakoid.

cristae.

extracellular matrix.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following is a function of a plant cell vacuole?

Storage of toxic by-products and wastes

Support for the cell

Containment of animal-attracting pigments that aid in pollination

Hydrolysis of seed proteins into food for the plant embryo

All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

One difference between plant and animal cells is that

only animal cells have mitochondria.

animal cells lack a large central vacuole.

plant cells have a cell wall, whereas animal cells have a plasma membrane.

plant cells lack a cytoskeleton.

only plant cells have peroxisomes.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Components of the cytoskeleton can be linked to all of the following functions of eukaryotic cells except

the movement of chloroplasts within the plant cytoplasm.

separation of chromosomes during cellular division.

creation of pseudopodia in immune cells.

contraction of a cardiac muscle cell.

All of the above functions require cytoskeletal components.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following structures is (are) involved with maintaining the position of the organelles within a cell?

Golgi apparatus

Endoplasmic reticulum

Mitochondria

Microfilaments

Intermediate filaments

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

An unknown animal is discovered preserved in ice. In its cells is an unknown type of cytoskeletal component that is rope like in structure and has a diameter of 11 nm. How would the scientists classify this component?

A microfilament

Microvilli

An intermediate filament

Cilia

A microtubule

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Microvilli are supported by a network of which type of structure?

Microtubules

Microfilaments

Myosin

Intermediate filaments

Chromatin

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Microtubules are made of

actin, and they function in locomotion.

tubulin, and they are essential in chromosome movement during mitosis.

tubulin, and they are found in microvilli.

actin, and they function to change cell shape.

polysaccharides, and they function in locomotion.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Hair and some intermediate filaments are composed of

microtubules.

microfilaments.

collagen.

proteoglycans.

keratin.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Microtubules are composed of

a- and b-tubulin.

d- and l-actin.

r- and s-myosin.

k tubules.

k actinomin.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Cytoskeletal components with a 10 nm diameter are discovered in the cultured cells of an animal. Before you can confirm the identity of the cytoskeletal component, what would be a good experiment to check your hypothesis?

Expose the cells to a substance that binds myosin proteins and see if the cell is still able to make the structures.

Incubate the cells in a substance that will depolymerize actin and observe if the structure collapses.

Inject a tubulin binding protein and see if the cell is able to maintain the structures.

Add a dynein inhibitor and see if the structures disappear.

Include a keratin digestion component in the culture and confirm loss of the structure.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

What would happen if microvilli were exposed to an agent that depolymerizes tubulin?

The microvilli would lose their shape.

The microvilli would maintain their shape but no longer be able to move.

The microvilli would maintain their shape but no longer remain erect/upright because they will not be anchored to the cytoskeleton.

The membrane surrounding the microvilli would rupture.

Most likely nothing directly affects shape or structure of the microvilli.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

A patient is admitted to the hospital for dehydration and malnutrition. On close observation of the intestine, it appears that the cells lining the intestine have fully formed microvilli. However, these microvilli are not uniformly standing upright and protruding into the lumen of the intestine, but are lying down so that full exposure to the contents of the intestine cannot be obtained. The doctors conclude that the patient may have a defect in what cellular component?

Actin

Myosin

Intermediate filaments

Microfibers

Tubulin

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

A cancer drug is being tested, and it is found that although the cancer cells can divide, the nuclear envelope cannot reform. It is determined that a protein substance is sequestered so that it cannot be polymerized into the necessary structure. What is the most likely protein target of the drug?

Lamin

Keratin

Alpha-tubulin

Beta-tubulin

Actin

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The surface area of the small intestine is greatly increased by

microtubules.

pili.

cristae.

myosin.

microvilli.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

If you wanted to stop the movement of a ciliated protist in culture, you could incubate it in a substance that inhibits

flagellin.

myosin.

actin.

dynein.

kinesin.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

A cultured cell line appears to be having trouble surviving. Although the cells appear to have normal cell division and chromosome separation, on staining the cell for secondary lysosomes, you find that they are just “hanging out” in the cytoplasm and not traveling to the plasma membrane and releasing their waste products to the environment at a sufficient rate. Based on these observations, you decide that you need to check to make sure that the cell line has not developed a mutation in what protein?

Dynein

Tubulin

Nexin

Myosin

Both a and b

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Extracellular structures have which of the following roles?

Signaling

Support

Adhesion

Barrier

All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

All of the following are examples of extracellular structures except

peptidoglycan cell wall of a bacterium.

plant cell wall.

bacterial capsule.

basal lamina.

lamin.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

All of the following molecules can be found in extracellular structures except

integrin.

collagen.

cellulose.

peptidoglycan.

lamin.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Uniform concentrations of cytoplasmic materials within plant tissues are maintained by

motor proteins such as kinesin.

membrane-lined channels called plasmodesmata.

the semirigid cell wall.

constantly beating cilia.

an internal cytoskeleton.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A dye is injected into one plant cell and is observed to travel into adjacent plant cells. The dye is traveling between cells through

osmosis.

plasmodesmata.

nuclear pores.

integrins.

dynein.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

If you were to design an insecticide that you wanted to pass between cells to protect them from pests, the insecticide should be

less than or equal to 30 nm in diameter.

polar.

strongly hydrophilic.

strongly hydrophobic.

Both a and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following statements is true concerning endosymbiosis?

Endosymbiotic events never occur in modern times.

Endosymbiosis occurred only twice, once to form mitochondria and once to form plastids.

Endosymbiosis occurs when an animal ingests another organism.

The nucleus probably formed through an endosymbiotic event.

The endomembrane system and other internal membranes probably formed from the plasma membrane.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Some organelles in eukaryotic cells are thought to have

originated from extracellular symbiotic relationships.

their own endoplasmic reticulum.

their own mitochondria.

originated from endosymbiotic relationships.

the ability to live free of the host cell.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Mitochondria and plastids are believed to have once been independent organisms because they

contain their own DNA.

have flagella.

have glyoxysomes.

make vesicles.

have nuclei.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

All of the following observations support the theory of endosymbiosis except

chloroplasts have their own DNA.

chloroplasts divide independent of the nucleus.

mitochondria divide independent of the nucleus.

mitochondria are similar in size to bacteria.

all cellular organelles have double membranes like the plasma membranes of bacteria.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

You have three cell types: A, B, and C. On close examination, you generate a theory that cell C is the result of an endosymbiotic relationship between cell A and cell B, where A was internalized by B. What could you test to see if this were true?

Check to see if genes from cell A are present in the DNA of cell C, yet absent from B.

Check to see if genes from cell B are present in the DNA of cell A, yet absent from C.

Check to see if genes from cell C are present in the DNA of cell A, yet absent from B.

Check to see if the DNA from any organelles in cell C contain genes from cell B.

Both a and d

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following statements most supports the endosymbiosis theory?

The size ratio of eukaryotes versus prokaryotes is equivalent to that of a host cell to its mitochondria or chloroplast.

If a eukaryotic cell were emptied of all its mitochondria and chloroplasts, it would still be able to produce ATP, allowing it to grow and replicate as normal.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts can survive and replicate once removed from their host cells.

Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes are capable of photosynthesis.

The membrane surrounding organelles is more similar to the membrane of a prokaryote than the membrane of a eukaryote.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS

(By Laurel Hester)

A mass of cells is found in the sediment surrounding a thermal vent in the ocean floor. The salinity in the area is quite high. Microscopic examination of one of the cells reveals no evidence of membrane-enclosed organelles. This cell would be classified as a

eukaryotic cell.

prokaryotic cell.

member of domain Archaea or Bacteria.

Both a and c

Both b and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Centrifugation of a cell results in the rupture of the cell membrane and the compacting of the contents into a pellet in the bottom of the centrifuge tube. Bathing this pellet with a glucose solution yields metabolic activity, including the production of ATP. One of the contents of this pellet is most likely which of the following?

Cytosol

Mitochondria

Lysosomes

Golgi bodies

Thylakoids

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which of the following is not one of the tenets of cell theory?

All living things are composed of cells.

Cells are the fundamental units of life.

All cells come from preexisting cells.

All cells contain mitochondria.

None of the above is an element of cell theory.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Though science fiction has produced stories like “The Blob,” we do not see many large, single-celled organisms. Which of the following tends to limit cell size?

The difficulty of maintaining a continuous large membrane

The difficulty of reproduction in a large cell

Surface area-to-volume ratios

All of the above

None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which technique would be best suited to a study of normal cell migration during embryonic development?

Direct visual observation

Light microscopy

Electron microscopy

Cell fractionation

Experimentation on mutants

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.1 What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The cellular function of the RER is

DNA synthesis.

photosynthesis.

cellular respiration.

protein synthesis.

mRNA degradation.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Photosynthesis occurs in the

chloroplast.

mitochondria.

Golgi apparatus.

nucleus.

RER.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Lysosomes are involved in

DNA synthesis.

the breakdown of phagocytized material.

protein folding.

pigment production.

cell membrane production.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The packaging of proteins to be used outside the cell occurs in the

nucleus.

SER.

Golgi apparatus.

chromoplast.

nuclear pore.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A hospital nurse notices a slick spot on an IV needle and suspects bacterial contamination. What bacterial structure might have helped these cells attach to one another and stick to the needle?

Capsule

Cell wall

Cytoplasm

Flagella

Ribosomes

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.2 What Features Characterize Prokaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Movement of cells in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is accomplished by which of the following structures?

Cilia

Pili

Dynein

Cell membranes

Flagella

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following statements about mitochondria and chloroplasts is true?

Animal cells produce chloroplasts.

Both mitochondria and chloroplasts may be found in the same cell.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts cannot be found in the same cell.

In certain conditions, chloroplasts can revert to mitochondria.

None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following cell structures is paired with the molecule type most similar to its actual chemical components?

Cilia – nucleic acid

Thylakoids – peptidoglycan

Ribosomes – phospholipids

Microfilaments – cellulose

Plant cell wall matrix – proteoglycans

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 5.4 What Are the Roles of Extracellular Structures?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Nuclear DNA exists as a complex of proteins called _______, which condense(s) into _______ during cellular division.

chromosomes; chromatin

chromatids; chromosomes

chromophors; chromatin

chromatin; chromosomes

None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum differ

only in terms of the presence (RER) or absence (SER) of ribosomes.

in their function, and also in terms of the presence (RER) or absence (SER) of ribosomes.

only in terms of their microscopic appearance.

only in their function.

None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 5.3 What Features Characterize Eukaryotic Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following depicts an endosymbiosis?

Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria live inside legume root nodules, releasing fixed nitrogen and absorbing plant carbohydrates.

Some birds follow army ant raids across the forest, eating insects that fly up in their attempt to escape the ants.

Barnacles can be found living on whales, where they may impede the whale’s movement but do not otherwise harm it.

Certain mites live in hair follicles, where they occasionally cause skin irritation but are otherwise benign.

The influenza or flu virus replicates itself inside its host’s cells, using the host cell’s transcription and translation machinery.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 5.5 How Did Eukaryotic Cells Originate?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS (from Textbook)

Which structure is generally present in both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic plant cells?

Chloroplasts

Cell wall

Nucleus

Mitochondria

Microtubules

Answer: b

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The major factor limiting cell size is the

concentration of water in the cytoplasm.

need for energy.

presence of membrane-enclosed organelles.

ratio of surface area to volume.

composition of the plasma membrane.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which statement about plastids is true?

They are found in prokaryotes.

They are surrounded by a single membrane.

They are the sites of cellular respiration.

They are found only in fungi.

They may contain various pigments or polysaccharides.

Answer: e

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which structure is not surrounded by one or more membranes?

Ribosome

Chloroplast

Mitochondrion

Peroxisome

Vacuole

Answer: a

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The cytoskeleton consists of

cilia, flagella, and microfilaments.

cilia, microtubules, and microfilaments.

internal cell walls.

microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments.

calcified microtubules.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Microfilaments

are composed of polysaccharides.

are composed of actin.

allow cilia and flagella to move.

make up the spindle that aids the movement of chromosomes.

maintain the position of the chloroplast in the cell.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

If all the lysosomes within a cell suddenly ruptured, what would be the most likely result?

The macromolecules in the cytosol would break down.

More proteins would be made.

The DNA in mitochondria would break down.

The mitochondria and chloroplasts would divide.

There would be no change in cell function.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Through how many membranes would a molecule have to pass in moving from the interior (stroma) of a chloroplast to the interior (matrix) of a mitochondrion? From the interior of a lysosome to the outside of a cell? From one ribosome to another?

Answer: Four membranes: two in the chloroplast and two in the mitochondrion

Two membranes: the lysosomal membrane and the plasma membrane (via vesicle; the molecules do not themselves cross any membranes)

No membranes: ribosomes do not have membranes. However, if the ribosomes were associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the answer would be two membranes: into the ER and out of the ER.

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Compare the extracellular matrix of the animal cell with the plant cell wall, with respect to composition of the fibrous and nonfibrous components, rigidity, and connectivity of cells.

Answer:

Animal Cell ECM Plant Cell Wall

Composition Collagen fibers in proteoglycan matrix Cellulose fibers in polysaccharide and protein matrix

Rigidity Less rigid More rigid (especially secondary cell walls)

Connections Some specialized proteins and junctions Plasmodesmata

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The drug vincristine is used to treat many cancers. It apparently works by causing microtubules to depolymerize. Vincristine use has many side effects, including loss of dividing cells and nerve problems. Explain why this might be so.

Answer: Microtubules line the long axons of nerve cells, where they act as tracks for vesicles that carry substances down the neuron. Without microtubules, the contents of these vesicles cannot be delivered to their destination, which can result in nerve problems.

Microtubules are a key part of the mitotic spindle, which is used to move chromosomes during cell division. Depolymerization of microtubules can thus result in loss of dividing cells.

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The movements of newly synthesized proteins can be followed through cells using a “pulse–chase” experiment. During synthesis, proteins are tagged with a radioactive isotope (the “pulse”), and then the cells are allowed to process the proteins for varying periods of time. The locations of the radioactive proteins are then determined by isolating cell organelles and quantifying their levels of radioactivity. What results would you expect for (a) a lysosomal enzyme and (b) a protein that is released from the cell?

Answer: For a lysosomal enzyme, the pathway would be ribosome ® interior of ER ® Golgi ® Golgi vesicles ® lysosome.

For an extracellular protein (animal cells), the pathway would be ribosome ® interior of ER ® Golgi ® Golgi vesicles ® plasma membrane ® extracellular region.

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

Test Bank

to accompany

Life: The Science of Biology, Tenth Edition

Sadava • Hillis • Heller • Berenbaum

Chapter 9: Pathways That Harvest Chemical Energy

TEST FILE QUESTIONS

(By Shannon Compton)

Multiple Choice

Manipulating the biochemical process that is used by brown fat, rather than by white fat, could be a mechanism for inducing weight loss in adults. This is because

brown fat tissue has more mitochondria, and thus produces more ATP, than white fat tissue.

white fat is harder to catabolize than brown fat.

when brown fat molecules are catabolized, the stored energy is released as heat rather than as chemical energy.

there is very little white fat compared to brown fat in adults. Thus catabolizing white fat does not significantly decrease weight.

UCP1 in brown fat prevents further increases in brown fat even with excessive caloric intake.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.0 Chapter Introduction

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Increasing the body’s brown fat could be a weight loss method because brown fat mitochondria waste energy instead of creating usable energy. What is the mechanism for this waste in brown fat?

UCP1 in brown fat uncouples the electron transport chain from ATP synthesis.

Brown fat bypasses the process of glycolysis.

Brown fat is less efficient than white fat and causes shivering.

Hydrogen ions leak across the cell’s plasma membrane in white fat.

Cytochrome reductase activity decreases in brown fat in response to respiration.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.0 Chapter Introduction

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

When a molecule loses hydrogen atoms (as opposed to hydrogen ions), it becomes

reduced.

oxidized.

redoxed.

hydrogenated.

hydrolyzed.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

In all cells, glucose catabolism begins with

glycolysis.

fermentation.

pyruvate oxidation.

the citric acid cycle.

chemiosmosis.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following statements about metabolic pathways is false?

The rate of the pathway can be altered by activating or inhibiting some key enzymes within the pathway.

Metabolic pathways are a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

Almost all metabolic pathways are anabolic.

Metabolic pathways are similar in all organisms.

Many metabolic pathways are compartmentalized in eukaryotes.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following statements about metabolic pathways is true?

Complex chemical transformations in the cell occur in a single reaction.

Each reaction of the pathway requires O2.

In eukaryotes, the pathways exist in the cytoplasm.

The pathways vary from organism to organism.

Each pathway is regulated by specific enzymes.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

NADH

is a key electron carrier in redox reactions.

requires O2 to function.

is found only in prokaryotes.

binds with an acetyl group to form acetyl CoA.

detoxifies hydrogen peroxide.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

ATP production is an example of

a phosphoreductase reaction.

an exergonic phosphorylation reaction.

energy waste in mitochondria.

the combustion of a molecule.

the coupling of an exergonic reaction to an endergonic reaction.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The end result of glycolysis includes the

creation of 38 molecules of ATP.

reduction of eight molecules of NAD+ to NADH.

formation of two molecules of pyruvate.

conversion of one molecule of glucose to lactic acid.

None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which process converts glucose to pyruvate, generating a small amount of ATP but no CO2?

Pyruvate oxidation

Glycolysis

The citric acid cycle

Respiratory chain

Gluconeogenesis

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The end product of glycolysis is

pyruvate.

the starting point for pyruvate oxidation.

the starting point for the fermentation pathway.

a and b only

All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

In the first reaction of glycolysis, glucose receives a phosphate group from ATP. This reaction is

respiration.

a redox reaction.

exergonic.

endergonic.

fermentation.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

During the energy-investing portion of glycolysis, the phosphates from ATP molecules are

added to the first and sixth carbons of glucose.

added to the second and fourth carbons of glucose.

wasted, as an energy investment in glucose.

used to make pyruvate from glucose.

used to make lactate from glucose.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The first and third reactions of the glycolytic pathway result in consumption of ATP. This is an example of a(n)

endergonic reaction.

allosteric reaction.

metabolic pathway.

oxidation reaction.

redox reaction.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Overall, four molecules of ATP are produced by glycolysis. However, the products of glycolysis are two ATP molecules, two pyruvate molecules, and two NADH molecules. The ATP values do not match because

glucose metabolism is inefficient.

glucose phosphate is formed from fructose phosphate.

glucose is degraded to CO2.

two ATP are invested in the process of glycolysis.

None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

In steps 6 through 10 of glycolysis, the conversion of one mole of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to pyruvate yields two moles of ATP. But the oxidation of glucose to pyruvate produces a total of four moles of ATP. Where do the remaining two moles of ATP come from?

One mole of glucose yields two moles of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.

Two moles of ATP are used during the conversion of glucose to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.

Glycolysis produces two moles of NADH.

Fermentation of pyruvate to lactic acid yields two moles of ATP.

Fermentation of pyruvate to lactic acid yields two moles of NAD+.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Glycolysis converts glucose into pyruvate, ATP, and NADH. The process requires

O2, ATP, and a series of reactions.

CO2, five enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and glucose to begin the series of reactions.

pyruvic acid, O2, and enzymes to oxidize glucose inside the mitochondria.

the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex to catalyze the reactions.

10 enzyme-catalyzed reactions, with each reaction dependent on the products of the previous reaction to proceed.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a multienzyme complex in the citric acid cycle, is located in the

thylakoids.

cytoplasm.

chloroplast.

mitochondrial matrix.

plasma membrane.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Pyruvate oxidation generates

acetyl-CoA.

NADH + H+ from NAD+.

a change in free energy.

CO2.

All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following products of glycolysis initiates the citric acid cycle?

Glucose

Pyruvate

Acetyl CoA

NADH + H+

ATP synthase

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

For glycolysis to continue, cells require

a respiratory chain.

O2.

mitochondria.

chloroplasts.

NAD+.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

How many moles of high-energy phosphates are generated in converting one mole of glucose to lactate?

1

2

3

4

36

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

For the citric acid cycle to proceed, it is necessary for

pyruvate to bind to oxaloacetate.

CO2 to bind to oxaloacetate.

an acetyl group to bind to oxaloacetate.

H2O to be oxidized.

None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

In the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, hydrogen atoms are transferred to NAD+. The conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA is an example of

hydrolysis.

an allosteric reaction.

a metabolic pathway.

a reduction reaction.

a redox reaction.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

More free energy is harvested during the citric acid cycle than during glycolysis, but only one mole of ATP is produced for each mole of acetyl CoA that enters the cycle. Most of the remaining free energy released during the citric acid cycle is

used to synthesize GTP.

used to reduce electron carriers.

lost as heat.

used to reduce pyruvate.

converted to kinetic energy.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

During glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate,

six net molecules of ATP are produced.

two net molecules of ATP are produced.

four net molecules of ATP are produced.

two net molecules of NAD+ are produced.

no ATP is produced unless O2 is present.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The oxidation of pyruvate to CO2 is called

fermentation.

the citric acid cycle.

glycolysis.

oxidative phosphorylation.

the respiratory chain.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following is/are produced during the citric acid cycle?

Ethanol

Pyruvate

H2O

Lactic acid

NADH and FADH2

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Animals breathe in air containing O2 and breathe out air with less O2 and more CO2. The CO2 comes from

hydrocarbons and the air.

the citric acid cycle.

glycolysis.

waste products.

All of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate is coupled to the reduction of NAD+ to NADH + H+. In this process, NAD+ is a(n)

reducing agent.

oxidizing agent.

vitamin.

phosphate ester.

phosphorylating agent.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

If a cell is labeled with 18O (an isotope of O2), most of the isotope will be detected in the _______ of the cell.

nucleus

chloroplast

endoplasmic reticulum

mitochondrion

cytosol

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which of the following statements about the respiratory electron transport chain is true?

Electrons are received from NADH and FADH2.

Electrons are passed from donor to recipient carrier molecules in a series of oxidation–reduction reactions.

The terminal electron acceptor is usually O2.

Most of the enzymes are part of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The source of electrons for the electron transport chain is

FADH2.

the NADH-Q reductase complex.

NADH.

ubiquinone.

Both a and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidation Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

ATP is produced by which enzymatic complex?

NADH-Q

Ubiquinone (Q)

ATP synthase

Succinate dehydrogenase

Cytochrome c reductase

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidation Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The electron transport chain contains four large protein complexes: the NADH-Q reductase complex, succinate dehydrogenase, the cytochrome c reductase complex, and the cytochrome c oxidase complex. These proteins

are integral proteins.

change in a similar way when reduced.

regulate the passage of H2O through the respiratory chain.

oxidize NADH.

complete oxidation of pyruvate to acetate.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Animals inhale air containing O2 and exhale air with less O2 and more CO2. After inhalation, the O2 missing from the air will mostly be found in

the CO2 that is exhaled.

H2O.

organic molecules.

ethanol.

lactate.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

H2O is a by-product of cellular respiration. The H2O is produced as a result of the

combining of CO2 with protons.

conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA.

degradation of glucose to pyruvate.

reduction of O2 at the end of the electron transport chain.

None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The oxidizing agent at the end of the electron transport chain is

O2.

NAD+.

ATP.

FAD.

ubiquinone.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

When NADH donates two electrons to the NADH-Q reductase complex, which then passes the electrons to ubiquinone, ubiquinone becomes

reduced.

oxidized.

phosphorylated.

aerobic.

hydrolyzed.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The respiratory electron transport chain

is located in the mitochondrial matrix.

includes only peripheral membrane proteins.

always produces ATP.

oxidizes reduced coenzymes.

operates simultaneously with fermentation.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Overall, the _______ within each complex of the respiratory chain decreases as electrons move from the first to the last complex.

number of proteins

efficiency of electron transfer

level of entropy

standard free energy

degree of oxidation

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following events is not a part of the respiratory electron transport chain?

Consumption of O2

Formation of ATP

Formation of H2O

Formation of NADH

Donation of electrons from FADH2

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following pathways are found in the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotes?

Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle

Glycolysis and fermentation

Pyruvate oxidation and the respiratory chain

Pyruvate oxidation and the citric acid cycle

Pyruvate oxidation and fermentation

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Rotenone is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I. If you were to treat isolated mitochondria with rotenone, what would you expect to happen to ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation?

ATP production would decrease and electron transport would increase.

ATP production would increase and electron transport would decrease.

ATP production and electron transport would decrease.

ATP production and electron transport would increase.

ATP production would become uncoupled from electron transport.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Many years ago it was proposed that an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler, such as the chemical dinitrophenol (DNP), could be taken to promote weight loss. However, based on what we know about cellular respiration, this approach was soon rejected as potentially dangerous to human health. Which of the following is the most likely reason?

Energy diverted from ATP production could create too much heat.

Cells that took up the DNP would start to undergo lactic acid fermentation.

It is better to exercise to promote weight loss.

People taking DNP would just eat more.

Too much ATP could be made, leading to excessive weight loss.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

Which of the following events is part of the respiratory electron transport chain?

Release of CO2

Reduction of CO2

Oxidation of cytochromes, FADH, and NADH

Reduction of NAD+

None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Electron transport within NADH-Q reductase, cytochrome reductase, and cytochrome oxidase can be coupled to proton transport from the mitochondrial matrix to the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. The reason is that those protein complexes are

in the mitochondrial matrix.

within the inner mitochondrial membrane.

in the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes.

in the cytoplasm.

loosely attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The electron transport chain contains four large protein complexes (I, II, III, and IV), plus cytochrome c and ubiquinone. The function of these components is to

transport electrons.

ensure the production of H2O from O2.

regulate the passage of protons through the chain.

oxidize NADH.

actively transport protons across the membrane.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 4 Analyzing

The proton-motive force is

made by the ATP synthase.

the proton concentration gradient and electric charge difference across a membrane.

a metabolic pathway in the cell.

a redox reaction that uses electrons from NAD.

None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane into the intermembrane space, the result is the

formation of ATP.

reduction of NAD+.

creation of a proton gradient.

restoration of the Na+–K+ balance across the membrane.

reduction of glucose to lactic acid.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The component of aerobic respiration that produces the most ATP per mole of glucose is

the electron transport chain.

the citric acid cycle.

glycolysis.

lactic acid fermentation.

alcoholic fermentation.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Most ATP produced in our bodies is made

by glycolysis.

in the citric acid cycle.

using ATP synthase.

from photosynthesis.

by burning fat.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The hydrogen ion gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane will increase if the rate of which of the following processes increases?

Electron and proton transport

The splitting of H2O

The ionization of glucose

ATP synthesis

Acetyl CoA reduction

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

The chemiosmotic generation of ATP is driven by

osmotic movement of H2O into an area of high solute concentration.

the addition of protons to ADP and phosphate via enzymes.

oxidative phosphorylation.

the proton-motive force.

isocitrate dehydrogenase.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The drug 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) destroys the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. What would be the effect of incubating isolated mitochondria in a solution of DNP?

O2 would no longer be reduced to H2O.

ATP synthesis would decline.

Mitochondria would show a burst of increased ATP synthesis.

Glycolysis would stop.

Mitochondria would switch from glycolysis to fermentation.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

When a suspension of broken chloroplasts is incubated in an acidic medium and then transferred to an alkaline medium, ATP is produced. This reaction occurs because

the thylakoids can buffer the pH.

the reaction is exergonic.

the pH inside the thylakoids stays the same.

ATP is made in an alkaline environment.

the chloroplasts can re-form more effectively in an alkaline medium.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

According to the chemiosmotic theory, the energy for the synthesis of ATP during the flow of electrons down the respiratory chain is provided directly by the

hydrolysis of GTP.

reduction of NAD+.

hydrolysis of ATP.

reduction of FAD.

diffusion of protons.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

In both photosynthesis and respiration, protons are pumped across a membrane during

electron transport.

photolysis.

CO2 fixation.

reduction of O2.

glycolysis.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Photosynthesis and respiration share which of the following characteristics?

In eukaryotes, both processes reside in specialized organelles.

ATP synthesis in both processes relies on the chemiosmotic mechanism.

Both involve electron transport.

Both require light.

a, b, and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Oxygen is used by

glycolysis.

the citric acid cycle.

the respiratory electron transport chain.

substrate-level phosphorylation.

ATP synthase.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Arsenate is used by phosphate-requiring enzymes as an alternative substrate to phosphate. Arsenate poisoning would have the greatest effect on cellular respiration by inhibiting which of the following enzymes?

ATP synthase

NADH dehydrogenase

Phosphofructokinase

Pyruvate decarboxylase

Citrate synthase

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

In the absence of O2, cells capable of fermentation

accumulate glucose.

no longer produce ATP.

accumulate pyruvate.

can oxidize FAD.

can oxidize NADH to produce NAD+.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Bacteria that are shifted from an oxygen-rich environment to an anaerobic environment can continue to grow rapidly only if they

increase the rate of the citric acid cycle.

produce more ATP per mole of glucose during glycolysis.

produce ATP during the oxidation of NADH.

increase the rate of transport of electrons down the respiratory chain.

increase the rate of the glycolytic reactions.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following processes occurs when O2 is unavailable to a cell?

Pyruvate oxidation

The citric acid cycle

Fermentation

Formation of H2O by the electron transport chain

All of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The fermentation process in vertebrate muscle cells produces

lactic acid.

12 moles of ATP.

pyruvic acid.

an excessive amount of energy.

None of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The formation of ethanol from pyruvate is an example of

an irreversible reaction.

a fermentation process that takes place in the absence of O2.

the production of extra energy from glycolysis.

cellular respiration.

None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Regardless of the electron or hydrogen acceptor employed, fermentation always produces

AMP.

DNA.

Pi.

NAD+.

None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

In alcoholic fermentation, NAD+ is produced during the

oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA.

reduction of pyruvate to lactic acid.

reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol.

hydrolysis of ATP to ADP.

oxidation of glucose.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

During the fermentation of one molecule of glucose, the net production of ATP is _______ molecule(s).

one

two

three

six

eight

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Many species derive their energy from fermentation. The function of fermentation is to

reduce NAD+.

oxidize CO2.

produce acetyl CoA.

oxidize NADH + H+.

None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The reduction of pyruvate to lactic acid during fermentation allows glycolysis to continue in the absence of O2 because this reaction

produces H2O.

is a kinase reaction.

is coupled to the oxidation of NADH to NAD+.

is coupled to the formation of ATP.

is coupled to the reduction of NAD+ to NADH.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Sucrose is a disaccharide that can be hydrolyzed into one glucose and one fructose molecule in various organisms. How many molecules of ATP are produced for each molecule of sucrose metabolized by anaerobic glycolysis?

1

2

3

4

36

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Substrate-level phosphorylation is used to produce ATP in the absence of O2. This process depends on _______ to regenerate NAD+.

glycolysis

fermentation

chemiosmosis

proteolysis

pyruvate oxidation

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The theoretical total gross yield of ATP from glucose oxidation is 32 molecules. In actuality, the gross yield is 30 ATP. What accounts for the two missing molecules?

Two ATP are used to oxidize NADH.

Two ATP are lost as heat.

The cell must use active transport (which uses ATP), because the mitochondrial matrix is impermeable to NADH.

The cell must use two ATP to initiate glycolysis.

Lactic acid must be removed from the cell through active transport.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Before starch can be used for respiratory ATP production, it must be hydrolyzed to

pyruvate.

fatty acids.

amino acids.

glucose.

oxaloacetate.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Fats are the preferred molecules for energy storage in many organisms because

they are less dense than polysaccharides.

more energy can be stored in fats per unit of mass than in any other bodily component.

they are nonpolar.

fats do not bind to H2O.

fats play essential roles as enzymes and structural elements.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

A person on a dangerously severe diet will eventually suffer from malnutrition and even starvation. If a person does not eat enough to fuel sufficient ATP and NADH production for biological activities, energy sources will be depleted. Which of the following represents the correct order in which this depletion takes place?

Glycogen ® fats ® proteins

Fats ® glycogen ® proteins

Glycogen ® proteins ® fats

Fats ® proteins ® glycogen

Proteins ® glycogen ® fats

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

When acetyl CoA builds up in the cell, it increases the activity of the enzyme that synthesizes oxaloacetate from pyruvate and CO2. In this case, acetyl CoA is acting as a(n)

electron carrier.

substrate.

allosteric activator.

acetate donor.

proton pump.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

When the supply of acetyl CoA being produced exceeds the demands of the citric acid cycle, some of the acetyl CoA is diverted to the synthesis of

pyruvate.

NAD.

proteins.

fatty acids.

lactic acid.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The main control point of glycolysis is the glycolytic enzyme

phosphofructokinase.

acetylfructokinase.

oxaloacetate convertase.

isocitrate dehydrogenase.

kinase.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

When a cell needs energy, cellular respiration is regulated by isocitrate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the citric acid cycle. This enzyme is stimulated in part by

H+.

heat.

O2.

ADP.

None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

In the citric acid cycle, isocitrate dehydrogenase is regulated in part by the supply and demand of downstream products of cellular respiration and metabolism. Which of the following products acts as an allosteric activator of isocitrate dehydrogenase activity?

ADP

ATP

NADH

Isocitrate

a-ketoglutarate

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

In the citric acid cycle, isocitrate dehydrogenase is regulated in part by the supply and demand of downstream products of cellular respiration and metabolism. Which of the following products acts as an allosteric inhibitor of isocitrate dehydrogenase activity?

ADP

ATP

NADH

Isocitrate

a-ketoglutarate

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

In yeast, if the citric acid cycle is shut down because of a lack of O2, glycolysis will probably

shut down.

increase in rate.

produce more ATP per mole of glucose.

produce more NADH per mole of glucose.

produce acetyl CoA for fatty acid synthesis.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Fill in the Blank

The cells in brown fat make a protein called _______, which makes the inner mitochondrial membrane permeable to protons.

Answer: UCP1 (or uncoupling protein 1)

Textbook Reference: 9.0 Chapter Introduction

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

In nonphotosynthetic cells, the most common chemical fuel is _______.

Answer: glucose

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

A chemical reaction resulting in the transfer of electrons or hydrogen atoms from one molecule to another is called a(n) _______ reaction.

Answer: redox (or oxidation-reduction)

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

In a redox reaction, the reactant that becomes oxidized is called a(n) _______.

Answer: reducing agent

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

_______ is one of the most common electron carriers in cells.

Answer: NADH/NAD+ (or NAD+; or NADH)

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The abbreviation for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is _______.

Answer: NAD (or NAD+; or NADH)

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Oxidation and _______ always occur together.

Answer: reduction

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The loss of a(n) _______ by a ferrous ion (Fe2+) to yield a ferric ion (Fe3+) is called oxidation.

Answer: electron

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

If the inner mitochondrial membrane becomes permeable to _______, energy stored in fat is lost as heat.

Answer: protons (or H+)

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

_______ takes place in the cytosol and involves ten enzyme-catalyzed reactions that begin the catabolism of glucose.

Answer: Glycolysis

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The pathway for the oxidation of glucose to pyruvate is called _______.

Answer: glycolysis

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The enzyme-catalyzed transfer of phosphate groups to ADP molecules to form ATP is called _______.

Answer: substrate-level phosphorylation

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Pyruvate is _______ and decarboxylated to form acetate.

Answer: oxidized

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The oxidation of citrate to CO2 takes place in the _______ cycle.

Answer: citric acid

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The chemiosmotic formation of ATP during the operation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is called _______.

Answer: oxidative phosphorylation

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does the Oxidation Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

An electron passes down the _______ to help form H2O from O2 and protons in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Answer: electron transport chain

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

During alcoholic fermentation, NAD+ is regenerated from NADH by the reduction of acetaldehyde to _______.

Answer: ethanol

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Fatty acids must be converted to _______ before they can be used for mitochondrial ATP production.

Answer: acetyl CoA

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

_______ is formed within mitochondria by the oxidation of fatty acids and then enters the citric acid cycle.

Answer: Acetyl CoA

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The formation of glucose from glycolytic and citric acid intermediates is called _______.

Answer: gluconeogenesis

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Diagram

1.‒3. Refer to the diagram below showing the citric acid cycle.

NADH is regenerated at which steps in the diagram?

Answer: Step 3, step 4, and step 8

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

GTP is regenerated at which step(s) in the diagram?

Answer: Step 5

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

At which step(s) in the diagram is FADH2 consumed?

Answer: FADH2 is not consumed in this cycle, it is produced.

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

4.‒5. Refer to the diagram below showing electron transport and ATP synthesis. When pure reduced cytochrome c is added to isolated mitochondria in a solution containing ADP, Pi, O2, and antimycin A (a mitochondria complex II inhibitor), the cytochrome c becomes oxidized and ATP is formed.

Which of the following represents the probable flow of electrons in this system?

NADH-Q reductase ® cytochrome c ® complex IV ® O2

Cytochrome c ® O2 ® complex IV

Complex IV ® cytochrome c ® O2

Cytochrome c ® complex IV ® O2 ® ATP synthase

Cytochrome c ® NADH-Q reductase ® complex IV ® O2

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Antimycin A is added in this reaction to

block reduction of endogenous substrates.

promote ADP production by blocking ubiquinone activity.

allow O2 to interact with cytochrome c reductase.

enhance ATP synthase activity.

block oxidation of endogenous substrates.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

6.‒8. Refer to the diagram below showing energy-releasing metabolic pathways.

Identify each numbered pathway.

Answer: 1: Glycolysis; 2: Pyruvate oxidation; 3: Citric acid cycle; 4: Electron transport and ATP synthesis

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Where in the cell is each step of the pathway located?

Answer: 1: Cytosol; 2: Mitochondrial matrix; 3: Mitochondrial matrix; 4: Mitochondrial inner membrane

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Explain what happens to this sequence of pathways in the absence of O2.

Answer: Pyruvate would undergo fermentation to form lactic acid or alcohol rather than continue to step 3.

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

9.‒11. Refer to the diagram below showing allosteric regulation of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.

If excessive citrate begins to accumulate in a cell, which process(es) and which enzyme(s) will be inhibited?

Answer: Glycolysis and phosphofructokinase

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

If excessive ATP begins to accumulate, which enzymes are inhibited?

Answer: Phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

ADP or AMP activates which enzyme(s)?

Answer: Phosphofructokinase

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

DIAGNOSTIC QUIZ QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)

(By Xenia Morin)

Which of the following reactions is not an oxidation–reduction reaction?

NADH + ½ O2 + H+ ↔ NAD+ + H2O

R—CH = CH—CH3 + H2O ↔ RCH2—CH (OH)—CH3

FAD + H2O ↔ FADH2 + ½ O2

NADH + acetaldehyde ↔ NAD+ + ethanol

AH2 + B ↔ A + BH2

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Glycolysis

is the conversion of glucose to two molecules of lactate.

is an endergonic reaction.

is a reaction that follows pyruvate oxidation.

is an oxidation–reduction process.

cannot occur in the absence of oxygen.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The conversion of malate to oxaloacetate in the citric acid cycle takes place with the conversion of NAD+ to NADH. In this reaction, NAD+ is

the reducing agent.

the oxidizing agent.

reduced.

oxidized.

Both b and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The end products of is/glycolysis are

pyruvate.

pyruvate, ATP, and NAD+.

pyruvate, ATP, and NADH.

acetyl CoA, ATP, and NAD+.

acetyl CoA, ATP, and NADH.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

In the complete oxidation of glucose, 6 CO2 molecules are formed per glucose molecule. The number of CO2 molecules released by glycolysis is _______, by pyruvate oxidation is ______, and by the citric acid cycle is _______.

0; 0; 6

0; 2; 4

1; 1; 4

1; 2; 3

2; 2; 2

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following about the citric acid cycle is false?

It releases less energy than glycolysis.

CO2 is released during operation of the cycle.

It takes place in the mitochondrial matrix.

It requires NAD+ and FAD.

It does not operate under anaerobic conditions.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which of the following compounds listed below link(s) glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain?

NADH

ADP and Pi

FADH2

ATP

Both a and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi by substrate-level phosphorylation

is an oxidative phosphorylation reaction.

accounts for a minor fraction of all ATPs made by cells.

takes place in the absence of oxygen.

creates a proton gradient.

occurs in the cytochrome c oxidase complex.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The electron transport chain

is the site of most reactions of the citric acid cycle.

synthesizes ATP.

pumps protons into the mitochondrial matrix during electron transport.

oxidizes the intermediate electron carriers, NADH and FADH2.

oxidizes water to O2 and 2 H+.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

If an inhibitor was bound to mitochondrial ATP synthase, it would prevent the

rotation of ATP synthase F1 in the mitochondrial inner membrane space.

coupling of the synthesis of ATP to the flow of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

production of ATP at the expense of the proton gradient established by electron transport.

rotation of the membrane component of ATP synthase.

Both a and b

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

The electron transport chain

is present in the outer membrane of the mitochondrion.

contains cytochromes.

reduces NAD+.

generates a proton-motive force by hydrolyzing ATP.

reduces FAD.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi is an _______ reaction. In mitochondria, ATP synthesis is driven by the flow of _______ down the concentration and electrical gradient established by _______.

endergonic; Na+ ions; electron transport

exergonc; protons; glycolysis

endergonic; protons; electron transport

exergonic; Na+ ions; glycolysis

endergonic; protons; citric acid cycle

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Most of the ATP made during the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water is

made by the mitochondrial ATP synthase.

made from substrate-level phosphorylation.

synthesized by the sodium–potassium ATPase.

synthesized in the cytosol.

made directly by the citric acid cycle.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Reagents, such as dinitrophenol, increase the permeability of the mitochondrial inner membrane to protons. The addition of dinitrophenol to a suspension of animal cells should

decrease the rate of oxidation of NADH.

inhibit mitochondrial ATP synthesis.

increase lactic acid production.

decrease the rate of pyruvate oxidation.

stimulate ATP synthesis by mitochondria.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form ATP?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Fermentation

results in the formation of lactic acid or ethanol.

completely oxidizes glucose to CO2 and H2O.

is not coupled to substrate-level ADP synthesis.

occurs under aerobic conditions in yeasts.

is endergonic.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Cyanide inhibits the enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain that reduces O2 to water. Suppose that you add cyanide to a suspension of muscle cells from a rat. Which statement given below is the most accurate with respect to the effects of cyanide on glucose catabolism?

The citric acid cycle and glycolysis would be inhibited.

The citric acid cycle would be inhibited, but glycolysis would not—ethanol accumulates.

Both the citric acid cycle and glycolysis would be stimulated.

The citric acid cycle would be inhibited, but glycolysis would not—lactic acid accumulates.

The citric acid cycle would not be inhibited, but glycolysis would.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

What is the metabolic fate of pyruvate in anaerobic muscle?

It is converted to acetyl CoA.

It is decarboxylated.

It is oxidized.

It is reduced to lactate.

It is converted to ethanol.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

A suspension of yeast supplied with glucose as its source of energy was transferred from an aerobic environment to an anaerobic one. Which of the following would you predict for the rate of glucose utilization and the rate of ethanol production after the transfer?

Glucose usage would decrease and ethanol production would increase.

Glucose usage would increase and ethanol production would decrease.

Both glucose usage and ethanol production would increase.

Both glucose usage and ethanol production would not change.

Glucose usage would not change and ethanol production would increase.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.4 How Is Energy Harvested from Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Triglycerides are major energy storage molecules. Which of the following, about the complete oxidation of triglycerides to CO2 and water and the oxidation of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate, is correct?

Catabolism of both triglycerides and glucose is endergonic.

Catabolism of both triglycerides and glucose to pyruvate involves the citric acid cycle.

Catabolism of both triglycerides and glucose to pyruvate involves the production of Acetyl CoA as an intermediate.

Only glucose oxidation uses the glycolytic pathway.

Catabolism of triglycerides and catabolism of glucose to pyruvate involves the electron transportation chain.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Acetyl CoA is

formed within mitochondria by the reduction of pyruvate.

formed within mitochondria by the oxidation of fatty acids.

formed in the cytoplasm by the oxidation of glucose.

used for the synthesis of sugars.

formed in the cytosol during the complete oxidation of glucose.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.5 How Are Metabolic Pathways Interrelated and Regulated?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

LEARNINGCURVE QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)

(By Xenia Morin)

The metabolic activity generated by _______ allows an infant to keep warm.

obesity

anabolism

brown adipose tissue

white adipose tissue

diabetes

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

ATP molecules are important in metabolism because ATP can

release chemical energy, which drives endergonic reactions.

release chemical energy, which drives exergonic reactions.

release chemical energy, which drives the energy transformation in all living organisms.

Both a and c

Both b and c

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Metabolic pathways are

a series of separate chemical reactions leading to a complex chemical transformation.

a set of chemical transformational steps, each with a specific enzyme.

a way of transforming cellular energy.

vulnerable to inhibitors and activators that target some key enzymes in a pathway.

All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

In eukaryotes, the organelle containing enzyme(s) necessary for aerobic cellular energy production is(are) the

nucleus.

mitochondria.

Golgi apparatus.

peroxisomes.

lysosomes.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Cellular respiration refers to the metabolic process that

involves the incomplete breakdown of pyruvate.

starts with sucrose.

produces 30 ATP.

produces less energy than fermentation.

oxidizes reactants to water and carbon dioxide.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which of the following statements about metabolic pathways is incorrect?

Chemical transformations occur in a series of separate chemical reactions.

A specific enzyme catalyzes each transformational step.

In prokaryotes, reactions in a pathway are located in multiple compartments.

Inhibitors that target some key enzymes in a pathway can slow the rate of reaction.

Activators that target some key enzymes in a pathway can increase the rate of reaction.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

The difference between oxidation and reduction is that

oxidation requires an oxidizing agent, while reduction requires a reducing agent.

oxidation can happen by itself, while reduction is a coupled reaction.

an oxidized compound has more electrons than the reduced form of the same compound.

oxidation reduces the number of electrons, while reduction increases the number of electrons.

oxidation involves transfer of two electrons, while reduction involves transfer of one electron.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The types of chemical reactions involved in the aerobic breakdown of glucose include

oxidations.

reductions.

oxidations and phosphorylations.

reductions and phosphorylations.

oxidation-reductions and phosphorylations.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which list places the molecules, from left to right, from most oxidized to least oxidized?

CO2 > CH2O > HCOOH > CH4

HCOOH > CH4 > CH3OH > CO2

CO2 > CHOOH > CH3OH > CH4

CH4 > CH3OH > CHOOH > CO2

CH2O > CO2 > CH3OH > CH4

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

Which statement is true?

NAD+ is a coenzyme involved in glucose oxidation.

NADH is the reduced form of NAD+ from the addition of 2 H+ and 2 electrons.

NADH is reduced by oxygen.

NADH is more electronegative than oxygen.

NADH stores less free energy than ATP.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate

is converted to lactate or tricarboxylic acids.

is fermented to lactate or alcohol.

enters the citric acid cycle.

is reduced to lactate.

is broken down on the plasma membrane.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which reaction is not an example of an oxidation reaction?

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ® 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

ADP + Pi ® ATP

NADH + H+ +½ O2 ® NAD+ + H2O

CH4 + ½ O2 ® CH3OH + H+

Both b and d

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

What is the net free energy captured by 32 moles of ATP?

7.3 kcal

52.4 kcal

233 kcal

686 kcal

None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Energy production occurs in different cellular compartments. Which statement is true for eukaryotes?

The conversion of glucose to pyruvate occurs in the mitochondria.

The conversion of pyruvate to lactate occurs in the mitochondria.

The conversion of pyruvate to CO2 and H2O occurs in the mitochondria.

The respiratory chain enzymes are found at the plasma membrane.

The citric acid cycle enzymes are found in the cytoplasm.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Energy production occurs in different cellular compartments. Which statement is true for prokaryotes?

The conversion of glucose to pyruvate occurs on the plasma membrane.

The conversion of pyruvate to lactate occurs on the plasma membrane.

The conversion of pyruvate to CO2 and H2O occurs in the mitochondria.

The respiratory chain enzymes are found on the plasma membrane.

The citric acid cycle enzymes are found in the cytoplasm.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

What amount of free energy is produced by the oxidation of 2 moles of NADH?

7.3 kcal

14.6 kcal

21.9 kcal

52.4 kcal

104.8 kcal

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical Energy?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which statement regarding glycolysis is true?

Two molecules of glucose are catabolized to form two molecules of pyruvate.

The first two steps are endergonic.

Two ATP molecules are required in the first three steps per glucose molecule.

ATP is not formed.

NADH is not formed.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

What is the cellular location of glycolysis in eukaryotes?

Plasma membrane

Cytosol

Mitochondria

Nucleus

None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

How many enzymatic steps are involved in glycolysis?

1

3

5

8

10

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Which statement regarding glycolysis is true?

Glucose is not catabolized.

Oxygen is not required.

Pyruvate is not formed.

ATP is not formed.

NADH is not formed.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which of the following best describes steps 1, 2, and 3 of glycolysis (glucose ® fructose 1,6-bisphosphate)?

A six-carbon molecule is broken down into three two-carbon molecules.

These reactions are exergonic.

These reactions produce energy in the form of 1 NADH per glucose.

These reactions require energy in the form of 1 ATP per glucose.

These reactions require energy in the form of 2 ATP per glucose molecule.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

For each glucose oxidized, the products from the citric acid cycle include

2 CO2.

8 NADH.

2 FADH2.

6 ATP.

None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Which description best describes step 4 of glycolysis (fructose 1,6-bisphophate ® glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate)?

A six-carbon molecule is broken down into two three-carbon molecules.

This reaction is an endergonic enzymatic reaction.

This reaction produces energy in the form of NADH.

This reaction produces energy in the form of ATP.

This reaction produces energy in the form of 2 ATP molecules.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

How are steps 1–3 of glycolysis different from steps 7–10?

Steps 1–3 occur in the cytosol, while steps 6–10 occur in the mitochondrial matrix.

Steps 1–3 catalyze changes in a six-carbon molecule, while steps 6–10 catalyze changes in a four-carbon molecule.

Steps 1–3 catalyze reactions that require ATP, while steps 6–10 catalyze changes that require NADH.

Steps 1–3 catalyze reactions that require ATP, while steps 6–10 catalyze changes that produce NADH and GTP.

Steps 1–3 catalyze reactions that require ATP, while steps 6–10 catalyze changes that produce NADH and ATP.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

How many enzymatic steps are involved in the citric acid cycle?

1

3

5

8

10

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

What is the cellular location of the citric acid cycle?

Plasma membrane

Cytosol

Mitochondrial matrix

Mitochondrial inner membrane

Mitochondrial inner membrane space

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

Pyruvate oxidation to acetyl CoA is a complex reaction because

it is located in the mitochondrial matrix.

it is a multistep chemical reaction involving five different coenzymes and 20 individual proteins.

it involves the transfer of acetyl CoA to oxaloacetate.

one pyruvate molecule is cleaved to produce one acetyl CoA molecule and one CO2.

it is a multistep chemical reaction involving five different coenzymes and 50 individual proteins.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

The four-carbon molecules found in the citric acid cycle are important because they help

regenerate a four-carbon donor molecule.

capture free energy via GTP, FADH2, and NADH.

capture free energy via FADH2 and NADH.

capture free energy via NADH.

capture free energy via GTP.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

In step 6 of glycolysis, the reaction glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + NAD+ + Pi leads to which products?

1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + NADH

3-phosphoglycerate + NADH

1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + NADH + ADP

3-phosphglycerate + NADH + ATP

NADH

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Which step in glycolysis is an example of substrate-level phosphorylation?

Step 1: glucose + ATP ® glucose 6-phosphate + ADP + Pi

Step 3: fructose 6-phosphate + ATP ® fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + ADP + Pi

Step 7: 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + ADP + Pi ® 3-phosphoglycerate + ATP

None of the above

All of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

Malate dehydrogenase is responsible for catalyzing which reaction?

Oxidation of malate to oxaloactetate

Reduction of malate to oxaloactetate

Reduction of NAD+

Both a and c

Both b and c

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Reduced electron carriers are critical to the citric acid cycle because

NADH and FADH2 can donate their electrons to the electron transport chain and be regenerated to allow glycolysis to continue.

NADH and FADH2 can donate their electrons to the electron transport chain and be regenerated to allow the citric acid cycle to continue.

FADH2 can donate its electrons to the electron transport chain and be regenerated to allow glycolysis to continue.

ATP can donate its electrons to the electron transport chain and be regenerated to allow the citric acid cycle to continue.

GTP, NADH, and FADH2 can donate their electrons to the electron transport chain and be regenerated to allow the citric acid cycle to continue.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose Catabolism?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

Oxidative phosphorylation has two major components: _______ and _______.

proton transport; chemiosmosis

electron transport; chemiosmosis

electron transport; osmosis

electron transport; chemical reduction

proton transport; energy coupling

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