Management Skills For Everyday Life 3rd Edition by Paula Caproni – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Management Skills For Everyday Life 3rd Edition by Paula Caproni – Test Bank A+

Management Skills For Everyday Life 3rd Edition by Paula Caproni – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Management Skills For Everyday Life 3rd Edition by Paula Caproni – Test Bank A+
  1. The quality of our relationships with our bosses, direct reports, and peers impacts our _____.
    1. work effectiveness
    2. career success
    3. personal well-being
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

  1. People who are willing and able to understand other people’s needs and adapt their behavior in response tend to _____.
    1. get promoted more
    2. receive higher salaries
    3. have more mentors
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

  1. Our assumptions about authority relations influence ____.
    1. whether we believe we can trust authority figures
    2. whether we feel we can trust ourselves
    3. whether we can create effective boss-direct report relationships
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

  1. People with lower power in organizations tend to _____.
    1. pay more attention to the behavior of people who are higher in the organization
    2. pay less attention to the behavior of people who are higher in the organization
    3. develop more complex interpretations of the behavior of people who are higher in the organization
    4. both a & c (Recall, Difficult)

  1. According to the textbook, _____.
    1. people at lower, middle, and upper hierarchical levels all have power (Recall, Difficult)
    2. people at middle levels of the hierarchy have very little power because they are caught between the lower and upper levels
    3. people at lower, middle, and upper hierarchical levels have similar kinds of power
    4. none of the above

  1. According to the textbook, people at the upper levels have power from _____.
    1. their ability to support or resist
    2. their ability to engage in mandatory noncompliance
    3. their ability to define the organization’s direction and way of operating (Recall, Moderate)
    4. all of the above

  1. According to the textbook, people at the lower levels of the hierarchy have power from _____.
    1. their ability to support or resist (Recall, Moderate)
    2. their ability to bring people at other levels together
    3. their ability to define the organization’s direction and way of operating
    4. all of the above

  1. Toby has just started supervising Eloise, when he realizes there are going to be some problems. Any time Toby asks Eloise to do something, she does the exact opposite. Recently, Toby found out that Eloise has frequently made comment like, “Toby doesn’t know what he’s doing – he should just stay out of our way. Frankly, I’ve never had a boss who knew anything.” According to researchers Bill Kahn and Kathy Kram, Eloise is most likely to have _____ orientation toward authority.
    1. interdependent
    2. dependent
    3. counterdependent (Applied, Difficult)
    4. none of the above

  1. Researchers Bill Kahn and Kathy Kram explain that there are three types of authority relations that play out at work. Which of the following is not one of these:
    1. interdependent
    2. independent (Recall, Moderate)
    3. counterdependent
    4. dependent

  1. If we believe we cannot depend on authority figures to take care of us and that we can only count on ourselves, our orientation toward authority is likely to be _____.
    1. interdependent
    2. co-dependent
    3. counterdependent (Recall, Easy)
    4. independent

  1. A boss who views the authority relationship as built on mutual respect and responsibility is likely to be _____.
    1. interdependent in his/her orientation toward authority (Applied, Difficult)
    2. dependent in his/her orientation toward authority
    3. counterdependent in his/her orientation toward authority
    4. none of the above

  1. An employee who is interdependent in his/her orientation to authority is likely to view his/her job as a direct report as _____.
    1. a team player with the boss, sharing mutual respect and responsibility (Applied, Moderate)
    2. to overly please the boss, even when the boss is incorrect
    3. to work against the boss
    4. a and b above

  1. Cognitive complexity enables leaders to _____.
    1. make their leadership style more consistent across situations
    2. adjust their leadership style to fit the situation (Applied, Moderate)
    3. use covert control more efficiently
    4. control employees more closely

  1. You have just been given supervisory responsibility for a department of highly educated scientists, many of who have been working successfully at their jobs for twenty years or more. They’re working on a type of project that they’re comfortable with and have excelled at their work several times in the past. According to the Situational Leadership Model, what management style should you use with these employees?
    1. participating
    2. delegating (Applied, Easy)
    3. telling
    4. persuading

  1. In the Situational Leadership model, Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard advise managers to focus on three criteria. Which of the following is not one of those criteria?
    1. leadership style
    2. employee readiness
    3. task characteristics
    4. level in hierarchy (Recall, Moderate)

  1. The main point of the Situational Leadership model is _____.
    1. a manager needs to figure out his/her natural style, and use it consistently across different situations
    2. a manager needs to figure out his/her natural style, and hire primarily direct reports who will be responsive to that style regardless of the situation
    3. a manager needs to modify his/her style to fit the characteristics of the situation (Recall, Moderate)
    4. a manager needs to modify his/her style to fit the desires of his/her boss

  1. The Situational Leadership Model recommends that managers should assess employee readiness by observing _____.
    1. how motivated and confident a direct report is to do a particular task
    2. how technically proficient a direct report is to do a particular task
    3. whether the direct report has necessary skills and knowledge to do a particular task
    4. all of the above (Recall, Difficult)

  1. Fran manager has two direct reports, Harry and Sally. If Fran is using the Situational Leadership model, Fran will _____.
    1. always use the same style with both Harry and Sally to show fairness
    2. use the leadership style that he/she excels at so that Harry and Sally can predict their boss’s behavior
    3. change his or her style with both Harry and Sally, depending on circumstances (Applied, Moderate)
    4. emphasize relationship-oriented behavior over task-oriented behavior overall

  1. The style that is low on relationship-focused behaviors and high on task-focused behaviors is _____.
    1. telling (Recall, Moderate)
    2. persuading
    3. participating
    4. delegating

  1. A manager should use a “persuading” style under which of these circumstances?
    1. The employee is both willing and able to perform a particular task independently with no input or follow-up needed or wanted from the manager.
    2. The employee is proficient at a particular task, but is still dependent on the manager for psychological support.
    3. The employee still needs technical support and follow-up, but is gaining in ability and motivation. (Applied, Moderate)
    4. The employee is not willing and able to do a particular task independently.

  1. When an employee is unwilling and unable to do a task independently, which style should be used?
    1. telling (Recall, Moderate)
    2. persuading
    3. participating
    4. delegating

  1. You are familiar with the Denison Leadership Development Model, and so far, it has been working well for you. To date, you have communicated a clear vision to your employees, and given them clear policies and norms. According to Denison, what else do you need to do in order to be an effective manager?
    1. encourage employee involvement
    2. promote adaptability
    3. raise employees’ salaries to reward them when they achieve 5% increases in productivity
    4. both a and b (Applied, Moderate)

  1. The Denison Leadership model focuses on what managers can do to create effective organizational cultures. Which of the following is not one of his suggestions for doing so?
    1. promoting adaptability
    2. practicing “tough love” as a manager (Recall, Moderate)
    3. encouraging employee involvement
    4. having clear policies, procedures, and norms
  2. From studying the Denison model, you know that it is important to communicate a clear and engaging mission to your employees. Which of the following behaviors will help you to do this?
    1. communicating the organization’s long term strategies to employees
    2. tracking employee progress against goals
    3. helping employees see how the organization will look in the future
    4. all of the above (Recall, Difficult)

  1. If a manager wants to help employees be more innovative, the Denison Leadership models suggests that she is likely to have the biggest impact by focusing on _____.
    1. consistency and employee involvement
    2. mission and adaptability
    3. mission and consistency
    4. employee involvement and adaptability (Recall, Difficult)

  1. An employee who believes that he or she can change the workplace is ____.
    1. empowered (Recall, Moderate)
    2. enlightened
    3. deluded
    4. consultative

  1. People who are empowered commonly share several beliefs. These beliefs include all of the following except
    1. The belief that their job is meaningful
    2. The belief that they are competent at their job
    3. The belief that someone else will largely regulate their behaviors (Applied, Moderate)
    4. The belief that they can influence the work environment

  1. According to researcher Gretchen Spreitzer, as a manager, you should do all of the following to inspire feelings of empowerment in your employees except _____.
    1. Give employees access to information
    2. Seek out your employees’ opinions and use those opinions in decision-making
    3. Give employees access to abundant resources (Recall, Difficult)
    4. Establish clear goals and boundaries

  1. According to a survey done by the Gallup Organization, employees who believe their organizations inspire and enable them to do their best work are more likely to answer “yes” to which of the following statements?
    1. Do I know what is expected of me at work? (Recall, Easy)
    2. Am I free to do whatever I want to do at work?
    3. Will I get a promotion within the next 6 months?
    4. a and b above

  1. In the Milgram experiments, approximately what percentage of the experiment subjects continued to “shock” the “learner” up to the maximum 450 volts?
    1. Approximately10%
    2. Approximately 25%
    3. Approximately 65% (Recall, Moderate)
    4. Approximately 80%

  1. Stanley Milgram and other researchers found that all of the following were likely to increase obedience to authority except _____.
    1. assumption of personal responsibility (Recall, Moderate)
    2. emphasis on the technical rather than human aspects of the interactions
    3. trappings of legitimacy
    4. closeness to the authority figure

  1. According to researcher Philip Zimbardo, which of the following organizational conditions can lead to abuse toward human beings by people in authority?
    1. secrecy
    2. vague or changing rules
    3. diffusion of responsibility
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

  1. As an employee, you can avoid being overly influenced by people in authority who may ask you to engage in immoral or unethical acts by _____.
    1. Preparing yourself to be ready to leave or expose an unethical or morally questionable situation
    2. recognizing that you are responsible for your own behavior
    3. being aware of your own attitudes toward authority
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)

  1. The National Transportation Safety Board concluded that up to _____% of all plane crashes are caused by dysfunctional obedience to authority.
    1. 5%
    2. 15%
    3. 25% (Recall, Moderate)
    4. 65%

  1. Jane is very loyal to her organization because it has an organizational culture that promotes compassion toward others, especially in times of need. Which of the following is not likely to be true in this organization?
    1. Values that support caring for others
    2. Symbolic leadership and stories that express the importance of compassionate values
    3. Networks and relationships that help acts of caretaking spread quickly when needed
    4. All of the above inspire compassion in organizations (Applied, Moderate)

  1. Researcher Jane Dutton and her colleagues found that organizations that create a “cascade of collective compassion” to help those in need are able to do the following:
    1. provide the scope of resources needed (the breadth and variety of resources)
    2. provide customization of needed resources (attention to the unique needs of individuals)
    3. act quickly to provide necessary support
    4. all of the above (Recall, Difficult)

  1. To manage your relationship with your boss effectively, you should _____.
    1. assess your orientation toward authority
    2. assess what your boss needs from you to be successful
    3. let your boss know what you need to be effective in your job
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

  1. According to researcher Blake Ashforth, abrasive bosses are characterized by _____.
    1. cold and impersonal interactions
    2. distrust of direct reports
    3. public criticism of direct reports
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

  1. Effective mentors help their protégés by providing ______.
    1. instrumental support
    2. psychological support
    3. both a and b (Recall, Easy)
    4. none of the above

  1. Based on the book, which of the following statements is true?
    1. Bad mentoring may be worse than no mentoring at all (Recall, Difficult)
    2. Hill’s study found that most new managers relied more on their current bosses than on peers for support
    3. Psychosocial support refers to the mentor’s willingness to provide the protégé with challenging and high-visibility assignments
    4. None of the above statements is true.

  1. According to your text, as a protégé, you should do all of the following except
  2. understand and adapt to your mentor’s work style
  3. show you are committed to your professional development
  4. develop a network of developmental relationships
  1. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)

  1. According to researcher Kathy Kram, _____ is the stage in which mentors and protégés are most likely to become peers.
    1. initiation
    2. redefinition (Recall, Moderate)
    3. cultivation
    4. separation

  1. In general, effective networks _____.
    1. are primarily focused on a single goal
    2. primarily focus on strong ties
    3. are diverse (Recall, Moderate)
    4. primarily contain ties with people in one’s own work area

  1. Two of your friends have just been hired into new managerial positions. You’ve read this textbook and want to give your friends advice on effective networking. You should tell your friends all of the following except:
    1. Develop mentoring relationships with people at different levels of the hierarchy.
    2. The most important mentoring relationship your friends will have is the one they develop with their bosses. (Recall, Moderate)
    3. The relationships they develop with their peers can be some of the most rewarding mentoring relationships they will have.
    4. They should develop a network of developmental relationships

  1. According to researcher Stacy Blake-Beard who studies mentoring across identity groups, _____.
    1. protégés should primarily look for mentors who share their same identity groups (e.g., race, gender, nationality, etc.)
    2. mentors and protégés should look below surface differences and identify “deep level” similarities such as values, attitudes, knowledge and skills (Recall, Moderate)
    3. past studies have found that attitude similarity has not been associated with higher group cohesiveness, satisfaction, performance ratings, and pay ratings.
    4. attitude similarity is not a “catalyst for communication.”

  1. According to researcher Ray Friedman, minority network groups are more likely to be successful if ______.
    1. they attract high potential minority employees
    2. they provide many different kinds of activities
    3. the regularly reach out to organizational members who are not members of the network group
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)

  1. According to Jane Dutton and Emily Heaphy, high quality relationships are characterized by _______.
    1. both parties feeling emotionally connected, energized, and appreciated
    2. adaptiveness and resilience
    3. more engagement at work and better performance
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

  1. People are drawn toward energizers because _____.
    1. they feel more engaged, motivated, and positive when they are around them
    2. they feel they have meaningful goals in common
    3. they are hopeful that they can make a difference
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

  1. Research shows that people who use ingratiation tend to _____.
    1. receive more favorable performance evaluations (Recall, Moderate)
    2. receive less favorable performance evaluations
    3. be less liked by their boss
    4. none of the above

  1. According to this textbook, the idea that we try to influence other people’s judgments of us to get what we want is captured by the term______.
    1. task orientation
    2. impression management (Recall, Easy)
    3. amiability orientation
    4. self-handicapping strategy

TRUE/FALSE

  1. People who are lower in the organizational hierarchy tend to pay more attention to and develop more complex interpretations of the behavior of people who are higher than they are in the organizational hierarchy.
  2. True (Recall, Moderate)
  3. False

  1. People at lower, middle, and upper levels of the hierarchy all have sources of power.
  2. True (Recall, Easy)
  3. False

  1. According to the Situational Leadership model, an effective manager should treat all direct reports the same to assure that they feel treated fairly.
  2. True
  3. False (Recall, Easy)

  1. Marcos generally sees his bosses as irrelevant or as hurdles to overcome. Marcos would be considered counterdependent in his attitudes toward authority.
  2. True (Recall, Easy)
  3. False

  1. Self-awareness can lessen your chances of blindly conforming to authority and going against your conscience.
  2. True (Recall, Moderate)
  3. False

  1. Organizations that create cultures that inspire compassion depend on networks and relationships to provide the scale, scope, customization and speed of response required in times of need.
  2. True (Recall, Moderate)
  3. False

  1. In their studies of compassionate organizations, researchers found that customization (attention unique needs of individuals) isn’t relevant to help employees in need.
  2. True
  3. False (Recall, Moderate)

  1. According to researcher Harry Levinson, abrasive bosses are often very capable, action-oriented, and achievement driven.
  2. True (Recall, Moderate)
  3. False

  1. Mentors can provide both instrumental and psychosocial support.
  2. True (Recall, Moderate)
  3. False

  1. “Deep level” similarities (such as values, attitudes, knowledge, and skills) between mentors and protégés can enhance the mentor-protégé relationship.
  2. True (Recall, Moderate)
  3. False

  1. Networking skills are part of your personality, and are very difficult to change without long-term, professional help.
  2. True
  3. False (Recall, Difficult)

  1. Compared to strong ties, “weak ties” are less relevant to successful careers.
  2. True
  3. False (Recall, Moderate)

  1. According to Jane Dutton and Emily Heaphy, high quality connections can only be developed when people have spent a lot of time together.
  2. True (Recall, Easy)
  3. False

  1. People who are energizers in organizations tend to be higher performers.
  2. True (Recall, Easy)
  3. False

ESSAY QUESTIONS

  1. Explain how your orientation toward authority can influence your relationship with your boss and direct reports.

We develop our attitudes toward authority long before we enter the world of work, and we bring these attitudes into every boss-direct report relationship that we have. Psychoanalysts argue that we develop our beliefs about authority through our experiences with our earliest authority figures—our parents and primary caretakers. These experiences influence our relationships toward authority figures throughout our lives primarily by unconsciously shaping our assumptions about the goodwill and dependability of authority figures. Researchers William Kahn and Kathy Kram describe three orientations toward authority:

  • If our primary caretakers are responsive toward our needs in our earliest years, we are likely to develop the belief that we are worthy of their goodwill and can depend on them to take care of us. Consequently, our attitudes toward authority figures will be that authority figures are likely to be trustworthy and dependable unless proven otherwise. Whether we are in the boss or employee role, we are likely to view the authority relationship as being built on mutual respect and responsibility (“We’re in this together.” “How can we help each other?”). Kahn and Kram argue that interdependent attitudes are likely to lead to the most effective and satisfying boss-direct report relationships.
  • If our primary caretakers are inconsistent in their care of us (e.g., sometimes being accessible and caring, while at other times being distant and uncaring), we may develop the belief that we can sometimes count on authority figures and sometimes not. Because we see that our caretakers are able to care for us at least some of the time, we attribute their inconsistency not to their willingness or ability to take care of us but to our own worthiness. In other words, we believe it is our fault when the caretaker does not respond to us. Consequently, we spend much of our time and effort trying to win the caretaker’s attention and affection. When we become adults, our attitude toward authority figures is likely to be one of dependence, and we will try to do whatever it takes to please authority figures to earn their goodwill and support. Whether we are in the boss or employee role, we will expect that the boss’s job is to take care of the employee and the employee’s job is to agree with and please the boss (“Whatever you say, boss.” “The boss is always right.”)
  • If our primary caretakers are psychologically or physically absent in our early years, we may develop the belief that we cannot depend on authority figures to take care of our needs and that we can only count on ourselves to get what we need in life. Consequently, as adults, we are likely to view authority figures as irrelevant or hurdles to overcome. Whether we are in the boss or employee role, we are likely to resist authority by assuming that the role of the boss is irrelevant and that the boss should stay out of their employees’ way even when employees may need our support (“You can’t count on the boss to get anything done.” “You don’t need the boss to help you accomplish your goals.”).

Simply stated, we unknowingly bring our childhood attitudes toward authority into our roles as bosses and direct reports at work when we are adults. Because we see certain types of authority relations as “normal” (interdependent, dependent, or counterdependent), we are likely to act in ways that create the authority dynamics that we expect. For example, if we have a dependent attitude toward authority, then we are likely to expect our bosses to take care of us and act more helpless than we really are. When we are in the boss role, we are likely to encourage the people who work for us to be dependent on us, often by withholding important information, training, or material resources that would enable direct reports to become more independent.

  1. Describe the Situational Leadership model.

According to the Situational Leadership Model, the manager’s goal is to develop employees so that the employees become increasingly competent and confident in their work and less dependent on the manager for technical and psychological support. In short, Situational Leadership is about developing employees through appropriate degrees of delegation. To determine the appropriate delegation style to use, Hersey and Blanchard advise managers to focus on three criteria:

  • Leadership style. Effective managers develop employees by using both task-focused and relationship-focused behaviors. Task-focused behaviors reflect a “concern for production” (e.g., clearly stating task goals, procedures, policies, and performance measures). Relationship-focused behaviors reflect a “concern for people” (e.g., praising people and showing personal concern). Both task- and relationship-focused behaviors are essential to getting work done effectively and efficiently, although one or the other may be more appropriate at any given time, depending on the developmental level of the employee.
  • Employee readiness. Employees must be both psychologically willing (be motivated and confident) and technically able (have the necessary skills, knowledge, and experience) to accomplish a task effectively and independently. When an employee is doing a task for the first time, the employee may need to be told what to do, how to do it, and when to do it. The employee also typically requires training, assistance, and follow-up. As the employee becomes more confident and competent to perform the task independently, the employee needs less technical assistance (task-focused behaviors) and more encouragement (relationship-focused behaviors) to build the employee’s confidence and independence.
  • The characteristics of the task. Every task has its own demands. Each of us excels in some tasks, needs help in others, and resists some tasks altogether. For example, a professor may be very effective at research, but not very effective at teaching, or vice versa. An engineer may be very capable at writing technical reports but less able to convey his or her ideas in a compelling way when faced with a nontechnical audience. A salesperson may be excellent at getting orders from clients but less effective in filling the orders correctly and on time. Consequently, managers need to adapt their style based on employees’ willingness and ability to do a particular task.

In short, each employee has different developmental needs, and these needs change with the situation. If an employee is able and willing to effectively handle a task, the manager should offer the employee significant independence to do that task. If an employee is unable and unwilling to effectively handle a task, the manager should reduce the employee’s independence on that task. Hersey and Blanchard describe four managerial styles, each based on employees’ willingness and ability to accomplish a particular task. Each style is most effective when matched to the needs of the situation.

  • Telling or directing. This style is low on relationship-focused behaviors and high on task-focused behaviors (e.g., telling the employee what to do, how to do it, and when to do it, as well as closely supervising and following up on the employee’s performance). This style is best used when an employee is lacking in specific skills and lacks the confidence or motivation to complete the specific task independently. This does not mean that the manager should offer no relationship-focused behaviors but that these are secondary to task-focused behaviors. When an employee is unwilling and unable to do a task, the best way to boost that employee’s motivation, confidence, and skill is to teach him or her how to do the job well. If a manager does not provide enough structure and direction, the employee is likely to flounder, perform substandard work, and lose confidence in his or her ability to perform the task.
  • Persuading or coaching. This style is high on both task- and relationship-focused behaviors. This style is best used when an employee may have some relevant skills but still needs technical support and follow-up but is gaining in ability and motivation. At this point, the employee needs encouragement to maintain his or her confidence, particularly as the manager begins to encourage more independence.
  • Participating or supporting. This style is low on task-focused behaviors and high on relationship-focused behaviors. This style is best used when an employee is experienced and capable with a particular task but lacks the confidence to complete the job successfully without help or psychological support from the manager. For example, an employee may be able to do an excellent job preparing and giving a presentation to senior managers, but he or she wants the manager to attend the presentation for backup and to provide feedback after the presentation.
  • This style is low on both task- and relationship-focused behaviors. This style is best used when an employee is both willing and able to perform a particular task independently with no input or follow-up needed or wanted from the manager. Indeed, the employee may be more proficient at the task than the leader is. A manager’s attempts to intervene by offering either technical or psychological support may be viewed by the employee as micromanaging or meddling.

How can you tell if the employee is willing and able to successfully complete a particular task? Find out whether the person has the necessary job knowledge. Does the person know what needs to be done, why it needs to be done, where to get appropriate resources and support, who should be involved, level of quality standards, and appropriate performance measures? Does the person have the skills and experience to successfully complete the project without supervision? Does the person tend to seek out help when needed? Does the person consistently show high levels of performance with this type of task? Remember that high performance in one type of task does not necessarily predict high performance in another type of task. Does the person consistently meet deadlines? Based on your responses, would you rate the person as high or low on ability to take on this task?

To assess willingness determine whether the person shows confidence and motivation to take on the responsibility for the task. Does the person proactively seek out accountability in terms of asking for deadlines, quality standards, and other performance standards?

  1. Describe what empowerment is and the four beliefs that empowered employees have (based on the research of Gretchen Spreitzer and Robert Quinn).

There is a lot of talk about empowerment these days, but few managers understand what it is and how they can create conditions that inspire it. When employees feel empowered, they believe that they can influence their work environment, and this belief motivates them to take actions to have an impact on their environment. Employees who feel empowered show initiative, flexibility, innovation, and openness to change. They are committed to helping the organization achieve its goals even if that means going beyond their job descriptions.

Based on a review of several studies of empowerment, researchers Gretchen Spreitzer and Robert Quinn concluded that employees who feel empowered share four beliefs about themselves and the work that they do that are nurtured and supported by their managers and organizational leaders.

  • Employees believe that the organization’s missions and goals are important and are aligned with their values and preferred ways of behaving. People who find meaning in their work care about what they are doing and expect their work to be challenging. They understand how their work contributes to the achievement of the mission and goals.
  • Employees have confidence in their ability to do the work associated with their work roles. They have the basic skills they need, believe in their capacity to grow, and want to learn new skills so that they can meet the challenges ahead of them. They are supported by managers who encourage learning by mistakes as well as by successes.
  • Self-determination. Employees believe that they are trusted and have the freedom to make choices about how they do their work and accomplish their work goals. This enables them to make necessary decisions and take relevant actions thoughtfully and quickly, all within clear boundaries set by the manager (e.g., clear goal, milestones, performance measures, quality standards, and feedback processes). To support employees’ independence, empowering managers provide them with the information, training, technology, and other resources they need to do their job well. These boundaries and resources enable employees to act independently (instead of being micromanaged) while aligning their work with the manager’s and organization’s goals.
  • Employees believe that they can influence the work environment. They believe that their manager and organizational leaders listen to them and invite them to participate in decision-making. Consequently, employees feel they have input into organizational decisions, actions, and outcomes that matter to them, their organizations, and the people they serve.

Taken together, these beliefs help to create an active rather than passive orientation toward shaping their work role and organization in which the employee works.

Note that students may give the following information as well as, or instead of the above answer. However, if they don’t give the four beliefs mentioned above, it would be partial credit.

Managers don’t “empower” people, but they can create conditions that will encourage employees to feel empowered. Some things they can do to create this kind of environment are: (1) clarify boundaries, goals, measures, tasks, and lines of responsibility; (2) widen the span of control of managers; (3) create ways that employees can get tied into the key political channels of the organization; (4) give employees access to information; (5) ask employees what their opinions are, and actively listen, and (6) invest in the training of employees.

  1. If you want to develop an organizational culture that promotes compassion, especially for people in their time of need, describe at least 3 steps you could take to do so.

Too often, we hear about organizations that fail to live up to their moral obligations to their members and society. We are less likely to hear about organizations that show extraordinary generosity and compassion in times of need. All organizations have members who experience serious illness, death of family members, and other events that create human suffering. Yet there is great variety in how organizations respond to this suffering. In some organizations, employees are empowered to reach out and quickly do whatever it takes to help those in need. In other organizations, employees’ efforts to help others in need are hindered with a “stick-to-business” culture and paralyzing red tape.

Researchers Jane Dutton, Monica Worline, Jacoba Lilius, and the late Peter Frost studied organizations that show extraordinary compassion. How does an organization activate a cascade of collective compassion? What systems need to be in place to enable organizational members to improvise unofficial yet useful roles (e.g., money coordinator, backpack creator), coordinate actions across multiple groups, and customize the care they offer in ways that address the unique circumstances of those in need, especially when there are no official rules to follow for addressing such situations? Certainly, it’s important to have some compassionate individuals who are drawn to helping others. However, the acts of a few kind and proactive individuals aren’t enough to provide the scale (the amount of resources provided), scope (the breadth and variety of resources provided), customization (attention to unique needs of individuals), and speed of response required to provide all the necessary support. The researchers concluded that organizations that inspire and enable organizational members to proactively provide coordinated and compassionate responses to their members’ suffering have several characteristics in common:

  • Values that support caring for others: Not only do these values create an environment in which help is more likely to be offered, but they also create an environment in which organizational members feel free to ask for help rather than to hide or minimize their own suffering.
  • Symbolic leadership and stories: Organizational leaders role model an ethic of care and compassion through their actions.
  • Networks and relationships: Organizations that provide the scale, scope, customization, and speed of response in times of need depend on the coordination of multiple networks and personal connections throughout the organization.
  • Compassionate routines: Compassionate organizations have a history of using established routines that enable people to provide support to those in need. Established routines help organizational members focus on what the organization believes is important and to act quickly and automatically without over-thinking their actions or worry about negative consequences.
  • Systems that support care-giving: Compassionate organizations have existing systems in place that are designed to support an ethic of care and customization.

The lesson for leaders who want to promote compassionate organizing is that it’s not enough to be a compassionate leader. Rather, leaders need to see themselves as social architects who create organizational cultures and systems that generate patterns of thinking and acting that motivate and enable organizational members to provide the “scale, scope, speed, and customization that is likely to reduce pain and suffering.”

  1. Describe at least 5 actions an employee can take to proactively manage his/her relationship with the boss.

  • Learn the boss’s goals.
  • Give the boss what he or she needs to achieve these goals.
  • Know the boss’s preferred styles of working, and adapt behavior accordingly. For example, is the boss a reader (someone who prefers to receive information in writing) or a listener (someone who prefers to receive information face-to-face)?
  • Learn the boss’s strengths and weaknesses so that the employee can build on the boss’s strengths and compensate for the weaknesses.
  • Earn the boss’s trust. Build a reputation for being honest, loyal, and dependable.
  • Keep the boss informed of important information and events so that he or she is never taken by surprise.
  • Show appreciation to the boss when appropriate.
  • Use the boss’s time and resources sensibly.
  • Help the boss look good in the eyes of others.

  1. Describe what strong and weak ties are, as well as the benefits of having each type in your network.

Having both strong ties and weak ties in your network matters because both types of ties offer particular kinds of benefits. Tie strength refers to the degree of intimacy, interaction, emotional investment, and expectations of reciprocity in a relationship. Strong ties offer more trust, closeness, and emotional support than do weak ties, and they tend to last longer. Although strong ties provide deeper levels of ongoing instrumental and emotional support, weak ties provide broader exposure and a wider range of resources (e.g., job leads from someone that you met briefly at a conference). You need the ongoing instrumental and emotional support that you get from strong ties, but you also need the broad exposure and access to resources that you get from weak ties. After all, you can’t know everyone well, so your effectiveness, career growth, and general well-being depend on the cooperation and support of people whom you don’t know very well, if at all.

CHAPTER 7

MANAGING CULTURAL DIVERSITY

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Effectively managing diverse human resources contributes to an organization’s effectiveness by _____.
    1. increasing positive publicity
    2. helping the organization recruit and retain good employees
    3. improving problem solving and decision making within the organization
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

  1. According to researchers Robin Ely and David Thomas, which of the following perspectives toward diversity is likely to lead to bottom line results?
    1. integration and learning (Recall, Easy)
    2. access and legitimacy
    3. discrimination and fairness
    4. multicultural mainstreaming

  1. A company believes that the best way to leverage the diversity in the organization is to make sure the company hires people based on the demographic groups the company serves is using a/an _____________________ perspective.
    1. access and legitimacy (Recall, Difficult)
    2. discrimination and fairness
    3. integration and learning
    4. multicultural mainstreaming

  1. According to researcher Lawrence Hirschfield ______.
    1. when we categorize someone into a racial group, we are using primarily objective criteria that reflects biologically coherent populations
    2. there is as much genetic variation within racial groups as between them (Recall, Moderate)
    3. both a and b
    4. none of the above

  1. According to researchers Candace West and Don Zimmerman, “gender” refers to _____.
    1. the roles men and women take as a consequence of social expectations (Recall, Moderate)
    2. physical differences
    3. objective categories that provide criteria for determining who will make the best doctors, nurses, managers, and secretaries
    4. none of the above

  1. According to the textbook, which of the following is not among the problems that result from stereotyping?
    1. We see people within a category as more similar than they really are.
    2. We see people from different groups as more different than they really are.
    3. We fail to see many other factors that make up our essence as human beings.
    4. They are all among the problems that result from stereotyping. (Recall, Moderate)

  1. When we assume that demographic categories are based on cultural meaning systems, we assume _____.
    1. people develop cultural identities through teachings and others’ expectations
    2. cultural identity influences one’s self-concept
    3. cultural meaning systems are often taken for granted
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)

  1. According to the textbook, the most important cultural knowledge that is that which cultural group believes will help members solve two fundamental problems of survival _____.
    1. internal integration and external adaptation (Recall, Difficult)
    2. external integration and internal adaptation
    3. individuation and socialization
    4. meaning and lack of meaning

  1. If I emphasize taking care of myself and making my own decisions, I am likely to be from a culture that emphasizes _____.
    1. counterdependence
    2. interdependence
    3. independence (Recall, Moderate)
    4. co-dependence

  1. A society in which people earn status primarily through family, age, social connections, or the class into which they were born is called _____.
    1. a familial-induction society based culture
    2. an ascription-based culture (Recall, Moderate)
    3. an achievement-based culture
    4. an independent culture

  1. Achievement-based cultures are likely to encourage more _____.
    1. formality
    2. competition (Recall, Moderate)
    3. respect for age
    4. respect for hierarchy

  1. In organizations with a high power-distance culture _____.
    1. managers are likely to be treated as equals by direct reports
    2. relationships will tend to be informal
    3. following the chain of command is important (Recall, Moderate)
    4. employees are encouraged to take independent action

  1. A culture in which inequalities are minimized and employees are empowered and encouraged to make decisions would be described as _____.
    1. an affiliation culture
    2. an independent culture
    3. a low power-distance culture (Recall, Moderate)
    4. a high power-distance

  1. A culture in which “a rule is a rule” would be described as _____.
    1. a culture that emphasizes a modernist orientation
    2. a culture that emphasizes a collectivist orientation
    3. a culture that emphasizes a universalistic orientation (Recall, Moderate)
    4. none of the above

  1. In a particularistic culture, _____.
    1. “a rule is a rule”
    2. managers are seen as decision makers
    3. people are flexible about applying rules (Recall, Moderate)
    4. people depend on each other

  1. In which of the following cultures would professors be most likely to wear a suit to teach a class?
    1. formal (Applied, Easy)
    2. informal
    3. universal
    4. particular

  1. In a _____ culture, directness is likely to be sacrificed for harmony.
    1. low context
    2. high context (Recall, Moderate)
    3. low content
    4. high content

  1. You are meeting with a new client. After you introduce yourself, the client says, “Let’s get down to business,” and proceeds to outline the details of the deal on which you are working. Your new client is likely to come from a _____ culture.
    1. low context (Applied, Moderate)
    2. high context
    3. low content
    4. high content

  1. All of the following are true of high-context cultures except
    1. people want to know you before talking about business
    2. communication takes more time
    3. the word “yes” doesn’t always mean agreement
    4. direct criticism is more effective than indirect criticism (Recall, Moderate)

  1. In ______ context cultures, the surrounding social context is seen as sending important signals that enhance communication.
    1. low
    2. high (Recall, Easy)
    3. normative
    4. non-normative

  1. “Report talk” is associated with _____.
    1. establishing connections with other people
    2. deferring to others
    3. looking for similarities
    4. exhibiting knowledge (Recall, Easy)

  1. “Rapport talk” is associated with _____.
    1. looking for similarities and matching experiences (Recall, Easy)
    2. a desire to stand out
    3. a desire to reinforce or maintain status
    4. none of the above

  1. A culture in which people tend to value punctuality, agendas, schedules, and deadlines would be described as having a _____ time orientation.
    1. Type A
    2. Type B
    3. fluid
    4. fixed (Recall, Easy)

  1. People with a “monochronic” time orientation _____.
    1. prefer to do one thing at a time (Recall, Moderate)
    2. procrastinate
    3. start projects early
    4. prefer to do many things at once

  1. Antonio believes that the most productive way to achieve a goal is to move forward step-by-step in a linear, sequential fashion. This suggests Antonio has which of the following orientations toward time?
    1. linear (Recall, Easy)
    2. cyclical
    3. projective
    4. none of the above

  1. Cultures that focus on obtaining truth through scientific methods use _________________ reasoning.
    1. inductive (Recall, Easy)
    2. separative
    3. mono-scientific
    4. deductive

  1. Traditions, routines, and predictability are favored by people with ____.
    1. high uncertainty avoidance (Recall, Easy)
    2. low uncertainty avoidance
    3. high intrinsic motivation
    4. low intrinsic motivation

  1. You have just joined a new team in your organization. As you are getting to know people, you notice that one person is very quiet. You automatically assume that the reason the person is quiet is because she is from a particular national culture. This is an example of _____.
    1. stereotyping (Applied, Moderate)
    2. cultural diversity
    3. multiple cultural identity group memberships
    4. diverging worldviews

  1. The best way to manage a diverse group of employees is to _____.
    1. encourage the minority members to act like the majority
    2. assume that people will overcome cultural barriers on their own
    3. enhance your personal multicultural competence and model appropriate behavior (Recall, Easy)
    4. minimize non-work interactions between employees from different cultural groups

  1. According to the textbook, stereotyping _____.
    1. involves the assumption that characteristics thought to be common in a cultural group apply to every member
    2. tends to be one dimensional – it involves overemphasizing a person’s membership in one cultural-identity group and underemphasizing other factors that also shape that person’s worldview and behaviors
    3. narrows our perspective and behavior
    4. All of the above (Recall, Moderate)

  1. Cognitive complexity refers to ______.
    1. a high task orientation when working with diverse teams
    2. the degree of complexity with which a person takes in and makes sense of information and experiences (Recall, Moderate)
    3. an analytical view of the self
    4. none of the above

  1. Which of the following characteristics predicts high multicultural competence?
    1. cognitive complexity
    2. openness to experience
    3. high need for cognition
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)

  1. Which of the following characteristics is most related to managerial effectiveness cross cultures?
    1. analytical sophistication
    2. perfectionism
    3. rigidity
    4. cognitive complexity (Recall, Moderate)

  1. According to the textbook, culture-specific skills for effective multicultural managers include all but one of the following. Which one?
    1. learn the work norms
    2. understand the social context
    3. use an individualistic orientation (Recall, Easy)
    4. understand the do’s and taboos

  1. People who are most likely to develop multicultural competence have which of the following qualities?
    1. curiosity
    2. openness
    3. empathy
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

  1. Which of the following professional schools in the U.S. have the lowest proportion of women as students?
    1. medical
    2. law
    3. business (Recall, Easy)
    4. nursing

  1. “Reindeer games” refer to _____.
    1. social activities that are not obviously work related but that provide opportunities to network, become visible, and gain other benefits ( Recall, Easy)
    2. forms of sexual harassment in which women target men for harassment
    3. socially approved means of hazing newcomers to the organization
    4. none of the above

TRUE/FALSE

  1. Organizations that promote an “integration and learning” approach to diversity are more likely to be successful at leveraging diversity than organizations that promote an “access and legitimacy” approach.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

  1. The statement “doing gender” refers to the belief that demographic categories are, in part, socially created rather than natural distinctions.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

  1. People from cultures that promote an independent view of the self are more likely to appreciate being singled out for praise.
    1. True (Recall, Easy)
    2. False

  1. People from cultures that promote an ascriptive view of success believe that status is achieved primarily through personal achievements.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)

  1. Amit believes that his manager should be called by his formal title and that the chain of command should be carefully followed when he has a problem. Amit’s beliefs reflect a low power distance orientation.
    1. True
    2. False (Applied, Moderate)

  1. Cultures promote the belief that “a rule is a rule” and should be applied to all people regardless of situations would be considered universalistic.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

  1. Anat says to her employees, “I say what I mean, and I mean what I say.” This statement reflects a high context orientation toward communication.
    1. True
    2. False (Applied, Moderate)

  1. Anat works in the research and development department of a pharmaceutical company. She needs to meet with people from the marketing department often. She believes that an important goal of these meetings is to build relationships across departments, and she spends the early part of her meetings getting to know the different people who are attending the meetings. Based on this information, Anat is demonstrating “rapport talk”.
    1. True (Recall, Easy)
    2. False

  1. Inductive reasoning emphasizes data, facts, objectivity, proof, direct observation, cause-and-effect, breaking things down into small parts, and understanding the separate parts.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

  1. Gender is, in part, determined by societal norms.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

  1. A “high need for cognition” refers to having a tendency to participate in and enjoy experiences that require using stereotypes in problem solving.”
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)

  1. People with high multicultural competence tend to be high in cognitive complexity.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

  1. Learning the history of a particular country can help you to be more effective when doing business with people from that country.
    1. True (Recall, Easy)
    2. False

  1. An effective multicultural manager needs culture-general skills, but not culture-specific skills.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)

  1. According to Cox, effectively managing diversity requires creating a climate in which the potential advantages of diversity for organizational performance are maximized while the potential disadvantages are minimized.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

  1. “Reindeer games” may be illegal under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

ESSAY QUESTIONS

  1. Identify at least five cultural differences that may affect work behavior. Briefly explain each.

  • Independence/interdependence: How much a person (or culture) emphasizes taking care of self versus connecting with others.
  • Doing/being: How much a person (or culture) stresses achievements, accomplishments, or improvements versus stressing personal qualities, relationships, and quality of life.
  • Achievement/ascription-based status: How much a person (or culture) believes that a person gains status by educational attainment, skills, or talents, versus age, family, social connections, and birth class.
  • High/low-power distance: How much a person (or culture) expects differences in social rank and expect higher ranks to make decisions and give orders, versus expecting differences to be small and/or minimized and lower ranks take independent action.
  • Universalism/particularism: How much a person (or culture) expects that the rules hold for all people and circumstances versus how flexibly rules should be applied.
  • Formality/informality: How much a person adheres to standard rules of decorum.
  • Low context/high context: How much a person believes that words should speak for themselves and how much a person believes that it’s important to be able to read the context in which the words are send in order to get the true meaning.
  • Report/rapport talk: How much a person believes that communication is designed to relay information and how much a person believes that communication is designed to build relationships.
  • Neutral/emotional: How much emotional display is appropriate in communications. In some cultures, it’s seen as a sign of maturity to express one’s emotions. In other cultures, maturity is viewed as the ability to not show one’s emotions.
  • Think while talking/think while quiet: In some cultures, it’s appropriate to “think out loud” even before thoughts are fully developed. In other cultures, one is expected to stay quiet until the thoughts are more fully formulated.
  • Fixed/fluid relationship to time: Some cultures promote punctuality; other cultures are more flexible with appointments and deadlines.
  • Monochronic/polychronic: Some people/cultures promote doing many things at once; other people/cultures promote focusing on one thing at a time.
  • Linear/cyclical view of time: Some cultures experience time passing in a linear, sequential fashion, one event taking place after another. The manager’s goal is to move systematically from one point in time to another toward the future. Other cultures experience time as more cyclical. Every hour, day, week, season, and year follows a predictable cycle. The manager’s goal is to understand the cycle and harmonize with the particular rhythms of the cycle.
  • Past/present/future focus: Cultures differ in the degree to which they emphasize the past, present, and future in making sense of situations and making decisions.
  • Inductive/deductive standards for truth: Cultures that value inductive reasoning emphasize data, facts, objectivity, proof, direct observation, cause and effect, breaking things down into small parts, and understanding the separate parts. People who emphasize inductive reasoning tend to prefer using measurements and scientific methods for investigating problems and justifying conclusions. In contrast, people who emphasize deductive reasoning take a more holistic approach, with many elements and perspectives being held at one time. They tend to stress abstract thinking, symbolism, understanding the whole rather than individual parts, and often rely on analogies, metaphors, and stories for explanations. For people who prefer inductive processes, the credibility of an explanation depends on claims of objectivity and the use of a systematic methodology
  • Seek consistency/maintain contradictions: In some cultures, people tend to categorize the world and their experience in it into clear dichotomies. They believe something is either one way or another—true or false, right or wrong, real or unreal. Contradictions must be resolved for the situation to make sense and for a decision to be made. In other cultures, something can be simultaneously true and false, right and wrong, real and unreal. Contradictions must be maintained to see the complexity of the situation more clearly and to make a well-reasoned decision.
  • Control environment/harmonize with environment: Cultures tend to differ in the degree to which they prefer to control, harmonize with, or adapt to their environment.
  • Change/stability: Some cultures encourage people to see personal and organizational change as productive and stimulating. Such cultures warn that people and organizations must “change or die.” In this view, stability breeds complacency and complacency prevents us from seizing opportunities that are critical for survival. Other cultures encourage people to promote stability over change. Tradition, routines, predictability, and staying the course are the foundations of long-term survival. In this view, change and uncertainty create anxiety that can be damaging to important traditions and routines that are critical to achieving steady progress toward individual, organizational, and societal goals.
  • Make my own choices/have others make choices for me: This refers to the degree in which cultures promote a sense of personal control by providing many choices (e.g., making your own decisions about what to do next; offering 50 brands of toothpaste on supermarket shelves) versus having someone else limit your choices or make choices for you (e.g., doing what the boss tells you to do and trusting that the boss will give you good advice; offering 3 brands of toothpaste on the supermarket shelves).
  • Live to work/work to live: Some cultures place work more central to life than others.

  1. Describe the differences between the integration and learning, access and legitimacy and discrimination and fairness strategies for managing diversity in organizations. Also explain which one is most successful for managing diversity and why.

Many organizations focus their diversity efforts primarily on achieving recruitment and retention targets for diverse groups. While they may achieve their demographic targets, they fail to draw on the new resources (e.g., values, perspectives, knowledge, skills, and experiences) that members of these diverse groups bring to the organization in ways that can help the organization assess and improve taken-for-granted work processes. Researchers Robin Ely and David Thomas explain that “the staff…gets diversified, but the work does not. Although these organizations may have good intentions, their narrow focus on changing the “numbers” without changing their fundamental assumptions about how work gets done (e.g., how decisions should be made, how work hours should be arranged) can backfire. Without a change in the organizational culture, minority employees in these organizations may feel marginalized, unable to identify with the organization, and become frustrated at their inability to use their perspectives and talents in ways that can help their organizations be more successful. In their research, Ely and Thomas identified three different strategies that organizations use to manage their diverse workforces, with the “integration and learning strategy” offering the most benefits. They describe the three perspectives as follows:

  • Integration and learning. Organizations that use this perspective to manage diversity go beyond achieving demographic targets. These organizations view the “the insights, skills, and experiences” employees from multiple groups offer as valuable resources that enable the organization to “rethink its primary tasks and redefine its markets, products, strategies, and business practices in ways that will advance its mission. This perspective links diversity to work processes—the way that people do and experience work—in a manner that makes diversity a resource for learning and adaptive change” in ways that can enhance organizational performance
  • Access and legitimacy. Organizations that use this perspective to manage diversity are guided by the assumption that the workforce demographics should reflect the diversity of the markets and constituencies served by the organization. The diverse workforce is viewed as a way to gain legitimacy within and access to these markets and constituents. Ely and Thomas argue that organizations “in which this perspective prevails use their diversity only at the margins, to connect with a more diverse market; they do not incorporate the cultural competencies of their diverse workforces into their core functions” in ways that can actually improve the way work gets done and enhance organizational performance.
  • Discrimination and fairness: Organizations that use this perspective to manage diversity view a diverse workforce is “a moral imperative to ensure justice and the fair treatment of all members of society. It focuses diversification efforts on providing equal access opportunities in hiring and promotion, suppressing prejudicial attitudes, and eliminating discrimination.” As with the access and legitimacy perspective, the focus – while well intentioned – is primarily on increasing the pool of diverse talent without necessarily using the resources this diverse pool of talent brings to the organization in ways that can improve organizational performance.

In short, organizations that use the integration and learning perspective to manage diversity have a competitive advantage because they enable all members of the organization to work together to learn from each other, broaden their perspectives, increase their adaptability, and expand their behavioral repertoires in innovative ways that help their organizations get better results in less time using fewer resources.

  1. Describe at least 6 strategies for creating an effective multicultural workplace.

Managers can encourage an effective multicultural workplace by:

  1. Ensuring top level commitment to diversity
  2. Modeling desired behavior
  3. Obtaining appropriate information about diversity efforts
  4. Knowing the law, and educating everyone
  5. Breaking the “glass ceiling” in the organization
  6. Endorsing support groups
  7. Changing the way work is done
  8. Paying attention to cultural artifacts such as language, stories, rites and rituals, and other symbolic norms
  9. Creating a common identity
  10. Increasing interaction between diverse groups
  11. Developing external relationships with diverse groups
  12. Measuring results and rewarding progress toward diversity goals
  13. Avoiding “reindeer games” in which members of some identity groups are systematically excluded from non-work related events (e.g., golf, clubs) that provide work-related benefits such as information and contacts.

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