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## Managerial Economics & Business Strategy 8th Edition by Michael Baye – Test Bank A+

\$35.00 Managerial Economics & Business Strategy 8th Edition by Michael Baye – Test Bank A+

Chapter 05

The Production Process and Costs

Multiple Choice Questions

1.Suppose the marginal product of labor is 8 and the marginal product of capital is 2. If the wage rate is \$4 and the price of capital is \$2, then in order to minimize costs the firm should use:

 A. more capital and less labor.

 B. more labor and less capital.

 C. three times more capital than labor.

 D. none of the answers are correct.

2.Suppose the production function is Q = min{K, 2L}. How much output is produced when 4 units of labor and 9 units of capital are employed?

 A. 2

 B. 4

 C. 8

 D. 9

3.Suppose the production function is given by Q = 3K + 4L. What is the average product of capital when 10 units of capital and 10 units of labor are employed?

 A. 3

 B. 4

 C. 7

 D. 45

4.Suppose the production function is given by Q = 3K + 4L. What is the marginal product of capital when 10 units of capital and 10 units of labor are employed?

 A. 3

 B. 4

 C. 11

 D. 45

5.Suppose the production function is given by Q = min{K, L}. How much output is produced when 10 units of labor and 9 units of capital are employed?

 A. 0

 B. 4

 C. 9

 D. 13

6.Suppose the production function is given by Q = min{K, L}. How much output is produced when 4 units of labor and 9 units of capital are employed?

 A. 0

 B. 4

 C. 9

 D. 13

7.Suppose the production function is given by Q = 3K + 4L. What is the marginal product of capital when 5 units of capital and 10 units of labor are employed?

 A. 3

 B. 4

 C. 11

 D. 45

8.Suppose the production function is given by Q = 3K + 4L. What is the average product of capital when 5 units of capital and 10 units of labor are employed?

 A. 3

 B. 4

 C. 11

 D. 45

9.For the cost function C(Q) = 100 + 2Q + 3Q2, the marginal cost of producing 2 units of output is:

 A. 2

 B. 3

 C. 12

 D. 14

10.For the cost function C(Q) = 100 + 2Q + 3Q2, the average fixed cost of producing 2 units of output is:

 A. 100

 B. 50

 C. 3

 D. 2

11.For the cost function C(Q) = 100 + 2Q + 3Q2, the total variable cost of producing 2 units of output is:

 A. 16

 B. 12

 C. 4

 D. None of the answers are correct.

12.If a firm’s production function is Leontief and the wage rate goes up, the:

 A. firm must use more labor in order to minimize the cost of producing a given level of output.

 B. firm must use more capital in order to minimize the cost of producing a given level of output.

 C. firm must use less labor in order to minimize the cost of producing a given level of output.

 D. cost minimizing combination of capital and labor does not change.

13.Which of the following statements is incorrect?

 A. Fixed costs do not vary with output.

 B. Sunk costs are those costs that are forever lost after they have been paid.

 C. Fixed costs are always greater than sunk costs.

 D. Fixed costs could be positive when sunk costs are zero.

14.You are an efficiency expert hired by a manufacturing firm that uses K and L as inputs. The firm produces and sells a given output. If w = \$40, r = \$100, MPL = 20, and MPK = 40 the firm:

 A. is cost minimizing.

 B. should use less L and more K to cost minimize.

 C. should use more L and less K to cost minimize.

 D. is profit maximizing but not cost minimizing.

15.The production function Q = L.5K.5 is called:

 A. Cobb Douglas.

 B. Leontief.

 C. linear.

 D. None of the answers are correct.

16.The production function for a competitive firm is Q = K.5L.5. The firm sells its output at a price of \$10, and can hire labor at a wage of \$5. Capital is fixed at 25 units. The profit-maximizing quantity of labor is:

 A. 1

 B. 2

 C. 10

 D. None of the answers are correct.

17.You are an efficiency expert hired by a manufacturing firm that uses K and L as inputs. The firm produces and sells a given output. If w = \$40, r = \$100, MPL = 4, and MPK = 40 the firm:

 A. is cost minimizing.

 B. should use less L and more K to cost minimize.

 C. should use more K and less L to cost minimize.

 D. is profit maximizing but not cost minimizing.

18.If the production function is Q = K.5L.5 and capital is fixed at 1 unit, then the average product of labor when L = 25 is:

 A. 2/5.

 B. 1/5.

 C. 10

 D. None of the answers are correct.

19.For a cost function C = 100 + 10Q + Q2, the marginal cost of producing 10 units of output is:

 A. 10

 B. 200

 C. 210

 D. None of the answers are correct.

20.For a cost function C = 100 + 10Q + Q2, the average variable cost of producing 20 units of output is:

 A. 10

 B. 20

 C. 30

 D. None of the answers are correct.

21.For a cost function C = 100 + 10Q + Q2, the average fixed cost of producing 10 units of output is:

 A. 10

 B. 5

 C. 1

 D. None of the answers are correct.

22.Which of the following conditions is true when a producer minimizes the cost of producing a given level of output?

 A. The MRTS is equal to the ratio of input prices.

 B. The marginal product per dollar spent on all inputs is equal.

 C. The marginal products of all inputs are equal.

 D. The MRTS is equal to the ratio of input prices, and the marginal product per dollar spent on all inputs is equal.

23.If the production function is Q = KL and capital is fixed at 1 unit, then the marginal product of labor when L = 25 is:

 A. ¼.

 B. 1/10.

 C. 15

 D. None of the answers are correct.

24.The production function for a competitive firm is Q = K.5L.5. The firm sells its output at a price of \$10, and can hire labor at a wage of \$5. Capital is fixed at one unit. The profit-maximizing quantity of labor is:

 A. 2/5.

 B. 1

 C. 10

 D. None of the answers are correct.

25.The production function for a competitive firm is Q = K.5L.5. The firm sells its output at a price of \$10, and can hire labor at a wage of \$5. Capital is fixed at one unit and costs \$2. The maximum profits are:

 A. 3

 B. 10

 C. 15

 D. None of the answers are correct.

26.The feasible means of converting raw inputs such as steel, labor, and machinery into an output are summarized by:

 A. Land.

 B. Production.

 C. Capital.

 D. Technology.

27.The recipe that defines the maximum amount of output that can be produced with K units of capital and L units of labor is the:

 A. Production function.

 B. Technological constraint.

 C. Research and development schedule.

 D. Total product.

28.The creation of a new product is referred to as:

 A. Process innovation.

 B. Independent research and development.

 C. Product innovation.

 D. Patent disclosure.

29.Which of the following is NOT a means of acquiring product and process innovations?

 A. Independent research and development

 B. Mass production of the existing product

 C. Reverse engineering

 D. Hiring employees of innovating firms

30.Inputs a manager may adjust in order to alter production are:

 A. all factors.

 B. variable factors.

 C. long-run factors.

 D. fixed factors.

31.What is the average product of labor, given that the level of labor equals 10, total output equals 1200, and the marginal product of labor equals 200?

 A. 20

 B. 120

 C. 6

 D. 2,000

32.The change in total output attributable to the last unit of an input is the:

 A. total product.

 B. average product.

 C. marginal product.

 D. marginal return.

33.If the last unit of input increases total product, we know that the marginal product is:

 A. positive.

 B. negative.

 C. zero.

 D. indeterminate.

34.Total product begins to fall when:

 A. Marginal product is maximized.

 B. Average product is below zero.

 C. Average product is negative.

 D. Marginal product is zero.

35.What is the value marginal product of labor if: P = \$10, MPL = \$25, and APL = 40?

 A. \$10,000

 B. \$1,000

 C. \$400

 D. \$250

36.It is profitable to hire units of labor as long as the value of marginal product:

 A. is less than wage.

 B. exceeds average product.

 C. equals price.

 D. exceeds wage.

37.Given the following table, how many workers should be hired to maximize profits?

 A. 1

 B. 2

 C. 3

 D. 4

38.Firm managers should use inputs at levels where the:

 A. Marginal benefit equals marginal cost.

 B. Price equals marginal product.

 C. Value marginal product of labor equals wage.

 D. Marginal benefit equals marginal cost and value marginal product of labor equals wage.

39.Given the linear production function Q = 10K + 5L, if Q = 10,000 and K = 500, how much labor is utilized?

 A. 600 units

 B. 800 units

 C. 500 units

 D. 1,000 units

40.Given the Leontief production function Q = min{5.5K, 6.7L}, how much output is produced when K = 40 and L = 35?

 A. 220

 B. 234.5

 C. 192.5

 D. 268

41.Suppose the production function is given by Q = K1/2L1/2, and that Q = 30 and K = 25. How much labor is employed by the firm?

 A. 49

 B. 6

 C. 36

 D. 25

42.Given the production function Q = min{4K, 3L}, what is the average product of capital when 8 units of capital and 16 units of labor are used?

 A. 16

 B. 2

 C. 4

 D. 32

43.For the production function Q = 5.2K + 3.8L, if K = 16 and L = 12, we know that MPK is:

 A. 16

 B. 5.2.

 C. 3.8.

 D. 12

44.The combinations of inputs that produce a given level of output are depicted by:

 A. indifference curves.

 B. budget lines.

 C. isocost curves.

 D. isoquants.

45.Isoquants are normally drawn with a convex shape because:

 A. inputs are perfectly substitutable.

 B. inputs are perfectly complementary.

 C. inputs are not perfectly substitutable.

 D. inputs are not perfectly complementary.

46.The absolute value of the slope of the isoquant is the:

 A. marginal rate of technical substitution.

 B. marginal product of capital.

 C. marginal rate of substitution.

 D. value marginal product of labor.

47.The production function is Q = K.6 L.4. The marginal rate of technical substitution is:

 A. 2/3 K-1 L.

 B. K-1 L-1.

 C. 2/3 K L-1.

 D. K.4 L-.6.

48.The Leontief production function implies:

 A. straight-line isoquants.

 B. convex-shaped isoquants.

 C. A positive MRTS.

 D. L-shaped isoquants.

49.In order for isoquants to have a diminishing marginal rate of substitution, they must be:

 A. L-shaped.

 B. straight lines.

 C. vertical.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

50.Changes in the price of an input cause:

 A. isoquants to become steeper.

 B. slope changes in the isocost line.

 C. parallel shifts of the isocost lines.

 D. changes in both the isoquants and isocosts of equal magnitude.

51.Which of the following sets of economic data is minimizing the cost of producing a given level of output?

 A. MPL = 20, MPK = 40, w = \$16, r = \$32.

 B. MPL = 20, MPK = 40, w = \$32, r = \$16.

 C. MPL = 40, MPK = 20, w = \$16, r = \$32.

 D. MPL = 40, MPK = 40, w = \$16, r = \$32.

52.In order to minimize the cost of producing a given level of output, a firm manager should use more inputs when:

 A. that input’s price rises.

 B. that input’s price falls.

 C. that input’s price remains the same.

 D. the prices of other inputs fall.

53.Fixed costs exist only in:

 A. the long run.

 B. capital-intensive markets.

 C. the short run.

 D. labor-intensive markets.

54.Costs that change as output changes are:

 A. variable costs.

 B. fixed costs.

 C. sunk costs.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

55.Costs that are forever lost after they have been paid are:

 A. production costs.

 B. fixed costs.

 C. sunk costs.

 D. variable costs.

56.Suppose you are a manager of a factory. You purchase five (5) new machines at one million dollars each. If you can resell two of the machines for \$500,000 and three of the machines for \$200,000, what are the sunk costs of purchasing the machines?

 A. \$5 million

 B. \$500,000

 C. \$3.4 million

 D. \$1.6 million

57.According to the table below, what is the total cost of producing 125 units of output?

 A. 1,000

 B. 2,050

 C. 1,400

 D. 2,400

58.According to the table below, what is the average variable cost of producing 50 units of output?

 A. 21

 B. 34

 C. 14

 D. 20

59.According to the table below, what is the average total cost of producing 160 units of output?

 A. 12.98

 B. 16.31

 C. 22.04

 D. 19.38

60.According to the table below, what is the marginal cost of producing 90 units of output?

 A. 5.32

 B. 8.75

 C. 11.67

 D. 21

61.According to the table below, at what level of output is marginal cost minimized?

 A. 90

 B. 50

 C. 125

 D. 160

62.Which curve(s) does the marginal cost curve intersect at the (their) minimum point?

 A. Average total cost curve

 B. Average fixed cost curve

 C. Average variable cost curve

 D. Average total cost curve and average variable cost curve

63.Given a cost function C(Q) = 200 + 14Q + 8Q2, what is the marginal cost function?

 A. 14 + 16Q

 B. 14Q + 8Q2

 C. 200 + 8Q2

 D. 14 + 16Q2

64.What is implied when the total cost of producing Q1 and Q2 together is less than the total cost of producing Q1 and Q2 separately?

 A. Economies of scale

 B. Diminishing average fixed costs

 C. Cost complementarity

 D. Economies of scope

65.For the cost function C(Q) = 1000 + 14Q + 9Q2 + 3Q3, what is the marginal cost of producing the fourth unit of output?

 A. \$42

 B. \$295

 C. \$230

 D. \$116

66.For the cost function C(Q) = 200 + 3Q + 8Q2 + 4Q3, what is the average fixed cost of producing six units of output?

 A. 18.31

 B. 212.61

 C. 42.12

 D. 33.33

67.Which of the following cost functions exhibits cost complementarity?

 A. -4Q1Q2 + 8Q1.

 B. -4Q2 + 8Q1.

 C. 6Q1Q2 – Q1.

 D. 4Q2Q1 + 8Q1.

68.For the multiproduct cost function C(Q1, Q2) = 100 + 2Q1Q2 + 4Q12, what is the marginal cost function for good one?

 A. MC1 = 2Q2 + 4Q1 – Q22.

 B. MC1 = 2Q2 + 8Q1.

 C. MC1 = 100 + 2Q1Q2 + 4Q12.

 D. MC1 = 4Q12 – 2Q22.

69.Which of the following cost functions exhibits economies of scope when three (3) units of good one and two (2) units of good two are produced?

 A. C = 50 – 5Q1Q2 + 0.5Q12 + Q22.

 B. C = 10 + 4Q1Q2 + Q12 + Q22.

 C. C = 15 + 5Q1Q2 + 2Q1 + 4Q2.

 D. C = 5 + Q1Q2 + Q12Q22.

70.The minimum average cost of producing alternate levels of output, allowing for optimal selection of all variables of production is defined by the:

 A. long-run average total cost curve.

 B. short-run average fixed cost curve.

 C. short-run marginal cost curve.

 D. long-run marginal cost curve.

71.A production function:

 A. defines the minimum amount of output that can be produced with inputs such as capital and labor.

 B. defines the average amount of output that can be produced with inputs such as capital and labor.

 C. represents the technology available for turning inputs into output.

 D. is determined only by the expenditures on R&D.

72.Which of the following is the most common source of technology?

 A. independent R&D

 B. licensing technology

 C. publications or technical meetings

 D. reverse engineering

73.Variable factors of production are the inputs that a manager:

 A. may adjust in order to alter sales.

 B. may adjust in order to alter production.

 C. cannot adjust in the short run.

 D. cannot adjust in the long run.

74.The short run is defined as the time frame:

 A. in which there are no fixed factors of production.

 B. in which there are fixed factors of production.

 C. less than one year.

 D. less than three years.

75.The long run is defined as:

 A. the horizon in which the manager can adjust all factors of production.

 B. the horizon in which there are only fixed factors of production.

 C. the horizon in which there are both fixed and variable factors of production.

 D. greater than one year.

76.Which of the following is NOT a measure of productivity?

 A. Total product

 B. Marginal product

 D. Input-output ratio

77.The marginal product of an input is defined as the change in:

 A. average output attributable to the last unit of an input.

 B. total output attributable to the last unit of an input.

 C. total input attributable to the last unit of an output.

 D. average output attributable to the last unit of an output.

78.As long as marginal product is increasing, marginal product is:

 A. less than average product.

 B. greater than average product.

 C. equal to average output.

 D. equal to total product.

79.As the usage of an input increases, marginal product:

 A. initially increases then begins to decline.

 B. initially decreases then begins to increase.

 C. consistently decreases.

 D. consistently increases.

80.If a firm is operating on the production function, then workers:

 A. must be putting forth maximal effort.

 B. may not be putting forth maximal effort.

 C. are usually putting forth average effort.

 D. are usually putting forth minimal effort.

81.The manager institutes an incentive structure to ensure:

 A. workers are in fact working at the expected potential.

 B. workers are in fact working at their utility-maximizing effort level.

 C. the firm produces on the production function.

 D. the firm produces above the production function.

82.The value of marginal product of an input is the value of the:

 A. total output produced by total inputs.

 B. average output produced by inputs.

 C. output produced by the last unit of an input.

 D. output produced by the first unit of an input.

83.It is profitable to hire labor so long as the:

 A. MPL is greater than wage.

 B. MPL is less than wage.

 C. VMPL is less than wage.

 D. VMPL is greater than wage.

84.The demand for labor by a profit-maximizing firm is determined by:

 A. MPL = MC.

 B. VMPL = MC.

 C. MPL = W.

 D. VMPL = W.

85.The demand for an input is:

 A. sloping upward.

 B. the VMP of the input.

 C. determined by MPL = W.

 D. derived from input owner’s profit-maximizing condition.

86.The Leontief production function:

 A. implies inputs are used in variable proportions.

 B. implies inputs are used in fixed proportions.

 C. is Q = max{bK, cL}.

 D. is Q = aK + bL.

87.With a linear production function there is a:

 A. perfect complementary relationship between all inputs.

 B. perfect substitutable relationship between all inputs.

 C. fixed-proportion relationship between all inputs.

 D. variable-proportion relationship between all inputs.

88.The Cobb-Douglas production function is:

 A. Q = aK + bL.

 B. Q = min{bK, cL}.

 C. Q = max{bK, cL}.

 D. Q = KaLb.

89.The average product of labor depends on how many units of:

 A. labor are used.

 B. capital are used.

 C. labor and capital are used.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

90.The marginal product of capital for the Cobb-Douglas production function is given by:

 A. bKa Lb-1.

 B. aKa-1 Lb.

 C. aKa-1 Lb-1.

 D. bKa Lb.

91.An isoquant defines the combination of inputs that yield the producer:

 A. higher levels of output than the desired level of output.

 B. lower levels of output than the desired level of output.

 C. the same level of output.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

92.The isoquants are normally drawn with a convex shape because inputs are:

 A. not perfectly substitutable.

 B. perfectly substitutable.

 C. perfect complements.

 D. normal goods.

93.The marginal rate of technical substitution:

 A. determines the rate at which a producer can substitute between two inputs in order to increase one additional unit of output.

 B. is the absolute value of the slope of the isoquant.

 C. is the absolute value of marginal revenue.

 D. is constant along the isoquant curve.

94.Whenever an isoquant exhibits a diminishing marginal rate of technical substitution, the corresponding isoquants are:

 A. convex to the origin.

 B. concave to the origin.

 C. L-shaped.

 D. linear.

95.An isocost line:

 A. represents the combinations of w and K that cost the firm the same amount of money.

 B. represents the combinations of K and L that cost the firm the same amount of money.

 C. represents the combinations of r and w that cost the firm the same amount of money.

 D. has a convex shape.

96.For given input prices, isocosts farther from the origin are associated with:

 A. lower costs.

 B. the same costs.

 C. higher costs.

 D. initially lower, then higher costs.

97.If the marginal product per dollar spent on capital is less than the marginal product per dollar spent on labor, then in order to minimize costs the firm should use:

 A. less capital and more labor.

 B. less labor and more capital.

 C. less labor and less capital.

 D. more labor and more capital.

98.If the price of labor increases, in order to minimize the costs of producing a given level of output, the firm manager should use:

 A. less of labor and more of capital.

 B. less of labor and less of capital.

 C. more of labor and more of capital.

 D. more of labor and less of capital.

99.Sunk costs are those costs that:

 A. do not vary without output.

 B. are forever lost after they have been paid.

 C. can be collected even after they have been paid.

 D. do vary with output.

100.Average fixed cost:

 A. initially declines, reaches a minimum, and then begins to increase as output increases.

 B. increases continuously as output increases.

 C. declines continuously as output is expanded.

 D. keeps constant as output is expanded.

101.The marginal cost curve:

 A. lies always below the average total cost curve (ATC).

 B. lies always above the average variable cost curve (AVC).

 C. intersects the ATC and AVC at their maximum points.

 D. intersects the ATC and AVC at their minimum points.

102.When marginal cost curve is below an average cost curve, average cost is:

 A. increasing with output.

 B. declining with output.

 C. not varying with output.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

103.The difference between average total costs and average variable costs is:

 A. marginal cost.

 B. average fixed cost.

 C. fixed cost.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

104.Economies of scope exist when:

 A. C(Q1) + C(Q2) < C(Q1, Q2).

 B. C(Q1) – C(Q2) < C(Q1, Q2).

 C. C(Q1) + C(Q2) > C(Q1, Q2).

 D. C(Q1) – C(Q2) > C(Q1, Q2).

105.Cost complementarity exists in a multiproduct cost function when:

 A. the average cost of producing one output is reduced when the output of another product is increased.

 B. the average cost of producing one output is increased when the output of another product is increased.

 C. the marginal cost of producing one output is increased when the output of another product is decreased.

 D. the marginal cost of producing one output is reduced when the output of another product is increased.

106.Suppose the cost function is C(Q) = 50 + Q – 10Q2 + 2Q3. What are the fixed costs?

 A. \$50

 B. \$10

 C. \$1

 D. \$2

107.Suppose the cost function is C(Q) = 50 + Q – 10Q2 + 2Q3. What is the total cost of producing 10 units?

 A. \$2,060

 B. \$1,060

 C. \$560

 D. \$1,010

108.Suppose the cost function is C(Q) = 50 + Q – 10Q2 + 2Q3. What is the variable cost of producing 10 units?

 A. \$401

 B. \$1,060

 C. \$560

 D. \$1,010

109.Suppose the cost function is C(Q) = 50 + Q – 10Q2 + 2Q3. What is the marginal cost of producing 10 units?

 A. \$401

 B. \$1,060

 C. \$560

 D. \$1,010

110.Suppose the cost function is C(Q) = 50 + Q – 10Q2 + 2Q3. At 10 units of output, the average cost curve is:

 A. in the increasing stage.

 B. in the declining stage.

 C. at the minimum level.

 D. at the maximum level.

111.When there are economies of scope between two products which are separately produced by two firms, merging into a single firm can:

 A. accomplish an increase in sales.

 B. accomplish a reduction in costs.

 C. lead to an increase in cost.

 D. lead to a reduction in sales.

112.When there are economies of scope between products, selling off an unprofitable subsidiary could lead to:

 A. a major reduction in costs.

 B. only a minor reduction in costs.

 C. only a minor reduction in sales.

 D. a major reduction in sales.

113.Economies of scale exist whenever long-run average costs:

 A. increase as output is increased.

 B. decrease as output is increased.

 C. remain constant as output is increased.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

114.The long-run average cost curve defines the minimum average cost of producing alternative levels of output, allowing for optimal selection of:

 A. fixed factors of production.

 B. variable factors of production.

 C. all factors of production.

 D. sunk cost factors of production.

115.The costs of production include:

 A. the costs that appear on the income statements.

 B. the opportunity costs foregone by producing a given product.

 C. accounting costs.

 D. accounting costs and opportunity costs.

116.Suppose the long-run average cost curve is U-shaped. When LRAC is in the increasing stage, there exist:

 A. economies of scope.

 B. diseconomies of scope.

 C. economies of scale.

 D. diseconomies of scale.

117.Constant returns to scale exist when long-run average costs:

 A. increase as output is increased.

 B. decrease as output is increased.

 C. remain constant as output is increased.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

118.Larger firms can produce a product at lower average cost than small firms when:

 A. economies of scope exist.

 B. diseconomies of scale exist.

 C. economies of scale exist.

 D. cost complementarities exist.

119.Two firms producing identical products may merge due to the existence of:

 A. economies of scope.

 B. economies of scale.

 C. cost complementarities.

 D. All of the statements are correct.

120.Suppose the marginal product of labor is 10 and the marginal product of capital is 8. If the wage rate is \$5 and the price of capital is \$2, then in order to minimize costs the firm should use:

 A. more capital and less labor.

 B. more labor and less capital.

 C. equal amounts of labor and capital.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

121.Suppose the production function is Q = min{3K, L}. How much output is produced when 6 units of labor and 3 units of capital are employed?

 A. 3

 B. 6

 C. 9

 D. None of the statements is correct.

122.Suppose the production function is given by Q = 2K + 5L. What is the marginal product of labor when 15 units of capital and 10 units of labor are employed?

 A. 2

 B. 5

 C. 25

 D. 50

123.Suppose the production function is given by Q = 4K + 6L. What is the average product of capital when 10 units of capital and 5 units of labor are employed?

 A. 14

 B. 10

 C. 7

 D. 5

124.For the cost function C(Q) = 75 + 4Q + 2Q2, the marginal cost of producing 5 units of output is:

 A. 4

 B. 54

 C. 20

 D. 24

125.For the cost function C(Q) = 50 + 4Q + 2Q2, the total variable cost of producing 7 units of output is:

 A. 32

 B. 102

 C. 126

 D. None of the answers are correct.

126.If a firm’s production function is Leontief and the price of capital goes down, the:

 A. firm must use less labor in order to minimize the cost of producing a given level of output.

 B. firm must use more capital in order to minimize the cost of producing a given level of output.

 C. firm must use less capital in order to minimize the cost of producing a given level of output.

 D. cost-minimizing combination of capital and labor does not change.

127.Which of the following “costs” could a firm that wants to remain in business avoid if it halted current production?

 A. Fixed costs

 B. Variable costs

 C. Sunk costs

 D. Opportunity costs

128.If the production function is Q = K.5L.5 and capital is fixed at 1 unit, then the average product of labor when L = 36 is:

 A. 1/3.

 B. 1/6.

 C. 2/3.

 D. None of the answers are correct.

129.Which of the following conditions is true when a producer minimizes the cost of producing a given level of output?

 A. The marginal product per dollar spent on all inputs is equal.

 B. The MRTS is equal to the ratio of the quantity of inputs.

 C. The marginal products of all inputs are equal.

 D. The marginal product per dollar spent on all inputs is equal and the MRTS is equal to the ratio of the quantity of inputs.

130.The inputs that a manager uses to alter production are referred to as:

 A. variable factors.

 B. long-run factors.

 C. fixed factors.

 D. All of the statements are correct.

131.The point where diminishing marginal returns has begun to affect production is best characterized by the point where the:

 A. total product curve flattens out.

 B. average product curve begins to be negatively sloped.

 C. marginal product curve begins to be negatively sloped.

 D. marginal product curve equals the average product curve.

132.Changes in the price of an input cause:

 A. isoquants to become steeper.

 B. slope changes in the isocost line.

 C. parallel shifts of the isocost lines.

 D. changes in both the isoquants and isocosts of equal magnitude.

133.In the short run, the marginal cost curve crosses the average total cost curve at:

 A. a point just below the average fixed cost curve.

 B. the minimum point of the average total cost curve.

 C. the maximum point of the average total cost curve.

 D. the point where the average total cost curve and average variable cost curve intersect.

134.Which of the following cost functions exhibits cost complementarity?

 A. -3Q2 + 4Q1

 B. 5Q1Q2 – Q1

 C. Q2Q1 + 2Q1

 D. -5Q1Q2 + 7Q1

135.Which of the following cost functions exhibits economies of scope over the specified output range?

 A. C(Q1, Q2) = 2 – 0.5Q1Q2 – (Q1)2 + (Q2)2, for all Q1 > 0 and Q2 > 0

 B. C(Q1, Q2) = 2 – 3Q1Q2 – (Q1)2 + (Q2)2, for all Q1 > 0 and Q2 > 0

 C. C(Q1, Q2) = 2 – 0.5Q1Q2 – (Q1)2 + (Q2)2, for all Q1 < 2 and Q2 < 2

 D. C(Q1, Q2) = 2 – 3Q1Q2 – (Q1)2 + (Q2)2, for all Q1 > 4 and Q2 > 4

136.The production function for good X exhibited in the table below is for the:

 A. long run, since K is the fixed input.

 B. short run, since L is the fixed input.

 C. long run, since K is the variable input.

 D. short run, since L is the variable input.

137.The marginal product of capital of producing 2,991 units of output (find point A) in the table below is:

 A. 26.7.

 B. 19.5.

 C. 5.7.

 D. 2.4.

138.The production function for good X in the table below exhibits increasing marginal returns to capital over what output range?

 A. Between 0 and 1,524

 B. Between 0 and 2,991

 C. Between 2,391 and 3,048

 D. Between 3,016 and 2,945

139.The production function in the table below exhibits negative marginal returns to capital over what output range?

 A. Between 0 and 1,524

 B. Between 0 and 2,991

 C. Between 2,391 and 3,048

 D. Between 3,016 and 2,945

140.The production function in the table below exhibits decreasing marginal returns to capital over what output range?

 A. Between 0 and 1,524

 B. Between 0 and 2,991

 C. Between 2,391 and 3,048

 D. Between 3,016 and 2,945

141.The average product of capital of producing 2,991 units of output (find point B) in the table below is:

 A. 11.1.

 B. 21.9.

 C. 37

 D. 73

142.Suppose that production for good X is characterized by the following production function, Q = K0.5L0.5, where K is the fixed input in the short run. If the per-unit rental rate of capital, r, is \$25 and the per-unit wage, w, is \$15, then the fixed cost of using 81 units of capital and 9 units of labor is:

 A. \$2,160.

 B. \$2,025.

 C. \$135.

 D. There is insufficient information to determine the fixed costs.

143.Suppose that production for good X is characterized by the following production function, Q = K0.5L0.5, where K is the fixed input in the short run. If the per-unit rental rate of capital, r, is \$25 and the per-unit wage, w, is \$15, then the variable cost of using 81 units of capital and 9 units of labor is:

 A. \$2,160.

 B. \$2,025.

 C. \$135.

 D. There is insufficient information to determine the variable costs.

144.Suppose that production for good X is characterized by the following production function, Q = K0.5L0.5, where K is the fixed input in the short run. If the per-unit rental rate of capital, r, is \$25 and the per-unit wage, w, is \$15, then the average total cost of using 81 units of capital and 9 units of labor is:

 A. \$5.

 B. \$75.

 C. \$80.

 D. There is insufficient information to determine the average total costs.

145.Suppose that production for good X is characterized by the following production function, Q = K0.5L0.5, where K is the fixed input in the short run. If the per-unit rental rate of capital, r, is \$25 and the per-unit wage, w, is \$15, then the average variable cost of using 81 units of capital and 9 units of labor is:

 A. \$5.

 B. \$75.

 C. \$80.

 D. There is insufficient information to determine the average variable costs.

146.Suppose that production for good X is characterized by the following production function, Q = K0.5L0.5, where K is the fixed input in the short run. If the per-unit rental rate of capital, r, is \$25 and the per-unit wage, w, is \$15, then the average fixed cost of using 81 units of capital and 9 units of labor is:

 A. \$5.

 B. \$75.

 C. \$80.

 D. There is insufficient information to determine the average fixed costs.

147.The derivative, dAC(Q)/dQ = (1/Q2) {Q(dC/dQ) – C(Q)}, illustrates that when:

 A. MC(Q) < AC(Q), average costs increase as output increases.

 B. MC(Q) < AC(Q), average costs decrease as output increases.

 C. MC(Q) > AC(Q), average costs decrease as output increases.

 D. None of the answers are correct.

148.The first-order conditions for maximizing profits, π = P × F(K, L) – wL – rK, are:

 A.

 B. P × MPK – r = 0 and P × MPL – w = 0.

 C. VMPK = r and VMPL = w.

 D. All of the answers are correct.

149.Which of the following profit functions exhibits a Leontief production function?

 A. π = P × K0.75L0.50 – 20L – 35K

 B. π = P × min(2L, 5K) – 20L – 35K

 C. π = P × (3K + 4L) – 20L – 35K

 D. π = P × (3K0.5 + 4L0.5)1/0.2 – 20L – 35K

150.Which of the following profit functions exhibits a linear production function?

 A. π = P × K0.75L0.50 – 20L – 35K

 B. π = P × min(2L, 5K) – 20L – 35K

 C. π = P × (3K + 4L) – 20L – 35K

 D. π = P × (3K0.5 + 4L0.5)1/0.2 – 20L – 35K

151.Which of the following profit functions exhibits a Cobb-Douglas production function?

 A. π = P × K0.75L0.50 – 20L – 35K

 B. π = P × min(2L, 5K) – 20L – 35K

 C. π = P × (3K + 4L) – 20L – 35K

 D. π = P × (3K0.5 + 4L0.5) 1/0.2 – 20L – 35K

152.Which of the following relations is the slope along a given isoquant?

 A.

 B.

 C.

 D.

153.Suppose the w = \$20 and r = \$30. The isocost line for a firm in this industry is:

 A. C = 20K + 30L.

 B. K = 0.033C – 0.66L.

 C. 1.5L + K = 0.5C.

 D. Depends entirely on the functional form of the production function.

154.Suppose the production function is given by Q = 2K + L. If w = \$4 and r = \$4, how many units of K and L will be utilized in the production process?

 A. All K and no L.

 B. All L and no K.

 C. Equal amounts of K and L.

 D. A combination of K and L not represented above.

155.For given input prices, isocosts closer to the origin are associated with:

 A. lower costs.

 B. the same costs.

 C. higher costs.

 D. initially lower, then higher costs.

156.For the cost function C(Q) = 500 + 12Q + 4Q2 + Q3, what is the marginal cost of producing the eighth unit of output?

 A. \$184

 B. \$268

 C. \$524

 D. \$852

157.If the production function is Q = K.5L.5 and capital is fixed at 9 units, then the marginal product of labor when L = 49 is:

 A. 3

 B. 9/98.

 C. 3/14.

 D. None of the answers are correct.

158.Suppose the production function is given by Q = 4K + 3L. What is the average product of labor when 10 units of capital and 5 units of labor are employed?

 A. 3

 B. 4

 C. 11

 D. 45

159.The production function is Q = K.4 L.6. The marginal rate of technical substitution is:

 A. 3/2 K-1 L.

 B. K-1 L-1.

 C. 3/2 K L-1.

 D. K.6 L-.4.

160.For the cost function C(Q) = 100 + 4Q + 19Q2 + 2Q3, what is the marginal cost of producing the fourth unit of output?

 A. \$42

 B. \$295

 C. \$252

 D. \$116

161.Suppose the cost function is C(Q) = 50 + Q – 10Q2 + 2Q3. At 3 units of output, the marginal cost curve is:

 A. in the increasing stage.

 B. in the declining stage.

 C. at the minimum level.

 D. at the maximum level.

162.Suppose that production for good X is characterized by the following production function, Q = K0.5L0.5, where K is the fixed input in the short run. If the per-unit rental rate of capital, r, is \$86.80 and the per-unit wage, w, is \$20, then the average total cost of using 25 units of capital and 49 units of labor is:

 A. \$5.

 B. \$75.

 C. \$90.

 D. There is insufficient information to determine the average total costs.

163.Suppose that production for good X is characterized by the following production function, Q = 4K0.5L0.5, where K is the fixed input in the short run. If the per-unit rental rate of capital, r, is \$86.80 and the per-unit wage, w, is \$20, then the average total cost of using 25 units of capital and 49 units of labor is:

 A. \$5.25.

 B. \$22.50.

 C. \$31.00.

 D. There is insufficient information to determine the average total costs.

164.Suppose that production for good X is characterized by the following production function, Q = 4K0.5L0.5, where K is the fixed input in the short run. If the per-unit rental rate of capital, r, is \$12 and the per-unit wage, w, is \$20, then the average total cost of using 25 units of capital and 49 units of labor is:

 A. \$6.25.

 B. \$9.14.

 C. \$10.07.

 D. There is insufficient information to determine the average total costs.

165.Suppose that production for good X is characterized by the following production function, Q = K0.5L0.5, where K is the fixed input in the short run. If the per-unit rental rate of capital, r, is \$15 and the per-unit wage, w, is \$25, then the average fixed cost of using 9 units of capital and 81 units of labor is:

 A. \$5.

 B. \$75.

 C. \$80.

 D. There is insufficient information to determine the average fixed costs.

166.Suppose that production for good X is characterized by the following production function, Q = K0.5L0.5, where K is the fixed input in the short run. If the per-unit rental rate of capital, r, is \$15 and the per-unit wage, w, is \$125, then the average fixed cost of using 16 units of capital and 25 units of labor is:

 A. \$9.

 B. \$12.

 C. \$56.

 D. There is insufficient information to determine the average fixed costs.

167.Suppose that production for good X is characterized by the following production function, Q = K0.5L0.5, where K is the fixed input in the short run. If the per-unit rental rate of capital, r, is \$15 and the per-unit wage, w, is \$5, then the average fixed cost of using 16 units of capital and 25 units of labor is:

 A. \$9.

 B. \$12.

 C. \$56.

 D. There is insufficient information to determine the average fixed costs.

Essay Questions

 168 Congress is considering legislation that will provide additional investment tax credits to businesses. Effectively, an investment tax credit reduces the cost to firms of using capital in production. Would you expect labor unions to lobby for or against such a bill? (Hint: What impact would such a plan have on the capital-to-labor ratio at the typical firm?)

 169 You have been hired to replace the manager of a firm that used only two inputs, capital and labor, to produce output. The firm can hire as much labor as it wants at a wage of \$5 per hour and can rent as much capital as it wants at a price of \$50 per hour. After you look at the company books, you learn that the company has been using capital and labor in amounts that imply a marginal product of labor of 50 and a marginal product of capital of 100. Do you know why the firm hired you? Explain.

 170 The manager of a meat-packing plant can use either butchers (labor) or meat saws (capital) to prepare packages of sirloin steak. Based on estimates provided by an efficiency expert, the firm’s production function for sirloin steak is given by Q = K + L a. Graph the isoquant corresponding to 5 units of output.b. What is the marginal product of capital and labor? Does the answer depend on how much labor and capital are used?c. If the price of labor is \$2 per hour and the rental price of capital is \$3 per hour, how much capital and labor should be used to minimize the cost of producing 5 units of output?

 171 The manager of a national retailing outlet recently hired an economist to estimate the firm’s production function. Based on the economist’s report, the manager now knows that the firm’s production function is given by and that capital is fixed at 1 unit. a. Calculate the average product of labor when 9 units of labor are utilized.b. Calculate the marginal product of labor when 9 units of labor are utilized.c. Suppose the firm can hire labor at a wage of \$10 per hour and output can be sold at a price of \$100 per unit. Determine the profit-maximizing levels of labor and output.d. What is the maximum price of capital at which the firm will still make nonnegative profits?

 172 An accountant for a car rental company was recently asked to report the firm’s costs of producing various levels of output. The accountant knows that the most recent estimate available of the firm’s cost function is where costs are measured in thousands of dollars and output is measured in thousands of hours rented. a. What is the average fixed cost of producing 2 units of output?b. What is the average variable cost of producing 2 units of output?c. What is the average total cost of producing 2 units of output?d. What is the marginal cost of producing 2 units of output?e. What is the relation between the answers to (a), (b), and (c) above? Is this a general property of average cost curves?

 173 There are over 5,000 banks in the United States—more than 10 times more per person than in other industrialized countries. A recent study suggests that the long-run average cost curve for an individual bank is relatively flat. If Congress took steps to consolidate banks, thereby reducing the total number to 2,500, what would you expect to happen to costs within the banking industry? Explain.

 174 A production function exhibits constant returns to scale if a twofold (threefold, etc.) increase in all inputs leads to a twofold (threefold, etc.) increase in output. For example, by doubling the use of capital and labor, the firm would exactly double its output. a. What would the average and marginal cost curves look like under constant returns to scale? Explain.b. Give an example of a production function that exhibits constant returns to scale.

 175 A production function exhibits decreasing returns to scale if a twofold (threefold, etc.) increase in all inputs increases output by less than twofold (less than threefold, etc.). For example, by doubling the use of capital and labor, the firm would less than double its output. a. What would the average and marginal cost curves look like under decreasing returns to scale? Explain.b. Give an example of a production function that exhibits decreasing returns to scale.

 176 The total costs for Morris Industries are summarized in the following table. Based on this information, fill in the missing entries in the table for fixed cost, variable cost, average fixed cost, average variable cost, average total cost, and marginal cost.

 177 The following table summarizes the short-run production function for your firm. Your product sells for \$5 per unit, labor costs \$5 per unit, and the rental price of capital is \$20 per unit. Complete the following table, and then answer the accompanying questions. a. Which inputs are fixed inputs? Which are the variable inputs?b. How much are your fixed costs?c. What is the variable cost of producing 20 units of output?d. How many units of the variable input should be used to maximize profits?e. What are your maximum profits?f. Over what range of variable input usage do increasing marginal returns exist?g. Over what range of variable input usage do decreasing marginal returns exist?h. Over what range of variable input usage do negative marginal returns exist?

 178 Your firm produces two products, Q1 and Q2. An economic consulting firm has estimated your cost function to be a. Are there economies of scope?b. Are there cost complementarities?c. Your market for Q1 is not very good, and an overseas firm has offered to buy the division of your company that produces Q1. What will happen to your marginal cost of producing Q2 if you sell the division?

 179 In the text, we showed that the multiproduct cost function exhibits cost complementarity whenever and economies of scope whenever a. Can cost complementarity exist without economies of scope?b. Can there be economies of scope when cost complementarities exist?

 180 Standard Enterprises produces an output that it sells in a highly competitive market at a price of \$100 per unit. Its inputs include two machines (which cost the firm \$50 each) and workers, who can be hired on an as-needed basis in a labor market at a cost of \$2,800 per worker. Based on the following production data, how many workers should the firm employ to maximize its profits?

 181 You are the manager of Telecall Inc., a small telemarketing company. Your company pays \$10,000 per month for office space. A real estate agent has noticed that you are only using 75 percent of your available space and tells you that Telecall could add \$800 per month to its bottom line by renting out the space it does not use. Telecall has been asked to do a new telemarketing campaign for a large credit card company, but this would require it to use the remaining office space. What is the opportunity cost of using the extra office space to handle the credit card company’s promotion?

 182 Suppose the production function of automobiles is given by a. Show that the marginal product of any given quantity of labor increases as capital is increased.b. Suppose Japanese and U.S. automakers produce on identical isoquants with this Cobb-Douglas production function and that labor costs are higher in Japan than in the United States. Do autoworkers in Japan have a higher marginal product than American autoworkers? Explain carefully.c. Now suppose Japanese automakers produce on a different isoquant from U.S. firms, but the prices of Japanese and American cars are identical. Do Japanese or American autoworkers have a higher marginal product? Why?

 183 Show that the Cobb-Douglas production function exhibits the law of diminishing marginal rate of technical substitution.

 184 You are the manager of a firm that sells output at a price of \$40 per unit. You are interested in hiring a new worker who will increase your firm’s output by 2,000 units per year. Several other firms also are interested in hiring this worker. a. What is the highest annual salary you should be willing to pay this worker to come to your firm?b. What will determine whether or not you actually have to offer this much to the worker to induce him to join your firm?

 185 To open a new business, a manager must obtain a license from the city for \$20,000. The license is transferable, but only \$3,000 is refundable in the event the firm does not use the license. a. What are the firm’s fixed costs? Sunk costs?b. Suppose the manager obtains a license but then decides against opening the business. If another firm offers the manager \$2,000 for the license, should the manager accept the offer?

 186 The maker of Turbotax produces software that prepares federal income tax returns. In addition, it produces software that prepares various state income tax returns. Why doesn’t it pay for the firm to specialize in federal software?

 187 The management of Morris Industries is considering a plan to terminate a new employee. The action stemmed from documented evidence supplied by the firm’s accounting department that this new employee did not add as much to the firm’s overall output as did a worker hired two weeks earlier. Based on this evidence, do you agree that the latest worker hired should be fired? Explain.

 188 In 1995 the U.S. Justice Department sued to block a merger between Microsoft and Intuit, the producer of the nation’s best-selling business software. The Justice Department argued that the merger would lessen competition and raise prices of business software. Is there an economic argument that the merger might actually result in lower prices? Explain.

Chapter 05 The Production Process and Costs Answer Key

Multiple Choice Questions

1.Suppose the marginal product of labor is 8 and the marginal product of capital is 2. If the wage rate is \$4 and the price of capital is \$2, then in order to minimize costs the firm should use:

 A. more capital and less labor.

 B. more labor and less capital.

 C. three times more capital than labor.

 D. none of the answers are correct.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

2.Suppose the production function is Q = min{K, 2L}. How much output is produced when 4 units of labor and 9 units of capital are employed?

 A. 2

 B. 4

 C. 8

 D. 9

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

3.Suppose the production function is given by Q = 3K + 4L. What is the average product of capital when 10 units of capital and 10 units of labor are employed?

 A. 3

 B. 4

 C. 7

 D. 45

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

4.Suppose the production function is given by Q = 3K + 4L. What is the marginal product of capital when 10 units of capital and 10 units of labor are employed?

 A. 3

 B. 4

 C. 11

 D. 45

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

5.Suppose the production function is given by Q = min{K, L}. How much output is produced when 10 units of labor and 9 units of capital are employed?

 A. 0

 B. 4

 C. 9

 D. 13

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

6.Suppose the production function is given by Q = min{K, L}. How much output is produced when 4 units of labor and 9 units of capital are employed?

 A. 0

 B. 4

 C. 9

 D. 13

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

7.Suppose the production function is given by Q = 3K + 4L. What is the marginal product of capital when 5 units of capital and 10 units of labor are employed?

 A. 3

 B. 4

 C. 11

 D. 45

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

8.Suppose the production function is given by Q = 3K + 4L. What is the average product of capital when 5 units of capital and 10 units of labor are employed?

 A. 3

 B. 4

 C. 11

 D. 45

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

9.For the cost function C(Q) = 100 + 2Q + 3Q2, the marginal cost of producing 2 units of output is:

 A. 2

 B. 3

 C. 12

 D. 14

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

10.For the cost function C(Q) = 100 + 2Q + 3Q2, the average fixed cost of producing 2 units of output is:

 A. 100

 B. 50

 C. 3

 D. 2

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

11.For the cost function C(Q) = 100 + 2Q + 3Q2, the total variable cost of producing 2 units of output is:

 A. 16

 B. 12

 C. 4

 D. None of the answers are correct.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

12.If a firm’s production function is Leontief and the wage rate goes up, the:

 A. firm must use more labor in order to minimize the cost of producing a given level of output.

 B. firm must use more capital in order to minimize the cost of producing a given level of output.

 C. firm must use less labor in order to minimize the cost of producing a given level of output.

 D. cost minimizing combination of capital and labor does not change.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

13.Which of the following statements is incorrect?

 A. Fixed costs do not vary with output.

 B. Sunk costs are those costs that are forever lost after they have been paid.

 C. Fixed costs are always greater than sunk costs.

 D. Fixed costs could be positive when sunk costs are zero.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-04 Explain the difference between and the economic relevance of fixed costs; sunk costs; variable costs; and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

14.You are an efficiency expert hired by a manufacturing firm that uses K and L as inputs. The firm produces and sells a given output. If w = \$40, r = \$100, MPL = 20, and MPK = 40 the firm:

 A. is cost minimizing.

 B. should use less L and more K to cost minimize.

 C. should use more L and less K to cost minimize.

 D. is profit maximizing but not cost minimizing.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

15.The production function Q = L.5K.5 is called:

 A. Cobb Douglas.

 B. Leontief.

 C. linear.

 D. None of the answers are correct.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

16.The production function for a competitive firm is Q = K.5L.5. The firm sells its output at a price of \$10, and can hire labor at a wage of \$5. Capital is fixed at 25 units. The profit-maximizing quantity of labor is:

 A. 1

 B. 2

 C. 10

 D. None of the answers are correct.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

17.You are an efficiency expert hired by a manufacturing firm that uses K and L as inputs. The firm produces and sells a given output. If w = \$40, r = \$100, MPL = 4, and MPK = 40 the firm:

 A. is cost minimizing.

 B. should use less L and more K to cost minimize.

 C. should use more K and less L to cost minimize.

 D. is profit maximizing but not cost minimizing.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

18.If the production function is Q = K.5L.5 and capital is fixed at 1 unit, then the average product of labor when L = 25 is:

 A. 2/5.

 B. 1/5.

 C. 10

 D. None of the answers are correct.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

19.For a cost function C = 100 + 10Q + Q2, the marginal cost of producing 10 units of output is:

 A. 10

 B. 200

 C. 210

 D. None of the answers are correct.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

20.For a cost function C = 100 + 10Q + Q2, the average variable cost of producing 20 units of output is:

 A. 10

 B. 20

 C. 30

 D. None of the answers are correct.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

21.For a cost function C = 100 + 10Q + Q2, the average fixed cost of producing 10 units of output is:

 A. 10

 B. 5

 C. 1

 D. None of the answers are correct.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

22.Which of the following conditions is true when a producer minimizes the cost of producing a given level of output?

 A. The MRTS is equal to the ratio of input prices.

 B. The marginal product per dollar spent on all inputs is equal.

 C. The marginal products of all inputs are equal.

 D. The MRTS is equal to the ratio of input prices, and the marginal product per dollar spent on all inputs is equal.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

23.If the production function is Q = KL and capital is fixed at 1 unit, then the marginal product of labor when L = 25 is:

 A. ¼.

 B. 1/10.

 C. 15

 D. None of the answers are correct.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

24.The production function for a competitive firm is Q = K.5L.5. The firm sells its output at a price of \$10, and can hire labor at a wage of \$5. Capital is fixed at one unit. The profit-maximizing quantity of labor is:

 A. 2/5.

 B. 1

 C. 10

 D. None of the answers are correct.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

25.The production function for a competitive firm is Q = K.5L.5. The firm sells its output at a price of \$10, and can hire labor at a wage of \$5. Capital is fixed at one unit and costs \$2. The maximum profits are:

 A. 3

 B. 10

 C. 15

 D. None of the answers are correct.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

26.The feasible means of converting raw inputs such as steel, labor, and machinery into an output are summarized by:

 A. Land.

 B. Production.

 C. Capital.

 D. Technology.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

27.The recipe that defines the maximum amount of output that can be produced with K units of capital and L units of labor is the:

 A. Production function.

 B. Technological constraint.

 C. Research and development schedule.

 D. Total product.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

28.The creation of a new product is referred to as:

 A. Process innovation.

 B. Independent research and development.

 C. Product innovation.

 D. Patent disclosure.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

29.Which of the following is NOT a means of acquiring product and process innovations?

 A. Independent research and development

 B. Mass production of the existing product

 C. Reverse engineering

 D. Hiring employees of innovating firms

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

30.Inputs a manager may adjust in order to alter production are:

 A. all factors.

 B. variable factors.

 C. long-run factors.

 D. fixed factors.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

31.What is the average product of labor, given that the level of labor equals 10, total output equals 1200, and the marginal product of labor equals 200?

 A. 20

 B. 120

 C. 6

 D. 2,000

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

32.The change in total output attributable to the last unit of an input is the:

 A. total product.

 B. average product.

 C. marginal product.

 D. marginal return.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

33.If the last unit of input increases total product, we know that the marginal product is:

 A. positive.

 B. negative.

 C. zero.

 D. indeterminate.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

34.Total product begins to fall when:

 A. Marginal product is maximized.

 B. Average product is below zero.

 C. Average product is negative.

 D. Marginal product is zero.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

35.What is the value marginal product of labor if: P = \$10, MPL = \$25, and APL = 40?

 A. \$10,000

 B. \$1,000

 C. \$400

 D. \$250

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

36.It is profitable to hire units of labor as long as the value of marginal product:

 A. is less than wage.

 B. exceeds average product.

 C. equals price.

 D. exceeds wage.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

37.Given the following table, how many workers should be hired to maximize profits?

 A. 1

 B. 2

 C. 3

 D. 4

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

38.Firm managers should use inputs at levels where the:

 A. Marginal benefit equals marginal cost.

 B. Price equals marginal product.

 C. Value marginal product of labor equals wage.

 D. Marginal benefit equals marginal cost and value marginal product of labor equals wage.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

39.Given the linear production function Q = 10K + 5L, if Q = 10,000 and K = 500, how much labor is utilized?

 A. 600 units

 B. 800 units

 C. 500 units

 D. 1,000 units

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

40.Given the Leontief production function Q = min{5.5K, 6.7L}, how much output is produced when K = 40 and L = 35?

 A. 220

 B. 234.5

 C. 192.5

 D. 268

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

41.Suppose the production function is given by Q = K1/2L1/2, and that Q = 30 and K = 25. How much labor is employed by the firm?

 A. 49

 B. 6

 C. 36

 D. 25

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

42.Given the production function Q = min{4K, 3L}, what is the average product of capital when 8 units of capital and 16 units of labor are used?

 A. 16

 B. 2

 C. 4

 D. 32

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

43.For the production function Q = 5.2K + 3.8L, if K = 16 and L = 12, we know that MPK is:

 A. 16

 B. 5.2.

 C. 3.8.

 D. 12

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

44.The combinations of inputs that produce a given level of output are depicted by:

 A. indifference curves.

 B. budget lines.

 C. isocost curves.

 D. isoquants.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

45.Isoquants are normally drawn with a convex shape because:

 A. inputs are perfectly substitutable.

 B. inputs are perfectly complementary.

 C. inputs are not perfectly substitutable.

 D. inputs are not perfectly complementary.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

46.The absolute value of the slope of the isoquant is the:

 A. marginal rate of technical substitution.

 B. marginal product of capital.

 C. marginal rate of substitution.

 D. value marginal product of labor.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

47.The production function is Q = K.6 L.4. The marginal rate of technical substitution is:

 A. 2/3 K-1 L.

 B. K-1 L-1.

 C. 2/3 K L-1.

 D. K.4 L-.6.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: ApplyDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

48.The Leontief production function implies:

 A. straight-line isoquants.

 B. convex-shaped isoquants.

 C. A positive MRTS.

 D. L-shaped isoquants.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

49.In order for isoquants to have a diminishing marginal rate of substitution, they must be:

 A. L-shaped.

 B. straight lines.

 C. vertical.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

50.Changes in the price of an input cause:

 A. isoquants to become steeper.

 B. slope changes in the isocost line.

 C. parallel shifts of the isocost lines.

 D. changes in both the isoquants and isocosts of equal magnitude.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

51.Which of the following sets of economic data is minimizing the cost of producing a given level of output?

 A. MPL = 20, MPK = 40, w = \$16, r = \$32.

 B. MPL = 20, MPK = 40, w = \$32, r = \$16.

 C. MPL = 40, MPK = 20, w = \$16, r = \$32.

 D. MPL = 40, MPK = 40, w = \$16, r = \$32.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

52.In order to minimize the cost of producing a given level of output, a firm manager should use more inputs when:

 A. that input’s price rises.

 B. that input’s price falls.

 C. that input’s price remains the same.

 D. the prices of other inputs fall.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

53.Fixed costs exist only in:

 A. the long run.

 B. capital-intensive markets.

 C. the short run.

 D. labor-intensive markets.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-06 Distinguish between short-run and long-run production decisions and illustrate their impact on costs and economies of scale.Topic: The Cost Function

54.Costs that change as output changes are:

 A. variable costs.

 B. fixed costs.

 C. sunk costs.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-04 Explain the difference between and the economic relevance of fixed costs; sunk costs; variable costs; and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

55.Costs that are forever lost after they have been paid are:

 A. production costs.

 B. fixed costs.

 C. sunk costs.

 D. variable costs.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-04 Explain the difference between and the economic relevance of fixed costs; sunk costs; variable costs; and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

56.Suppose you are a manager of a factory. You purchase five (5) new machines at one million dollars each. If you can resell two of the machines for \$500,000 and three of the machines for \$200,000, what are the sunk costs of purchasing the machines?

 A. \$5 million

 B. \$500,000

 C. \$3.4 million

 D. \$1.6 million

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-04 Explain the difference between and the economic relevance of fixed costs; sunk costs; variable costs; and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

57.According to the table below, what is the total cost of producing 125 units of output?

 A. 1,000

 B. 2,050

 C. 1,400

 D. 2,400

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-03 Calculate a cost function from a production function and explain how economic costs differ from accounting costs.Topic: The Cost Function

58.According to the table below, what is the average variable cost of producing 50 units of output?

 A. 21

 B. 34

 C. 14

 D. 20

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

59.According to the table below, what is the average total cost of producing 160 units of output?

 A. 12.98

 B. 16.31

 C. 22.04

 D. 19.38

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

60.According to the table below, what is the marginal cost of producing 90 units of output?

 A. 5.32

 B. 8.75

 C. 11.67

 D. 21

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

61.According to the table below, at what level of output is marginal cost minimized?

 A. 90

 B. 50

 C. 125

 D. 160

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Cost Function

62.Which curve(s) does the marginal cost curve intersect at the (their) minimum point?

 A. Average total cost curve

 B. Average fixed cost curve

 C. Average variable cost curve

 D. Average total cost curve and average variable cost curve

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-04 Explain the difference between and the economic relevance of fixed costs; sunk costs; variable costs; and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

63.Given a cost function C(Q) = 200 + 14Q + 8Q2, what is the marginal cost function?

 A. 14 + 16Q

 B. 14Q + 8Q2

 C. 200 + 8Q2

 D. 14 + 16Q2

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: ApplyDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

64.What is implied when the total cost of producing Q1 and Q2 together is less than the total cost of producing Q1 and Q2 separately?

 A. Economies of scale

 B. Diminishing average fixed costs

 C. Cost complementarity

 D. Economies of scope

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-07 Conclude whether a multiple-output production process exhibits economies of scope or cost complementarities and explain their significance for managerial decisions.Topic: Multiple-Output Cost Functions

65.For the cost function C(Q) = 1000 + 14Q + 9Q2 + 3Q3, what is the marginal cost of producing the fourth unit of output?

 A. \$42

 B. \$295

 C. \$230

 D. \$116

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: ApplyDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

66.For the cost function C(Q) = 200 + 3Q + 8Q2 + 4Q3, what is the average fixed cost of producing six units of output?

 A. 18.31

 B. 212.61

 C. 42.12

 D. 33.33

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: ApplyDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

67.Which of the following cost functions exhibits cost complementarity?

 A. -4Q1Q2 + 8Q1.

 B. -4Q2 + 8Q1.

 C. 6Q1Q2 – Q1.

 D. 4Q2Q1 + 8Q1.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-07 Conclude whether a multiple-output production process exhibits economies of scope or cost complementarities and explain their significance for managerial decisions.Topic: Multiple-Output Cost Functions

68.For the multiproduct cost function C(Q1, Q2) = 100 + 2Q1Q2 + 4Q12, what is the marginal cost function for good one?

 A. MC1 = 2Q2 + 4Q1 – Q22.

 B. MC1 = 2Q2 + 8Q1.

 C. MC1 = 100 + 2Q1Q2 + 4Q12.

 D. MC1 = 4Q12 – 2Q22.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: ApplyDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-05 Calculate average and marginal costs from algebraic or tabular cost data and illustrate the relationship between average and marginal costs.Topic: Multiple-Output Cost Functions

69.Which of the following cost functions exhibits economies of scope when three (3) units of good one and two (2) units of good two are produced?

 A. C = 50 – 5Q1Q2 + 0.5Q12 + Q22.

 B. C = 10 + 4Q1Q2 + Q12 + Q22.

 C. C = 15 + 5Q1Q2 + 2Q1 + 4Q2.

 D. C = 5 + Q1Q2 + Q12Q22.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-07 Conclude whether a multiple-output production process exhibits economies of scope or cost complementarities and explain their significance for managerial decisions.Topic: Multiple-Output Cost Functions

70.The minimum average cost of producing alternate levels of output, allowing for optimal selection of all variables of production is defined by the:

 A. long-run average total cost curve.

 B. short-run average fixed cost curve.

 C. short-run marginal cost curve.

 D. long-run marginal cost curve.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-06 Distinguish between short-run and long-run production decisions and illustrate their impact on costs and economies of scale.Topic: The Cost Function

71.A production function:

 A. defines the minimum amount of output that can be produced with inputs such as capital and labor.

 B. defines the average amount of output that can be produced with inputs such as capital and labor.

 C. represents the technology available for turning inputs into output.

 D. is determined only by the expenditures on R&D.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

72.Which of the following is the most common source of technology?

 A. independent R&D

 B. licensing technology

 C. publications or technical meetings

 D. reverse engineering

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

73.Variable factors of production are the inputs that a manager:

 A. may adjust in order to alter sales.

 B. may adjust in order to alter production.

 C. cannot adjust in the short run.

 D. cannot adjust in the long run.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

74.The short run is defined as the time frame:

 A. in which there are no fixed factors of production.

 B. in which there are fixed factors of production.

 C. less than one year.

 D. less than three years.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-06 Distinguish between short-run and long-run production decisions and illustrate their impact on costs and economies of scale.Topic: The Cost Function

75.The long run is defined as:

 A. the horizon in which the manager can adjust all factors of production.

 B. the horizon in which there are only fixed factors of production.

 C. the horizon in which there are both fixed and variable factors of production.

 D. greater than one year.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-06 Distinguish between short-run and long-run production decisions and illustrate their impact on costs and economies of scale.Topic: The Cost Function

76.Which of the following is NOT a measure of productivity?

 A. Total product

 B. Marginal product

 D. Input-output ratio

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

77.The marginal product of an input is defined as the change in:

 A. average output attributable to the last unit of an input.

 B. total output attributable to the last unit of an input.

 C. total input attributable to the last unit of an output.

 D. average output attributable to the last unit of an output.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

78.As long as marginal product is increasing, marginal product is:

 A. less than average product.

 B. greater than average product.

 C. equal to average output.

 D. equal to total product.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

79.As the usage of an input increases, marginal product:

 A. initially increases then begins to decline.

 B. initially decreases then begins to increase.

 C. consistently decreases.

 D. consistently increases.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

80.If a firm is operating on the production function, then workers:

 A. must be putting forth maximal effort.

 B. may not be putting forth maximal effort.

 C. are usually putting forth average effort.

 D. are usually putting forth minimal effort.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

81.The manager institutes an incentive structure to ensure:

 A. workers are in fact working at the expected potential.

 B. workers are in fact working at their utility-maximizing effort level.

 C. the firm produces on the production function.

 D. the firm produces above the production function.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 3 HardLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

82.The value of marginal product of an input is the value of the:

 A. total output produced by total inputs.

 B. average output produced by inputs.

 C. output produced by the last unit of an input.

 D. output produced by the first unit of an input.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

83.It is profitable to hire labor so long as the:

 A. MPL is greater than wage.

 B. MPL is less than wage.

 C. VMPL is less than wage.

 D. VMPL is greater than wage.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

84.The demand for labor by a profit-maximizing firm is determined by:

 A. MPL = MC.

 B. VMPL = MC.

 C. MPL = W.

 D. VMPL = W.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

85.The demand for an input is:

 A. sloping upward.

 B. the VMP of the input.

 C. determined by MPL = W.

 D. derived from input owner’s profit-maximizing condition.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

86.The Leontief production function:

 A. implies inputs are used in variable proportions.

 B. implies inputs are used in fixed proportions.

 C. is Q = max{bK, cL}.

 D. is Q = aK + bL.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

87.With a linear production function there is a:

 A. perfect complementary relationship between all inputs.

 B. perfect substitutable relationship between all inputs.

 C. fixed-proportion relationship between all inputs.

 D. variable-proportion relationship between all inputs.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

88.The Cobb-Douglas production function is:

 A. Q = aK + bL.

 B. Q = min{bK, cL}.

 C. Q = max{bK, cL}.

 D. Q = KaLb.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

89.The average product of labor depends on how many units of:

 A. labor are used.

 B. capital are used.

 C. labor and capital are used.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

90.The marginal product of capital for the Cobb-Douglas production function is given by:

 A. bKa Lb-1.

 B. aKa-1 Lb.

 C. aKa-1 Lb-1.

 D. bKa Lb.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: ApplyDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-01 Explain alternative ways of measuring the productivity of inputs and the role of the manager in the production process.Topic: The Production Function

91.An isoquant defines the combination of inputs that yield the producer:

 A. higher levels of output than the desired level of output.

 B. lower levels of output than the desired level of output.

 C. the same level of output.

 D. None of the statements is correct.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

92.The isoquants are normally drawn with a convex shape because inputs are:

 A. not perfectly substitutable.

 B. perfectly substitutable.

 C. perfect complements.

 D. normal goods.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

93.The marginal rate of technical substitution:

 A. determines the rate at which a producer can substitute between two inputs in order to increase one additional unit of output.

 B. is the absolute value of the slope of the isoquant.

 C. is the absolute value of marginal revenue.

 D. is constant along the isoquant curve.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

94.Whenever an isoquant exhibits a diminishing marginal rate of technical substitution, the corresponding isoquants are:

 A. convex to the origin.

 B. concave to the origin.

 C. L-shaped.

 D. linear.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

95.An isocost line:

 A. represents the combinations of w and K that cost the firm the same amount of money.

 B. represents the combinations of K and L that cost the firm the same amount of money.

 C. represents the combinations of r and w that cost the firm the same amount of money.

 D. has a convex shape.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-03 Calculate a cost function from a production function and explain how economic costs differ from accounting costs.Topic: The Cost Function

96.For given input prices, isocosts farther from the origin are associated with:

 A. lower costs.

 B. the same costs.

 C. higher costs.

 D. initially lower, then higher costs.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-03 Calculate a cost function from a production function and explain how economic costs differ from accounting costs.Topic: The Cost Function

97.If the marginal product per dollar spent on capital is less than the marginal product per dollar spent on labor, then in order to minimize costs the firm should use:

 A. less capital and more labor.

 B. less labor and more capital.

 C. less labor and less capital.

 D. more labor and more capital.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

98.If the price of labor increases, in order to minimize the costs of producing a given level of output, the firm manager should use:

 A. less of labor and more of capital.

 B. less of labor and less of capital.

 C. more of labor and more of capital.

 D. more of labor and less of capital.

 AACSB: AnalyticBlooms: AnalyzeDifficulty: 2 MediumLearning Objective: 05-02 Calculate input demand and the cost-minimizing combination of inputs and use isoquant analysis to illustrate optimal input substitution.Topic: The Production Function

99.Sunk costs are those costs that:

 A. do not vary without output.

 B. are forever lost after they have been paid.

 C. can be collected even after they have been paid.

 D. do vary with output.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: RememberDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-04 Explain the difference between and the economic relevance of fixed costs; sunk costs; variable costs; and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

100.Average fixed cost:

 A. initially declines, reaches a minimum, and then begins to increase as output increases.

 B. increases continuously as output increases.

 C. declines continuously as output is expanded.

 D. keeps constant as output is expanded.

 AACSB: Reflective ThinkingBlooms: UnderstandDifficulty: 1 EasyLearning Objective: 05-04 Explain the difference between and the economic relevance of fixed costs; sunk costs; variable costs; and marginal costs.Topic: The Cost Function

101.The marginal cost curve:

 A. lies always below the average total cost curve (A
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