Memory Foundations And Applications 3rd Edition By Bennett -Test Bank A+

$35.00
Memory Foundations And Applications 3rd Edition By Bennett -Test Bank A+

Memory Foundations And Applications 3rd Edition By Bennett -Test Bank A+

$35.00
Memory Foundations And Applications 3rd Edition By Bennett -Test Bank A+
  1. It is difficult to measure recall with visual memory because:
  2. the encoding process does not store information in a visual format.
  3. recall is always more difficult than implicit memory measures.
  4. it is difficult for most participants to produce or describe the contents of visual memory.
  5. visual memory is recoded as verbal memory.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Visual Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Analog representation means that:
  2. the cognitive representation of images is stored in an abstract language-like code.
  3. the cognitive representation of images is stored as a picture in a visual format.
  4. the cognitive representation of images is stored in episodic memory only.
  5. the cognitive representation of images is stored in olfactory form.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Representation and Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Propositional representation means that:
  2. the cognitive representation of images is stored in an abstract language-like code.
  3. the cognitive representation of images is stored as a picture in a visual format.
  4. the cognitive representation of images is stored in episodic memory only.
  5. the cognitive representation of images is stored in olfactory form.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Representation and Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Shepard and Metzler were interested in examining if:
  2. determining if representation was analog.
  3. people were faster at rotating objects than imagining them.
  4. visual memory was housed in the parietal lobe.
  5. propositional codes could explain ambiguous figures.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Shepard and Metzler’s Mental Rotation Experiment

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Shepard and Metzler varied the orientation of one picture relative to the other. That is, in some cases, they were perfectly aligned, but in other sets, they were as much as 180 degrees off from each other. They then asked participants to determine if the figures were identical. They then measured:
  2. whether the participant could recall the figure later.
  3. if one figure implicitly influenced the perception of the other.
  4. if propositional codes were actually analog.
  5. how long it took participants to decide if the figures were identical.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Shepard and Metzler’s Mental Rotation Experiment

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Shepard and Metzler measured the amount of time it took for participants to come to a decision of same versus different as a function of the degrees of difference between the two figures in a pair. They found that:
  2. reaction times were always equivalent, supporting the propositional view.
  3. reaction times were inversely proportional to the weighting of each figure in visual memory.
  4. the more the two figures were rotated away from each other, the more time it took participants to make their decisions.
  5. same judgments were always faster than different judgments.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Shepard and Metzler’s Mental Rotation Experiment

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The Shepard and Metzler experiment has become a classic supporting the:
  2. propositional theory of imagery.
  3. the supplemental theory of imagery.
  4. the analog theory of imagery.
  5. the episodic theory of imagery.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Shepard and Metzler’s Mental Rotation Experiment

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Brooks (1968) asked participants to imagine a letter, such as “T,” in their mind’s eye and then were asked to make decisions about the angles in that letter. He found that:
  2. responding on the task was difficult because it taxed visual memory.
  3. responding on the task using pointing was more difficult than speaking.
  4. participants could only complete the task in a quiet room.
  5. participants were faster in the task when the letters had been primed.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Shepard and Metzler’s Mental Rotation Experiment

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Kosslyn (1975) asked people to make visual images such as a rabbit next to an elephant. He showed that:
  2. people could not make the side-by-side comparisons.
  3. visual imagery alone was insufficient for the task.
  4. participants were slower when an auditory distraction was also present.
  5. speeded judgments of the characteristics of images were affected by the size of the imagined object.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Shepard and Metzler’s Mental Rotation Experiment

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Kosslyn, Ball, and Reiser (1978) showed participants a map of an imaginary island. They found:
  2. response time from getting the imaginary dot from place A to place B was longer if the two locations were further away on the map.
  3. responses times were always faster for items to the east on the map.
  4. response times were faster when the maps themselves were not imaginary.
  5. participants could seldom maintain an image in working memory.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Shepard and Metzler’s Mental Rotation Experiment

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Primary visual cortex is:
  2. the first area in the cerebral cortex that receives input from the retina of the eye.
  3. properly speaking, part of the retina.
  4. the area in the lateral geniculate nucleus responsible for motion perception.
  5. the area in the brain that is responsible for visual memory.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuroimaging and the Analog View

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Hemifield neglect is:
  2. the functional deficit that occurs when the occipital lobe is damaged.
  3. a condition in which patients lose their ability to remember the color of common objects.
  4. the functional deficit that occurs when primary visual cortex is damaged.
  5. a condition in which patients ignore one half of the visual world.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuroimaging and the Analog View

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The patients studied by Bisiach and Luzzatti (1978) showed:
  2. hemifield neglect in his visual imagery.
  3. an inability form visual images.
  4. deficits in his visual working memory.
  5. no brain damage whatsoever, despite his functional deficit.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuroimaging and the Analog View

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Most evidence on “photographic” memory shows that:
  2. memory errors in these cases are based on meaning not visual confusions.
  3. most cases demonstrate “black and white” images and not color memory.
  4. it can be facilitated by constant practice.
  5. memory errors in these cases are based on visual confusions.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Photographic Memory: Reality or Fantasy?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Studies show that:
  2. eidetic imagery is a practiced skill.
  3. eidetic imagery bears no relationship to “photographic memory.”
  4. eidetic imagery is responsible for visual learning in all people.
  5. eidetic imagery is more common in young children than adults.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Photographic Memory: Reality or Fantasy?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Nickerson and Adams (1979) asked people to recognize the “real” penny (i.e., how an actually penny appears) from a number of close distractors. They found that:
  2. people show good memory for pennies because they are familiar objects.
  3. their study was flawed because most of their participants did not have much experience with money.
  4. only those participants with strong visual imagery confused the penny with the nickel.
  5. participants had a difficult time recognizing the correct penny among the distractors.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Photographic Memory: Reality or Fantasy?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Cognitive maps are:
  2. mental representations that guide our metacognition.
  3. physical maps that are based on what we know about cognition.
  4. the physical maps that participants use to generate imagery.
  5. mental representations of the external world.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Maps

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which is an example of the influence of semantic categories on cognitive maps?
  2. We judge Cleveland to be further away from Toledo than it actually is because both are in the state of Ohio.
  3. We judge Vancouver to be further away from Seattle because they are in different nations.
  4. We judge Detroit to be a larger city than it is because we have heard a lot about it in the news.
  5. We judge New York to be further away from Boston that it actually is because there is so much traffic between the two cities.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Maps

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Russell, Duchaine, and Nakayama (2009) identified several “super-recognizers,” people whose ability to recognize and discriminate faces were several standard deviations above the norm. What else did they observe about these people?
  2. Despite their good performance on faces, on other tasks, their performance was sub-standard.
  3. They were above normal at recognizing common objects as well.
  4. Their ability to recognize faces was correlated with a strong phonological loop system.
  5. When faces were displayed up-side down, they lost some of their exceptional ability.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Memory for Faces

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Line-up identifications involve:
  2. presenting the target face along with a series of distractor faces.
  3. presenting only the target face and the witness must decide if that was the person seen earlier.
  4. requiring the participant to generate an image of the target face.
  5. requiring the participant to describe the target face.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Simultaneous and Sequential Lineups in Eyewitness Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Show-up identifications involve:
  2. presenting the target face along with a series of distractor faces.
  3. presenting only the target face and the witness must decide if that was the person seen earlier.
  4. requiring the participant to generate an image of the target face.
  5. requiring the participant to describe the target face.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Simultaneous and Sequential Lineups in Eyewitness Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. How does giving a verbal description of a face affect memory for that face?
  2. It depends on how memory is tested.
  3. It improves memory performance.
  4. It impairs memory performance.
  5. Faces show the greatest interference of any type of memory stimulus.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Memory for Faces

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In a line-up, participants make ______ judgments, whereas in a show-up, they make ______ judgments.
  2. episodic; semantic
  3. analog; propositional
  4. accurate; inaccurate
  5. relative; absolute

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Simultaneous and Sequential Lineups in Eyewitness Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Verbal overshadowing occurs with:
  2. show-ups because the participant makes an absolute judgment.
  3. show-ups because the participant makes a relative judgment.
  4. line-ups because the participant makes an absolute judgment.
  5. line-ups because the participant makes a relative judgment.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Simultaneous and Sequential Lineups in Eyewitness Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Verbal facilitation occurs in:
  2. show-ups.
  3. line-ups.
  4. hemifield neglect.
  5. grow-ups.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Simultaneous and Sequential Lineups in Eyewitness Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What best summarizes the effects of verbal descriptions on eyewitness identification?
  2. Verbal descriptions help eyewitness identifications, but only if the verbal descriptions are accurate.
  3. Verbal descriptions interfere with eyewitness identifications because they force participants to focus on irrelevant details.
  4. Verbal descriptions help when the witness has to make an absolute judgment, but hurt when the witness must make a relative judgment.
  5. Verbal descriptions are irrelevant to eyewitness memory because they are encoded by systems that differ from that which encodes visual information.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Simultaneous and Sequential Lineups in Eyewitness Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Cross-race bias refers to:
  2. that people cannot remember faces of other races.
  3. that people remember faces of their own racial group better than faces of other racial groups.
  4. that people remember faces of other racial group better than faces of their own racial groups.
  5. a bias that cannot be measured in memory research.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Meissner and others research shows that, with respect to the cross-race bias effect,
  2. the cross-race bias is largest when participants are tested in a racially charged environment.
  3. minority groups are better at recognizing faces of the majority group than the majority group is at recognizing faces of minority groups.
  4. majority groups are better at recognizing faces of the minority group than the minority group is at recognizing faces of majority groups.
  5. the cross-race bias is only apparent in American society.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. The fusiform face area (FFA) in the inferior-temporal cortex is:
  2. only active when familiar faces are being examined.
  3. an important region in the recognition of faces.
  4. only active when people are describing faces in a verbal format.
  5. an important region in forming cognitive maps.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Damage to the FFA results in a neuropsychological condition is called:
  2. hemifield neglect.
  3. anterior amnesia.
  4. prosopagnosia.
  5. transcortical aphasia.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What is the chief deficit in prosopagnosia?
  2. difficulties recognizing faces
  3. difficulties with cognitive maps
  4. difficulties recalling eyewitness events
  5. difficulties with all aspects of visual memory

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Patient DQ has difficulty recognizing faces, even those of close family members, even though he can recognize them by voice. Your diagnosis?
  2. temporal lobe amnesia
  3. hemifield neglect
  4. prosopagnosia
  5. auditory transaphasia

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which imagery technique dates all the way back to the ancient Greeks 2500 years ago?
  2. the method of loci
  3. the savings method
  4. the key word method
  5. the peg word method

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Application of Visual Imagery to Mnemonics

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. In which technique does the learner associates a list of new to-be-learned items with a series of well-known physical locations, using visual imagery?
  2. acronyms
  3. the method of loci
  4. the link word method
  5. bizarre imagery

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Knowledge

Answer Location: Application of Visual Imagery to Mnemonics

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Sammi has to remember a list of supplies to bring to help build the clubhouse. She takes a mental walk through her neighborhood and puts each item in a familiar location in that mental walk. Sammi is using:
  2. the peg-word technique.
  3. the Ebbinghaus mental walk method.
  4. the method of loci.
  5. the Simonides acrostic.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Application of Visual Imagery to Mnemonics

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The keyword technique is useful for learning:
  2. arbitrary lists of numbers.
  3. vocabulary in a new language.
  4. the initials that represent corporations.
  5. anything from passages of prose to lyric poetry.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Keyword Technique

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Wang and Thomas found that the keyword technique was good for ______ learning but that elaborative encoding led to better ______.
  2. conjugate; working memory
  3. rapid; retention over a long period of time
  4. conditional; representation of all aspects of the stimuli
  5. semantic; visual encoding

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Keyword Technique

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Wang and Thomas found that at a five minute delay, which technique led to stronger encoding?
  2. elaborative
  3. key word
  4. method of loci
  5. method of limits

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Keyword Technique

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Unlike the other visual mnemonics, the pegword technique also incorporates:
  2. the analog technique.
  3. visual interference.
  4. prosopagnosia.
  5. auditory rhyming.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Pegword Mnemonic

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Wollen, Weber, and Lowry (1972) asked participants to use bizarre interactive imagery in the learning of new paired associates, such as piano-cigar. They found that:
  2. bizarre imagery was distracting and led to poor performance.
  3. bizarre imagery led to bad dreams later in the day.
  4. the interacting images, even if not bizarre, led to the best memory recall relative to non-interacting images or rote encoding.
  5. rote encoding led to the best memory performance.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Interactive Versus Bizarre Imagery

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Slotnick et al. (2012) used fMRI to examine the brains of participants while comparing visual-memory judgments and visual-imagery judgments. They found that:
  2. they could compare the neural patterns associated with focusing on memory and the neural patterns associated with focusing on imagery.
  3. there were no differences between visual-memory judgments and visual-imagery judgments.
  4. visual memory elicited more activity in the lumbar cortex than did visual imagery.
  5. fMRI is useless in resolving visual imagery issues.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuroimaging and the Analog View

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. fMRI studies, such as those conducted by Slotnick et al (2012), show that:
  2. the occipital lobe is not critical in visual imagery.
  3. the occipital lobe is activated during visual memory tasks.
  4. the parietal lobe has secondary auditory functions.
  5. the junction between the occipital and frontal lobe is critical in both visual imagery and visual memory.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuroimaging and the Analog View

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following statements are true about learning and cognitive maps?
  2. Cognitive maps are invariably distorted so much that we should not use them.
  3. Cognitive maps are selectively impaired in prosopagnosia.
  4. Cognitive maps can be studied using Shepard-Metzler techniques.
  5. Remembering directions is better when there were distinctive streets and landmarks than when there were neither.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Cognitive Maps

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. In a study on cognitive maps, Tom and Tversky (2012) showed:
  2. distinctive street names were the most helpful in remembering a route from one place to another.
  3. street names using a logical grid of numbers were the most helpful in remembering a route from one place to another.
  4. people were biased in remembering street names that were already familiar.
  5. street names that were chosen because of characteristic landmarks reduced distortion due to cognitive categories.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Maps

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Friedman et al. (2012) had American and Canadian college students examine maps of California and Alberta. Either the maps were marked only with dots and not marked with city names or the maps were marked with dots and the city names associated with the state or province. The results of their study:
  2. refuted years of research on cognitive maps.
  3. were consistent with a view in which cognitive maps are influenced by semantic categories.
  4. showed that dot distance was not a identifiable feature of semantic memory.
  5. none of the above.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognitive Maps

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Sequential line-ups are also known as:
  2. simultaneous line-ups.
  3. ID blocks.
  4. recognition units.
  5. show-ups.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Simultaneous and Sequential Lineups in Eyewitness Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Megreya, Memon, and Havard (2012) showed that Egyptian participants were more accurate at identifying female faces when those women were wearing headscarves, but that:
  2. older Egyptian men could not recognize women’s faces at all.
  3. British participants were better at recognizing women’s faces without headscarves.
  4. there was a face by ethnicity interaction.
  5. all of the above are true.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Own-Race Bias

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Research shows that:
  2. the method of loci is applicable to helping older adults remember.
  3. the method of loci is not applicable to helping older adults remember.
  4. the method of loci is functionally equivalent to the peg-word method.
  5. multiple loci can benefit recognition but not recall.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Application of Visual Imagery to Mnemonics

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which is considered a definition of visual imagery?
  2. the production of Shepard-Metzler analogs
  3. the latent retention interval of a visual experience
  4. visual images are ephemeral and cannot be defined
  5. the experience of retrieving a memory that is mostly visual or experienced primarily as a sensory experience

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: knowledge

Answer Location: Application of Visual Imagery to Mnemonics

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Patient JB recently suffered a stroke, which affected the FFA of his temporal lobe. What deficit might you expect?
  2. unilateral neglect
  3. imagery neglect
  4. prosopagnosia
  5. color amnesia

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: medium

True/False

  1. Methods of loci use visual imagery to associate a list of new items with a series of well-known physical locations.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Application of Visual Imagery to Mnemonics

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. FFA is a part of the occipital lobe.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Prosopagnosia is analog representation.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The FFA is part of the inferior-temporal cortex.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Own-Race bias means that people are better at recognizing members of their own race.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Own-Race Bias

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Cognitive maps are mental representations of the internal world.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Maps

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Semantic categories affect our cognitive maps by meaning.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognitive Maps

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Eidetic imagery is the same as photographic memory.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Photographic Memory: Reality or Fantasy?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Photographic memory is based only on factual information.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Photographic Memory: Reality or Fantasy?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Primary visual cortex is the rear area of the occipital cortex processing pictures.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuroimaging and the Analog View

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The occipital cortex is the primary area for processing visual images.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neuroimaging and the Analog View

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Analog representations are in a language-like code.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Representation and Imagery

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Propositional representation is analog representation.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Representation and Imagery

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Hemifield neglect is an affect whereby the patient has a full world understanding of the visual world.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuroimaging and the Analog View

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Shepard and Metzler proved that representation is analog.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Shepard and Metzler’s Mental Rotation Experiment

Difficulty Level: Easy

Short Answer

  1. The ______ technique involves creating an image that links two items in memory.

Ans: keyword

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Keyword Technique

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The ______ (abbreviation) is an area of the occipital lobe that has been identified as crucial to face recognition.

Ans: OFA

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ is an acquired deficit in the FFA caused by brain injury.

Ans: Prosopagnosia

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The ______ face area is a part of the inferior-tempeoral cortex

Ans: fusiform

Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______ categories states that meaning affects cognitive maps.

Ans: Semantic

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognitive Maps

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______ imagery is also called photographic memory.

Ans: Eidetic

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Photographic Memory: Reality or Fantasy

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ neglect has deficits in both visual attention and attention in visual imagery.

Ans: Hemifield

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Summary

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ representation essentially means that visual images are stored in a language-like code.

Ans: Propositional

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Summary

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ representation means that we store visual images like pictures.

Ans: Analog

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Summary

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A major issue in visual imagery is the nature of ______.

Ans: representation

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Summary

Difficulty Level: Medium

Essay

  1. Explain the importance and function of the primary visual cortex.

Ans: It is the first area in the occipital cortex that processes visual images.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuroimaging and the Analog View

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Explain the relationship of analog representation to propositional representation.

Ans: Analog representation means storing visual images in a manner similar to actual pictures while propositional representation stores visual images in terms of a language-like code.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Visual Memory: Recognition and Recall

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Explain the Shepard and Metzler’s (1971) mental rotation experiment.

Ans: Visual imagery experiment showed that representation is analog.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Shepard and Metzler’s Mental Rotation Experiment

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Explain Hemifield neglect.

Ans: Patients ignore one half of the visual world due to damage to the right parietal lobe.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuroimaging and the Analog View

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Is photographic memory a reality or a fantasy?

Ans: Fantasy. These are strong visual memories that have a strong feeling of images and not a photograph. It is also called eidetic imagery.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Photographic Memory: Reality or Fantasy?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Explain the term “cognitive maps” as they relate to spatial representation.

Ans: Cognitive maps are mental representations of the external world based on our spatial representation of the world.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Maps

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Define prosopagnosia and what areas of the brain it is associated with.

Ans: A congenital deficit in face recognition affecting the FFA in the inferior-temporal cortex.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Face Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Describe how bizarre imagery works and give one example.

Ans: The forming of strange visual images based on to-be-learned information to achieve strong memory for that information.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Interactive vs Bizarre Imagery

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Explain and give one example of Method of Loci.

Ans: Visual imagery is used to associate a list of new items with a series of well-known physical locations.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Application of Visual Imagery to Mnemonics

Difficulty Level: Hard

Chapter 7: Autobiographical Memory

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

  1. Zora remembers the details of where and what she was doing when she heard the news that Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans. This kind of memory is often referred to as:
  2. storm memory.
  3. flashbulb memory.
  4. retrograde memory.
  5. traumatic memory.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theories of Flashbulb Memory Formation

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The term autobiographical memory refers to:
  2. personal specific memories and self-knowledge.
  3. the memories of famous people for important events.
  4. flashbulb memories only.
  5. our semantic memory for our life’s narrative.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In Conway’s theory of autobiographical memory, specific events refer to:
  2. the specific plans we make for our future selves.
  3. the broad patterns of ups and downs in our lives.
  4. episodic memories.
  5. well-learned scripts of personal events.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In Conway’s theory of autobiographical memory, general events refer to:
  2. the combined, averaged, and cumulative memory of highly similar events.
  3. details of specific events.
  4. the sources of our autobiographical memories.
  5. the markers that divide major life periods.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which is an example of an “extended” event in Conway’s theory?
  2. a combined memory of many trips to the grocery store
  3. the memory of the specific instant when the check-out person at the grocery store dropped a large bag of rice on your toes
  4. the memory of your life when you worked at a ranch in Utah
  5. the memory of the horse-back riding trip you took in the hills of Utah

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Conway’s Theory of Representation in Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. An example of a lifetime period is:
  2. the memory of your 11th birthday.
  3. remembering when your cat was lost for a day.
  4. thinking about “when you worked at the grocery store.”
  5. remembering the long drive you took from Montreal in Canada to Dallas, in the United States.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Conway’s Theory of Representation in Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The working self:
  2. allows us to generalize life event to specific details.
  3. includes the goals and self-images that make up our view of ourselves.
  4. is similar to working memory in its time course.
  5. integrates our autobiographical memory with our working memory.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Working Self

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Childhood amnesia refers to:
  2. the poor memory of children for episodic details.
  3. the poor memory of children for semantic knowledge.
  4. the poor memory of adults for children.
  5. the poor memory of adults for events from early childhood and infancy.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Childhood Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Roxanne cannot recall any details from the first few years of life. This pattern is called:
  2. olfactory memory.
  3. childhood amnesia.
  4. infantile suppression.
  5. encoding binaurality.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Childhood Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. By which age is childhood amnesia usually no longer seen?
  2. 1 years of age.
  3. 2 years of age.
  4. 4 years of age.
  5. 6 months of age.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Childhood Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. When adults do remember events from before the age of four, those memories tend to be:
  2. always reconstructed and patently false.
  3. of routine events such as bedtime rituals.
  4. of big events, usually later rehearsed, such as the birth of a sibling.
  5. highly traumatic events.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Event-Specific Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Asking people to recall the earliest memory they can shows that:
  2. self-report is completely unreliable.
  3. people will report memories of events that they could not possibly remember.
  4. adults will report events from around the age of three.
  5. adults can remember events prior to those that they actually report when prompted with cues provided by parents or older siblings.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Event-Specific Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The psychodynamic view of childhood amnesia attempts to explain the phenomenon by:
  2. postulating that language is not yet developed.
  3. that cultural differences outweigh the amnesia effect.
  4. proposing that the brain is still too immature to form episodic memories.
  5. that people must repress or suppress childhood memories that cannot understand.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Psychodynamic View

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Simcock and Hayne (2002) presented two-, three-, and four-year-old children with a demonstration of their “incredible shrinking machine.” When the children were brought back one year later, they found that:
  2. children only recalled items if the words for those items were in the vocabulary at the time of presentation.
  3. only the oldest children could remember any of the objects seen.
  4. because of the onset of childhood amnesia, only the four-year-olds showed deficits in memory.
  5. recall was predicted by the level of trauma in each child’s life.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Childhood Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Simcock and Hayne (2002) found that children only remembered those objects for which they possessed the vocabulary for when they witnessed the event. Which view of childhood amnesia does this support?
  2. The influence of language development on childhood amnesia
  3. The psychodynamic view because children repress what they do not know
  4. The view that neural development is not complete
  5. The influence of the development of a working self

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Childhood Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Cross-cultural studies show that:
  2. people most affected by a public tragedy tend to repress that event.
  3. people most affected by a public tragedy are most likely to have flashbulb memories for that event.
  4. people least affected by a public tragedy often have low confidence in their flashbulb memories.
  5. only some cultures show flashbulb memories at all; it appears to be unique to western civilization.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Flashbulb Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Weaver (1993) conducted a study comparing an ordinary memory and a flashbulb memory. Weaver’s students wrote down as many details as they could remember from the ordinary interaction with their roommate and their memory of hearing the news of the start of the Gulf War (1991). He found that:
  2. At the end of the semester, each student could remember both events flawlessly.
  3. By the end of the semester, confidence was higher for the flashbulb memory, but the accuracy was equivalent for both memories.
  4. Five years later, none of the students could be contacted, so the study was discontinued.
  5. The vivid memories of the start of the war were lost once the second Iraq war began 11 years later.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Accuracy of Flashbulb Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Joseph, an American from Chicago, was 10 years old when he heard the news of 9/11 in his fourth-grade class. The data suggest that when asked about this memory now, Joseph will:
  2. report a highly confident memory of where he was when he heard the news.
  3. be unable to report a memory because of his young age at the time of the event.
  4. report a completely accurate memory, but his confidence will be quite low.
  5. will show flashbulb-like symptoms of childhood amnesia.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Flashbulb Memories

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Kensinger and Schacter (2006) examined memories of baseball fans in New York and Boston for the surprise Game 7 victory of the Boston Red Sox over the New York Yankees in the American League Championship in 2004. They found that:
  2. because it was a negative event for New York fans, they showed extreme overconfidence in their memory.
  3. despite the difference in emotional valence, there were no differences between Boston fans and New York fans.
  4. because it was a positive event for Boston fans, they showed greater accuracy in their memories.
  5. because it was a positive event for Boston fans, they showed greater more overconfidence in their memories.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Accuracy of Flashbulb Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The special mechanism of flashbulb memory formation suggests that:
  2. unlike ordinary memories, flashbulb memories are processed only in the frontal lobes.
  3. unlike ordinary memories, flashbulb memories can never be considered veridical.
  4. there are no differences between flashbulb and ordinary memories; they are all “special.”
  5. there is a unique and special mechanism responsible for flashbulb memories.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Flashbulb Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In a landmark diary study, a Willem Wagenaar, a Dutch psychologist, recorded over 2,400 events over the course of six years (Wagenaar, 1986). Wagenaar found that:
  2. he could recall remarkably few of the events even with many cues.
  3. cues did not improve his ability to recall autobiographical events.
  4. using “when” as a cue led to fewer memories than using “who,” “where,” or “what” as a cue.
  5. he could remember many details from trips that he made abroad, but very little of his daily routines.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Childhood Memories May Result from Multiple Causes

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. One advantage of doing single-subject memory diary studies is that:
  2. because the subject is also the researcher, long retention (i.e., several years) intervals can be employed.
  3. because the subject is also usually a professor, the diaries are usually quite legible.
  4. single-subject studies are highly generalizable to the general public.
  5. because the subject is focusing on memory, his or her memory may be optimal.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Diary Studies and Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In the cue-word technique, an ordinary word is provided to participants and they are asked to provide the first memory—from any point in their life—which the word elicits. In general, when older adults are tested,
  2. older adults remember few events from the very recent past.
  3. older adults show a reminiscence bump; that is, they recall events from late childhood early adulthood better than events from before or after.
  4. older adults show a reminiscence bump; that is, they show better memory for earliest childhood than do younger adults.
  5. older adults do not show reminiscence effects.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Cue-Word Technique for Eliciting Autobiographical Memories and the Reminiscence Bump

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Akiko, a 55-year-old, is given a cue word and asked to come up with the first memory she can come up with. Akiko is likely to:
  2. come up with a memory from early childhood.
  3. demonstrate anterograde amnesia.
  4. either recall a recent event or one from early childhood.
  5. either recall a recent event or one from her late teens.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Cue-Word Technique for Eliciting Autobiographical Memories and the Reminiscence Bump

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. One explanation of the reminiscence bump is that:
  2. anterograde amnesia may occur even in healthy older adults.
  3. language is most fluent during the time period of age 16–25.
  4. cultural differences make an explanation impossible for the reminiscence bump.
  5. the time period of age 16–25 is a time period with many “first experiences.”

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Cue-Word Technique for Eliciting Autobiographical Memories and the Reminiscence Bump

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The socio-cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump states that:
  2. neurological changes in the brain account for different cultural perspectives on the bump.
  3. most cultures place great emphasis on the events that take place during the time period of age 16–25.
  4. language is most fluent during the time period of age 16–25.
  5. there should be no reminiscence bumps in non-literate cultures.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sociocultural Views

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Observer memories are:
  2. memories of others’ flashbulb memories.
  3. memories in which we see images as they actually occurred from the distant past.
  4. memories in which we take the vantage point of an outside observer and see ourselves as actors in our visual memory.
  5. memories that are not susceptible to cultural differences.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Field and Observer Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Field memories are:
  2. memories that are resistant to auditory illusions.
  3. memories of early childhood events.
  4. autobiographical and visual memories in which we see the memory as if we were looking at the event through our own eyes.
  5. memories in which we take the vantage point of an outside observer and see ourselves as actors in our visual memory.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Field and Observer Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. McIsaac and Eich (2004) found that when patients suffering from PTSD retrieved memories as field memories, their emotional response was more negative and more intense. When they asked participants to recall them as observer memories,
  2. they were more likely to have sudden flashbacks.
  3. the observer memories were less likely to feel like flashbulb memories.
  4. they experienced less negative emotions.
  5. they experienced more PTSD symptoms.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Field and Observer Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Borrowed Disputed memories are most common:
  2. in people who share a field memory PTSD experience.
  3. in people who share cultural identities.
  4. in people who seldom experience similar events.
  5. in identical twins.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Disputed Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Willander and Larsson (2007) conducted a study on the role odors play in autobiographical memory. They found that:
  2. odors elicit more autobiographical memories than did the odor names.
  3. odors elicited fewer autobiographical memories than did cue words.
  4. odors are not good triggers of autobiographical memories.
  5. odors only elicited memories of events that involved odors.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sense of Smell and Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Herz (2004) showed that autobiographical memories produced by odor cues:
  2. were more visual-oriented than memories induced by verbal cues.
  3. were more emotional than memories induced by verbal cues.
  4. were less emotional than memories induced by auditory cues.
  5. were more likely to induce field memories than memories induced by verbal cues.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Sense of Smell and Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Daselaar et al. (2008) used a standard cue-word technique, that is, participants heard a word and were asked to think of the first autobiographical memory that came to mind. During retrieval, an fMRI machine monitored the participants’ brains. The fMRI technique allows the researchers to obtain a detailed map of where activity in the brain is taking place. It showed that:
  2. there was activity in the medial temporal lobe, the hippocampus, and right prefrontal cortex.
  3. most of the neural activity was in the cerebellum.
  4. there was no activity in the pre-frontal lobe.
  5. fMRI could not detect differences based on autobiographical memory.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Adam, a valet, describes what he usually does when he parks a car at work. Adam is retrieving:
  2. an event-specific memory.
  3. a general event.
  4. a life-time period.
  5. from the working self.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Conway’s Theory of Representation in Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Conway’s model of autobiographical memory concerns how we:
  2. represent or store autobiographical memory.
  3. encode information into autobiographical memory.
  4. how we consolidate information into autobiographical memory.
  5. how autobiographical memory interacts with visual imagery.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Conway’s Theory of Representation in Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Thomsen and Berntsen (2008) found that, among Danish elders, the bump was particularly noticeable for the memory of events that were consistent with:
  2. general events recalled in field format.
  3. the offset of childhood amnesia.
  4. less socially-marked memories, such as travel, memorable meals, or political memories.
  5. cultural life scripts, such as first jobs, dating, and leaving home.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Cue-Word Technique for Eliciting Autobiographical Memories and the Reminiscence Bump

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which evidence is consistent with the view that childhood amnesia ends with the onset of a sense of self?
  2. Infants begin talking at about their first birthday.
  3. The development of a sense of self varies greatly across culture.
  4. The hippocampus does not fully mature until about the age of three.
  5. A developing sense of self allows the individual to code his or her memories into this developing sense of self.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sense of Smell and Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Talarico and Rubin (2007), for example, compared memories of their personal whereabouts when they heard the news of 9/11 and an ordinary event around the same time. They found that:
  2. memories of 9/11differed systematically from other flashbulb memories.
  3. confidence and accuracy remained high over retention intervals for both memories.
  4. confidence remained high for the news of 9/11 but dropped for the ordinary event.
  5. people were unwilling to report their memories.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Accuracy of Flashbulb Memories

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Berntsen and Rubin (2008) asked participants to record involuntary memories in a memory diary. In particular, participants were asked to record involuntary memories that referred to a serious (or traumatic) event in their lives.
  2. They found that involuntary memories could not be retrieved under spontaneous conditions.
  3. They found that involuntary memories were usually made with high confidence.
  4. They found that involuntary memories were more common among siblings.
  5. They found that involuntary memories are frequent, but decline somewhat with age.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Diary Studies and Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Daselaar et al. (2008) examined the neural correlates of retrieval from autobiographical memory. They found that:
  2. those memories that were given high judgments of emotionality were correlated with greater activity in the occipital cortex.
  3. those memories that were given high judgments of emotionality were correlated with greater activity in the hippocampus and the amygdala in the limbic system.
  4. autobiographical memory was associated with increased blood flow to the pons and brainstem.
  5. autobiographical memory was associated with increased blood flow to Broca’s area in the left frontal lobe.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Jack et al. (2012) tracked down the children who had participated in the “magic shrinking machine” experiment six years later when the children varied from age 8 to age 10. They found that:
  2. The children had all entered the childhood amnesia phase and could not recall the event.
  3. Some, but not all, of the children could recall the event and some of the items that had been “shrunk.”
  4. At the older age, children could only remember items that were not in their vocabulary as younger children.
  5. none of the above are true.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Childhood Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. In a study on flashbulb memory it was found that:
  2. positive events lead to more encoding failures than negative events.
  3. Catholics have more flashbulb memories of the death of Pope John Paul II than do non-Catholics.
  4. positive events lead to greater accuracy of flashbulb memories than do negative events.
  5. Because of the trauma involved, people outside of Turkey had more flashbulb memories for an earthquake in Turkey than did Turkish people.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Flashbulb Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Dickson, Pillemer, and Bruehl (2011) found a reminiscence bump for events:
  2. that were surprising and therefore not part of the person’s lifetime period or cultural scripts as well as positive and script-relevant events.
  3. only for recent events.
  4. only for young adults.
  5. all of the above.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Memory-Fluency

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Berntsen, Staugaard, and Sorensen (in press) asked participants to engage in sound-location task which involved determining if two sounds were being played to the same ear or one to each ear. They found that:
  2. novel sounds were less likely to induce disputed memories.
  3. novel sounds were less likely to induce involuntary memories.
  4. novel sounds required more attention, creating less cognitive control, which resulted in more involuntary memories.
  5. the novel sounds were annoying and all the participants dropped out of the study

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Involuntary Memories

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Neuroimaging studies on autobiographical memory show that:
  2. areas of the brainstem have a critical role in putting a person into “retrieval mode.”
  3. retrieval of autobiographical memory is not measurable in fMRI
  4. only general cues elicit elevated activity in the hippocampus.
  5. both specific and general cues elicit activity in the medial temporal lobe and hippocampus.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following statements about neuroimaging studies of autobiographical memory are true?
  2. General cues are more likely to recruit areas in the lateral temporal lobe.
  3. Specific cues resulted in stronger responses in the left hippocampus and the medial prefrontal region than did the general cues.
  4. The right prefrontal cortex is associated with going into “retrieval mode,” that is, initiating the memory search.
  5. All of the above are true.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is a methodological difficulty in studying involuntary memories?
  2. Involuntary memories seldom occur under natural circumstances.
  3. Involuntary memories are often false memories.
  4. Involuntary memories are often observer memories.
  5. Studying involuntary memory is a bit more difficult because the researchers cannot give direct cues—as that would lead to a voluntary memory.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Involuntary Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Ahmet is 82 years old, has normal memory for someone of his age, and has lived all his life in Egypt. Based on data on the reminiscence bump, you would expect that:
  2. Ahmet would have less of a recency effect than an American senior.
  3. Ahmet would show an earlier reminiscence bump than an American senior.
  4. Ahmet would show a later reminiscence bump than an American senior.
  5. Ahmet would not differ with respect to the reminiscence bump relative to an American senior.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Cue-Word Technique for Eliciting Autobiographical Memories and the Reminiscence Bump

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Diaries studies on college students show that:
  2. memories that were scored as relevant to the persons’ “life story” were recalled better than those that were not.
  3. memory researchers typically have better autobiographical memory than college students.
  4. event-specific memories are recalled better than general events.
  5. voluntary memories are more likely to be disputed memories than involuntary memories.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Diary Studies and the Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. According to your textbook, which is considered the best explanation of childhood amnesia?
  2. The psychodynamic view because children repress what they do not know
  3. The view that neural development is not complete
  4. The influence of language development on childhood amnesia
  5. The influence of the development of a working self

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Childhood Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Medium

True/False

  1. The term autobiographical memory refers to our semantic memory for our life’s narrative.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Cross-cultural studies show that people most affected by a public tragedy tend to repress that event.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sociocultural Views

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In Conway’s theory of autobiographical memory, specific events refer to episodic memories.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conway’s Theory of Representation in Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. An example of an “extended” event in Conway’s theory would be the memory of the long car trip you took in the hills of West Virginia.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conway’s Theory of Representation in Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. The working self allows us to generalize life event to specific details.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Working-Self

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Childhood amnesia refers to the poor memory of children for semantic knowledge.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Childhood Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Roxanne cannot recall any details from the first few years of life. This pattern is called encoding binaurality.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Childhood Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. When adults do remember events from before the age of four, those memories tend to be of big events, usually later rehearsed, such as the birth of a sibling.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Event-Specific Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Weaver (1993) conducted a study comparing an ordinary memory and a flashbulb memory. Weaver’s students wrote down as many details as they could remember from the ordinary interaction with their roommate and their memory of hearing the news of the start of the Gulf War (1991). He found that by the end of the semester, confidence was higher for the flashbulb memory, but the accuracy was equivalent for both memories.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Accuracy of Flashbulb Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Kensinger and Schacter (2006) examined memories of baseball fans in New York and Boston for the surprise Game 7 victory of the Boston Red Sox over the New York Yankees in the American League Championship in 2004. They found that despite the difference in emotional valence, there were no differences between Boston fans and New York fans.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Accuracy of Flashbulb Memories

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Thomsen and Berntsen (2008) found that, among Danish elders, the bump was particularly noticeable for the memory of events that were consistent with cultural life scripts, such as first jobs, dating, and leaving home.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Cue-Word Technique for Eliciting Autobiographical memories and the Reminiscence Bump

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. McIsaac and Eich (2004) found that when patients suffering from PTSD retrieved memories as field memories, their emotional response was more negative and more intense. When they asked participants to recall them as observer memories they experienced more PTSD symptoms.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Field Observer Memories

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. John, a 55-year-old, is given a cue word and asked to come up with the first memory she can come up with. John is likely to demonstrate anterograde amnesia.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Cue-Word Technique for Eliciting Autobiographical Memories and the Reminiscence Bump

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Conway’s model of autobiographical memory concerns how we represent or store autobiographical memory.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Conway’s Theory of Representation in Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Berntsen, Staugaard, and Sorensen (in press) asked participants to engage in sound-location task which involved determining if two sounds were being played to the same ear or one to each ear. They found that novel sounds were less likely to induce involuntary memories.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Involuntary Memories

Difficulty Level: Hard

Short Answer

  1. Dickson, Pillemer, and Bruehl (2011) found a ______ bump for events that were surprising and therefore not part of the person’s lifetime period

Ans: reminiscence

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Application

Answer Location: Memory-Fluency

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Studying involuntary memory is a bit more difficult because the researchers cannot give direct cues—as that would lead to a ______ memory.

Ans: voluntary

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Involuntary Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Daselaar et al. (2008) examined the neural correlates of retrieval from ______ memory. They found that those memories that were given high judgments of emotionality were correlated with greater activity in the hippocampus and the amygdala in the limbic system.

Ans: autobiographical

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Talarico and Rubin (2007) compared memories of their personal whereabouts when they heard the news of 9/11 and an ordinary event around the same time. They found that ______ remained high for the news of 9/11 but dropped for the ordinary event.

Ans: confidence

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Accuracy of Flashbulb Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Neuroimaging studies on ______ memory show that both specific and general cues elicit activity in the medial temporal lobe and hippocampus.

Ans: autobiographical

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Neuroscience of Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. An example of an “______” event in Conway’s theory was the memory of the horse-back riding trip you took in the hills of Pennsylvania.

Ans: extended

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Conway’s Theory of Representation in Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Daselaar et al. (2008) used a standard ______ technique, that is, participants heard a word and were asked to think of the first autobiographical memory that came to mind. During retrieval, an fMRI machine monitored the participants’ brains. The fMRI technique allows the researchers to obtain a detailed map of where activity in the brain is taking place. It showed that there was activity in the medial temporal lobe, the hippocampus, and right prefrontal cortex.

Ans: cue-word

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Cue-Word Technique for Eliciting Autobiographical memories and the Reminiscence Bump

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Field memories are ______ and visual memories in which we see the memory as if we were looking at the event through our own eyes.

Ans: autobiographical

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Field and Observer Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. One advantage of doing ______ memory diary studies is that because the subject is also the researcher, long retention (i.e., several years) intervals can be employed.

Ans: single-subject

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Diary Studies and Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In Conway’s theory of autobiographical memory, specific events refers to ______ memory.

Ans: episodic

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Conway’s Theory of Representation in Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

Essay

  1. Explain the psychodynamic view of childhood amnesia.

Ans: It is caused by active repression.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Psychodynamic View

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Explain “flashbulb” memories.

Ans: Highly confident personal memories of surprising events.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Flashbulb Memories

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Explain the “reminiscence bump.”

Ans: Recalled memories corresponding to late adolescence to early adulthood or roughly the ages of 16–25.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Cue-Word Technique for Eliciting Autobiographical Memories and the Reminiscence Bump

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Explain the process of coherence.

Ans: A process that yields autobiographical memories that are consistent with the working self.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Working Self

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Explain correspondence in memory of events.

Ans: The match between the retrieved memory and the actual past event.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Working Self

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Explain the “cue-word” technique in memory.

Ans: An ordinary word is provided to participants and they are asked to provide the first memory that the word elicits.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Cue-Word Technique for Eliciting Autobiographical Memories and the Reminiscence Bump.

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Explain the results of Weaver’s (1993) study comparing an ordinary memory and a flashbulb memory.

Ans: He found that by the end of the semester, confidence was higher for the flashbulb memory, but the accuracy was equivalent for both memories.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Flashbulb Memories

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Explain the results of Willem Wagenaar’s work in a landmark diary study.

Ans: In a record of over 2.400 events over a course of six years, when using “when” as a cue led to fewer memories than using “who,” “where,” or “what” as a cue.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Diary Studies and Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Explain Conway’s theory of autobiographical memory.

Ans: General events refers to the combined, averaged, and cumulative memory of highly similar events.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Conway’s Theory of Representation in Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

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