Microbiology Fundamentals A Clinical Approach 2nd Edition by Marjorie Kelly Cowan – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Microbiology Fundamentals A Clinical Approach 2nd Edition by Marjorie Kelly Cowan – Test Bank A+

Microbiology Fundamentals A Clinical Approach 2nd Edition by Marjorie Kelly Cowan – Test Bank A+

$35.00
Microbiology Fundamentals A Clinical Approach 2nd Edition by Marjorie Kelly Cowan – Test Bank A+
  1. Microorganisms require large quantities of this nutrient for use in cell structure and metabolism:
    A. element
    B. macronutrient
    C. water
    D. growth factor
    E. trace element

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.02 Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Microorganisms require small quantities of this nutrient for enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure:
    A. element
    B. macronutrient
    C. water
    D. growth factors
    E. trace element

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.02 Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. What compound has the highest concentration in a cell?
    A. CO2
    B. CH4
    C. H2O
    D. glucose
    E. NH3

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.02 Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Most of the dry weight of a microbial cell is from
    A. inorganic compounds.
    B. minerals.
    C. water.
    D. organic compounds.
    E. salts.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.02 Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Which of the following is not a major element of a microbial cell?
    A. copper
    B. carbon
    C. hydrogen
    D. nitrogen
    E. oxygen

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.02 Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. An important mineral ion of the cytochrome pigments of cellular respiration is
    A. iron.
    B. zinc.
    C. calcium.
    D. magnesium.
    E. potassium.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.01 List the essential nutrients of a bacterial cell.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. An important mineral ion that is a component of chloroplasts and stabilizer of membranes and ribosomes is
    A. iron.
    B. zinc.
    C. calcium.
    D. magnesium.
    E. potassium.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.01 List the essential nutrients of a bacterial cell.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The term autotroph refers to an organism that
    A. uses CO2 for its carbon source.
    B. must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs.
    C. gets energy from sunlight.
    D. gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds.
    E. does not need a carbon source.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.03 Construct four different terms that describe an organism’s sources of carbon and energy.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The term photoheterotroph refers to an organism that
    A. uses CO2 for its carbon source.
    B. utilizes inorganic compounds for its carbon needs.
    C. gets energy from sunlight.
    D. gets energy by metabolizing organic matter of dead organisms.
    E. does not need a carbon source.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.03 Construct four different terms that describe an organism’s sources of carbon and energy.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Calcium is required for bacteria because it
    A. stabilizes the cell wall.
    B. stabilizes the ribosomes.
    C. stabilizes the nucleoid.
    D. maintains cellular pH.
    E. makes strong bones.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.01 List the essential nutrients of a bacterial cell.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. An organism that uses CO2 for its carbon needs would be called a/an
    A. heterotroph.
    B. autotroph.
    C. chemoheterotroph.
    D. saprobe.
    E. halotroph.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.03 Construct four different terms that describe an organism’s sources of carbon and energy.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The term photoautotroph refers to an organism that
    A. is a decomposer.
    B. must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs.
    C. gets energy from sunlight.
    D. gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds.
    E. does not need a carbon source.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.03 Construct four different terms that describe an organism’s sources of carbon and energy.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The term chemoheterotroph refers to an organism that
    A. uses CO2 for its carbon source.
    B. must obtain inorganic compounds for its energy source.
    C. gets energy from sunlight.
    D. gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds.
    E. does not need a carbon source.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.03 Construct four different terms that describe an organism’s sources of carbon and energy.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Organisms that feed on dead organisms for nutrients are called
    A. saprobes.
    B. parasites.
    C. autotrophs.
    D. lithoautotrophs.
    E. phototrophs.

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.04 Define saprobe and parasite.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Archea, as a group, are not pathogens. This is because
    A. they evolved without mammals.
    B. mammals evolved special defenses against them.
    C. mammalian hosts do not meet their environmental requirements.
    D. they are out competed by natural flora.
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.10 Name three physical factors besides temperature and oxygen requirements that microbes must contend with.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition
Topic: Prokaryotes

  1. Aerobic respiration is an example of
    A. photosynthesis.
    B. methanoheterophy.
    C. photoheterotrophy.
    D. chemoheterotrophy.
    E. photoautotrophy.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.03 Construct four different terms that describe an organism’s sources of carbon and energy.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Organisms called _____ live on or in the body of a host and cause some degree of harm.
    A. mesophiles
    B. thermophiles
    C. commensals
    D. parasites
    E. halophiles

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.04 Define saprobe and parasite.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The term obligate refers to
    A. the ability to exist in a wide range of conditions.
    B. existing in a very narrow niche.
    C. using chemicals for energy production.
    D. using light for energy production.
    E. using oxygen for metabolism.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The term facultative refers to
    A. the ability to exist in a wide range of conditions.
    B. existing in a very narrow niche.
    C. using chemicals for energy production.
    D. using light for energy production.
    E. using oxygen for metabolism.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration is called
    A. facilitated diffusion.
    B. diffusion.
    C. active transport.
    D. osmosis.
    E. endocytosis.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.05 Discuss diffusion and osmosis.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane is called
    A. facilitated diffusion.
    B. diffusion.
    C. active transport.
    D. osmosis.
    E. endocytosis.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.05 Discuss diffusion and osmosis.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The movement of substances from lower to higher concentration across a semi-permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier and cell expenditure of energy is called
    A. facilitated diffusion.
    B. diffusion.
    C. active transport.
    D. osmosis.
    E. endocytosis.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The movement of substances from higher to lower concentration across a semi-permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier but no energy expenditure is called
    A. facilitated diffusion.
    B. diffusion.
    C. active transport.
    D. osmosis.
    E. endocytosis.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The use of energy by a cell to enclose a substance in its membrane by forming a vacuole and engulfing it is called
    A. facilitated diffusion.
    B. diffusion.
    C. active transport.
    D. osmosis.
    E. endocytosis.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Bacteria living in a freshwater stream that are moved to salty seawater would
    A. be in a hypotonic solution.
    B. gain water.
    C. be in an isotonic solution.
    D. shrivel.
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.06 Identify the effects on a cell of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Which of the following require the cell to use ATP?
    A. facilitated diffusion
    B. diffusion
    C. endocytosis
    D. osmosis
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Contractile vacuoles are
    A. used to expel excess water from cells.
    B. found in bacterial cells.
    C. important to certain organisms in hypertonic environments.
    D. protein carriers in cell membranes.
    E. used to bring solutes into a cell.

ASM Objective: 02.04 The structure and function of microorganisms have been revealed by the use of microscopy (including bright field, phase contrast, fluorescent, and electron).
ASM Topic: Module 02 Structure and Function
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.06 Identify the effects on a cell of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Nutrient absorption is mediated by the
    A. cell wall.
    B. peptidoglycan layer.
    C. proteins in the periplasmic space.
    D. cell membrane.
    E. nuclear membrane.

ASM Objective: 02.04 The structure and function of microorganisms have been revealed by the use of microscopy (including bright field, phase contrast, fluorescent, and electron).
ASM Topic: Module 02 Structure and Function
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Facilitated diffusion is limited by
    A. substrate concentration.
    B. carrier proteins in the membrane.
    C. size of the pores in the membrane.
    D. osmotic pressure.
    E. the size of the cell.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. When whole cells or large molecules in solution are engulfed by a cell, this endocytosis is specifically termed
    A. pinocytosis.
    B. phagocytosis.
    C. facilitated transport.
    D. facilitated diffusion.
    E. exocytosis.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Mediated transport of polar molecules and ions across the plasma membrane utilizes a _____ _____ that will bind to the substance effecting a conformational change that allows movement across the membrane.
    A. protein carrier
    B. lipid carrier
    C. porin carrier
    D. All of the choices are correct.

ASM Objective: 02.04 The structure and function of microorganisms have been revealed by the use of microscopy (including bright field, phase contrast, fluorescent, and electron).
ASM Topic: Module 02 Structure and Function
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. In _____ conditions, the cell wall will help prevent the cell from bursting.
    A. hypertonic
    B. hypotonic
    C. isotonic
    D. All of the choices are correct.

ASM Objective: 02.04 The structure and function of microorganisms have been revealed by the use of microscopy (including bright field, phase contrast, fluorescent, and electron).
ASM Topic: Module 02 Structure and Function
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.06 Identify the effects on a cell of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator, out on a lab bench top, on the shelf of a 37° C incubator, and on the shelf of a 50° C incubator. After incubation, there was no growth at 37° C and 50° C, slight growth out on the bench top, and abundant growth at refrigeration. What term could be used for this species?
    A. halophile
    B. mesophile
    C. anaerobe
    D. psychrophile
    E. capnophile

ASM Objective: 07.01b Ability to apply the process of science: Analyze and interpret results from a variety of microbiological methods, and apply these methods to analogous situations.
ASM Topic: Module 07 Scientific Thinking
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.08 Name five types of bacteria based on their temperature preferences.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated out on the incubator shelf, in an anaerobic jar, and in a candle jar. After incubation there was moderate growth of cultures in the candle and anaerobic jars, but heavy growth of the culture on the incubator shelf. This species is a/an
    A. aerobe.
    B. anaerobe.
    C. facultative anaerobe.
    D. microaerophile.
    E. capnophile.

ASM Objective: 07.01b Ability to apply the process of science: Analyze and interpret results from a variety of microbiological methods, and apply these methods to analogous situations.
ASM Topic: Module 07 Scientific Thinking
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. A microorganism that has an optimum growth temperature of 37° C, but can survive short exposure to high temperatures is called a/an
    A. extremophile.
    B. thermophile.
    C. psychrophile.
    D. facultative psychrophile.
    E. thermoduric.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.08 Name five types of bacteria based on their temperature preferences.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. An organism that grows slowly in the cold but has an optimum growth temperature of 32° C is called a/an
    A. extremophile.
    B. thermophile.
    C. psychrophile.
    D. facultative psychrophile.
    E. thermoduric.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.08 Name five types of bacteria based on their temperature preferences.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. An organism with a temperature growth range of 45° C to 60° C would be called a/an
    A. extremophile.
    B. thermophile.
    C. psychrophile.
    D. facultative psychrophile.
    E. thermoduric.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.08 Name five types of bacteria based on their temperature preferences.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Human pathogens fall into the group
    A. psychrophiles.
    B. thermophiles.
    C. halophiles.
    D. mesophiles.
    E. acidophiles.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.08 Name five types of bacteria based on their temperature preferences.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Infection and Disease
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. All of the following could find a location in or on body tissues suitable for growth except
    A. psychrophiles.
    B. anaerobes.
    C. facultative anaerobes.
    D. mesophiles
    E. capnophiles.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.08 Name five types of bacteria based on their temperature preferences.
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Infection and Disease
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. A microorganism that does not have catalase or super oxide dismutase would find it difficult to live in an environment with
    A. carbon dioxide.
    B. oxygen.
    C. high salt.
    D. temperatures above 37° C.
    E. high acidity.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. A microaerophile
    A. grows best in an anaerobic jar.
    B. grows with or without oxygen.
    C. needs normal atmospheric levels of oxygen.
    D. requires a small amount of oxygen but won’t grow at normal atmospheric levels.
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The toxic super oxide ion is converted to harmless oxygen by two enzymes,
    A. catalase and hydrogen peroxidases.
    B. super oxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxidases.
    C. super oxide dismutase and catalase.
    D. catalase and oxidase.
    E. super oxide dismutase and oxidase.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. An organism that can use gaseous oxygen in metabolism and has the enzymes to process toxic oxygen products is a/an
    A. aerobe.
    B. obligate aerobe.
    C. facultative anaerobe.
    D. microaerophile.
    E. obligate anaerobe.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. An organism that can exist in both oxygen and oxygenless environments is a/an
    A. aerobe.
    B. obligate aerobe.
    C. facultative anaerobe.
    D. microaerophile.
    E. obligate anaerobe.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. An organism that cannot tolerate an oxygen environment is a/an
    A. aerobe.
    B. obligate aerobe.
    C. facultative anaerobe.
    D. microaerophile.
    E. obligate anaerobe.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. An organism that cannot grow without oxygen is a/an
    A. aerobe.
    B. obligate aerobe.
    C. facultative anaerobe.
    D. microaerophile.
    E. obligate anaerobe.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. What type of media is used to demonstrate oxygen requirements of microbes?
    A. blood agar
    B. thioglycollate
    C. sulfite polymyxin sulfadiazine
    D. sodium chloride
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 08.03 Use appropriate methods to identify microorganisms (media-based, molecular and serological).
ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. A halophile would grow best in
    A. acid pools.
    B. fresh water ponds.
    C. hot geyser springs.
    D. arid, desert soil.
    E. salt lakes.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.10 Name three physical factors besides temperature and oxygen requirements that microbes must contend with.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. A barophile would grow best in
    A. acid pools.
    B. the deep oceans.
    C. hot geyser springs.
    D. arid, desert soil.
    E. salt lakes.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.10 Name three physical factors besides temperature and oxygen requirements that microbes must contend with.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The E. coli that normally live in the human large intestines and produce vitamin K for the body to use would best be termed a _____ relationship.
    A. parasitic
    B. saprobic
    C. commensal
    D. mutualistic
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 05.04 Microorganisms, cellular and viral, interact with both human and non-human hosts in beneficial, neutral or detrimental ways.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.11 List and describe the five types of associations microbes can have with their hosts.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The production of antibodies is a form of antagonism called
    A. symbiosis.
    B. satellitism.
    C. antibiosis.
    D. mutualism.
    E. synergism.

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.11 List and describe the five types of associations microbes can have with their hosts.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition
Topic: Microbial World

  1. When microbes live independently but cooperate and share nutrients, it is called
    A. symbiosis.
    B. satellitism.
    C. antibiosis.
    D. mutualism.
    E. synergism.

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.11 List and describe the five types of associations microbes can have with their hosts.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. When microbes are in a close nutritional relationship, and one benefits but the other is not harmed, it is called
    A. symbiosis.
    B. satellitism.
    C. commensalism.
    D. mutualism.
    E. synergism.

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.11 List and describe the five types of associations microbes can have with their hosts.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The time interval from parent cell to two new daughter cells is called the
    A. binary fission.
    B. growth curve.
    C. generation time.
    D. death phase.
    E. culture time.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.14 Define doubling time and how it relates to exponential growth.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which the rate of multiplication equals the rate of cell death is the
    A. lag phase.
    B. log phase.
    C. stationary phase.
    D. death phase.
    E. telophase.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which newly inoculated cells are adjusting to their new environment, metabolizing but not growing, is the
    A. lag phase.
    B. log phase.
    C. stationary phase.
    D. death phase.
    E. prophase.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The phase of the bacterial growth curve that shows the maximum rate of cell division is the
    A. lag phase.
    B. log phase.
    C. stationary phase.
    D. death phase.
    E. prophase.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. In the viable plate count method, a measured sample of a culture is evenly spread across an agar surface and incubated. Each _____ represents one _____ from the sample.
    A. cell, cell
    B. cell, colony
    C. colony, cell
    D. species, colony
    E. generation, cell

ASM Objective: 08.04 Estimate the number of microorganisms in a sample (using, for example, direct count, viable plate count and spectrophotometric methods).
ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.16 Identify three methods besides a growth curve to count bacteria.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. When it is important to count the number of cells, determine cell size, and differentiate between dead and live cells a ___ is used.
    A. Coulter counter
    B. flow cytometer
    C. SEM
    D. methylene dye indicator

ASM Objective: 08.04 Estimate the number of microorganisms in a sample (using, for example, direct count, viable plate count and spectrophotometric methods).
ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.16 Identify three methods besides a growth curve to count bacteria.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

True / False Questions

  1. Phosphorus is one of the major elements needed in larger quantities by microorganisms.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.01 List the essential nutrients of a bacterial cell.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Most microorganisms on earth can only live and survive in habitats that are similar to human body conditions.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.08 Name five types of bacteria based on their temperature preferences.
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Learning Objective: 06.10 Name three physical factors besides temperature and oxygen requirements that microbes must contend with.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Infection and Disease
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Whether an organism is an autotroph or heterotroph depends on its source of nitrogen.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.03 Construct four different terms that describe an organism’s sources of carbon and energy.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Whether an organism is a phototroph or a chemotroph depends on its source of energy.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.03 Construct four different terms that describe an organism’s sources of carbon and energy.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Obligate saprobes can adapt to a living host.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.04 Define saprobe and parasite.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Saprobes do not need a carbon source for growth and metabolism.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.04 Define saprobe and parasite.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Lithoautotrophs use inorganic nutrients for carbon and energy sources.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.03 Construct four different terms that describe an organism’s sources of carbon and energy.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Facilitated diffusion and active transport require a carrier protein to mediate the movement across the plasma membrane.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. In a commensal relationship, the commensal benefits but the cohabitant is neither harmed nor benefited.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 05.04 Microorganisms, cellular and viral, interact with both human and non-human hosts in beneficial, neutral or detrimental ways.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.11 List and describe the five types of associations microbes can have with their hosts.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Anaerobes can be cultured in a CO2 environment.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.09 Explain how different organisms deal with oxygen.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The majority of microbes live and grow in habitats between pH 7 and 9.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.10 Name three physical factors besides temperature and oxygen requirements that microbes must contend with.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Bacteria have an average generation time of 24 hours.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.14 Define doubling time and how it relates to exponential growth.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The time that it takes for a freshly inoculated agar culture to develop visible colonies is principally governed by that specie’s generation time.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 08.04 Estimate the number of microorganisms in a sample (using, for example, direct count, viable plate count and spectrophotometric methods).
ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.14 Define doubling time and how it relates to exponential growth.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Binary fission results in 4 daughter cells from 1 parent cell.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.13 Describe the main way that bacteria divide.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. After binary fission, daughter cells will differ genetically.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.13 Describe the main way that bacteria divide.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. A closed culture system is used to determine a population growth curve.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 08.04 Estimate the number of microorganisms in a sample (using, for example, direct count, viable plate count and spectrophotometric methods).
ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The degree of turbidity in a culture correlates to the amount of cell growth.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 08.04 Estimate the number of microorganisms in a sample (using, for example, direct count, viable plate count and spectrophotometric methods).
ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.16 Identify three methods besides a growth curve to count bacteria.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The direct cell count, using a cytometer, can calculate viable cell numbers from a sample.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 08.04 Estimate the number of microorganisms in a sample (using, for example, direct count, viable plate count and spectrophotometric methods).
ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.16 Identify three methods besides a growth curve to count bacteria.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. A Coulter counter can count viable cells as well as determine the size.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 08.04 Estimate the number of microorganisms in a sample (using, for example, direct count, viable plate count and spectrophotometric methods).
ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.16 Identify three methods besides a growth curve to count bacteria.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Bacterial biofilms stimulate the immune system differently than planktonic bacteria.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 05.02 Most bacteria in nature live in bio-film communities.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 06.12 Discuss characteristics of biofilms that differentiate them from planktonic bacteria.
Section: 06.02
Topic: Immunity and Immunization
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

Multiple Choice Questions
NCLEX Prep – Test Bank Question: Please read the clinical scenario, and then answer the questions that follow to become familiar with the traditional NCLEX question format.

A 24-year-old male arrives at the emergency department via air transport after sustaining a fall while rock climbing. The patient is minimally responsive with sluggishly reactive pupils upon arrival. He is requiring support with mechanical ventilation. A CT scan reveals multiple head bleeds and intracranial swelling. The patient has obvious fractures of his bilateral upper extremities and right leg. The patient is rushed to surgery with the plan to relieve the pressure of the intracranial swelling.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 06.05 Discuss diffusion and osmosis.
Learning Objective: 06.06 Identify the effects on a cell of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The physician orders administration of an intravenous osmotic diuretic as the patient is en route to surgery. As the RN, you are familiar with the action of the drug, which increases the osmolarity of the blood. Which of the following do you anticipate as the therapeutic response to the administration of this medication?
    A. decreased extravascular volume and increased intravascular volume
    B. decreased extravascular volume and decreased intravascular volume
    C. increased extravascular volume and increased intravascular volume
    D. increased extravascular volume and decreased intravascular volume

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 06.05 Discuss diffusion and osmosis.
Learning Objective: 06.06 Identify the effects on a cell of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. You administer the osmotic diuretic as ordered. Which of the following responses by the patient would indicate the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug?
    A. no response to painful stimuli
    B. minimal response to painful stimuli
    C. withdrawal to painful stimuli
    D. spontaneous movement

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 06.05 Discuss diffusion and osmosis.
Learning Objective: 06.06 Identify the effects on a cell of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Following the patient’s surgical procedure, he is admitted to the neurological intensive care unit. Interventions are implemented to decrease intracranial pressure, including the administration of intravenous hypertonic saline. Which of the following do you anticipate as the therapeutic response to the administration of this medication?
    A. decreased extravascular volume and increased intravascular volume
    B. decreased extravascular volume and decreased intravascular volume
    C. increased extravascular volume and increased intravascular volume
    D. increased extravascular volume and decreased intravascular volume

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 06.05 Discuss diffusion and osmosis.
Learning Objective: 06.06 Identify the effects on a cell of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions.
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. You are preparing to administer hypertonic saline. Which of the following solutions would you expect the physician to order to produce the desired physiological effect in the patient?
    A. 0.45% sodium chloride
    B. 0.9% sodium chloride
    C. 0.9% sodium chloride with dextrose
    D. 3% sodium chloride

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 06.05 Discuss diffusion and osmosis.
Learning Objective: 06.06 Identify the effects on a cell of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Because a hypertonic environment forces water to move out of a cell, it is said to have high osmotic
    A. pressure.
    B. diffusion.
    C. tension.
    D. leverage.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 06.05 Discuss diffusion and osmosis.
Learning Objective: 06.06 Identify the effects on a cell of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

NCLEX Prep – Test Bank Question: Please read the clinical scenario, and then answer the questions that follow to become familiar with the traditional NCLEX question format.

An 85-year-old female in a long-term care facility is prescribed verapamil for blood pressure management twice daily. The medication is classified as a calcium channel blocker.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 04. Analyze
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. As the RN, you are familiar with the action of calcium channel blockers. By inhibiting the passage of calcium through ion channels, the drug targets which of the following processes?
    A. diffusion
    B. active transport
    C. passive transport
    D. osmosis

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 04. Analyze
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Which of the following describes the mechanism of action of calcium channel blockers?
    A. relaxation of arterial smooth muscle
    B. relaxation of venous smooth muscle
    C. relaxation of venous smooth muscle and reduction of impulse conduction
    D. relaxation of arterial smooth muscle and reduction of impulse conduction

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 04. Analyze
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of active transport?
    A. involves the movement of water
    B. does not require the input of energy
    C. involves the movement of substances from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
    D. involves the use of carrier proteins

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 04. Analyze
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Prior to administration of verapamil, which of the following is most important for you to assess?
    A. pupillary light reflex
    B. blood oxygen levels
    C. level of consciousness
    D. vital signs

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 04. Analyze
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Prior to administration of the scheduled morning dose of verapamil, the patient’s blood pressure is found to be low. What is the most appropriate action for you to take as the RN?
    A. administer the medication as ordered
    B. administer the medication and notify the physician
    C. reassess the blood pressure in 30 minutes
    D. administer a double dose of verapamil for the scheduled evening dose

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 04. Analyze
Learning Objective: 06.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section: 06.01
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

NCLEX Prep – Test Bank Question: Please read the clinical scenario, and then answer the questions that follow to become familiar with the traditional NCLEX question format.

The hospital infectious disease team is involved with the study of a healthcare-associated infection that has spread to 10% of inpatients. The infected patients are exhibiting symptoms of severe abdominal cramping, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. As the infectious disease RN, you provide education to staff regarding the pattern of bacterial growth and infection control.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 06.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The period of growth between inoculation and when the cells finally adjust to their new environment and begin growth at their maximum rate is called the
    A. lag phase.
    B. exponential growth phase.
    C. stationary growth phase.
    D. death phase.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 06.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of the death phase of bacterial growth?
    A. The patient is experiencing the most severe stage of infection.
    B. The cells are not metabolically active.
    C. The population of cells is rapidly increasing.
    D. The population of cells is slowly increasing.

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Learning Objective: 06.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. The most rapid increase in bacterial growth occurs during which of the following stages?
    A. lag phase
    B. exponential growth phase
    C. stationary growth phase
    D. death phase

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 06.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. Antimicrobial agents are often most effective when given during which period of bacterial growth?
    A. lag phase
    B. exponential growth phase
    C. stationary growth phase
    D. death phase

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 06.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

  1. During which stages of bacterial growth is an infected patient most at risk of spreading the organism to others?
    A. lag phase and exponential growth phase
    B. exponential growth phase and stationary growth phase
    C. stationary growth phase and death phase
    D. exponential growth phase, stationary growth phase, and death phase

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 06.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section: 06.03
Topic: Microbial Growth and Nutrition

Chapter 07

Microbial Metabolism

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. All of the chemical reactions of the cell are called
    A. catabolism.
    B. redox reactions.
    C. phosphorylation.
    D. metabolism.
    E. cellular respiration.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.01 Describe the relationship among metabolism, catabolism and anabolism.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. The breakdown of peptidoglycan to N-acetylmuramic acid, N-acetylglucosamine, and peptides is an example of
    A. anabolism.
    B. catabolism.
    C. phosphorylation.
    D. fermentation.
    E. synthesis.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.01 Describe the relationship among metabolism, catabolism and anabolism.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Enzymes are
    A. broken down in reactions that require energy input.
    B. proteins that function as catalysts.
    C. used up in chemical reactions.
    D. not needed for catabolic reactions.
    E. All of the choices are correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Chemistry
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to build a polypeptide would be called
    A. anabolism.
    B. phosphorylation.
    C. fermentation.
    D. exergonic.
    E. glycolysis.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.01 Describe the relationship among metabolism, catabolism and anabolism.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Chemistry
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Reactants are converted to products by
    A. enzymes releasing energy.
    B. breaking and forming bonds.
    C. enzymes binding to reactants.
    D. reactants releasing energy.
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Chemistry
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Each of the following is true of enzymes except
    A. they can be used over and over.
    B. they may or may not require cofactors.
    C. their active site is specific to the substrate.
    D. they increase the activation energy of a reaction.
    E. All of the choices are true of enzymes.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Chemistry
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. The cell’s metabolic reactions involve the participation of _____ that lower the activation energy needed for the initiation of a reaction.
    A. cofactors
    B. vitamins
    C. enzymes
    D. ATP
    E. coenzymes

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. An apoenzyme is
    A. part of a simple enzyme.
    B. also called a coenzyme.
    C. the protein part of a holoenzyme.
    D. often an inorganic metal ion.
    E. an RNA molecule.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. A holoenzyme is a combination of a protein and one or more substances called
    A. substrates.
    B. apoenzymes.
    C. catalysts.
    D. cofactors.
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Important components of coenzymes are
    A. vitamins.
    B. metallic ions.
    C. active sites.
    D. substrates.
    E. ribozymes.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Enzymes that are only produced when substrate is present are termed
    A. exoenzymes.
    B. endoenzymes.
    C. constitutive enzymes.
    D. induced enzymes.
    E. conjugated enzymes.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.05 Describe how enzymes are controlled.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Enzymes that hydrolyze a peptide bond are called
    A. phosphotransferases.
    B. oxidoreductases.
    C. peptidases.
    D. aminotransferases.
    E. ligases.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Chemistry
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Enzymes that catalyze moving a phosphate from one substrate to another are called
    A. phosphotransferases.
    B. oxidoreductases.
    C. decarboxylases.
    D. aminotransferases.
    E. ligases.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Enzymes that catalyze removal of carbon dioxide from a substrate are called
    A. phosphotransferases.
    B. oxidoreductases.
    C. decarboxylases.
    D. aminotransferases.
    E. ligases.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. During aerobic cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is
    A. pyruvic acid.
    B. oxygen.
    C. nitrate.
    D. cytochrome c.
    E. FAD.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.12 Discuss the significance of the electron transport system.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. _____ reactions are anabolic reactions involving ligases for synthesis and the release of one water molecule for each bond formed.
    A. Reduction
    B. Condensation
    C. Oxidation
    D. Transfer
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.01 Describe the relationship among metabolism, catabolism and anabolism.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Enzymes that are always present, regardless of the amount of substrate, are
    A. apoenzymes.
    B. axoenzymes.
    C. constitutive enzymes.
    D. regulated enzymes.
    E. endoenzymes.

ASM Objective: 04.03 The regulation of gene expression is influenced by external and internal molecular cues and/or signals.
ASM Topic: Module 04 Information Flow
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.03 Differentiate between constitutive and regulated enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. When enzyme action stops due to a buildup of end product, this control is called
    A. negative feedback.
    B. competitive inhibition.
    C. enzyme induction.
    D. enzyme repression.
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.05 Describe how enzymes are controlled.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Each of the following are denaturing agents except
    A. high temperature.
    B. low temperature.
    C. high pH.
    D. low pH.
    E. All of the choices are correct.

ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological methods.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Chemistry
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Feedback inhibition is best described as
    A. substrate binding to DNA, blocking enzyme transcription.
    B. product binding to DNA, blocking enzyme transcription.
    C. substrate binding to enzyme in non-competitive site.
    D. product binding to enzyme in non-competitive site.
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.05 Describe how enzymes are controlled.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Metabolic pathways that regenerate their starting point are called _____ pathways.
    A. linear
    B. bi-directional
    C. convergent
    D. cyclic
    E. divergent

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.04 Diagram some different patterns of metabolism.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. When the product of reaction A becomes the reactant of reaction B, the metabolic pathway is
    A. linear.
    B. bi-directional.
    C. convergent.
    D. cyclic.
    E. divergent.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.04 Diagram some different patterns of metabolism.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Most electron carriers are
    A. coenzymes.
    B. enzymes.
    C. hydrogens.
    D. inorganic phosphates.
    E. All of the choices are correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.08 Identify electron carriers used by cells.
Section: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Exergonic reactions
    A. include synthesis of large carbohydrates.
    B. only occur in heterotrophs.
    C. release energy.
    D. do not occur in anaerobic cellular respiration.
    E. occur when ADP binds to inorganic phosphate to form ATP.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.04 Diagram some different patterns of metabolism.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. In the cell, energy released by electrons is often used to phosphorylate
    A. ATP.
    B. ADP.
    C. pyruvic acid.
    D. oxygen.
    E. NAD.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.06 Name the chemical in which energy is stored in cells.
Section: 07.02
Topic: Chemistry
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. In addition to electrons, which of the following is also involved in electron transfer?
    A. ADP
    B. glucose
    C. carbon
    D. hydrogen
    E. carbon dioxide

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.07 Create a general diagram of a redox reaction.
Section: 07.02
Topic: Chemistry
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. FAD, NAD, and coenzyme A are all _____ carriers.
    A. hydrogen
    B. electron
    C. ATP
    D. hydrogen and electron
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.08 Identify electron carriers used by cells.
Section: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. The step involving ATP, hexokinase, and the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate is
    A. the final step of the Krebs cycle.
    B. the first redox reaction of the electron transport system.
    C. an example of oxidative phosphorylation.
    D. an example of substrate-level phosphorylation.
    E. an example of photophosphorylation.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.10 Write a summary statement describing glycolysis.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. All of the following pertain to glycolysis except it
    A. occurs without oxygen.
    B. ends with formation of pyruvic acid.
    C. occurs during fermentation.
    D. degrades glucose to CO2 and H2O.
    E. involves reduction of NAD.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.10 Write a summary statement describing glycolysis.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Glycolysis
    A. uses 2 ATPs, produces 2 ATPs, and requires oxygen.
    B. uses 2 ATPs, produces 4 ATPs, and requires oxygen.
    C. uses 2 ATPs, produces 4 ATPs, without using oxygen.
    D. uses 2 ATPs, produces 2 ATPs, without using oxygen.
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. The formation of citric acid from oxaloacetic acid and an acetyl group begins
    A. glycolysis.
    B. the electron transport system.
    C. the Krebs cycle.
    D. fermentation.
    E. oxidative phosphorylation.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.11 Describe the Krebs cycle.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Which of the following is not involved in the step that occurs between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?
    A. reduction of NAD
    B. decarboxylation of pyruvic acid
    C. coenzyme A attaches to an acetyl group
    D. dehydrogenation of pyruvic acid
    E. pyruvic acid accepts electrons from NADH

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Substrate level phosphorylation occurs in
    A. glycolysis and electron transport chain.
    B. photosynthesis and glycolysis.
    C. glycolysis and Krebs cycle.
    D. Krebs cycle and electron transport chain.
    E. All of the choices are correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.10 Write a summary statement describing glycolysis.
Learning Objective: 07.11 Describe the Krebs cycle.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. The majority of reduced NAD is produced in
    A. glycolysis.
    B. Krebs cycle.
    C. electron transport chain.
    D. photosynthesis.
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.11 Describe the Krebs cycle.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. In bacterial cells, the electron transport system is located in the
    A. cell membrane.
    B. mitochondria.
    C. chloroplasts.
    D. ribosomes.
    E. cytoplasm.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.12 Discuss the significance of the electron transport system.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Each NADH that enters the electron transport system gives rise to _____ ATP.
    A. 2
    B. 3
    C. 24
    D. 36
    E. 38

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. As the electron transport carriers shuttle electrons, they actively pump _____ into the outer membrane compartment setting up a concentration gradient called the proton motive force.
    A. ATP
    B. phosphate
    C. hydrogen ions
    D. oxygen
    E. NADH

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.12 Discuss the significance of the electron transport system.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. The redox carriers of the electron transport chain that have a tightly bound metal atom responsible for accepting and donating electrons are
    A. NAD.
    B. FAD.
    C. NADP.
    D. the cytochromes.
    E. the flavoproteins.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.12 Discuss the significance of the electron transport system.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Each FADH2 from the Krebs cycle enters the electron transport system and gives rise to _____ ATPs.
    A. 1
    B. 2
    C. 3
    D. 4
    E. 5

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.12 Discuss the significance of the electron transport system.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. In which pathway is the most NADH generated?
    A. electron transport system
    B. Krebs cycle
    C. glycolysis
    D. alcoholic fermentation
    E. mixed acid fermentation

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.10 Write a summary statement describing glycolysis.
Learning Objective: 07.11 Describe the Krebs cycle.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. During which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?
    A. electron transport
    B. Krebs cycle
    C. glycolysis
    D. processing of pyruvic acid for the Krebs cycle
    E. All phases produce the same number of ATP molecules.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. In bacterial cells, when glucose is completely oxidized by all the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration, what is the maximum number of ATP generated?
    A. 2 ATP
    B. 3 ATP
    C. 24 ATP
    D. 36 ATP
    E. 38 ATP

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. How many carbon dioxide molecules are produced by the complete aerobic breakdown of one glucose molecule?
    A. 2
    B. 3
    C. 4
    D. 5
    E. 6

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.11 Describe the Krebs cycle.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. An oxidase detection test can be used to identify certain bacteria because they lack
    A. cytochrome c oxidase.
    B. NAD.
    C. mitochondria.
    D. ATP synthase.
    E. coenzyme Q.

ASM Objective: 08.03 Use appropriate methods to identify microorganisms (media-based, molecular and serological).
ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.12 Discuss the significance of the electron transport system.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism
Topic: Prokaryotes

  1. Which of the following is not true of anaerobic respiration?
    A. is also called fermentation
    B. involves glycolysis
    C. generates some ATP
    D. utilizes an electron transport system
    E. uses the same final electron acceptors as aerobic respiration

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.13 Point out how anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiraton.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Reduction of nitrogen-oxygen ions and compounds by some bacteria is called
    A. aerobic respiration.
    B. denitrification.
    C. nitrification.
    D. fermentation.
    E. deamination.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.13 Point out how anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiraton.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. The reactions of fermentation function to produce _____ molecules for use in glycolysis.
    A. pyruvic acid
    B. ATP
    C. NAD
    D. NADH
    E. glucose

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.14 Provide a summary of fermentation.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. When glucose is broken down by glycolysis during bacterial fermentation, how many ATP are generated?
    A. 2 ATP
    B. 3 ATP
    C. 24 ATP
    D. 36 ATP
    E. 38 ATP

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.14 Provide a summary of fermentation.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Mixed acid fermentation
    A. produces butyric acid.
    B. occurs in all bacteria.
    C. produces several different acids plus CO2 and H2 gases.
    D. is seen in Streptococcus and Lactobacillus.
    E. also produces ethanol.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.14 Provide a summary of fermentation.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Fermentation
    A. requires an organic electron acceptor.
    B. requires oxygen.
    C. only occurs in aerobic organisms.
    D. is equivalent to aerobic respiration in ATP production.
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.14 Provide a summary of fermentation.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Amination is the addition of a/an _____ group to a carbon skeleton.
    A. carboxyl
    B. amino
    C. phosphate
    D. hydroxyl
    E. None of the choices is correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.16 Provide an overview of the anabolic stages of metabolism.
Section: 07.04
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. The property of organisms to integrate catabolic and anabolic pathways to improve cell efficiency is called
    A. metabolism.
    B. amphibolism.
    C. anabolism.
    D. catabolism.
    E. biosynthesis.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.17 Define amphibolism.
Section: 07.04
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. The principle sites of amphibolic interaction occur during
    A. glycolysis and photosynthesis.
    B. Krebs cycle and electron transport system.
    C. glycolysis and Krebs cycle.
    D. fermentation and Krebs cycle.
    E. fermentation and glycolysis.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.16 Provide an overview of the anabolic stages of metabolism.
Learning Objective: 07.17 Define amphibolism.
Section: 07.04
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Intermediates from the Krebs cycle can be converted to amino acids by the process of
    A. amination.
    B. deamination.
    C. phosphorylation.
    D. beta oxidation.
    E. gluconeogenesis.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.16 Provide an overview of the anabolic stages of metabolism.
Section: 07.04
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

True / False Questions

  1. ATP molecules are catalysts that lower the activation energy needed to initiate a reaction.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Chemistry
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Building block molecules for biosynthetic pathways come from the cell’s catabolic pathways and from the environment.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.16 Provide an overview of the anabolic stages of metabolism.
Section: 07.04
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Hydrolysis reactions are catabolic reactions that use water to split the reactant into smaller subunits.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.01 Describe the relationship among metabolism, catabolism and anabolism.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. The best way to control a metabolic pathway is to control the fastest enzyme in the series.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.05 Describe how enzymes are controlled.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Denaturing an apoenzyme will destroy the three-dimensional shape of the protein, making it nonfunctional.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Chemistry
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. ATP is composed of deoxyribose, adenine, and 3 phosphate groups.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.06 Name the chemical in which energy is stored in cells.
Section: 07.02
Topic: Chemistry
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. ATP synthase is a complex enzyme needed for oxidative phosphorylation.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.12 Discuss the significance of the electron transport system.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. All aerobic bacterial species have identical electron acceptors in their electron transport systems.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.13 Point out how anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiraton.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism
Topic: Prokaryotes

  1. Only yeast produces alcohol as a fermentation product.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.14 Provide a summary of fermentation.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Oxygen-containing ions are used by some bacteria in a cytochrome-like system.
    TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.13 Point out how anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiraton.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism
Topic: Prokaryotes

  1. Microbes can utilize only carbohydrates for energy production.
    FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 01. Remember
Learning Objective: 07.15 Describe how noncarbohydrate compounds are catabolized.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

Multiple Choice Questions
NCLEX Prep – Test Bank Question: Please read the clinical scenario, and then answer the questions that follow to become familiar with the traditional NCLEX question format.

A patient with severe anorexia nervosa is admitted to the hospital for medical treatment. The patient presents with severe malnutrition and evidence of organ dysfunction. Labs are drawn and maintenance IV fluids are initiated.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.06 Name the chemical in which energy is stored in cells.
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Section: 07.02
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. As the RN, you initiate IV fluid therapy for the patient. Knowing the importance of cellular energy production, which of the following maintenance IV fluids would you expect to be ordered by the physician?
    A. 0.9% sodium chloride
    B. lactated ringers
    C. 0.45% sodium chloride
    D. 0.9% sodium chloride with dextrose

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.06 Name the chemical in which energy is stored in cells.
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Section: 07.02
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. You are knowledgeable about cellular metabolism. Which of the following processes is common to fermentation, anaerobic respiration, and aerobic respiration?
    A. glycolysis
    B. the Krebs cycle
    C. the electron transport system
    D. glycosylation

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.06 Name the chemical in which energy is stored in cells.
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Section: 07.02
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. As the RN, you are familiar with ATP production in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. How many ATP do you expect aerobic respiration to yield in the patient’s cells?
    A. 2 ATP
    B. 38 ATP
    C. 36 ATPs
    D. ATP yield is unpredictable.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.06 Name the chemical in which energy is stored in cells.
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Section: 07.02
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. You instruct the patient that although prokaryotic cells can also undergo aerobic respiration,
    A. they make less ATP in this process than eukaryotic cells.
    B. the Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondrion in these cells.
    C. glycolysis takes place in the mitochondrion in these cells.
    D. the electron transport chain take place in the plasma membrane in these cells.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.06 Name the chemical in which energy is stored in cells.
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Section: 07.02
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

NCLEX Prep – Test Bank Question: Please read the clinical scenario, and then answer the questions that follow to become familiar with the traditional NCLEX question format.

A newborn infant screening yields a positive result for biotinidase deficiency. As the RN, you provide education for the patient’s parents regarding the role of enzymes in metabolism and this enzyme deficiency disorder.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.01 Describe the relationship among metabolism, catabolism and anabolism.
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Which of the following statements, by the patient’s mother, best represents an understanding of metabolism?
    A. “Metabolism involves the production of enzymes.”
    B. “Metabolism involves all chemical reactions and physical workings of the cell.”
    C. “Metabolism involves the consumption of energy for workings of the cell.”
    D. “Metabolism involves the production of energy for workings of the cell.”

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.01 Describe the relationship among metabolism, catabolism and anabolism.
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. All of the following are true of enzymes except
    A. enzymes increase the rate of a chemical reaction.
    B. enzymes are not part of the products of a chemical reaction.
    C. enzymes create a chemical reaction.
    D. enzymes are not consumed in a chemical reaction.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.01 Describe the relationship among metabolism, catabolism and anabolism.
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Inborn errors of metabolism
    A. are caused by infectious agents.
    B. produce very specific signs and symptoms, making them easy to diagnose.
    C. cannot be diagnosed by DNA testing.
    D. may not become evident until adulthood.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.01 Describe the relationship among metabolism, catabolism and anabolism.
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Based upon knowledge of enzymes and metabolic processes, which of the following outcomes would you educate the parents to expect if the deficiency is not treated?
    A. no effect on the patient’s health
    B. reduced immunity in adulthood in the patient
    C. mildly impaired vision in the patient
    D. permanent damage to organ systems and/or death of the patient

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.01 Describe the relationship among metabolism, catabolism and anabolism.
Learning Objective: 07.02 Fully define the structure and function of enzymes.
Section: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

NCLEX Prep – Test Bank Question: Please read the clinical scenario, and then answer the questions that follow to become familiar with the traditional NCLEX question format.

A 67-year-old patient with severe sepsis undergoes a full infectious work-up upon admittance to the intensive care unit. Cultures of urine, blood, sputum, and cerebral spinal fluid are obtained. The cultures do not yield a specific organism, so further analysis of the sample is done to determine the characteristics of the microorganism. The metabolic processes are analyzed in the lab.

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Learning Objective: 07.13 Point out how anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiraton.
Learning Objective: 07.14 Provide a summary of fermentation.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. The organism is found to grow throughout the entire tube of broth media. Which of the following terms best describes the oxygen requirement of this organism?
    A. obligate aerobe
    B. microaerophile
    C. facultative anaerobe
    D. obligate anaerobe

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Learning Objective: 07.13 Point out how anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiraton.
Learning Objective: 07.14 Provide a summary of fermentation.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. The organism sample is further tested and found to grow in the absence of oxygen. Which of 3 main pathways of catabolism may this organism utilize to produce energy in the absence of free oxygen?
    A. aerobic respiration and fermentation
    B. anaerobic respiration and aerobic respiration
    C. fermentation and anaerobic respiration
    D. aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Learning Objective: 07.13 Point out how anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiraton.
Learning Objective: 07.14 Provide a summary of fermentation.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. Biochemical testing reveals that the organism further reduces nitrite to produce nitrous oxide. Based upon this byproduct, which of the following is the most likely catabolic pathway utilized by this organism?
    A. aerobic respiration
    B. anaerobic respiration
    C. fermentation
    D. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration, as well as fermentation, can all lead to the production of nitrous oxide

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Learning Objective: 07.13 Point out how anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiraton.
Learning Objective: 07.14 Provide a summary of fermentation.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

  1. What is the maximum net yield of ATP from anaerobic respiration?
    A. 2 ATP
    B. 2-36 ATP
    C. 36-38 ATP
    D. 38-40 ATP

ASM Objective: 03.01 Bacteria and Archaea exhibit extensive, and often unique, metabolic diversity (e.g. nitrogen fixation, methane production, anoxygenic photosynthesis).
ASM Objective: 03.02 The metabolic abilities of a cell determine how it interacts with other cells and its environment (e.g. quorum sensing, oxygen consumption, nitrogen transformations).
ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Bloom’s Level: 03. Apply
Learning Objective: 07.09 Name three basic catabolic pathways, and give an estimate of how much ATP each of them yields.
Learning Objective: 07.13 Point out how anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiraton.
Learning Objective: 07.14 Provide a summary of fermentation.
Section: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Metabolism

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