Modern Systems Analysis And Design 6th Edition By Jeffry E.Hoofer -Test Bank +A

$35.00
Modern Systems Analysis And Design 6th Edition By Jeffry E.Hoofer -Test Bank +A

Modern Systems Analysis And Design 6th Edition By Jeffry E.Hoofer -Test Bank +A

$35.00
Modern Systems Analysis And Design 6th Edition By Jeffry E.Hoofer -Test Bank +A

1) Requirements determination and requirements structuring are the two subphases to systems analysis.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 164

2) During requirements determination, information can be gathered from users of the current system, forms, reports, and procedures.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 165

3) Challenging yourself to look at the organization in new ways describes the impertinence characteristic that a systems analyst should exhibit during the requirements determination phase.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 165

4) Assuming anything is possible and eliminating the infeasible describes the reframing characteristic that a systems analyst should exhibit during the requirements determination phase.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 165

5) Finding the best solution to a business problem or opportunity describes the attention to details characteristic that a systems analyst should exhibit during the requirements determination phase.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 165

6) Requirements creep is a term used to describe a project that has bogged down in an abundance of analysis work.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 166

7) Joint Application Design and prototyping can help keep the analysis effort at a minimum yet still effective.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 166

8) Collection of information is at the core of systems analysis.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 166

9) Contrary to popular belief, interviewing is not one of the primary ways analysts gather information about an information systems project.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 166

10) In order to promote more truthful responses, the general nature of the interview should not be explained to the interviewee in advance.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167

11) Neutrality is a guideline for effective interviewing.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167

12) As a general guideline, you should prepare an agenda with approximate time limits for different sections of the interview.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167

13) Unstructured questions are questions in interviews that have no prespecified answers.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167

14) Open-ended questions are usually used to probe for information when you cannot anticipate all possible responses or when you do not know the precise question to ask.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167

15) Open-ended questions can put the interviewee at ease because she can respond in her own words using her own structure.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167-169

16) Open-ended questions put the interviewee at ease, are easily summarized, and save time.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 169

17) Closed-ended questions work well when the major answers to the questions are known.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 169

18) A major disadvantage of closed-ended questions is that useful information that does not quite fit the defined answers may be overlooked as the respondent tries to make a choice instead of providing his or her best answer.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 169

19) Multiple choice, rating, and ranking are types of closed-ended questions.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 169

20) You should use the interview process to set expectations about the new or replacement system.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 170

21) As observations are unbiased, they are preferable to other requirements determination techniques.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 172

22) While being observed, employees may follow exact procedures more carefully than they typically do.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 172

23) When performing observations, it is best to select typical people and sites as opposed to atypical people and sites.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 172-173

24) In documents you can find information about the values of the organization or individuals who can help determine priorities for different capabilities desired by different users.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 173

25) In documents you can find information about special information processing circumstances that occur irregularly.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 173

26) As a systems analyst, it is part of your job to create a document for a missing work procedure.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 174

27) If you encounter contradictory information about procedures from interviews, questionnaires, or observations, you should reconcile the contradictions before proceeding to other analysis tasks.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 175

28) Informal systems develop because of inadequacies of formal procedures, individual work habits and preferences, and resistance to control.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 175

29) When gathering system requirements, document analysis and observation are used the least.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 177

30) When comparing observations and document analysis, the expense of observations is rated moderate.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 177

31) When comparing observations and document analysis, the chances for follow-up and probing with document analysis are rated high to excellent.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 177

32) When comparing observations and document analysis, the time required for document analysis is rated as low to moderate.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 177

33) The primary purpose of using JAD in the analysis phase is to collect systems requirements simultaneously from the key people involved with the system.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

34) A JAD is an inexpensive, popular requirements determination technique.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

35) Referencing a JAD session, the sponsor is the individual responsible for organizing and running a JAD session.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

36) During JAD, the group interaction process is typically not well supported by computing.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 179

37) The goal with using prototyping to support requirements determination is to build the ultimate system from prototyping.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 181

38) Throw-away prototyping preserves the prototype that has been developed.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 182

39) The idea behind BPR is to reorganize the complete flow of data in major sections of an organization to eliminate unnecessary steps, achieve synergies among previously separate steps, and become more responsive to future changes.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 183

40) A first step in any BPR effort is to understand what processes need to change.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 184

41) The skills of a systems analyst are often central to many BPR efforts.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 184

42) BPR efforts often result in the development of information system maintenance requests or requests for system replacement.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 183

43) Key business processes are the structured, measured set of activities designed to produce a specific output for a particular customer or market.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 184

44) Disruptive technologies enable the breaking of long-held business rules that inhibit organizations from making radical business changes.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 184

45) Referencing requirements determination using Agile Methodologies, the Continual User Involvement technique does not work well with small and dedicated development teams.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 186

46) The Continual User Involvement technique works best when development can follow the analysis-design-code-test cycle.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 186-187

47) The Agile Usage-Centered Design focuses on user roles, user goals, and the tasks necessary to achieve those goals.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 187-188

48) Referencing eXtreme Programming and its Planning Game, Development is represented by those actually designing and constructing the system.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 188-189

49) Determining systems requirements for an Internet-based electronic commerce application is no different than the process followed for other applications.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 190

50) Referencing eXtreme programming, programmers and end users play the Iteration Planning Game.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 188-189

51) Exploration, commitment, and steering are the three phases of the Iteration Planning Game.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 189

52) The impertinence characteristic of a good systems analyst is represented by which of the following statements?

  1. A) You must challenge yourself to look at the organization in new ways.
  2. B) Every fact must fit with every other fact.
  3. C) Assume anything is possible, and eliminate the infeasible.
  4. D) You should question everything.

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 164

53) The reframing characteristic of a good systems analyst is represented by which of the following statements?

  1. A) You must challenge yourself to look at the organization in new ways.
  2. B) Every fact must fit with every other fact.
  3. C) Assume anything is possible, and eliminate the infeasible.
  4. D) You should question everything.

Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 165

54) The impartiality characteristic of a good systems analyst is represented by which of the following statements?

  1. A) You must challenge yourself to look at the organization in new ways.
  2. B) Your role is to find the best solution to a business problem or opportunity.
  3. C) Assume anything is possible, and eliminate the infeasible.
  4. D) You should question everything.

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 165

55) The primary deliverables from requirements determination include:

  1. A) sets of forms, reports, and job descriptions
  2. B) transcripts of interviews
  3. C) notes from observation and from analysis documents
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 165

56) The term used to refer to systems development projects bogged down in an abundance of analysis work is:

  1. A) information overload
  2. B) analysis paralysis
  3. C) analysis overload
  4. D) information abundance

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 166

57) Techniques developed to keep the analysis effort minimal, yet still effective include:

  1. A) JAD
  2. B) interviewing
  3. C) observations
  4. D) quiz sessions

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 166

58) Traditional methods of collecting systems requirements include:

  1. A) individual interviews
  2. B) observing workers
  3. C) group interviews
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 166

59) Which of the following is a traditional method of collecting systems requirements?

  1. A) Group support systems
  2. B) Group interviews
  3. C) Joint Application Design
  4. D) Rapid Application Development

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 166

60) Questions in interviews that have no pre-specified answers are:

  1. A) nonspecific questions
  2. B) closed-ended questions
  3. C) open-ended questions
  4. D) investigative questions

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167

61) One advantage of open-ended questions in an interview is:

  1. A) a significant amount of time can be devoted to each interviewee
  2. B) the interviewee is restricted to providing just a few answers
  3. C) previously unknown information can result
  4. D) they work well when the answers to the questions are well known

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167

62) Questions in interviews asking those responding to choose from among a set of specified responses are:

  1. A) specific questions
  2. B) closed-ended questions
  3. C) open-ended questions
  4. D) structured questions

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 169

63) Which of the following is an advantage of closed-ended questions?

  1. A) Interviews based on closed-ended questions do not necessarily require a large time commitment, so more topics can be covered.
  2. B) Closed-ended questions enable the analysts to explore information that does not quite fit defined answers.
  3. C) The analyst can obtain previously unknown information.
  4. D) Closed-ended questions often put the interviewee at ease.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 169

64) Rating a response or idea on some scale, say from strongly agree to strongly disagree, would be classified as a(n):

  1. A) open-ended question
  2. B) JAD question
  3. C) closed-ended question
  4. D) ranking question

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 169

65) Good interview guidelines consist of:

  1. A) phrasing the question to illicit the correct response
  2. B) typing your notes within two weeks of the interview
  3. C) establishing expectation levels about the new system
  4. D) seeking a variety of perspectives from the interviews

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 170

66) Interviewing several key people at once refers to:

  1. A) stakeholder interviewing
  2. B) group interviewing
  3. C) user interviewing
  4. D) strategic interviewing

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 170

67) Which of the following is a disadvantage to group interviewing?

  1. A) Group interviewing does not effectively utilize your time.
  2. B) Interviewing several people together allows them to hear the opinions of other key people.
  3. C) Group interviewing requires significantly more time than does the JAD process.
  4. D) Scheduling group interviews can be a problem.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 170

68) A facilitated process that supports idea generation by groups where at the beginning of the process, group members work alone to generate ideas, which are then pooled under the guidance of a trained facilitator best describes:

  1. A) affinity clustering
  2. B) requirements structuring
  3. C) group interviews
  4. D) nominal group technique

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 171

69) Which of the following is a reason for directly observing end users?

  1. A) The analyst gets a snap-shot image of the person or task being observed.
  2. B) Observations are not very time consuming.
  3. C) People often do not have a completely accurate appreciation of what they do or how they do it.
  4. D) Employees will alter their performance if they know that they are being observed.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 171

70) Which of the following documents are useful in understanding possible future system requirements?

  1. A) written work procedures
  2. B) documents that describe the current information system
  3. C) reports generated by current systems
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 173

71) The analysis of documents can help you identify:

  1. A) problems with existing systems
  2. B) special information processing circumstances that occur irregularly and may not be identified by any other requirements
  3. C) the reason why current systems are designed the way they are
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 173

72) A written work procedure:

  1. A) indicates the job an analyst will need to perform on a given project
  2. B) describes how a particular job or task is performed, including data and information that are used and created in the process of performing the job
  3. C) indicates what data flow in or out of a system and which are necessary for the system to function
  4. D) enables you to work backwards from the information on a report to the necessary data

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 173

73) If your analysis of several written procedures reveals a duplication of effort in two jobs, you should:

  1. A) indicate that one job be deleted from the new system
  2. B) call the duplication to the attention of management as an issue to be resolved before system design can proceed
  3. C) justify the duplication of effort
  4. D) restructure the tasks so that the duplication is removed

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 174

74) The official way a system works as described in organizational documentation is referred to as a(n):

  1. A) formal system
  2. B) informal system
  3. C) official system
  4. D) desired system

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 175

75) The way a system actually works is referred to as a(n):

  1. A) unofficial system
  2. B) informal system
  3. C) actual system
  4. D) formal system

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 175

76) Forms are important for understanding a business because they:

  1. A) indicate the correct sequencing of tasks
  2. B) describe how particular tasks are performed
  3. C) indicate what data flow in or out of a system and which are necessary for the system to function
  4. D) enable you to work backwards from the information on a report to the necessary data

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 175

77) Forms are most useful:

  1. A) when they do not contain any data
  2. B) during the initial planning stages
  3. C) when they contain actual organizational data
  4. D) during the design stage

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 176

78) A report:

  1. A) indicates the inputs required for the new system
  2. B) describes how a particular job or task is performed, including data and information that are used and created in the process of performing the job
  3. C) indicates what data flow in or out of a system and which are necessary for the system to function
  4. D) enables you to work backwards from the information on a report to the data that must have been necessary to generate them

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 176

79) When comparing observations and document analysis:

  1. A) the time required to conduct observations compared to document analysis is low
  2. B) the observee is not known to the interviewer
  3. C) the potential audience of the observation method is limited
  4. D) with document analysis, a clear commitment is discernible

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 177

80) Which of the following is not a contemporary method for determining system requirements?

  1. A) interviewing
  2. B) group support systems
  3. C) CASE tools
  4. D) Joint Application Design

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 177

81) Which of the following is a true statement regarding JAD?

  1. A) The primary purpose of using JAD in the analysis phase is to collect systems requirements simultaneously from the key people involved with the system.
  2. B) JAD follows a particular structure of roles and agenda that are similar to the group interview.
  3. C) JAD sessions are usually conducted in the organization’s conference room.
  4. D) A JAD session is inexpensive to conduct.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

82) The typical participants in a JAD include:

  1. A) a session leader
  2. B) a scribe
  3. C) a sponsor
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 178

83) The trained individual who plans and leads Joint Application Design sessions is referred to as the:

  1. A) scribe
  2. B) JAD session leader
  3. C) JAD manager
  4. D) JAD contributor

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

84) The person who makes detailed notes of the happenings at a Joint Application Design session is referred to as the:

  1. A) JAD analyst
  2. B) scribe
  3. C) JAD manager
  4. D) JAD session leader

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

85) The CASE tools most useful to the analyst during JAD are:

  1. A) lower CASE
  2. B) cross life cycle CASE
  3. C) upper CASE
  4. D) code generators

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 180

86) Drawbacks to prototyping include:

  1. A) a tendency to avoid creating formal documentation of systems requirements that can then make the system more difficult to develop into a fully working system
  2. B) prototypes becoming very idiosyncratic to the initial user and difficult to diffuse or adapt to other potential users
  3. C) prototypes being built as stand-alone systems
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 182

87) Prototyping is most useful for requirements determination when:

  1. A) user requirements are well understood
  2. B) communication problems have existed in the past between users and analysts
  3. C) possible designs are simple and require an abstract form to fully evaluate
  4. D) multiple stakeholders are involved with the system

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 182

88) In BPR, which of the following questions are used to identify activities for radical change?

  1. A) How important is the activity to delivering the outcome?
  2. B) How feasible is changing the activity?
  3. C) How dysfunctional is the activity?
  4. D) All of the above are correct.

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 184

89) The search for, and implementation of, radical change in business processes to achieve breakthrough improvements in products and services best defines:

  1. A) Joint Application Design
  2. B) Rapid Application Development
  3. C) structured programming
  4. D) business process reengineering

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 183

90) The structured, measured set of activities designed to produce a specific output for a particular customer or market best defines:

  1. A) formal systems
  2. B) key business processes
  3. C) secondary activities
  4. D) production systems

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 184

91) Technologies that enable the breaking of long-held business rules that inhibit organizations from making radical business changes best defines:

  1. A) technology barriers
  2. B) business process reengineering
  3. C) disruptive technologies
  4. D) business constraints

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 184

92) Which of the following technologies disrupted the business rule that information can appear only in one place at a time?

  1. A) high-performance computing
  2. B) distributed databases
  3. C) expert systems
  4. D) advanced telecommunications networks

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 185

93) Which of the following is not an Agile Methodologies requirements determination technique?

  1. A) Planning Game
  2. B) JAD
  3. C) Agile Usage-Centered Design
  4. D) continual user involvement

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 187

94) Continual user involvement works best when:

  1. A) the number of end users is large.
  2. B) the number of end users is small.
  3. C) the development group is small.
  4. D) the development group is large.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 187

95) Which of the following is not a step in the Agile Usage-Centered Design Method?

  1. A) Give everyone a chance to vent about the current system and to talk about the features every one wants in the new system.
  2. B) Determine what the most important user roles would be.
  3. C) Determine what tasks user roles will have to complete in order to achieve their goals.
  4. D) Test each program module separately from every other program module, and then perform system testing.

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 188

96) Which of the following was developed by Kent Beck, and is distinguished by its short cycles, its incremental planning approach, its focus on automated tests written by programmers and customers to monitor the process of development, and its reliance on an evolutionary approach to development that lasts throughout the lifetime of the system?

  1. A) eXtreme programming
  2. B) evolutionary prototyping
  3. C) rapid application development
  4. D) object-oriented analysis and design

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 188

97) Referencing eXtreme programming, which of the following is a stylized approach to development that seeks to maximize fruitful interaction between those who need a new system and those who built it?

  1. A) Iteration Planning Game
  2. B) Planning Game
  3. C) eXtreme Walkthrough
  4. D) eXtreme JAD

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 188

98) Referencing eXtreme programming, which of the following is not a Planning Game phase?

  1. A) exploration
  2. B) design
  3. C) commitment
  4. D) steering

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 189

99) Referencing eXtreme programming, which of the following is the final phase of the Planning Game?

  1. A) exploration
  2. B) design
  3. C) commitment
  4. D) steering

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 189

100) Referencing eXtreme programming, who plays the Iteration Planning Game?

  1. A) programmers
  2. B) business managers and analysts
  3. C) end users, business managers, and analysts
  4. D) programmers, analysts, and end users

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 189

101) Which of the following is the eXtreme Programming Planning Game phase where Business has a chance to see how the development process is progressing and to work with Development to adjust the plan accordingly?

  1. A) commitment
  2. B) exploration
  3. C) choice
  4. D) steering

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 189

102) During requirements determination, the systems analyst characteristic that says you should question everything is __________.

Answer: impertinence

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 164

103) During requirements determination, the systems analyst characteristic that says your role is to find the best solution to a business problem is __________.

Answer: impartiality

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 165

104) During requirements determination when you assume anything is possible and eliminate the infeasible, this corresponds to the systems analyst characteristic of __________.

Answer: relaxing of constraints

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 165

105) During requirements determination when every fact must fit with every other fact, this corresponds to the systems analyst characteristic of __________.

Answer: attention to details

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 165

106) During requirements determination, challenging yourself to look at the organization in new ways corresponds to the systems analyst characteristic of __________.

Answer: reframing

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 165

107) General types of deliverables associated with requirements determination are information collected from __________, __________, __________, __________.

Answer: conversations with users, observations of users, existing written information, computer-based information

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 165

108) __________ describes a project that has bogged down in an abundance of analysis work.

Answer: Analysis paralysis

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 166

109) __________ and __________ techniques were developed to keep the analysis effort to a minimum yet still effective.

Answer: JAD, prototyping

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 166

110) Traditional methods of collecting system requirements include __________, __________, and __________.

Answer: interviews, observations, business documents

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 166

111) __________ are questions in interviews and on questionnaires that have no prespecified answers.

Answer: Open-ended questions

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167

112) __________ are usually used to probe for information when you cannot anticipate all possible responses or when you do not know the precise questions to ask.

Answer: Open-ended questions

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167

113) __________ are questions in interviews that ask those responding to choose from among a set of specified responses.

Answer: Closed-ended questions

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 169

114) The __________ is a facilitated process that supports idea generation by groups; at the beginning of the process, group members work alone to generate ideas, which are then pooled under the guidance of a trained facilitator.

Answer: Nominal Group Technique

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 171

115) A __________ is the official way a system works as described in organizational documentation.

Answer: formal system

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 175

116) An __________ is the way a system actually works.

Answer: informal system

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 175

117) A __________ is the trained individual who plans and leads Joint Application Design sessions.

Answer: JAD session leader

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

118) A __________ is the person who makes detailed notes of the happenings at a Joint Application Design session.

Answer: scribe

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 178

119) __________ is a repetitive process in which analysts and users build a rudimentary version of an information system based on user feedback.

Answer: Prototyping

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 181

120) __________ is the search for, and implementation of, radical change in business processes to achieve breakthrough improvements in products and services.

Answer: Business process reengineering

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 183

121) __________ are the structured, measured set of activities designed to produce a specific output for a particular customer or market.

Answer: Key business processes

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 184

122) __________ are technologies that enable the breaking of long-held business rules that inhibit organizations from making radical business changes.

Answer: Disruptive technologies

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 184

123) Referencing eXtreme programming, the __________ is a stylized approach to development that seeks to maximize fruitful interaction between those who need a new system and those who build it.

Answer: Planning Game

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 188-189

124) __________, __________, and __________ are the three phases of the Planning Game.

Answer: Exploration, commitment, steering

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 189

125) __________, __________, and __________ are the three phases of the Iteration Planning Game.

Answer: Exploration, commitment, steering

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 189

126) Referencing the Iteration Planning Game, programmers will accept responsibility for tasks and balance their workloads during the __________ phase.

Answer: commitment

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 189

Match each of the following terms with its corresponding definition.

  1. business process reengineering
  2. closed-ended questions
  3. disruptive technologies
  4. formal system
  5. informal system
  6. JAD session leader
  7. key business processes
  8. open-ended questions
  9. scribe

127) Technologies that enable the breaking of long-held business rules that inhibit organizations from making radical business changes.

Answer: c

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 184

128) The person who makes detailed notes of the happenings at a Joint Application Design session.

Answer: i

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

129) The structured, measured set of activities designed to produce a specific output for a particular customer or market.

Answer: g

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 184

130) Questions in interviews and on questionnaires that ask those responding to choose from among a set of specified responses.

Answer: b

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 169

131) The search for, and implementation of, radical change in business processes to achieve breakthrough improvements in products and services.

Answer: a

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 183

132) The trained individual who plans and leads Joint Application Design sessions.

Answer: f

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

133) The way a system actually works.

Answer: e

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 175

134) The official way a system works as described in organizational documentation.

Answer: d

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 175

135) Questions in interviews and on questionnaires that have no prespecified answers.

Answer: h

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 167

Match each of the following eXtreme programming terms with its corresponding description.

  1. business
  2. development
  3. exploration
  4. commitment
  5. steering

136) Refers to the phase where Business sorts the Story Cards according to the type of features.

Answer: d

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 189

137) Refers to the phase where Business creates a Story Card for something it wants to do.

Answer: c

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 189

138) Refers to those who are designing and constructing the system.

Answer: b

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 189

139) Refers to the phase where Business has a chance to see how the development process is progressing and to work with Development to adjust the plan accordingly.

Answer: e

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 189

140) Refers to the customer, and is represented by someone who knows the processes to be supported by the system being developed

Answer: a

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 189

For each of the following statements, answer “A” if it is characteristic of an observation, or answer “B” if it is characteristic of document analysis.

141) In terms of information richness, it is judged low (passive) and old.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 177

142) In terms of expense, it can be high.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 177

143) In terms of confidentiality, the individual is known.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 177

144) In terms of subject involvement, there is no clear commitment.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 177

145) In terms of potential audience, there are limited numbers and limited time (snap shot) of each.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 177

Match each of the following typical JAD participants with its description.

  1. scribe
  2. systems analyst
  3. sponsor
  4. user
  5. JAD session leader
  6. manager
  7. IS staff

146) This individual takes notes; a personal computer or laptop is usually used to take the notes.

Answer: a

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

147) A person who is relatively high level in the company and usually attends only at the very beginning or the end of the session.

Answer: c

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

148) This person organizes and runs the JAD, and has been trained in group management and facilitation, as well as in systems analysis.

Answer: e

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

149) This individual is the only one who has a clear understanding of what it means to use the system on a daily basis.

Answer: d

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

150) This individual is part of the development team; he/she attends the JAD session to learn from the users and managers.

Answer: b

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

151) This individual provides insight into new organizational directions, motivations for and organizational impacts of systems, and support for requirements determined during the JAD.

Answer: f

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

152) This individual may attend JAD to learn from the discussion and possibly to contribute ideas on the technical feasibility of ideas or on technical limitations of current systems.

Answer: g

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

For each of the following situations, answer “A” if prototyping would be useful or answer “B” if prototyping would not be useful.

153) User requirements are well understood.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 182

154) A significant number of users or stakeholders are involved with the system.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 182

155) Possible designs are complex and require concrete form to fully evaluate.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 182

156) Communication problems have existed in the past between users and analysts, and both parties want to be sure that system requirements are as specific as possible.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 182

157) Tools and data are readily available to build working systems rapidly.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 182

158) Briefly identify several characteristics for a good systems analyst to have during requirements determination.

Answer: Five characteristics that will come in handy during the requirements determination stage are impertinence, impartiality, relax constraints, attention to details, and reframing. Impertinence questions everything. Impartiality describes your quest to find the best solution to a business problem or opportunity. Assuming anything is possible, and eliminating the infeasible defines the third characteristic, relax constraints. By making sure that every fact fits with every other fact, the analyst is paying attention to details. Since analysis is a creative process, the analyst should challenge himself to look at the organization in new ways. This characteristic is referred to as reframing.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 164-165

159) Briefly identify the traditional methods for determining requirements.

Answer: The traditional methods for collecting system requirements are individual interviews, group interviews, observations, Nominal Group Technique, and document analysis.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 166

160) What is eXtreme programming?

Answer: eXtreme programming is an approach developed by Kent Beck. This approach is distinguished by its short cycles, its incremental planning approach, its focus on automated tests written by programmers and customers to monitor the process of development, and its reliance on an evolutionary approach to development that lasts throughout the lifetime of the system.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 188-189

161) Briefly identify and discuss four types of documents that would be helpful in determining future system requirements.

Answer: While any written document can provide insight into the future system requirements, four documents were specifically mentioned in the chapter. They are the written work procedure, business form, report, and current system documentation. The written work procedure describes how a particular job or task is performed and includes data and information requirements needed by the job. Business forms are important because they can demonstrate what data flow in or out of a system and which are necessary for the system to function. Reports are beneficial because they provide information about system output. The fourth type of documentation, current system documentation, refers to documents that describe the current information system. This type of documentation can provide insight concerning how the systems were built and how they work.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 173

162) Briefly identify and describe the participants of a JAD session.

Answer: A JAD session consists of a JAD session leader, users, managers, sponsors, systems analysts, a scribe, and information systems staff. The JAD session leader is responsible for running the session. The scribe is the individual who takes notes during the session. Users are important because they understand the current system. Managers are needed to provide insight into new organizational directions, motivations, organizational impacts of systems, and support for requirements determined during the JAD. As new systems cost money, high-level management support is demonstrated through the appearance of system sponsors. Attendance by these individuals is usually at the beginning or ending of the session. Systems analysts are present so they can learn from the users and managers. Information systems staff can contribute ideas to the process as well as learn from it.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 178

163) Define disruptive technologies. Identify eight disruptive technologies and how they have eliminated long-held organizational rules.

Answer: Disruptive technologies enable the breaking of long-held business rules that inhibit organizations from making radical business changes. Distributed databases, expert systems, advanced telecommunications networks, decision support tools, wireless data communication and portable computers, interactive communication technologies, automatic identification and tracking technologies, and high-performance computing are eight disruptive technologies. Distributed databases allow the sharing of information, and expert systems can aid nonexperts. Advanced telecommunications networks can support dynamic organizational structures; decision-support tools can aid nonmanagers. Wireless data communication and portable computers provide a “virtual” office for workers. Interactive communication technologies allow complex messaging capabilities. Automatic identification and tracking technology know where things are, and high-performance computing can provide real-time updating.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 184-185

164) Identify four drawbacks to using prototyping as a requirements determination tool.

Answer: The four drawbacks mentioned in the textbook are: (1) a tendency to avoid creating formal documentation of system requirements; (2) prototypes become very idiosyncratic to the initial user and difficult to diffuse or adapt to other potential users; (3) prototypes are often built as stand-alone systems, often ignoring issues of sharing data, interactions with other existing systems, and scaling up applications; and (4) checks in the SDLC are bypassed so that some more subtle system requirements might be forgotten.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 182

165) Assume you are analyzing a golf course scheduling system. Identify two open-ended questions and two closed-ended questions you might ask.

Answer: Open-ended questions might include the following: What information is currently provided by the scheduling system? What information would you like to have that the current scheduling system does not provide? Closed-ended questions might ask the system users to rate a response to the following questions: Does the existing system provide tee-scheduling information in a timely manner? Is the existing system easy to use?

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 167-169

166) What is the Nominal Group Technique? How is it beneficial to requirements determination?

Answer: The Nominal Group Technique is a facilitated process that supports idea generation by groups. At the beginning of the process, group members work alone to generate ideas, which are then pooled under the guidance of a trained facilitator. During requirements determination, the group will identify and prioritize a list of problems associated with the existing system, or they may identify and prioritize a list of requirements for the new system.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 171

Modern Systems Analysis and Design, 6e (Hoffer, et al.)

Chapter 7 Structuring System Process Requirements

1) A data flow diagram is a graphical tool that allows analysts to illustrate the flow of data in an information system.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 201

2) Logic modeling graphically represents the processes that capture, manipulate, store, and distribute data between a system and its environment and among components within a system.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 201

3) A primitive level data flow diagram is the first deliverable produced during requirements structuring.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 202

4) Data flow diagrams evolve from the more general to the more detailed as current and replacement systems are better understood.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 202

5) A data flow represents data in motion, moving from one place in the system to another.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

6) On a data flow diagram, a paycheck is represented as a data store.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204

7) A customer order is represented on a data flow diagram as a data flow.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204

8) Assume shipment data is entered into a logbook once shipments are received at the company’s warehouse; the logbook is represented on a data flow diagram as a sink.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

9) Assume your local veterinarian records information about each of his patients on patient medical history forms; the collection of medical history forms is represented on a data flow diagram as a data store.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 203

10) The calculation of a student’s grade is represented on a data flow diagram as a data flow.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

11) The determination of which items are low in stock is represented on a data flow diagram as a process.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

12) Sources and sinks are internal to the system.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

13) When constructing data flow diagrams, you should show the interactions that occur between sources and sinks.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

14) The data a sink receives and often what data a source provides are fixed.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 204

15) A Web site’s customer is represented as a source on a data flow diagram.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204

16) On a data flow diagram, an arrow represents an action, such as calculating an employee’s pay.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204

17) On a data flow diagram, a diamond represents a process.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204

18) On a data flow diagram in the DeMarco and Yourdon model, two parallel lines represent a data store.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204

19) A context diagram shows the scope of the organizational system, system boundaries, external entities that interact with the system, and major information flows between entities and the system.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 205

20) Context diagrams have only one process labeled “P-1.”

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 205

21) Because the system’s data stores are conceptually inside one process, no data stores appear on a context diagram.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 205

22) A level-0 diagram is a data flow diagram that represents a system’s major processes, data flows, and data stores at a high level of detail.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 207

23) Assume Process 7.4 produces a data flow and that Process 7.2 must be ready to accept it; we would say that these processes are physically linked to each other.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 207

24) Assume we have placed a data store between Process 5.1 and Process 5.5; we would say that these processes are decoupled.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 207

25) Because data flow names represent a specific set of data, another data flow that has even one more or one less piece of data must be given a different unique name.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

26) Functional decomposition is an iterative process of breaking the description of a system down into finer and finer detail.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

27) A data flow can go directly back to the same process it leaves.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

28) A fork in a data flow means that exactly the same data go from a common location to two or more different processes, data stores, or sources/sinks.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

29) A data flow to a data store means update.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 208

30) Data cannot move directly from a source to a sink.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 208

31) More than one data flow noun phrase can appear on a single arrow as long as all of the flows on the same arrow move together as one package.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

32) A process has a verb phrase label.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 208

33) Double-ended arrows are used to represent data flowing in both directions.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

34) The lowest-level data flow diagrams are called level-0 diagrams.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 207

35) The decomposition of Process 1.1 is shown on a level-1 diagram.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 210

36) As a rule of thumb, no data flow diagram should have more than about seven processes on it, because the diagram would be too crowded and difficult to understand.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 210

37) The decomposition of Process 2.4.3.4 is shown on a level-4 diagram.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 210

38) Coupling is the conservation of inputs and outputs to a data flow diagram process when that process is decomposed to a lower level.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

39) To keep a data flow diagram uncluttered, you may repeat data stores, sinks/sources, and processes.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 213

40) A composite data flow on one level can be split into component data flows at the next level, but no new data can be added and all data in the composite must be accounted for in one or more subflows.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 213

41) Completeness, consistency, timing, iterative development, and primitive DFDs are guidelines for drawing DFDs.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 216

42) DFD cohesion means your DFDs include all of the necessary components for the system you are modeling.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 216

43) A data flow repository entry would include the composition or list of data elements contained in the data flow.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 217

44) A gross violation of DFD consistency would be a level-1 diagram with no level-0 diagram.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 217

45) One of the primary purposes of a DFD is to represent time, giving a good indication of whether data flows occur constantly in real time, once a day, or once a year.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 217

46) Structured analysis is the process of discovering discrepancies between two or more sets of data flow diagrams or discrepancies within a single DFD.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 218

47) To date, data flow diagrams have not been useful tools for modeling processes in business process reengineering.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 219

48) The principle of balancing and the goal of keeping a DFD as simple as possible led to four additional, advanced rules for drawing DFDs.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 212

49) Inefficiencies cannot be identified by studying DFDs.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 219

50) Data flow diagrams aren’t versatile enough to be used as tools for process modeling.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 219

51) Decision tables allow you to represent a set of conditions and the actions that follow from them in a tabular format.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

52) Make the decision table as simple as possible by removing any rules with impossible actions.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 223

53) A decision table is a matrix representation of the logic of a decision, which specifies the possible conditions for the decision and the resulting actions.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

54) Condition stubs are that part of a decision table that lists the actions that result for a given set of conditions.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

55) Action stubs are that part of a decision table that lists the conditions relevant to the decision.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

56) Referencing a decision table, specific combinations of conditions trigger specific actions.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

57) Rules are that part of the decision table that specify which actions are to be followed for a given set of conditions.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

58) Assume condition one has three values, condition two has four values, and condition three has two values; the number of rules required for the decision table is nine.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221-222

59) Assume condition one has two values, condition two has five values, condition three has three values, and condition four has two values; the number of rules required for the decision table is sixty.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 221-222

60) An insignificant condition is a condition in a decision table whose value does not affect which actions are taken for two or more rules.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

61) In a decision table, an indifferent condition is represented by an asterisk.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

62) If the different values for the employee type condition do not affect the action taken, then employee type is an indifferent condition.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 222

63) Referencing a decision table, a limited entry occurs when a condition has only two possible values.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

64) Referencing a decision table, an employee condition that has only two possible values is considered a limited entry.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

65) If an inventory item is either perishable or nonperishable, its condition is classified as an extended entry.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

66) Referencing a decision table, every possible combination of conditions must be represented.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

67) Referencing a decision table, an action is provided for each rule.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 223

68) Decision tables support nested conditions.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 224

69) Data flow diagrams that concentrate on the movement of data between processes are referred to as:

  1. A) process models
  2. B) data models
  3. C) flow models
  4. D) flow charts

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 200

70) Which of the following is not one of the four types of data flow diagrams?

  1. A) current physical
  2. B) current logical
  3. C) updated physical
  4. D) new physical

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 218

71) Graphically representing the functions, or processes, which capture, manipulate, store, and distribute data between a system and its environment and between components within a system refers to:

  1. A) data modeling
  2. B) flow charting
  3. C) process modeling
  4. D) transition modeling

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 201

72) The diagram that shows the scope of the system, indicating what elements are inside and which are outside the system, is called a:

  1. A) context diagram
  2. B) level-2 diagram
  3. C) referencing diagram
  4. D) representative diagram

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 205

73) Which of the following is not one of the primary deliverables resulting from studying and documenting a system’s processes?

  1. A) context data flow diagram (DFD)
  2. B) thorough descriptions of each DFD component
  3. C) DFDs of the current logical system
  4. D) state-transition diagram

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 202

74) The deliverables of process modeling state:

  1. A) how you should develop the system during physical design
  2. B) what you learned during requirements determination
  3. C) how you should implement the new system during implementation
  4. D) what you learned during project planning

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 202

75) Student data contained on an enrollment form is represented on a data flow diagram as a:

  1. A) process
  2. B) data flow
  3. C) source
  4. D) data store

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

76) Data in motion, moving from one place in a system to another, defines:

  1. A) data store
  2. B) process
  3. C) source
  4. D) data flow

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

77) Data at rest, which may take the form of many different physical representations, defines:

  1. A) source
  2. B) data store
  3. C) data flow
  4. D) process

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

78) A file folder containing orders is represented on a data flow diagram as a:

  1. A) process
  2. B) source
  3. C) data flow
  4. D) data store

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

79) A computer-based file containing employee information is represented on a data flow diagram as a:

  1. A) data flow
  2. B) source
  3. C) data store
  4. D) process

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

80) Calculating an employee’s salary is represented on a data flow diagram as a:

  1. A) data flow
  2. B) source
  3. C) data store
  4. D) process

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

81) Recording a customer’s payment is represented on a data flow diagram as a:

  1. A) process
  2. B) source
  3. C) data flow
  4. D) data store

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

82) A supplier of auto parts to our company is represented on a data flow diagram as a:

  1. A) process
  2. B) source
  3. C) data flow
  4. D) data store

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

83) Which of the following is considered when diagramming?

  1. A) the interactions occurring between sources and sinks
  2. B) how to provide sources and sinks direct access to stored data
  3. C) how to control or redesign a source or sink
  4. D) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203-204

84) The work or actions performed on data so that they are transformed, stored, or distributed defines:

  1. A) source/sink
  2. B) data store
  3. C) data flow
  4. D) process

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

85) The origin and/or destination of data, sometimes referred to as external entities defines:

  1. A) source/sink
  2. B) data store
  3. C) data flow
  4. D) process

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

86) An arrow on a data flow diagram represents a:

  1. A) data store
  2. B) data flow
  3. C) process
  4. D) source/sink

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204

87) A square on a data flow diagram represents a:

  1. A) data store
  2. B) data flow
  3. C) process
  4. D) source/sink

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204

88) In the Gane and Sarson model, a rectangle with rounded corners on a data flow diagram represents a:

  1. A) data store
  2. B) data flow
  3. C) process
  4. D) source/sink

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204

89) In the Gane and Sarson model, a rectangle that is missing its right vertical sides on a data flow diagram represents a:

  1. A) data store
  2. B) data flow
  3. C) process
  4. D) source/sink

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204

90) Which of the following is a true statement regarding sources/sinks?

  1. A) Sources/sinks are always outside the information system and define the boundaries of the system.
  2. B) Data must originate outside a system from one or more sources.
  3. C) The system must produce information to one or more sinks.
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 204

91) A data flow diagram that represents a system’s major processes, data flows, and data stores at a high level of detail refers to:

  1. A) context diagram
  2. B) level-1 diagram
  3. C) level-0 diagram
  4. D) level-00 diagram

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 207

92) If two processes are connected by a data flow, they are said to:

  1. A) share the same timing effects
  2. B) share the same data
  3. C) be coupled to each other
  4. D) be strapped to each other

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 207

93) By placing a data store between two processes, this:

  1. A) decouples the processes
  2. B) enables store and forward capabilities
  3. C) enhances the flow of data between the processes
  4. D) structures the processes

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 207

94) The act of going from a single system to several component processes refers to:

  1. A) structuring
  2. B) balancing
  3. C) functional decomposition
  4. D) formatting

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

95) A miracle process is one that:

  1. A) has only inputs
  2. B) has only outputs
  3. C) cannot be exploded further
  4. D) has insufficient inputs to produce the associated processes

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 208

96) A black hole is one that:

  1. A) has only inputs
  2. B) has only outputs
  3. C) has not been exploded to show enough detail
  4. D) has insufficient inputs to produce the associated processes

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

97) Which of the following is a true statement regarding a data store?

  1. A) Data can move directly from one data store to another data store.
  2. B) Data can move directly from a sink to a data store.
  3. C) A data store has a noun phrase label.
  4. D) Data can move from an outside source to a data store.

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

98) Which of the following is a true statement regarding data flows?

  1. A) A data flow may have multiple directions between symbols.
  2. B) A data flow to a data store means retrieve or use.
  3. C) A data flow from a data store means update.
  4. D) A join in a data flow means that exactly the same data comes from any of two or more different processes, data stores, or sources/sinks to a common location.

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 208

99) Which of the following is not a true statement regarding data flows?

  1. A) A fork in a data flow means that exactly the same data goes from a common location to two or more different processes, data stores, or sources/sinks.
  2. B) A data flow can go directly back to the same process it leaves.
  3. C) A data flow has a noun phrase label.
  4. D) A data flow has only one direction of flow between symbols.

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 208

100) On a data flow diagram, you may:

  1. A) repeat data stores
  2. B) repeat sources/sinks
  3. C) repeat processes
  4. D) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

101) The lowest level of DFDs is called:

  1. A) level-0 diagrams
  2. B) context diagrams
  3. C) level-1 diagrams
  4. D) primitive data flow diagrams

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 209

102) A DFD that is a result of three nested decompositions of a series of subprocesses from a process on a level-0 diagram defines a:

  1. A) level-3 diagram
  2. B) level-1 diagram
  3. C) level-2 diagram
  4. D) primitive diagram

Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 210

103) The conservation of inputs and outputs to a data flow diagram process when that process is decomposed to a lower level defines:

  1. A) decomposition
  2. B) balancing
  3. C) conservation
  4. D) data flow structuring

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211

104) If a data flow appears on the context diagram and is also represented at level-0, this would be referred to as:

  1. A) leveling
  2. B) flow conservation
  3. C) balancing
  4. D) matching

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211

105) If an input from a source appears at level-0, it must:

  1. A) appear on the context diagram
  2. B) be connected to a data flow
  3. C) be connected to a sink
  4. D) be connected to a data store

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 212

106) Which of the following is not an advanced rule governing data flow diagramming?

  1. A) To avoid having data flow lines cross each other, data stores may be repeated on a DFD.
  2. B) At the lowest level of DFDs, new data flows may be added to represent data that are transmitted under exceptional conditions.
  3. C) Composite data flows on one level cannot be split into component data flows at the next level.
  4. D) The inputs to a process must be sufficient to produce the outputs from the process.

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 213

107) The new logical model will differ from the current logical model by:

  1. A) identifying which system functions will be automated and which will be manual
  2. B) having additional functions, removing obsolete functions, and reorganizing inefficient flows
  3. C) including an identification of the “technology” used to process the data
  4. D) representing the physical implementation of the new system

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 215

108) If your DFD contains data flows that do not lead anywhere, it is not:

  1. A) gap proof
  2. B) a primitive diagram
  3. C) complete
  4. D) consistent

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 216

109) The extent to which all necessary components of a data flow diagram have been included and fully described refers to:

  1. A) DFD consistency
  2. B) DFD completeness
  3. C) DFD gap proofing
  4. D) DFD flexibility

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 216

110) Having a level-1 diagram with no level-0 diagram is an example of a:

  1. A) violation of completeness
  2. B) violation of consistency
  3. C) gap
  4. D) structuring violation

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 217

111) The extent to which information contained on one level of a set of nested data flow diagrams is also included on other levels refers to:

  1. A) DFD consistency
  2. B) DFD completeness
  3. C) DFD gap proofing
  4. D) DFD flexibility

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 217

112) When you believe that you have shown each business form or transaction, computer screen, and report as a single data flow, you have probably reached the:

  1. A) level-0 diagrams
  2. B) level-1 diagrams
  3. C) primitive data flow diagrams
  4. D) level-3 diagrams

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 218

113) The lowest level of decomposition for a data flow diagram is called the:

  1. A) context diagram
  2. B) level-0 diagram
  3. C) level-1 diagram
  4. D) primitive diagram

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 218

114) The process in analysis in which the analyst tries to discover discrepancies between two or more sets of data flow diagrams, representing two or more states of an information system, or discrepancies within a single DFD, is referred to as:

  1. A) double checking
  2. B) sequencing
  3. C) referencing
  4. D) gap analysis

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 218

115) Guidelines for drawing DFDs include the following except for:

  1. A) completeness
  2. B) consistency
  3. C) numbering considerations
  4. D) timing considerations

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 216-27

116) A DFD that is the result of n nested decompositions from a process on a level-0 diagram, is called:

  1. A) primitive diagram
  2. B) level-0 diagram
  3. C) context diagram
  4. D) level-n diagram

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 210

117) A process has a:

  1. A) pronoun label
  2. B) adjective label
  3. C) verb phrase label
  4. D) noun phrase label

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

118) A modeling technique that allows you to represent a set of conditions and the actions that follow from them in a tabular format best describes:

  1. A) data flow diagram
  2. B) decision table
  3. C) flowchart
  4. D) Structured English

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

119) A decision table does not include:

  1. A) statements
  2. B) condition stubs
  3. C) action stubs
  4. D) rules

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

120) The part of a decision table that links conditions to actions is the section that contains the:

  1. A) action statements
  2. B) rules
  3. C) condition statements
  4. D) decision stubs

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

121) A matrix representation of the logic of a decision, which specifies the possible conditions for the decision and the resulting actions, defines a:

  1. A) structure chart
  2. B) state transition diagram
  3. C) decision table
  4. D) sequence diagram

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

122) The part of a decision table that lists the actions that result for a given set of conditions is called:

  1. A) action stubs
  2. B) condition stubs
  3. C) rule section
  4. D) condition execution

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 258

123) The part of a decision table that lists the conditions relevant to the decision is called:

  1. A) action stubs
  2. B) condition stubs
  3. C) condition list
  4. D) condition execution

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 221

124) The part of a decision table that specifies which actions are to be followed for a given set of conditions refers to:

  1. A) action stubs
  2. B) condition list
  3. C) rules
  4. D) decision list

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

125) In a decision table, a condition whose value does not affect which actions are taken for two or more rules is referred to as a(n):

  1. A) indifferent condition
  2. B) static condition
  3. C) fixed condition
  4. D) flexible condition

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

126) If Rules 2, 4, and 6 are indifferent conditions, then:

  1. A) Rules 2, 4, and 6 are eliminated from the matrix
  2. B) the number of rules is reduced by condensing Rules 2, 4, and 6 into one rule
  3. C) Rules 2, 4, and 6 will result in at least two additional rules being included in the matrix
  4. D) Rules 2, 4, and 6 have no impact on the interpretation of the matrix

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

127) An indifferent condition is represented by a(n):

  1. A) dash (-)
  2. B) asterisk (*)
  3. C) exclamation point (!)
  4. D) pound sign (#)

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

128) Basic procedures for constructing a decision table do not include:

  1. A) listing all possible rules
  2. B) naming the conditions and the values each condition can assume
  3. C) identifying selection criteria
  4. D) simplifying the decision table

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 222-223

129) When condition values are either “yes” or “no”, these values are called a(n):

  1. A) extended entry
  2. B) simple entry
  3. C) complex entry
  4. D) limited entry

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

130) A condition that has more than two values is a(n):

  1. A) extended entry
  2. B) simple entry
  3. C) complex entry
  4. D) limited entry

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

131) To determine the number of rules required for the decision table, you would:

  1. A) add the number of values for each condition to the number of values for every other condition
  2. B) multiply the number of conditions by two
  3. C) add the number of values for each condition to the number of values for every other condition, then subtract 1
  4. D) multiply the number of values for each condition by the number of values for every other condition

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 222

132) Assume we have three conditions. Condition one has two values; condition two has three values; condition three has three values. How many rules are needed?

  1. A) 8
  2. B) 6
  3. C) 5
  4. D) 18

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

133) Assume the first condition has two values; the second condition has two values; the third condition has three values. How many rules will there be?

  1. A) 7
  2. B) 12
  3. C) 6
  4. D) 11

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

134) Assume the first condition has four values; the second condition has two values; the third condition has two values. How many rules will there be?

  1. A) 8
  2. B) 7
  3. C) 16
  4. D) 24

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

135) A decision table is simplified by:

  1. A) removing extended entries
  2. B) removing any rules with impossible actions
  3. C) removing simple entries
  4. D) removing any rules with static actions

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 223

136) Removing any rules with impossible actions to make which of the following simple as possible?

  1. A) activity diagram
  2. B) decision table
  3. C) structure chart
  4. D) hierarchical chart

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 223

137) A __________ represents data at rest, which may take the form of many different physical representations.

Answer: data store

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 203

138) On a data flow diagram, supplier information kept in a notebook is represented as a __________.

Answer: data store

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

139) __________ are the works or actions performed on data so that they are transformed, stored, or distributed.

Answer: Processes

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

140) Determining an employee’s schedule is an example of a __________.

Answer: process

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 204

141) __________ is the origin and/or destination of data.

Answer: Source/sink

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

142) An __________ represents a data flow.

Answer: arrow

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 203

143) In the DeMarco and Yourdon model, the symbol for a data store is __________.

Answer: two parallel lines

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

144) The symbol for sources/sinks is a __________.

Answer: square

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

145) A __________ is a data flow diagram of the scope of an organizational system that shows the system boundaries, external entities that interact with a system, and the major information flows between entities and the system.

Answer: context diagram

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 206

146) A __________ is a data flow diagram that represents a system’s major processes, data flows, and data stores at a high level of detail.

Answer: level-0 diagram

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 207

147) A __________ is a picture of the movement of data between external entities and the processes and the data stores within a system.

Answer: data flow diagram

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 207

148) __________ is an iterative process of breaking the description of a system down into finer and finer detail, which creates a set of charts in which one process on a given chart is explained in greater detail on another chart.

Answer: Functional decomposition

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 208

149) A __________ is a DFD that is the result of n nested decomposition of a series of subprocesses from a process on a level-0 diagram.

Answer: level-n diagram

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 210

150) __________ is the conservation of inputs and outputs to a data flow diagram process when that process is decomposed to a lower level.

Answer: Balancing

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211

151) __________ is the extent to which all necessary components of a data flow diagram have been included and fully described.

Answer: DFD completeness

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 216

152) If your DFD contains data flows that do not lead anywhere, then your DFD violates the __________ guideline.

Answer: DFD completeness

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 217

153) The five guidelines for drawing DFDs include __________, __________, __________, the __________, and __________.

Answer: completeness, consistency, timing considerations, iterative nature of drawing DFDs, drawing primitive DFDs

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 216-217

154) __________ is the extent to which information contained on one level of a set of nested data flow diagrams is also included on other levels.

Answer: DFD consistency

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 217

155) If a data flow appears on a higher-level DFD but not on lower levels, this situation violates the __________ guideline.

Answer: DFD consistency

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 217

156) A __________ is the lowest level of decomposition for a data flow diagram.

Answer: primitive DFD

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 218

157) __________ is the process of discovering discrepancies between two or more sets of data flow diagrams or discrepancies within a single DFD.

Answer: Gap analysis

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 218

158) Data flow diagrams are useful for modeling processes in __________.

Answer: business process reengineering (BPR)

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 219

159) Learning the mechanics of drawing __________ is important.

Answer: data flow diagrams

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 216

160) __________ on a DFD have unique names.

Answer: Objects

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 208

161) The __________ to a process are different from the outputs of that process.

Answer: inputs

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207

162) A __________ is a matrix representation of the logic of a decision, which specifies the possible conditions for the decision and the resulting actions.

Answer: decision table

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

163) __________ are the part of a decision table that lists the conditions relevant to the decision.

Answer: Condition stubs

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

164) __________ are the part of a decision table that lists the actions that result for a given set of conditions.

Answer: Action stubs

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

165) __________ are the part of a decision table that specifies which actions are to be followed for a given set of conditions.

Answer: Rules

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

166) The three parts of a decision table are __________, __________, and __________.

Answer: condition stubs, action stubs, rules

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

167) The __________ section is the part of the decision table that link the conditions to actions.

Answer: rules

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

168) An __________ is a condition in a decision table whose value does not affect which actions are taken for two or more rules.

Answer: indifferent condition

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

169) In a decision table, an indifferent condition is represented with a __________.

Answer: dash

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

170) If condition one has four values, condition two has five values, condition three has two values, and condition four has three values, then the number of rules required for the decision table is __________.

Answer: 120

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 222

171) When you first create a __________, you have to create an exhaustive set of rules.

Answer: decision table

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

172) When constructing a __________, you usually follow a set of basic procedures.

Answer: decision table

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222

Match each of the following terms with its description.

  1. source/sink
  2. level-0 diagram
  3. data flow
  4. data store
  5. balancing
  6. DFD completeness
  7. DFD consistency
  8. level-n diagram
  9. primitive DFD
  10. process
  11. gap analysis

173) Data in motion, moving from one place in a system to another.

Answer: c

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

174) A data flow diagram that represents a system’s major processes, data flows, and data stores at a high level of detail.

Answer: b

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 207

175) The conservation of inputs and outputs to a data flow diagram process when that process is decomposed to a lower level.

Answer: e

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211

176) The origin and/or destination of data, sometimes referred to as external entities.

Answer: a

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

177) The extent to which all necessary components of a data flow diagram have been included and fully described.

Answer: f

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 216

178) The work or actions performed on data so that they are transformed, stored, or distributed.

Answer: j

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

179) The extent to which information contained on one level of a set of nested data flow diagrams is also included on other levels.

Answer: g

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 217

180) The process of discovering discrepancies between two or more sets of data flow diagrams or discrepancies within a single DFD.

Answer: k

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 218

181) Data at rest, which may take the form of many different physical representations.

Answer: d

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

182) The lowest level of decomposition for a data flow diagram.

Answer: i

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 218

183) A DFD that is the result of n nested decompositions from a process on a level-0 diagram.

Answer: h

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 210

Match each of the data flow diagramming symbols with corresponding examples. (Answers may occur more than once.)

  1. process
  2. data flow
  3. source/sink
  4. data store

184) Customer order form

Answer: b

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

185) Customer

Answer: c

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

186) Generate paycheck

Answer: a

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 203

187) Calculating overtime pay

Answer: a

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

188) Sales report

Answer: b

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

189) Computing a grade point average

Answer: a

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

190) Preparing a purchase order

Answer: a

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

191) Teller

Answer: c

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

192) Student enrollment file

Answer: d

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

193) Supplier

Answer: c

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

For each of the following statements, answer “A” if the statement is a true data flow diagramming rule, and answer “B” if the rule is false.

194) Data can move directly from one data store to another data store.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

195) A process has a noun phrase label.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

196) Objects on a DFD have unique names.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

197) A data flow to a data store means update.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

198) Data can move directly from an outside source to a data store.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

199) A data store has a verb phrase label.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

200) A data flow is bi-directional between symbols.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

201) A join in a data flow means that exactly the same data comes from any of two or more different processes, data stores, or sources/sinks to a common location.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

202) The inputs to a process are different from the outputs of that process.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

203) A process can have only inputs.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

204) Data cannot move directly to an outside sink from a data store.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

205) A data flow has a verb phrase label.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

206) A data flow cannot go directly back to the same process it leaves.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

207) A source/sink has a noun phrase label.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

208) A fork in a data flow means that exactly the same data goes from a common location to two or more different processes, data stores, or sources/sinks.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

209) Data can move directly from a source to a sink.

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

210) A data flow from a data store means retrieve or use.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

211) There must be at least one other process that handles the data flow, produces some other data flow, and returns the original data flow to the beginning process.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

212) A process must have both inputs and outputs.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

Match each of the following terms with its description.

  1. gap analysis
  2. functional decomposition
  3. process modeling
  4. balancing
  5. DFD completeness

213) Graphically representing the functions that capture, manipulate, store, and distribute data between a system and its environment and between components within a system.

Answer: c

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 201

214) Breaking a larger system into smaller subsystems or processes.

Answer: b

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 208

215) Using data flow diagrams to discover discrepancies between two or more sets of data flow diagrams, representing two or more states of an information system, or discrepancies within a single DFD.

Answer: a

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 218

216) The extent to which all necessary components of a data flow diagram have been included and fully described.

Answer: e

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 216

217) The conservation of inputs and outputs to a data flow diagram process when that process is decomposed to a lower level.

Answer: d

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 211

Match each of the following terms with its corresponding description.

  1. limited entry
  2. extended entry
  3. action stubs
  4. condition stubs
  5. decision table
  6. indifferent condition
  7. rules

218) A matrix representation of the logic of a decision, which specifies the possible conditions for the decision and the resulting actions.

Answer: e

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

219) The part of the decision table that lists the actions that result for a given set of conditions.

Answer: c

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

220) Occurs when the condition values are simply “yes” or “no.”

Answer: a

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 222

221) The part of the decision table that specifies which actions are to be followed for a given set of conditions.

Answer: g

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

222) The part of a decision table that lists the conditions relevant to the decision.

Answer: d

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221

223) Occurs when the condition values are more than two.

Answer: b

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 222

224) This occurs when a value does not affect which actions are taken for two or more rules.

Answer: f

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 258

225) Discuss the guidelines for drawing a DFD.

Answer: The guidelines for constructing DFDs are completeness, consistency, timing considerations, the iterative nature of drawing DFDs, and drawing primitive DFDs. Completeness refers to the extent to which all necessary components of a data flow diagram have been included and fully described. Consistency refers to the extent to which information contained on one level of a set of nested data flow diagrams is also included on other levels. Timing is not indicated on DFDs. Iterative development recognizes that requirements determination and requirements structuring are interacting analysis subphases. Primitive DFDs are the lowest level of decomposition for a data flow diagram. The analyst must make a determination of when he/she has reached the primitive level DFDs.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 216-217

226) Briefly describe the data flow diagramming symbols. Provide one example of each.

Answer: A process is the work or action performed on data and is represented by a circle. A data store represents data at rest and is represented by two parallel lines. A data flow represents data in motion and is represented by an arrow. A source/sink is the origin or destination of data. Sources and sinks are identified by square symbols. Computing a grade point average is an example of a process. A file folder containing orders is an example of a data store. An enrollment form being routed through the enrollment center is representative of a data flow. A student enrolling in school is representative of a source/sink.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 203

227) Briefly discuss how DFDs can be used as analysis tools.

Answer: Data flow diagrams are used to model both the physical and logical systems. DFDs are analyzed to identify possible inconsistencies that exist between two sets of diagrams or within a single DFD. Redundant data flows, procedural redundancies, and inefficiencies are identified by studying data flow diagrams.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 216-217

228) What is meant by DFD completeness? What is meant by DFD consistency?

Answer: DFD completeness is the extent to which all necessary components of a data flow diagram have been included and fully described. DFD consistency is the extent to which information contained on one level of a set of nested data flow diagrams is also included on other levels.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 216-217

229) What is gap analysis? Why is gap analysis useful?

Answer: Gap analysis is the process of discovering discrepancies between two or more sets of data flow diagrams or discrepancies within a single DFD. Gap analysis is used to identify inconsistencies with DFDs, determine which processes should be added or revised, and compare alternative logical DFDs.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 219

230) What is process modeling? Identify three types of process models.

Answer: Process modeling involves graphically representing the functions that capture, transform, store, and distribute data. Data flow diagramming, functional hierarchy modeling, and Oracle’s process modeler are three types of process models.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 201

231) Identify six concrete rules for stopping the decomposition process.

Answer: The rules include: (1) when you have reduced each process to a single decision or calculation or to a single database operation; (2) when each data store represents data about a single entity; (3) when the system user does not care to see any more detail or when you and other analysts have documented sufficient detail to do subsequent systems development tasks; (4) when every data flow does not need to be split further to show that different data are handled in different ways; (5) when you believe that you have shown each business form or transaction, computer online display, and report as a single data flow; and (6) when you believe there is a separate process for each choice on all lowest-level menu options for the system.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 218

232) Identify the deliverables for process modeling.

Answer: The deliverables include a context data flow diagram, DFDs for the current physical system, DFDs for the current logical system, DFDs for the proposed logical system, and thorough descriptions of each DFD component.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 202

233) For the following situation, draw a context-level diagram and a level-0 data flow diagram. Kellogg State Bank provides car and home loans to its banking customers. Initially, a potential loan customer meets with a Kellogg loan officer, requests a loan for a certain amount and time frame, and completes a loan application. Next, the loan officer determines the customer’s credit standing, the type of loan required, and available interest rates. While the loan officer can authorize car loans for credit worthy customers, a loan committee must approve all home loans.

Answer: A suggested context-level data flow diagram is provided below.

A suggested level-0 data flow diagram is provided below.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 213-215

234) Briefly discuss modeling logic with decision tables.

Answer: A decision table is a matrix representation of the logic of a decision and specifies the possible conditions for the decision and the resulting actions. Decision tables facilitate the diagramming of process logic when the logic is reasonably complicated. Decision tables consist of three parts: condition stubs, action stubs, and rules. Condition stubs list the conditions relevant to the decision. Action stubs list the actions that result for a given set of conditions. Rules specify which actions are to be followed for a given set of conditions.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 221-222

235) Identify the five basic procedures to follow when constructing a decision table.

Answer: The five basic procedures are (1) name the conditions and the values each condition can assume, (2) name all possible actions that can occur, (3) list all possible rules, (4) define the actions for each rule, and (5) simplify the decision table.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 222-223

236) An individual wishes to withdraw cash from an ATM machine. Prepare a decision table to represent this situation. Please note any assumptions that you make.

Answer: A suggested answer is provided below.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 221-223

+
-
Only 0 units of this product remain

You might also be interested in