MR 2 2nd Edition by Tom J. Brown -Test Bank A+

$35.00
MR 2 2nd Edition by Tom J. Brown -Test Bank A+

MR 2 2nd Edition by Tom J. Brown -Test Bank A+

$35.00
MR 2 2nd Edition by Tom J. Brown -Test Bank A+
  1. Questions that give the respondent no indication of the true purpose of the research project are known as:
a.disguised questions.
b.confounded questions.
c.structured questions.
d.undisguised questions.
e.unstructured questions.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of structured questions?
a.Questions are standardized
b.Simple to administer
c.Responses difficult to interpret
d.Saves time and money
e.Easy to analyze

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. The responses as well as questions are standardized in a(n):
a.unstructured questionnaire.
b.disguised questionnaire.
c.structured questionnaire.
d.depth interview.
e.focus group.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Although fixed-alternative questions tend to provide the most reliable responses, they may also ____.
a.deceive the respondent
b.hide the purpose of the study
c.encourage misleading answers
d.avoid possible replies
e.obstructs factual information

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. ____ is the process of providing appropriate information to respondents after data have been collected using disguise.
a.Debriefing
b.Administrative Control
c.Structure
d.Mall Intercepts
e.Sampling Control

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the mail questionnaire?
a.It allows a wide sample to be used.
b.It allows a representative sample to be used.
c.It is a relatively inexpensive means of recruiting respondents.
d.It ensures that the correct person receives and completes the questionnaire.
e.It is more suitable for contacting busy executives than a telephone or personal interview.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. The major problem with using the mall intercept method to conduct personal interviews concerns:
a.the ability to direct the inquiry to a randomly determined respondent.
b.securing the cooperation of mall merchants.
c.securing the cooperation of the respondent.
d.the noisy, distracting environment in which the interview is conducted.
e.the high cost of the method.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. Which of the following affords the researcher the most sample control with respect to getting cooperation from the respondent?
a.Phone interviews
b.Personal interviews
c.Mail questionnaires
d.Questionnaires published in newspapers
e.Warranty information cards

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is FALSE?
a.Mailing lists to serve as the sampling frame for a mail survey may be generated internally by the firm or purchased externally.
b.In recent years, one of the keys to using a mail questionnaire is the ability to direct the questionnaire to a specific individual, not just a position (e.g., Vice President of Marketing).
c.The quality of the mailing list determines the sampling control in a mail study.
d.Mail questionnaires typically provide more sample control than telephone or personal interviews.
e.They are all true.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. The problem of nonresponse due to refusals to participate is usually:
a.lower with personal interviews than with either telephone interviews or mail-administered questionnaires.
b.lower with mail questionnaires than with telephone or personal interviews.
c.lower with telephone interviews than with mail questionnaires or personal interviews.
d.the same no matter what communication method is used.
e.None of the above are true.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. Long questionnaires can usually be handled best by:
a.telephone interview.
b.mail questionnaire.
c.personal interview.
d.a focus group interview.
e.a depth interview.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. A(n) ____ might be the only method of obtaining a response from certain busy individuals for whom time is a scarce commodity.
a.personal interview
b.telephone interview
c.mail questionnaire
d.mall-intercept interview
e.None of the above.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Use of a computer-aided telephone interview means that:
a.preliminary tabulations of responses are available almost immediately, because the data are already stored in memory.
b.key information that the respondent has given early in the interview can be used to tailor the questionnaire to that individual.
c.personal interviews need to be conducted at central locations rather than door to door because of the need for electronic hook-up.
d.Both a and b.
e.a, b, and c.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. Which of the following is FALSE?
a.Advantages of the mall intercept approach include the speed and ease with which a study can be implemented.
b.The advantages of CRT administration of questionnaires have helped telephone interviews become the most popular data collection technique.
c.The slower speed of data collection and processing with computer-assisted interviewing is offset by the increased accuracy of the responses.
d.One of the benefits of the computer-assisted interview (CAI) is increased accuracy in the results.
e.All of the above statements are true.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of computer-assisted interviewing?
a.Ease of data tabulation
b.Explanation of complex questions
c.Enhanced response rates
d.Personalization of questions
e.Customized questionnaires

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following items is associated with administrative control?
a.Cost
b.Time
c.Directing the inquiry to the designated respondent
d.Interviewer bias
e.Both a and b.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following provides the most control in terms of the time it takes to complete a study?
a.Personal interview
b.Telephone survey
c.Mail questionnaire
d.Self-administered mail questionnaire
e.Structured personal interview

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is an accurate statement with regard to personal interviews?
a.In general they tend to be the least expensive per completed contact.
b.As the number of interviewers increases, so do problems of interviewer-related variations in responses.
c.It takes as long to get replies from a small sample as from a large sample.
d.Interviewer-induced bias is minimal.
e.They are less costly than telephone interviews.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. Which of the following statements are NOT true of mall intercepts?
a.Due to the biased nature of the sampling frame, mall intercepts have become less popular with marketers in recent years.
b.One problem with a mall intercept approach is that not everyone shops at malls.
c.One problem with a mall intercept approach is that the frequency with which a person shops at a mall affects his or her likelihood of being asked to participate in the study.
d.Both a and c.
e.All of the above are true of mall intercepts.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following data collection methods is most versatile?
a.Personal interviews
b.E-mail surveys
c.Fax surveys
d.Mail surveys
e.Phone interviews

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. Which of the following data collection methods provides the fastest turnaround?
a.Mail surveys
b.Mall interviews
c.E-mail surveys
d.In-home personal interviews
e.Fax surveys

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. Methods of questionnaire administration rank as follows in terms of time required to collect the data (quickest to slowest):
a.Personal interviews, Web-based surveys, telephone surveys, mail surveys.
b.Web-based surveys, telephone surveys, personal interviews, mail surveys.
c.Web-based surveys, mail surveys, telephone surveys, personal interviews.
d.Mail surveys, personal interviews, telephone surveys, Web-based surveys.
e.None of the above, since all methods take about the same amount of time.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. Which of the following questionnaire administration methods is the LEAST expensive?
a.Personal interviews
b.Email/Web-based surveys
c.Mail surveys
d.Depth interview
e.Telephone surveys

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. John was stopped at the local shopping centers and asked if he would be willing to participate in a research study. Since John was alone and mainly doing window-shopping, he agreed to participate. John was taken to a room and shown four new advertisements and asked various questions related to the ads. This type of technique is called?
a.Person-on-the-street interview
b.Mall-intercept interview
c.Drop-off survey
d.Ad recall interview
e.None of the above.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. The question: “What was your reaction to the Budweiser advertisement you saw on television during the Super Bowl?” is an example of a type of question where the respondents are free to answer in their own words rather than being limited to choosing from among a set of alternatives:
a.open-ended questions.
b.closed-ended questions.
c.scaled-response questions.
d.ad reaction measurement.
e.None of the above.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. Jane Doe wants to administer a short survey on “student driving habits” to a representative sample of students at the local university. She secures a list of students from the student directory. She assigns each student a unique number and then uses a random number table to select her sample. The student directory from which Jane selects her sample of students to contact is referred to as:
a.sampling frame.
b.sampling control.
c.sampling error.
d.sampling directory.
e.None of the above.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. A day before elections, a local political candidate for mayor made a speech stressing several important points. To find out whether these points impacted the candidate’s popularity, he needed to obtain questionnaire data from registered hometown voters. He would be advised to employ:
a.focus group interviews.
b.telephone interviews.
c.personal interview surveys.
d.a mail survey.
e.the use of a passive people meter.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. You must conduct research to find out a great deal of information about potential customers. You need a minimum of 300 people and you know that you don’t have a lot of money to conduct the research, so you will use:
a.in-office personal interviews.
b.in-home personal interviews.
c.focus group interviews.
d.mail questionnaires.
e.observation research.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. Which of the following are advantages of highly structured questionnaires?
a.They are simple to administer.
b.They are relatively straight forward.
c.There is no need for extensive interviewer training.
d.a, b, and c.
e.None of the above are advantages of highly structured questionnaires

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

TRUE/FALSE

  1. One of the biggest advantages of mail questionnaires is the anonymity offered to the respondent.

ANS: T PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. One problem with mail questionnaires is that they typically cost more than telephone interviews.

ANS: F PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. The fixed-alternative question is most useful when possible replies are well known, limited in number and clear cut.

ANS: T PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. A disguised questionnaire makes the purpose of the research obvious.

ANS: F PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Debriefing is the process of providing appropriate information to respondents during the data collection stage.

ANS: F PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

COMPLETION

  1. In a highly ____________________ questionnaire, the questions to be asked and the responses permitted by the subjects are completely predetermined.

ANS: structured

PTS: 1 NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. ____________________ interviews imply a direct face-to-face conversation between the interviewer and the respondent.

ANS: Personal

PTS: 1 NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. The amount of knowledge about the purpose of a study communicated to the respondent is called ____________________.

ANS: disguise

PTS: 1 NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Sampling ____________________ concerns the ability to identify, reach, and receive answers from population members.

ANS: control

PTS: 1 NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. A technique used in studies using telephone interviews, in which the numbers to be called are randomly generated is called ____________________.

ANS: random-digit dialing

PTS: 1 NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

ESSAY

  1. Compare and contrast the main methods of administering questionnaires.

ANS:

Personal interviews imply a direct face-to-face conversation between the interviewer and the respondent, as opposed to telephone interviews. In both types, the interviewer asks the questions and records the respondents’ answers, either while the interview is in progress or immediately afterward. Mail questionnaires are sent to designated respondents with an accompanying cover letter. The respondents complete the questionnaire at their leisure and mail their replies back to the research organization. Internet-based questionnaires involve either e-mails sent to respondents, who in turn reply to the e-mail with their answers, or surveys that are completed by respondents via the Web.

PTS: 1 NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Analysis

Chapter 7—Asking Good Questions

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. As defined in the text, measurement consists of:
a.the assignment of numbers (representing quantities of attributes) to objects according to rules.
b.using a given scale to make comparisons.
c.determining the frequency of a particular attribute.
d.the assigning of numbers (denoting aggregates of properties) solely for identification purposes.
e.numbers which can be assigned to the physical properties of objects.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Regarding measurement basics, we measure:
a.objects.
b.quantities of objects.
c.quantities of attributes of objects.
d.variance among objects.
e.variance among attributes.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following statements about nominal scales is TRUE?
a.The numbers identify the objects.
b.The numbers order the objects.
c.The median can be used as the measure of average.
d.The mean can be used as the measure of average.
e.Both a and c.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following about a nominal scale is FALSE?
a.You are studying the product life cycle phenomenon attempting to classify certain products into the following stages: introduction, growth, maturity, saturation, and decline. This represents nominal scaling.
b.With a nominal scale, the numbers assigned to individuals or categories are arbitrary.
c.The respondent’s gender is an example of a nominal scale.
d.Both a and b.
e.a, b, and c.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is(are) permissible measure(s) of central tendency with ratio scales?
a.Arithmetic mean, median, and the mode
b.Geometric mean
c.Median and mode
d.Both a and b
e.a, b, and c

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following scales is reflected by an attribute of an object that represents a non-ordered classification?
a.Nominal
b.Ordinal
c.Interval
d.Ratio
e.Continuous

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT with respect to a nominally classified variable?
a.Counting is the only permissible operation.
b.The median is a permissible measure of central tendency.
c.The only property conveyed by the number is identity.
d.When members of a sample have been classified along a nominal scale, it is possible to say what percentage of the sample is classified a certain way.
e.The mode is a permissible measure of central tendency.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. The interchanging or switching of scale values among and between objects does not affect the originally intended purpose of the scale when the scale is:
a.nominal.
b.ordinal.
c.interval.
d.ratio.
e.the interchanging of scale values always affects the purpose.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Code words, letters, or numbers used by security and intelligence organizations to form secret codes are examples of what type of scales?
a.Nominal
b.Ordinal
c.Interval
d.Ratio
e.Continuous

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. For a scale to have ordinal properties, which of the following must be established?
a.If a” is greater than “b,” then “b” is not greater than “a.”
b.If “a” is greater than “b” and “b” is greater than “c,” then “a” is greater than “c.”
c.If “a” is equal to “b” and “b” is equal to “c,” then “a” is equal to “c.”
d.All of the above.
e.None of the above.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is(are) permissible measure(s) of central tendency with ordinal scales?
a.Arithmetic mean, median, and the mode
b.Geometric and harmonic means
c.Median and mode
d.Arithmetic mean and median
e.Arithmetic mean

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. The ordinal scale represents a higher level of measurement than the nominal scale in that:
a.the assigned numerals serve to identify the objects.
b.the magnitude of the differences in the objects is shown.
c.the assigned numerals represent the order as well as identifying the object.
d.it has a natural zero.
e.it has an arbitrary zero.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT with respect to ordinally scaled variables?
a.The difference between the first- and second-ranked people is the same as the difference between the second- and third-ranked people.
b.Both the median and mode are permissible measures of average.
c.We can transform an ordinal scale in any way we wish as long as we maintain the basic ordering of the objects.
d.The ordinal scale implies identity.
e.The ordinal scale implies relative standing on the measured attributes.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. The notion that equal differences among scores represent equal differences in the amount of the attribute possessed by the object applies to _____ scales.
a.nominal
b.ordinal
c.interval
d.ratio
e.interval and ratio

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following about ordinal data is TRUE?
a.An ordinal scale implies order but not identity.
b.The attribute being measured must possess the ordinal property to allow ordinal scaling that is meaningful.
c.With an ordinal scale, we can say the difference between the first and second is the same as the difference between the second and the third.
d.The calculation of means is appropriate with ordinal data.
e.Time is a good example of an ordinal scale.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. The zero scale value found when measuring marketing variables typically represents:
a.the ordinal nature of the variable.
b.an absolute lack of an attribute.
c.the logical existence of a natural zero point.
d.a point of absolute zero magnitude.
e.a point of indifference to which the value zero is arbitrarily attached.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is TRUE?
a.The recording of a respondent’s social class using the categories upper, middle, and lower represents the use of a nominal scale.
b.An ordinal scale can be transformed in any manner possible, provided that the basic ordering of the objects is maintained.
c.When the scale has an arbitrary zero point, it makes sense to say that A is twice as much as B.
d.Interval scales possess an absolute zero point whereas ordinal scales do not.
e.All the statements are false.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. If he/she wanted to use the highest level of measurement possible, the researcher measuring respondent age would most likely suggest using _____ and a(n) _____ scale.
a.an open-ended item; interval
b.an open-ended item; ratio
c.age range categories; ordinal
d.age range categories; interval
e.an open-ended item; nominal

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is the most complete description of permissible measures of central tendency for an interval scale?
a.Arithmetic mean, median, mode
b.Geometric mean, mode, median
c.Median, mode
d.Arithmetic mean, geometric mean
e.Mode, arithmetic mean

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following about interval scales is FALSE?
a.An interval scale exhibits the property of order.
b.Absolute magnitudes cannot be compared using an interval scale because the zero point is established arbitrarily.
c.The number of years the respondent has lived at a particular address is an example of an interval scale.
d.Only a and b.
e.a, b, and c.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. With an interval scale:
a.we cannot compare the absolute magnitude of numbers.
b.we cannot state that the difference between 0.25 and 0.50 is the same as the difference between 37.75 and 38.00.
c.there is a naturally-occurring zero point.
d.the median and the mode are the only permissible measures of average.
e.All of the above statements are false.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is an example of an interval scale?
a.Female/male
b.Attitude toward an advertisement
c.Social class
d.Income
e.Number of purchasers

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which type of scale assumes an arbitrary zero point?
a.Ratio
b.Median
c.Interval
d.Nominal
e.Ordinal

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. The number of “outs” in a baseball game is measured on a(n):
a.ratio scale.
b.interval scale.
c.ordinal scale.
d.nominal scale.
e.categorical scale.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is TRUE?
a.Age is an example of a ratio scale.
b.The number of children in the family is an example of an interval scale.
c.Brand names of automobiles owned is an example of an ordinal scale.
d.A person’s monthly gasoline expenditure in dollars is an example of a ratio scale.
e.Both a and d.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is FALSE?
a.With a ratio scale, it is possible to have zero amount of some attribute.
b.There are few psychological constructs that can reasonably be assumed to have a natural or absolute zero.
c.When using a ratio scale, it is inappropriate to calculate a mean score.
d.Both a and b.
e.a, b, and c.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is FALSE?
a.Interval scales allow researchers to compare the absolute magnitude of numbers.
b.A ratio scale differs from an interval scale in that the ratio scale has a natural zero.
c.Determination of absolute zero is difficult with measurements in marketing.
d.Both a and b.
e.a, b, and c.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. What factor determines which level of measurement is possible?
a.Properties of the attribute
b.Objects being measured
c.Quantities of attributes of objects
d.Quantities of objects being measured
e.Variance among attributes

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. It is reasonable to state that one object has twice as much of the attribute property when it has a score of 60 and the other object has a score of 30 when measurement is on a(n) _____ scale.
a.nominal
b.ordinal
c.interval
d.ratio
e.interval or ordinal

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following can be measured?
a.Weight
b.Height
c.Attitude
d.Both a and b
e.a, b, and c

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. _____ scales possess an absolute zero.
a.Nominal
b.Ordinal
c.Interval
d.Ratio
e.Continuous

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following statements concerning measurement is FALSE?
a.Properties of the attributes must first be determined before measurement begins.
b.Numbers are assigned to accurately reflect properties of an attribute.
c.Typically, researchers recognize five “levels” of measurement.
d.Both a and b.
e.a, b, and c.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is NOT true when a scale is a ratio scale?
a.The scale allows for comparison of the absolute magnitude of numbers.
b.The zero point is established arbitrarily.
c.If “a” is greater than “b” and “b” is greater than “c,” then “a” is greater than “c.”
d.If “a” equals “b” and “b” equals “c,” then “a” equals “c.”
e.The mode and the median are permissible measures of central tendency.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. The magnitude of the differences in objects is shown when which types of scales are used?
a.Interval or ordinal
b.Ratio or ordinal
c.Ordinal or nominal
d.Interval or ratio
e.Nominal or interval

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. What characteristic must a scale possess in order for researcher to compute the ratio of the magnitude of the numbers?
a.It must have an arbitrary zero point.
b.The range of the absolute scale intervals must be divisible by two.
c.It must use only integers.
d.It must have an absolute zero point.
e.The modal ratio must be greater than two.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. You have been assigned the task of evaluating consumer acceptance of, and favorability toward, a new product that a company has just test marketed in your area. In order to determine the degree to which consumers hold favorable attitudes toward the product, what is the lowest level of scale that you can use?
a.Nominal
b.Ordinal
c.Interval
d.Ratio
e.Need more information

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. Which of the following statements is FALSE with regard to ratio scales?
a.A ratio scale exhibits the property of identity.
b.With a ratio scale, the comparison of the absolute magnitude of the numbers is legitimate.
c.A ratio scale possesses a natural zero point.
d.The geometric mean is a meaningful measure of average with a ratio scale.
e.A ratio scale allows the comparison of absolute magnitudes but not the differences in magnitudes.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Due to a misunderstanding of his instructions, a research assistant consistently entered the upper value of an attitude scale as a “6” instead of a “7” when keypunching data for his boss. This is an example of:
a.systematic error.
b.arbitrary error.
c.random error.
d.scaling error.
e.marginal error.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Online/Computer | Bloom’s: Application

  1. In a recent survey, individuals who brushed their teeth often under-reported the activity, while individuals who brushed their teeth less frequently over-reported their dental hygiene behavior. The possible cause for differences in scores could best be attributed to:
a.a true difference in the characteristic being measured.
b.differences due to situational factors.
c.differences due to temporary personal factors.
d.true differences in other relatively stable characteristics of the individuals.
e.differences due to variations in administration.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. Validity is:
a.concerned with the relationships of random error with systematic error.
b.equal to the true score plus the systematic error.
c.equal to the true score plus systematic error minus random error.
d.concerned with the extent to which differences in scores reflect true differences in the characteristic.
e.concerned with the extent to which differences in scores reflect instability in the measurements.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is TRUE?
a.Three aspects of validity – pragmatic, content, and construct – are not only conceptually independent but are in actual practice rarely related to each other.
b.A measure has been used repeatedly and has produced almost identical answers; therefore this instrument is valid.
c.Random error is less troublesome than systematic error.
d.Both a and b.
e.a, b, and c.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. One hundred sports writers are given a survey and asked to rank basketball players in categories such as rebounding, points scored, and assists. The results of the survey indicate that most sports writers agree on the top 10 players, within the given categories. This is evidence of:
a.reliability.
b.concurrent validity.
c.efficacy.
d.predictive validity.
e.construct validity.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. When we repeat a measurement on an individual or group of individuals and do not get the same score as the first time we did the measurement (assuming the characteristic being measured has not changed), a _____ error is present.
a.systematic
b.researcher
c.random
d.scaling
e.marginal

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following is FALSE?
a.If a measure is reliable, it is not heavily influenced by transitory factors that cause random errors.
b.If an item lacks correlation with other scale items measuring the same construct, there is evidence that the item does not belong and should be deleted.
c.Systematic error is due to temporary aspects of the person or measurement situation, which affects the measurement in irregular ways.
d.Reliability is necessary, but not sufficient, for establishing the validity of a measure.
e.If a set of items all measures the same construct, the responses to the items should be correlated.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. A study was done on the campus of a major state institution to measure attitudes of students toward the recent fee increase. One question asks respondents to rank the following five fees on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 = most willing and 5 = least willing.

_____ Computer fee

_____ Library fee

_____ Parking fee

_____ Student Center fee

_____ Kinesiology Building fee

This is an example of a(n) _____ scale.

a.nominal
b.ordinal
c.interval
d.ratio
e.none of the above

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. What type of scale is the following?

What was your annual gross income (before taxes) last year? $_____.

a.Nominal scale
b.Ordinal scale
c.Interval scale
d.Ratio scale
e.Constant-sum scale

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. Identify the type of scale from the following data.

“What is your gender?” 1 Male 2 Female

a.Nominal scale
b.Ordinal scale
c.Interval scale
d.Ratio scale
e.Likert scale

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. Consider the following question:

How much would you be willing to pay in annual premium for a $100,000 home insurance policy? Check appropriate category:

_____ < $25 per month

_____ $26 to $40 month

_____ $41 to $55 month

_____ > $55 per month

This is an example of a _____ scale.

a.nominal
b.ordinal
c.interval
d.ratio
e.Likert

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. If a respondent says his income is over $100,000 per annum when, in fact, it is $50,000 per annum, the difference between the true and actual measurement of income in this case could be said to LACK:
a.reliability.
b.validity.
c.both a and b.
d.neither a nor b.
e.nominal scale.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. When the scale type is nominal, the appropriate measure of central tendency is _____. When the scale type is interval or ratio, the appropriate measure of central tendency is:
a.mode; mean.
b.median; mean.
c.mean; mode.
d.mean; median.
e.mode; median.

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Identify the type of scale from amongst the following.

South Koreans cars are of:

PoorHigh
QualityQuality

a.Stapel scale
b.Likert scale
c.Summated-ratings scale
d.Graphic-ratings scale
e.Semantic-differential scale

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. What type of scale is the following?

Indicate your opinion about services Continental Airlines provides, by placing an “X” at the appropriate position on the lines below.

ServicesVery BadVery Good
Frequent flyer program
Continental magazine
In-flight food service

a.Stapel scale
b.Likert scale
c.Semantic-differential scale
d.Graphic-ratings scale
e.Summated-ratings scale

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. What type of scale is the following?

Indicate your overall opinion about Dell computers by circling one of the following categories:

Very BadBadGoodVery Good
1234

a.Stapel scale
b.Constant-sum scale
c.Comparative-ratings scale
d.Graphic-ratings scale
e.Itemized-ratings scale

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Which of the following statements about a Likert scale is FALSE?
a.The Likert scale is one of the most widely used attitude-scaling techniques in marketing research.
b.The subject indicates his/her degree of agreement or disagreement with each statement.
c.Researchers anchor only the endpoints of the scale.
d.A total score for each subject can be calculated by adding or averaging the scores across items.
e.Subjects can indicate the intensity of their feelings.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. A person scoring 78 out of 100 possible on a Likert scale indicates:
a.the person has a favorable attitude toward the object.
b.the person has an unfavorable attitude toward the object.
c.the person is neutral toward the object.
d.the person has a favorable attitude when compared to the average score of 60.
e.the person’s attitude is twice as favorable as a person’s whose score was 39.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. Identify the type of scale from the following data.

Indicate your agreement or disagreement with the following statement: Prices at Target are unreasonable (circle one).

StronglyDisagreeNeither AgreeAgreeStrongly
Disagreenor DisagreeAgree
12345

a.Stapel scale
b.Likert scale
c.Semantic-differential scale
d.Graphic-ratings scale
e.Constant-sum scale

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. When using the semantic-differential technique, researchers:
a.watch for observable responses from subjects.
b.ask subjects to memorize facts for future recall.
c.utilize word-association and sentence completion tests.
d.generate a list of bipolar adjectives or phrases.
e.calculate a total score for each subject by averaging the scores across items.

ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. In a survey, customers are asked to indicate how important courteous service is by placing an “X” in the appropriate box. The boxes are labeled as “not important,” “somewhat important,” “fairly important,” and “very important.” These labels are:
a.motherhood attributes.
b.alternatives.
c.reverse-scaled items.
d.comparative-ratings scales.
e.anchors.

ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. What type of scale would be one way to collect marketing research data in African countries that have a high illiteracy problem and where people cannot converse in English?
a.Semantic-differential scale
b.Stapel scale
c.Faces scale
d.Likert scale
e.Graphic-ratings scale

ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. When students of a marketing research course are asked to allocate 100 points among four members of the group to represent the effort put forth by each member, this is an example of what type of scale?
a.Graphic-ratings scale
b.Semantic-differential scale
c.Constant-sum scale
d.Stapel scale
e.Likert scale

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Comprehension

  1. Subjects are instructed to place an “X” on a line to indicate their feeling. They are told to place the “X” closer to the right the more they agree with a specific statement. This is:
a.itemized scale.
b.graphic-ratings scale.
c.thermometer scale.
d.semantic-differential scale.
e.summated-ratings scale.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. Hamburger Haven distributes a simple survey to determine the overall summary judgment of customers’ feelings about the company by using:
a.a normative standard.
b.a raw score.
c.a global measure.
d.a composite measure.
e.none of the above.

ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Application

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about a composite measure?
a.It is less diagnostic than a global measure.
b.It provides comprehensive information on the phenomenon being studied.
c.It cannot be used by companies trying to study all aspects of customer satisfaction.
d.It can determine the overall summary judgement of customer feelings.
e.It restricts the use of a wide-ranging set of attitudes.

ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

TRUE/FALSE

  1. With an interval scale, the researcher can determine mean scores on measures in addition to median and modal scales.

ANS: T PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. A ratio scale allows the comparison of absolute magnitudes but not the differences in magnitude.

ANS: F PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Almost nothing in marketing research can be measured without error.

ANS: T PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Random error affects the measurement in a constant way.

ANS: F PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Consistency is the hallmark of validity.

ANS: F PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Sometimes a researcher will include an internal consistency check to ensure that reliable answers are being given by respondents. This is normally carried out by having two different questions that measure the same construct embedded somewhere in the questionnaire.

ANS: T PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Reliability is necessary but not sufficient for establishing the validity of a measure.

ANS: T PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

COMPLETION

  1. The four types of scales used to measure an attribute are ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.

ANS:

nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio

ordinal, interval, ratio, nominal

interval, ratio, nominal, ordinal

ratio, nominal, ordinal. interval

PTS: 1 NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Error in measurement that is also known as constant error since it affects the measurement in a constant way is called ____________________ error.

ANS: systematic

PTS: 1 NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. Any scale or other measurement instrument that actually measures what it was intended to measure is said to have ____________________.

ANS: validity

PTS: 1 NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

  1. ____________________ is the ability of a measure to obtain similar scores for the same object, trait, or construct across time, across different evaluators, or across he items forming the measure.

ANS: Reliability

PTS: 1 NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

ESSAY

  1. Discuss in detail the two types of errors that may affect measurement scores.

ANS:

The first type of error is systematic error, which affects measurement in a constant way. Sometimes personality traits or other stable characteristics of individuals add systematic error to the measurement process. Differences in how surveys are administered can also introduce systematic error into a project. The second type of error is random error, which is due to transient aspects of the person or measurement situation and which affects the measurement in irregular ways. Random error is present when we repeat a measurement on an individual and do not get the same scores as the first time we did the measurement, even though the characteristic being measured has not changed. The situation surrounding the measurement also affects the score in random ways.

PTS: 1 NAT: AACSB Analytic | CB&E Model Research | Bloom’s: Knowledge

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