Nutrition for Life 3rd Edition by Thompson -Test Bank A+

$35.00
Nutrition for Life 3rd Edition by Thompson -Test Bank A+

Nutrition for Life 3rd Edition by Thompson -Test Bank A+

$35.00
Nutrition for Life 3rd Edition by Thompson -Test Bank A+

Multiple-Choice Questions

1) What element makes protein different from carbohydrate and fat?

  1. A) carbon
  2. B) hydrogen
  3. C) oxygen
  4. D) nitrogen

Answer: D

Page Ref: 186

Skill: Factual

2) What dictates the structure of a protein molecule synthesized by the body?

  1. A) the body’s need for a protein
  2. B) the DNA inside the nucleus of the cell
  3. C) the number of essential amino acids available
  4. D) the combination of proteins consumed in the diet

Answer: B

Page Ref: 186

Skill: Applied

3) Which of the following is NOT a component of an amino acid molecule?

  1. A) a central carbon
  2. B) an amine group
  3. C) an acid group
  4. D) a fatty acid group

Answer: D

Page Ref: 186

Skill: Factual

4) Which part of an individual amino acid distinguishes it from other amino acids?

  1. A) side chain
  2. B) central carbon
  3. C) amine group
  4. D) acid group

Answer: A

Page Ref: 186

Skill: Factual

5) The part of the protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the

  1. A) acid group.
  2. B) amine group.
  3. C) side chain.
  4. D) hydrogen group.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 186

Skill: Factual

6) In phenylketonuria (PKU), which amino acid becomes conditionally essential?

  1. A) phenylalanine
  2. B) tyrosine
  3. C) alanine
  4. D) cysteine

Answer: B

Page Ref: 187

Skill: Applied

7) How many strings of amino acids does a polypeptide consist of?

  1. A) two
  2. B) more than four
  3. C) nine
  4. D) more than ten

Answer: D

Page Ref: 188

Skill: Factual

8) The twisting, spiral shape formed by the sequence and chemical properties of its amino acids refers to what part of a protein’s structure?

  1. A) primary
  2. B) secondary
  3. C) tertiary
  4. D) quaternary

Answer: B

Page Ref: 190

Skill: Applied

9) A complete protein

  1. A) contains all 20 amino acids.
  2. B) contains all 9 essential amino acids.
  3. C) has not been denatured.
  4. D) is composed of only di- and tripeptides.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 192

Skill: Factual

10) The process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another is called

  1. A) gene expression.
  2. B) alteration.
  3. C) deamination.
  4. D) transamination.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 187

Skill: Applied

11) Two amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond to form a dipeptide. What is the by-product of this process?

  1. A) ammonia
  2. B) water
  3. C) carbon dioxide
  4. D) hydrochloric acid

Answer: B

Page Ref: 188

Skill: Applied

12) Which of the following foods is a source of complete protein?

  1. A) broccoli
  2. B) apple
  3. C) chicken
  4. D) whole grain bread

Answer: C

Page Ref: 192

Skill: Applied

13) Egg whites stiffen when they are whipped. The change that occurs in the protein is called

  1. A) denaturation.
  2. B) translocation.
  3. C) transcription.
  4. D) deamination.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 190-191

Skill: Applied

14) In what structure of the mammalian cell are proteins synthesized?

  1. A) nucleus
  2. B) ribosome
  3. C) cell membrane
  4. D) mitochondria

Answer: B

Page Ref: 188

Skill: Factual

15) MOST of the proteins in the body are synthesized from

  1. A) nine amino acids.
  2. B) twenty amino acids.
  3. C) ten fatty acids.
  4. D) fifteen fatty acids.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 186

Skill: Factual

16) The process through which mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the ribosome is called

  1. A) translation.
  2. B) deamination.
  3. C) denaturation.
  4. D) transcription.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 188

Skill: Applied

17) Which of the following is the MOST complete protein from a plant source?

  1. A) green beans
  2. B) soybeans
  3. C) bread
  4. D) apples

Answer: B

Page Ref: 192

Skill: Applied

18) Of the 20 amino acids relevant to the human body, how many are considered nonessential?

  1. A) none
  2. B) 9
  3. C) 11
  4. D) 20

Answer: C

Page Ref: 187

Skill: Factual

19) Which of the following is a body protein that is stored in a gland and secreted to an organ to restore normal body conditions or balance?

  1. A) enzyme
  2. B) hormone
  3. C) antibody
  4. D) buffer

Answer: B

Page Ref: 194

Skill: Applied

20) In the body, buffers are very important in

  1. A) defending the body against bacteria and toxins.
  2. B) maintaining acid-base balance in the body.
  3. C) accelerating chemical reactions in the body.
  4. D) maintaining and repairing body tissue.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 195

Skill: Conceptual

21) Which of the following is NOT a major function of protein in the human body?

  1. A) maintaining fluid balance
  2. B) providing energy to the body
  3. C) growth and maintenance of new tissue
  4. D) synthesis of hormones

Answer: B

Page Ref: 193-197

Skill: Applied

22) Which of the following is NOT an amino-acid containing hormone?

  1. A) insulin
  2. B) thyroid
  3. C) glucagon
  4. D) testosterone

Answer: D

Page Ref: 194

Skill: Applied

23) Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?

  1. A) enzymes
  2. B) antibodies
  3. C) buffers
  4. D) transport proteins

Answer: B

Page Ref: 195

Skill: Applied

24) Proteases are

  1. A) protein messengers that are released from storage in response to an alteration in the body’s homeostasis.
  2. B) transport proteins that move substances throughout the body.
  3. C) defense proteins that attack foreign bacteria, viruses, and toxins.
  4. D) enzymes that break down protein in the small intestine.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 197

Skill: Factual

25) Conduction of nerve signals and contraction of muscles depends on the proper balance of

  1. A) glucose.
  2. B) electrolytes.
  3. C) buffers.
  4. D) nitrogen.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 194

Skill: Applied

26) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

  1. A) HCl denatures protein to allow digestive enzymes to break down the protein.
  2. B) HCl inhibits the digestion of fat so it does not compete with protein digestion.
  3. C) HCl untangles the strands of protein and breaks the peptide bonds.
  4. D) HCl converts pepsinogen into pepsin.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 197

Skill: Conceptual

27) Significant chemical digestion of protein begins in the

  1. A) mouth.
  2. B) stomach.
  3. C) gallbladder.
  4. D) pancreas.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 197

Skill: Factual

28) The process of combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called

  1. A) the protein-combining method.
  2. B) amino acid sequencing method.
  3. C) mutual supplementation.
  4. D) protein.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 192

Skill: Factual

29) Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to be in positive nitrogen balance?

  1. A) a 29-year-old woman who is 6 months pregnant
  2. B) a 20-year-old female who is consuming 500 calories a day
  3. C) a 10-year-old boy recovering from severe burns
  4. D) a 30-year-old man with a temperature of 103.7°F

Answer: A

Page Ref: 200

Skill: Conceptual

30) To conserve body protein for its vital functions and not use it to provide energy, you should

  1. A) eat adequate amounts of carbohydrate and fat to conserve protein for other functions.
  2. B) eat at least twice the recommended RDA for protein to ensure adequate protein stores.
  3. C) work out in the gym at least three times a week to store additional protein for later use.
  4. D) eat meat three times a week to ensure adequate protein storage.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 193

Skill: Conceptual

31) Which of the following is NOT typically a nutrient of concern for vegans?

  1. A) iron
  2. B) vitamin B12
  3. C) vitamin C
  4. D) calcium

Answer: C

Page Ref: 209-210

Skill: Applied

32) The type of vegetarian who eats vegetables, grains, fruits, eggs, and milk but excludes all other types of animal protein is called a

  1. A) vegan.
  2. B) lacto-vegetarian.
  3. C) lacto-ovo vegetarian.
  4. D) pesco-vegetarian.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 207

Skill: Applied

33) The type of protein-energy malnutrition characterized by a general lack of protein in the diet is called

  1. A) marasmus.
  2. B) sickle cell anemia.
  3. C) cystic fibrosis.
  4. D) kwashiorkor.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 212

Skill: Applied

34) During the process of protein synthesis, what is the step in which messenger RNA is decoded into an amino acid sequence at the cell’s ribosome called?

  1. A) transcription
  2. B) translation
  3. C) deamination
  4. D) denaturation

Answer: B

Page Ref: 188

Skill: Conceptual

35) The absorption of proteins occurs in the

  1. A) stomach.
  2. B) small intestine.
  3. C) large intestine.
  4. D) liver.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 197

Skill: Factual

36) An acid-base imbalance can result in

  1. A) no change in the pH of the blood.
  2. B) an increased rate of absorption in the stomach.
  3. C) coma and death.
  4. D) digestive problems.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 194-195

Skill: Conceptual

37) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

  1. A) The healthy body’s primary energy source is carbohydrate and fat.
  2. B) The body stores excess protein primarily for energy reserves.
  3. C) To utilize protein for energy, the amine group is removed.
  4. D) Eating sufficient carbohydrate and fat will spare body protein.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 193, 196

Skill: Conceptual

38) Which of the following health problems is NOT associated with high protein intakes?

  1. A) heart disease
  2. B) kidney disease
  3. C) bone loss
  4. D) sickle cell anemia

Answer: D

Page Ref: 210

Skill: Factual

39) Which of the following supplements would you recommend a vegan add to his/her diet?

  1. A) protein
  2. B) fiber
  3. C) vitamin B12
  4. D) vitamin C

Answer: C

Page Ref: 207, 208

Skill: Applied

40) A well-planned vegetarian diet reduces the risk for many chronic diseases. For which of the following conditions does such a diet NOT minimize the risk?

  1. A) obesity
  2. B) heart disease
  3. C) anemia
  4. D) cancer

Answer: C

Page Ref: 207-208

Skill: Factual

41) Which of the following is NOT associated with kwashiorkor?

  1. A) flat belly and abdomen
  2. B) fatty liver
  3. C) loss of hair
  4. D) weight loss and muscle wasting

Answer: A

Page Ref: 212

Skill: Applied

42) Vegetarian diets are associated with increased consumption of

  1. A) carcinogens.
  2. B) antioxidants.
  3. C) prions.
  4. D) vitamins B12and D.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 207

Skill: Factual

43) Which hormone controls both the production of hydrochloric acid and the release of pepsin?

  1. A) insulin
  2. B) glucagon
  3. C) gastrin
  4. D) pepsin

Answer: C

Page Ref: 197

Skill: Factual

44) The enzymes that digest proteins in the small intestine are

  1. A) proteases.
  2. B) pepsins.
  3. C) pepsinogens.
  4. D) phosphofructokinases.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 197

Skill: Factual

45) The electrically charged particle that assists in maintaining the body’s fluid balance is called a(n)

  1. A) enzyme.
  2. B) protease.
  3. C) hormone.
  4. D) electrolyte.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 194

Skill: Factual

46) The positively charged electrolyte concentrated inside the cell is potassium, and the positively charged electrolyte concentrated outside the cell is

  1. A) oxygen.
  2. B) sodium.
  3. C) hydrogen.
  4. D) nitrogen.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 194

Skill: Factual

47) A deficiency of protein can lead to what condition in which fluid accumulates in the body’s tissue spaces?

  1. A) edema
  2. B) celiac disease
  3. C) marasmus
  4. D) acidosis

Answer: A

Page Ref: 194

Skill: Applied

48) When a protein attracts or releases hydrogen, it acts as a

  1. A) transporter.
  2. B) limiter.
  3. C) buffer.
  4. D) hydrogenater.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 195

Skill: Applied

49) A substance–usually a protein–that the body recognizes as a foreign invader, triggering an immune response is an

  1. A) antibody.
  2. B) antigen.
  3. C) antihistamine.
  4. D) antibiotic.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 195

Skill: Factual

50) Which of the following is an excellent source of protein that includes foods such as kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas?

  1. A) quorn
  2. B) quinoa
  3. C) nuts
  4. D) legumes

Answer: D

Page Ref: 203

Skill: Applied

51) The proteins responsible for helping maintain fluid balance are known as

  1. A) proteases.
  2. B) transport proteins.
  3. C) buffers.
  4. D) hormones.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 194

Skill: Applied

52) Which of the following processes involves both the synthesis of new proteins and the breakdown of existing proteins to provide amino acids for building new proteins?

  1. A) transcription
  2. B) translation
  3. C) turnover
  4. D) acidosis

Answer: C

Page Ref: 189

Skill: Conceptual

True/False Questions

1) Essential amino acids are more important to the human body than nonessential amino acids.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 187

Skill: Applied

2) Under normal physiological conditions, every cell of the body is capable of making each type of protein needed by the body.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 192

Skill: Conceptual

3) It is necessary to eat animal-based proteins to stay healthy.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 208

Skill: Applied

4) As long as an athlete consumes adequate dietary protein, total caloric intake is not important in athletic performance.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 202

Skill: Applied

5) A healthy pregnant woman is in positive nitrogen balance.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 201

Skill: Applied

6) Because of their increased protein needs, it is unhealthy for athletes to choose to become vegetarians.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 201, 208-209

Skill: Applied

7) Protein-energy malnutrition is seen only in developing countries.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 212

Skill: Applied

8) Individual amino acid supplements are absorbed better than a combination of amino acids.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 198

Skill: Applied

9) Denaturation results in the loss of the protein’s function.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 191

Skill: Applied

10) The majority of protein digestion occurs in the mouth.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 197

Skill: Factual

11) Hydrochloric acid converts the inactive pepsinogen into its active form pepsin.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 197

Skill: Factual

12) Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions without being physically altered.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 194

Skill: Factual

13) Alkalosis is a condition in which the pH of the blood becomes too basic.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 195

Skill: Applied

14) All legumes are complete proteins.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 203

Skill: Applied

15) Most Americans consume sufficient or excess amounts of dietary protein.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 202

Skill: Factual

16) Soybeans are good sources of protein, and the protein quality is almost identical to that of meat.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 203

Skill: Factual

17) Diets high in protein are associated with low blood cholesterol levels.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 210

Skill: Applied

18) Consuming individual amino acids and protein supplements can build muscle and improve strength.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 198

Skill: Applied

19) Marasmus is a serious condition resulting from inadequate intakes of protein and energy.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 211

Skill: Factual

20) The process in which a protein loses its shape and function when exposed to acids, heat, and heavy metals is deamination.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 190

Skill: Factual

21) Peptide bonds are chemical bonds in which the amine group of one amino acid binds to the acid group of another amino acid.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 188

Skill: Factual

22) During transcription, mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the cytoplasm for synthesis.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 188

Skill: Conceptual

23) The essential amino acid found in the shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a complementary amino acid.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 192

Skill: Applied

24) Complementary proteins provide all twenty essential amino acids.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 192

Skill: Applied

Essay Questions

1) Discuss the steps involved in protein synthesis and gene expression.

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 188-189

Skill: Conceptual

2) What is nitrogen balance? Describe the laboratory procedure used to determine protein status in individuals.

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 199-200

Skill: Conceptual

3) What are three physiological consequences of consuming too much protein?

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 210-211

Skill: Conceptual

4) Discuss the health benefits associated with becoming a vegetarian.

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 207-208

Skill: Conceptual

5) Compare and contrast marasmus and kwashiorkor.

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 211-212

Skill: Conceptual

Nutrition Debate Questions

1) Experts argue whether livestock production is the major source of worldwide degradation of the land. Discuss the pros and cons associated with this controversy.

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 213

Skill: Conceptual

2) According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which of the following is/are responsible for 18% of the gases responsible for global warming?

  1. A) factories
  2. B) vehicles
  3. C) livestock production
  4. D) agriculture

Answer: C

Page Ref: 213

Skill: Factual

Questions from Chapter Boxes

1) Carlos is a healthy 19-year-old college student who is sedentary. He is 5’11” tall and weighs 175 pounds. How many grams of protein would you recommend he consume each day?

  1. A) 55 grams
  2. B) 64 grams
  3. C) 75 grams
  4. D) 84 grams

Answer: B

Page Ref: 201

Skill: Applied

2) The majority of athletes can obtain an adequate amount of protein from eating a healthy diet.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 199

Skill: Applied

3) Which of the following is NOT a reason athletes have higher dietary protein needs than sedentary individuals?

  1. A) During exercise more protein is needed to carry oxygen in the blood.
  2. B) During exercise additional protein is needed to make glucose to prevent hypoglycemia.
  3. C) During exercise additional protein is needed to repair the tissue damaged during exercise.
  4. D) During exercise, protein is used as a primary source of energy.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 199

Skill: Conceptual

4) Bodybuilders and weight lifters need as much as 2 times more protein than the RDA.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 199

Skill: Factual

Nutrition: An Applied Approach, 3e, My Plate Edition (Thompson/Manore)

In Depth: Vitamins and Minerals: Micronutrients with Macro Powers

Multiple-Choice Questions

1) The human body can synthesize which two fat-soluble vitamins?

  1. A) vitamin B12and vitamin C
  2. B) vitamin D and vitamin K
  3. C) vitamin E and vitamin A
  4. D) thiamin and niacin

Answer: B

Page Ref: 217

Skill: Factual

2) Which of the following statements does NOT describe water-soluble vitamins?

  1. A) Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed easily from the intestinal tract into the blood.
  2. B) Water-soluble vitamins are stored in large amounts in the body.
  3. C) Water-soluble vitamins are found in a wide variety of foods.
  4. D) Water-soluble vitamins are rarely toxic.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 218-220

Skill: Applied

3) Which of the following were once referred to as accessory factors?

  1. A) coenzymes
  2. B) binding factors
  3. C) vitamins and minerals
  4. D) supplements

Answer: C

Page Ref: 217

Skill: Applied

4) A megadose of a vitamin is defined as consuming how many times the recommended intake?

  1. A) ≥ 10
  2. B) ≥ 50
  3. C) ≥ 100
  4. D) ≥ 200

Answer: A

Page Ref: 217

Skill: Factual

5) Which vitamins pose the greatest risk of toxicity?

  1. A) vitamins A and D
  2. B) vitamins C and K
  3. C) vitamins E and B12
  4. D) thiamin and riboflavin

Answer: A

Page Ref: 218-219

Skill: Applied

6) Which of the following comprises the vitamin B6 “umbrella” of compounds?

  1. A) pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and pyridoxamine
  2. B) retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid
  3. C) cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol
  4. D) phylloquinone and menaquinone

Answer: A

Page Ref: 219, 220

Skill: Factual

7) Deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins are sometimes seen in people who

  1. A) do not eat green vegetables.
  2. B) avoid dairy products.
  3. C) have a fat malabsorption disorder.
  4. D) are overweight.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 217-218

Skill: Conceptual

8) Which statement is FALSE regarding fat-soluble vitamins?

  1. A) Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in adipose tissue and the liver.
  2. B) Over-consumption of fat-soluble vitamins can lead to toxicity symptoms.
  3. C) Fat-soluble vitamins need to be consumed on a daily basis.
  4. D) Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed along with dietary fat.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 217

Skill: Applied

9) What is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in large amounts in the human body?

  1. A) thiamin
  2. B) vitamin B12
  3. C) vitamin C
  4. D) vitamin D

Answer: B

Page Ref: 218

Skill: Factual

10) The letters used to identify the fat-soluble vitamins indicate

  1. A) the compound from which the vitamins are synthesized.
  2. B) the order of importance that the vitamins play in the body.
  3. C) the abbreviation of the vitamins’ chemical name.
  4. D) the chronological order in which the vitamins were discovered.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 220

Skill: Applied

11) Phylloquinone and menaquinone are better known as

  1. A) ascorbic acid.
  2. B) vitamin B12.
  3. C) vitamin K.
  4. D) vitamin B6.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 220

Skill: Applied

12) Vitamins A, D, E, and K are BEST absorbed with foods that are rich in

  1. A) fat.
  2. B) calcium.
  3. C) fiber.
  4. D) vitamin C.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 217

Skill: Applied

13) The binder found in high-fiber foods that inhibits the absorption of iron and zinc is

  1. A) heme.
  2. B) oxalic acid.
  3. C) phenol.
  4. D) pyridoxine.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 223

Skill: Applied

14) Which of the following is a trace mineral?

  1. A) iron
  2. B) vitamin B12
  3. C) vitamin C
  4. D) calcium

Answer: A

Page Ref: 222

Skill: Applied

15) Research studies suggest that diets rich in vitamin D are associated with a lower risk of developing

  1. A) cataracts.
  2. B) colon cancer.
  3. C) osteoporosis.
  4. D) type 2 diabetes.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 225

Skill: Applied

True/False Questions

1) Water-soluble vitamins are not toxic; they are harmless even when consumed in megadose amounts.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 217

Skill: Applied

2) Macronutrients are more efficiently absorbed by the body than micronutrients.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 223

Skill: Applied

3) Toxicity to water-soluble vitamins is most often due to the over-use of high-potency vitamin supplements.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 217

Skill: Factual

4) Since vitamins are found in a wide variety of foods, they are considered non-essential nutrients.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 217

Skill: Conceptual

5) Fat-soluble vitamins should be consumed more frequently than water-soluble vitamins.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 220

Skill: Applied

6) Mineral supplements are made in the laboratory from plant sources.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 220

Skill: Applied

7) Most minerals are absorbed better from animal food sources than from supplements.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 224

Skill: Applied

8) Even individuals who eat a variety of healthy foods cannot meet their micronutrient needs from food alone and should take a daily supplement.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 224

Skill: Applied

9) The calcium in calcium fortified orange juice is well absorbed.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 221

Skill: Factual

10) Research shows that smokers benefit from daily supplements of beta carotene.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 224

Skill: Factual

Nutrition: An Applied Approach, 3e, My Plate Edition (Thompson/Manore)

Chapter 7 Nutrients Involved in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

Multiple-Choice Questions

1) What percentage of an adult’s healthy body weight is fluid?

  1. A) 50 to 30
  2. B) 50
  3. C) 50 to 70
  4. D) 50 to 90

Answer: C

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Factual

2) What is the function of synovial fluid?

  1. A) maintains blood volume
  2. B) transports nutrients through the body
  3. C) lubricates body joints
  4. D) maintains body temperature

Answer: C

Page Ref: 231

Skill: Applied

3) Which is NOT a symptom of low blood pressure?

  1. A) stroke
  2. B) confusion
  3. C) dizziness
  4. D) lethargy

Answer: A

Page Ref: 230

Skill: Applied

4) Water has a high heat capacity. What does this term mean?

  1. A) Water is resistant to changes in temperature.
  2. B) Water heats up or cools down very quickly.
  3. C) Water provides a useful source of stored kilocalories.
  4. D) Water transports the energy-yielding nutrients throughout the body.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 230

Skill: Conceptual

5) Water is known as the universal solvent, which means that

  1. A) water helps to regulate body temperature.
  2. B) water helps to maintain blood volume.
  3. C) water works as an excellent cleansing agent to flush toxins out of the body.
  4. D) most solutes (particles) will dissolve in water.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 230

Skill: Conceptual

6) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) Water freely moves across cell membranes.
  2. B) Water and electrolytes move across the cell membranes only through protein channels.
  3. C) Electrolytes freely move across cell membranes.
  4. D) Water and electrolytes cannot move across cell membranes.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 231

Skill: Applied

7) Which of the following will likely result if the concentration of electrolytes outside the cell is higher than in the intracellular environment?

  1. A) The cell will burst.
  2. B) The cell will shrink and dry up.
  3. C) The cell will undergo mitosis and divide.
  4. D) The cell will be unaffected.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 232

Skill: Conceptual

8) Ian is hospitalized for dehydration after experiencing severe vomiting and diarrhea. Which of the following is NOT associated with Ian’s dehydrated condition?

  1. A) Fluid will be lost from the extracellular fluid compartment.
  2. B) The extracellular electrolyte concentration will be very low.
  3. C) The intracellular fluid will leave the cells creating a fluid imbalance.
  4. D) The fluid imbalance will result in an irregular heartbeat.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 233

Skill: Applied

9) What is the primary reason we sweat?

  1. A) to maintain blood volume
  2. B) to maintain sodium balance
  3. C) to excrete waste products
  4. D) to regulate body temperature

Answer: D

Page Ref: 234

Skill: Factual

10) MOST water is lost daily via the

  1. A) skin.
  2. B) lungs.
  3. C) kidneys.
  4. D) colon.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 234

Skill: Factual

11) The ability of a muscle to contract and relax is dependent on the flow of what substance in and out of the muscle cell?

  1. A) phosphorus
  2. B) calcium
  3. C) iron
  4. D) chloride

Answer: B

Page Ref: 232

Skill: Factual

12) The “command center” of fluid intake is located in the

  1. A) kidneys.
  2. B) adrenal glands.
  3. C) skin.
  4. D) hypothalamus.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 233

Skill: Factual

13) Which of the following stimulates the thirst mechanism?

  1. A) decreased concentration of solutes in the blood
  2. B) elevated blood volume and pressure
  3. C) dryness of the mouth and throat tissues
  4. D) eating sweet-tasting foods

Answer: C

Page Ref: 234

Skill: Applied

14) Insensible water loss includes water loss

  1. A) during illness or trauma.
  2. B) during intense exercise.
  3. C) through respiration.
  4. D) through urination.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 234

Skill: Applied

15) Which of the following is a major mineral?

  1. A) sodium
  2. B) iron
  3. C) zinc
  4. D) copper

Answer: A

Page Ref: 229

Skill: Factual

16) Hyponatremia is associated with

  1. A) insufficient intake of dietary sodium.
  2. B) excessive intake of dietary sodium.
  3. C) dehydration.
  4. D) overhydration.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 242

Skill: Applied

17) Diets high in sodium are associated with

  1. A) breast cancer.
  2. B) diabetes mellitus.
  3. C) obesity.
  4. D) high blood pressure.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 241

Skill: Applied

18) Matt has just been diagnosed with hypertension, and his physician has instructed him to reduce his sodium intake. Which of the following would be good advice for Matt?

  1. A) Snack on fresh fruits and vegetables instead of salty snacks.
  2. B) Do not rinse canned beans with cold water before eating.
  3. C) Eat a variety of canned and dried soups.
  4. D) Eat canned creamed corn instead of fresh.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 240-241

Skill: Applied

19) The water that comes from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs is characterized as what kind of water?

  1. A) surface
  2. B) ground
  3. C) spring
  4. D) distilled

Answer: A

Page Ref: 237

Skill: Conceptual

20) Diets rich in which of the following nutrients are associated with maintaining healthy blood pressure levels?

  1. A) sodium
  2. B) chloride
  3. C) potassium
  4. D) phosphorus

Answer: C

Page Ref: 242

Skill: Factual

21) Which of the following individuals is at risk for hyperkalemia?

  1. A) a marathon runner
  2. B) a newborn
  3. C) an individual who has a diet rich in processed foods
  4. D) an individual with kidney disease

Answer: D

Page Ref: 243

Skill: Conceptual

22) The majority of dietary chloride is consumed from

  1. A) animal protein sources.
  2. B) alcohol.
  3. C) vitamin supplements.
  4. D) table salt.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 245

Skill: Factual

23) Which is NOT a function of chloride?

  1. A) assists in regulating the body’s fluid balance
  2. B) transmits nerve impulses
  3. C) in the form of hydrochloric acid, prepares food for digestion
  4. D) used in public water supplies to kill harmful bacteria

Answer: D

Page Ref: 245

Skill: Applied

24) The majority of our body’s phosphorus is stored in the

  1. A) kidneys.
  2. B) bones.
  3. C) blood.
  4. D) liver.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 245

Skill: Factual

25) Widely distributed in many foods, phosphorous is especially abundant in foods dense in

  1. A) carbohydrate.
  2. B) protein.
  3. C) phytic acid.
  4. D) fat.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 245

Skill: Applied

26) Mary drinks 600 milliliters of water. How many cups is this equivalent to?

  1. A) 1 cup
  2. B) 2 cups
  3. C) 2-1/2 cups
  4. D) 3 cups

Answer: C

Page Ref: 236

Skill: Applied

27) On average, which of the following individuals would have the highest percentage of body water?

  1. A) 35-year-old overweight man
  2. B) 35-year-old overweight woman
  3. C) 35-year-old lean man
  4. D) 35-year-old lean woman

Answer: C

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Conceptual

28) Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding phosphorus?

  1. A) Phosphorus from animal sources is more readily absorbed than the phosphorus from plant sources.
  2. B) Humans absorb about 50% of the phosphorus from plant sources.
  3. C) On average, Americans do not consume enough phosphorus in their diets.
  4. D) Bacteria in the large intestine can break down the phosphorus from plant sources.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 245-246

Skill: Applied

29) Which of the following foods contains the lowest amount of sodium?

  1. A) 1 medium fresh orange
  2. B) 1 cup of canned vegetable soup
  3. C) 1 large dill pickle
  4. D) 1 oz of potato chips

Answer: A

Page Ref: 240, 242

Skill: Applied

30) Which of the following is a diuretic?

  1. A) alcohol
  2. B) milk
  3. C) water
  4. D) orange juice

Answer: A

Page Ref: 235

Skill: Factual

31) Which of the following is NOT a major function of sodium?

  1. A) assists in muscle contraction
  2. B) maintains fluid balance
  3. C) maintains normal heart rhythm
  4. D) maintains acid-base balance

Answer: C

Page Ref: 240

Skill: Factual

32) Which of the following do sodium and potassium NOT have in common?

  1. A) Rich sources of both include fresh foods, such as bananas, cantaloupe, and potatoes.
  2. B) Both participate in maintaining fluid balance.
  3. C) Both are involved in nerve transmission.
  4. D) Both are major electrolytes in the body.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 240, 242-243

Skill: Conceptual

33) Which of the following conditions is NOT related to an electrolyte imbalance?

  1. A) seizures
  2. B) muscle cramps
  3. C) heart attack
  4. D) hypoglycemia

Answer: D

Page Ref: 242, 243

Skill: Applied

34) What is fluid that is found in-between cells?

  1. A) intracellular fluid
  2. B) interstitial fluid
  3. C) intravascular fluid
  4. D) synovial fluid

Answer: B

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Factual

35) Which of the following does NOT describe tissue fluid?

  1. A) fluid that flows between cells
  2. B) fluid that is also called interstitial fluid
  3. C) fluid that is found in the blood stream
  4. D) synovial fluid found within joints

Answer: C

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Applied

36) Which of the following is NOT a mechanism to maintain the body’s internal temperature?

  1. A) Fluid acts as a coolant by increasing the blood flow from the warm body core to the peripheral tissue, thus cooling the body.
  2. B) Fluid has a high capacity for heat, so it requires a great deal of energy to raise its temperature.
  3. C) Fluid is evaporated as sweat from the skin’s surface, thus cooling the body.
  4. D) Warmed fluids from the body’s surface return to the body’s core, thus heating the body.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 230

Skill: Conceptual

37) The movement of water through a semipermeable membrane toward solutes is called

  1. A) osmosis.
  2. B) filtration.
  3. C) depolarization.
  4. D) distillation.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 232

Skill: Factual

38) Which of the following conditions can result in extra calcium being excreted in the urine?

  1. A) pregnancy
  2. B) low humidity
  3. C) diuretic use
  4. D) high sodium intake

Answer: D

Page Ref: 241

Skill: Applied

39) The two electrolytes that enable nerves to respond to stimuli are sodium and

  1. A) chloride.
  2. B) potassium.
  3. C) phosphorus.
  4. D) iron.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 232

Skill: Factual

40) Of the following ethnic groups, which has the highest risk of developing hypertension?

  1. A) Caucasian
  2. B) Asian
  3. C) Hispanic
  4. D) African American

Answer: D

Page Ref: 240

Skill: Factual

41) The agency that sets and monitors standards for city water systems is the

  1. A) Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  2. B) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
  3. C) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  4. D) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

Answer: B

Page Ref: 237

Skill: Factual

42) Which of the following substances is characterized by its ability to move freely and adapt to the shape of the vessel that contains it?

  1. A) an electrolyte
  2. B) an ion
  3. C) a fluid
  4. D) a diuretic

Answer: C

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Factual

43) A condition characterized by dangerously high potassium levels in the blood is

  1. A) hyperkalemia.
  2. B) hypokalemia.
  3. C) hypernatremia.
  4. D) hyponatremia.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 243

Skill: Factual

44) What is the region of the brain that regulates the sensation of thirst?

  1. A) hippocampus
  2. B) hypothalamus
  3. C) cerebellum
  4. D) pituitary gland

Answer: B

Page Ref: 233

Skill: Factual

45) Which of the following is a substance that increases fluid loss via the urine?

  1. A) synovial fluid
  2. B) plasma
  3. C) a solvent
  4. D) a diuretic

Answer: D

Page Ref: 235

Skill: Applied

46) The major intracellular positively charged electrolyte is

  1. A) sodium.
  2. B) chloride.
  3. C) potassium.
  4. D) phosphorus.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 242

Skill: Applied

47) A condition characterized by very high blood sodium levels is

  1. A) hypernatremia.
  2. B) hyponatremia.
  3. C) hyperkalemia.
  4. D) hypokalemia.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 241

Skill: Factual

48) Which of the following acids is major form of phosphorus found in plant foods?

  1. A) hydrochloric acid
  2. B) phytic acid
  3. C) synovial acid
  4. D) phosphoric acid

Answer: B

Page Ref: 246

Skill: Applied

49) Which of the following is the fluid lost via sweating and respiration?

  1. A) metabolic water
  2. B) sensible water
  3. C) insensible water
  4. D) diuretic water

Answer: C

Page Ref: 234

Skill: Factual

50) The release of which of the following nutrients from extracellular fluid stimulates muscle contraction?

  1. A) phosphorus
  2. B) potassium
  3. C) sodium
  4. D) calcium

Answer: D

Page Ref: 232

Skill: Factual

51) A substance that is capable of dissolving a variety of compounds is known as a(n)

  1. A) solvent.
  2. B) solute.
  3. C) diuretic.
  4. D) electrolyte.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 230

Skill: Applied

52) The major electrolyte lost in sweat is

  1. A) potassium.
  2. B) phosphorus.
  3. C) sodium.
  4. D) chloride.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 237

Skill: Factual

53) Major minerals are those that the body needs in how many mg per day?

  1. A) more than 50 mg
  2. B) more than 100 mg
  3. C) more than 200 mg
  4. D) more than 300 mg

Answer: B

Page Ref: 236

Skill: Factual

54) The swelling of tissues associated with hypernatremia is known as

  1. A) osmosis.
  2. B) edema.
  3. C) depolarization.
  4. D) repolarization.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 241

Skill: Conceptual

True/False Questions

1) Between 50 and 70% of an adult’s body weight is comprised of fluid.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Factual

2) Lean tissue contains a lower percentage of fluid compared with fat tissue.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Conceptual

3) Typically, water moves from areas of low concentration of solutes toward areas of higher concentration of solutes.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 232

Skill: Conceptual

4) Fluids move freely in and out of cells.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 231

Skill: Conceptual

5) Quenching thirst assures adequate fluid intake.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 234

Skill: Applied

6) Drinking eight glasses of fluid each day ensures that all healthy adults will meet their fluid needs.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 236

Skill: Factual

7) Sodium is an essential nutrient necessary for human health.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 240

Skill: Applied

8) Most Americans exceed the dietary recommendations for sodium.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 240

Skill: Factual

9) Processed foods tend to be low in sodium and high in potassium.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 240

Skill: Applied

10) Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of potassium.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 242

Skill: Factual

11) Lean individuals have a higher percentage of body water than obese individuals.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Applied

12) Individuals taking diuretics should always increase their dietary potassium intake.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 244

Skill: Applied

13) Sodium and chloride are the predominant electrolytes in the extracellular fluid.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 229

Skill: Factual

14) Extreme dehydration, vomiting, and diarrhea can result in hypokalemia.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 244

Skill: Applied

15) Bottled water is safer to drink than tap water.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 238

Skill: Factual

16) Eating too much sodium will result in hypernatremia in most healthy individuals.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 241

Skill: Applied

17) A diet rich in potassium has been shown to help maintain a healthy blood pressure.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 242

Skill: Factual

18) Individuals with hypertension should limit their dietary sodium intake to less than 1.5 grams a day.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 240

Skill: Factual

19) Congestive heart failure and kidney disease are risk factors for hypernatremia.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 240

Skill: Factual

20) Two-thirds of body fluids consist of extracellular fluid.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Factual

21) When solute concentrations are equal on both sides of the cell membrane, osmosis begins.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 232

Skill: Applied

22) Less than half of a healthy body weight is fluid.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Factual

23) We consume the majority of our dietary chloride from fruits and vegetables.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 245

Skill: Factual

24) Phosphorus is a negatively charged electrolyte.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 229, 245

Skill: Factual

25) The body obtains metabolic water directly by consuming fluids and foods.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 234

Skill: Factual

26) The liquid portion of the bloods is called plasma.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Factual

Essay Questions

1) How do electrolytes function in controlling fluid balance in the body?

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 231-232

Skill: Conceptual

2) Describe the ways in which the healthy body loses fluid. How can changes in environmental conditions affect fluid loss?

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 234-235

Skill: Conceptual

3) Liz has recently been diagnosed with hypertension and told to cut back on her dietary sodium. Detail practical suggestions that would help Liz reduce her sodium intake.

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 242

Skill: Conceptual

4) Describe the conditions and the related symptoms associated with consuming excessive amounts of sodium and potassium. Inadequate intakes of these major minerals can cause problems as well. Describe the conditions and related symptoms associated with too little sodium and potassium intake.

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 241-242, 243-244

Skill: Conceptual

5) Describe five roles that water plays in the proper functioning of the body.

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 230-231

Skill: Conceptual

Nutrition Debate Questions

1) Which of the following individuals will benefit the MOST from consuming a sports beverage?

  1. A) athlete who exercises intensely for more than one hour
  2. B) child who will not drink milk
  3. C) adult who participates in regular physical activity 30 minutes a day
  4. D) elderly person who is taking a diuretic

Answer: A

Page Ref: 247

Skill: Applied

2) Sports drinks are not necessary for individuals who engage in no or little exercise.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 247

Skill: Applied

3) Sports drinks are a combination of fluid, carbohydrate, and:

  1. A) ions.
  2. B) electrolytes.
  3. C) diuretics.
  4. D) phytic acid.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 247

Skill: Factual

4) What are sports beverages? Which individuals might benefit from using these products, and which populations do not benefit?

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 247

Skill: Conceptual

Questions from Chapter Boxes

1) A water-treatment method in which water is filtered through a screen to eliminate chemical contaminants and microorganisms is called what?

  1. A) micron filtration
  2. B) ozonation filtration
  3. C) reverse filtration
  4. D) distillation filtration

Answer: A

Page Ref: 239

Skill: Factual

2) Which of the following is the MOST effective method used in removing waterborne microorganisms from bottled water?

  1. A) filtration
  2. B) exchange
  3. C) reverse osmosis
  4. D) deionization

Answer: C

Page Ref: 239

Skill: Applied

3) What are the factors you should consider before purchasing bottled water?

Answer: Answers will vary.

Page Ref: 239

Skill: Conceptual

Nutrition: An Applied Approach, 3e, My Plate Edition (Thompson/Manore)

In Depth: Fluid Imbalance

Multiple-Choice Questions

1) Which of the following groups are the MOST vulnerable to dehydration?

  1. A) pregnant women and the elderly
  2. B) adolescents and children
  3. C) infants and pregnant women
  4. D) infants and the elderly

Answer: D

Page Ref: 251

Skill: Factual

2) Which of following does NOT explain why infants are at a higher risk of dehydration compared to adults?

  1. A) Infants excrete urine at a higher rate.
  2. B) Infants cannot tell parents or caregivers when they are thirsty.
  3. C) Infants have a greater ratio of body surface area to body core.
  4. D) Infants have a lower total body water percentage.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 251

Skill: Conceptual

3) After completing a 10K run, Bonita notices that her urine is brown and similar to the color of cola. What does this indicate about Bonita’s hydration status?

  1. A) She is well hydrated.
  2. B) She may be inadequately hydrated and needs to replace fluids.
  3. C) She is suffering from severe dehydration and needs treatment immediately.
  4. D) The color of urine is not a reliable indicator of hydration status.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 252

Skill: Conceptual

4) A potentially fatal condition characterized by the failure of the body’s heat-regulating mechanisms is heat

  1. A) hypertension.
  2. B) fever.
  3. C) dehydration.
  4. D) stroke.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 253

Skill: Factual

5) Bert goes to the gym and works out strenuously for about 45 minutes. After his exercise bout he weighs himself and notices that he has lost a pound. How much fluid should he drink to rehydrate his body?

  1. A) 1 cup
  2. B) 2 cups
  3. C) 3 cups
  4. D) 4 cups

Answer: B

Page Ref: 252

Skill: Applied

6) The MOST serious type of heat illness is heat

  1. A) syncope.
  2. B) cramps.
  3. C) stroke.
  4. D) exhaustion.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 252-253

Skill: Factual

7) Which of the following individuals is LEAST likely to suffer dehydration?

  1. A) Bill, who has the flu and has been suffering from vomiting and diarrhea for three days
  2. B) Mario, who has diabetes with a blood glucose level of 100 mg/dL
  3. C) Maria, who is a bulimic and vomits after every meal
  4. D) Julio, who never takes diuretics or laxatives

Answer: D

Page Ref: 251

Skill: Conceptual

8) A fluid loss greater than what percentage of body weight can result in organ failure, coma, and death?

  1. A) 2 percent
  2. B) 3 percent
  3. C) 5 percent
  4. D) 8 percent

Answer: D

Page Ref: 251

Skill: Conceptual

9) Heat cramps that develop during vigorous physical activity in hot temperatures are due to

  1. A) a fluid and electrolyte imbalance.
  2. B) blood flow being diverted away from the muscles to the heart.
  3. C) an internal body temperature exceeding 105°F.
  4. D) an elevation in blood pressure.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 252

Skill: Conceptual

10) Which of the following is NOT a recommended treatment of heat exhaustion?

  1. A) Relocate to a cool location and drink a sports beverage.
  2. B) Loosen clothing and cool the body with a shower or bath.
  3. C) Seek medical attention if symptoms do not subside within an hour.
  4. D) Place a heating pad in an area of the body where blood circulates close to the surface.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 253

Skill: Applied

11) Which of the following is NOT one of the guidelines for preventing heat-related deaths in high school and collegiate athletes?

  1. A) regular fluid breaks for athletes
  2. B) changing the time of events to avoid periods of high heat and humidly
  3. C) canceling training and competition during periods of high heat and humidity
  4. D) attendance of a certified athletic trainer at all sporting events

Answer: D

Page Ref: 253

Skill: Applied

12) Hyperventilation, core body temperature above 105°F, hot and dry skin, and rapid pulse are all symptoms of what type of heat illness?

  1. A) heat stroke
  2. B) heat exhaustion
  3. C) heat syncope
  4. D) heat cramps

Answer: A

Page Ref: 253

Skill: Applied

13) Athletes are more likely to develop a heat illness on hot and humid days. Why?

  1. A) The kidneys do not reabsorb water as well on hot and humid days.
  2. B) The thirst mechanism is not as acute on hot and humid days.
  3. C) In hot and humid weather the body cannot dissipate heat via evaporation of sweat.
  4. D) On hot and humid days, blood flow is diverted away from the extremities, and the body cannot be cooled as fast.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 253

Skill: Conceptual

True/False Questions

1) Clear to pale colored urine is a good indicator of good hydration status.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 252

Skill: Applied

2) Infants are very vulnerable to dehydration because they have a smaller ratio of body surface area to body core, causing them to lose more water than an older child.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 251

Skill: Applied

3) The most effective treatment for heat stroke is to cool the body and seek immediate medical assistance.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 253

Skill: Applied

4) One of the reasons that the elderly are at high risk of dehydration is that their thirst mechanism is less effective than younger people.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 251

Skill: Factual

5) Heat exhaustion is the most severe form of heat illness.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 252-253

Skill: Factual

6) One of the symptoms of heat exhaustion is cessation of body sweating.

Answer: FALSE

Page Ref: 252-253

Skill: Applied

7) Strict guidelines are in place to prevent heat-related deaths in high school and collegiate athletes.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 253

Skill: Factual

8) Heat cramps are caused by fluid and electrolyte imbalances.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 252

Skill: Factual

9) Hot and humid environments increase the risk of heat illness because sweat does not evaporate and the body cannot cool itself.

Answer: TRUE

Page Ref: 253

Skill: Factual

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