Personality Psychology Domain of Knowledge about Human Nature 5th Edition by Randy J. Larsen -Test Bank +A

$35.00
Personality Psychology Domain of Knowledge about Human Nature 5th Edition by Randy J. Larsen -Test Bank +A

Personality Psychology Domain of Knowledge about Human Nature 5th Edition by Randy J. Larsen -Test Bank +A

$35.00
Personality Psychology Domain of Knowledge about Human Nature 5th Edition by Randy J. Larsen -Test Bank +A

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

  1. The “Jim twins”
    A. prove that personality traits are heritable.
    B. prove the effects of nonshared family environments.
    C. are very similar despite having been separated at birth.
    D. are identical in all ways.

  1. The term _____ refers to the complete set of genes an organism possesses.
    A. “genome”
    B. “eugenics”
    C. “phenotypic”
    D. “genotypic”

  1. All human genes are located somewhere on one of _____ pairs of chromosomes.
    A. 12
    B. 17
    C. 23
    D. 32

  1. The human genome contains about _____ separate genes.
    A. 10,000-15,000
    B. 20,000-40,000
    C. 30,000-40,000
    D. 1,000,000-2,000,000

  1. The goal of the Human Genome Project is to
    A. identify which genes are related to personality.
    B. identify the particular sequence of DNA molecules in humans.
    C. identify genotypic variance.
    D. solve the nature-nurture debate once and for all.

  1. The Human Genome Project has
    A. been a large failure.
    B. identified the sequence of DNA molecules in humans.
    C. identified the functions of most human genes.
    D. discovered that people differ widely in their particular genes.

  1. Which one of the following is NOT one of the fears about genetic research?
    A. Genetic research will lead to the development of “designer” babies.
    B. If criminal behavior is genetic then attempts at rehabilitation will be fruitless.
    C. Decoding genetic differences will reveal complexities in human nature.
    D. Genetic research will marginalize research in other areas of psychology.

  1. The idea that people with “desirable” characteristics should be encouraged to have children while “less desirable” people should be discouraged from having children is called
    A. eugenics.
    B. molecular genetics.
    C. selective placement.
    D. heritability.

  1. Most psychologists who study genetics
    A. support the idea of eugenics.
    B. believe creating “designer babies” is a worthwhile goal.
    C. believe that the environment does not contribute to personality.
    D. are interested in the causes of individual differences.

  1. The fact that Americans are, on average, 2 inches taller than a hundred years ago demonstrates that
    A. the environment determines height.
    B. the environment can contribute to highly heritable traits.
    C. height is not heritable.
    D. height is only slightly heritable.

  1. If a score for a characteristic is divided into its different causes researchers are typically assessing the _____ due each of the causes of that score.
    A. genotype-environment interaction
    B. genotype-environment correlation
    C. percentage of variance
    D. environmentalism

  1. Behavioral geneticists are generally NOT interested in the
    A. percentage of variance due to environment.
    B. percentage of variance due to genes.
    C. percentage of genetic variance in an individual.
    D. ways in which genes and the environment interact to form personality.

  1. The proportion of phenotypic variation in a group of individuals due to genetic variance is called
    A. “heritability.”
    B. the “phenotypic percentage of variance.”
    C. the “genome.”
    D. “eugenics.”

  1. _____ refers to the proportion of variance in a group of individuals that can be accounted for by genetic variance.
    A. Heritability
    B. Phenotypic percentage of variance
    C. The genome
    D. Eugenics

  1. _____ refers to observed differences among individuals.
    A. Heritability
    B. Phenotypic variance
    C. Genotypic variance
    D. Environmentality

  1. _____ refers to individual differences in the collection of genes of each person.
    A. Heritability
    B. Phenotypic variance
    C. Genotypic variance
    D. Environmentality

  1. If the heritability of sociability is .30, the environment is responsible for
    A. 70 percent of phenotypic variation.
    B. 70 percent of genotypic variation.
    C. 30 percent of phenotypic variation.
    D. 30 percent of genotypic variation.

  1. The percentage of variance in a group of individuals that can be attributed to nongenetic differences is called
    A. heritability.
    B. phenotypic variance.
    C. genotypic variance.
    D. environmentality.

  1. If the heritability of a trait is very large, then the _____ of the trait is small.
    A. phenotypic variance
    B. genotypic variance
    C. environmentality
    D. genomic variance

  1. Which of the following statements about heritability is NOT true?
    A. Heritability can be applied to an individual.
    B. Heritability can change over time.
    C. The heritability of the same trait can be different in different groups.
    D. The phenotype is the expression of a characteristic’s genotype.

  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason why heritability can vary?
    A. It is an imprecise estimate.
    B. Environments change.
    C. Unreliability in measurement.
    D. Heritability coefficients are fixed in a population.

  1. The argument over whether the environment or genes determines personality is known as
    A. the eugenics debate.
    B. the nature-nurture debate.
    C. heritability.
    D. the equal environments assumption.

  1. If we were attempting to determine how much of George’s personality was due to genetics and how much were due to the environment we would
    A. measure George’s genome.
    B. compare George to his siblings.
    C. be asking an impossible question.
    D. map his chromosomes.

  1. At the level of the individual
    A. there is no nature-nurture debate.
    B. genes are useful in studying personality.
    C. the idiographic genetic approach should be used.
    D. genes determine most of personality.

  1. The technical term for dividing a trait’s score genetic and environmental variance at the population level is called
    A. apportioning.
    B. subdivision.
    C. partitioning.
    D. extrapolating.

  1. Which of the following methods in NOT used with humans?
    A. Selective breeding
    B. Twin studies
    C. Adoption studies
    D. Family studies

  1. The use of selective breeding in animals can be used to study
    A. sexual selection pressures for behaviors.
    B. the heritability of behaviors.
    C. natural selection pressures for behaviors.
    D. the dominance hierarchies of animals.

  1. _____ is shown when successive generations show more and more of a trait.
    A. Shared environment
    B. Selective breeding
    C. Genotype-environment correlation
    D. The equal environments assumption

  1. Selective breeding in dogs demonstrates that
    A. behavioral traits can be heritable.
    B. human personality is heritable.
    C. the equal environments assumption is not violated.
    D. the representativeness assumption is not violated.

  1. For selective breeding to be successful, the desired trait must
    A. be entirely under genetic control.
    B. occur in all offspring.
    C. be heritable.
    D. not effected by the environment.

  1. A parent shares, on average, _____ percent of his or her genes with each child.
    A. 25
    B. 50
    C. 75
    D. 100

  1. Aunts and uncles share, on average, _____ percent of their genes with nieces and nephews.
    A. 0
    B. 12.5
    C. 25
    D. 50

  1. If a trait is highly heritable,
    A. all family members will possess the trait.
    B. all children in the family will possess the trait.
    C. the more closely family members are genetically related; the more similar they will be on the trait.
    D. all members of the population will possess the trait.

  1. Which of the following is NOT a problem with the family-study method?
    A. Family members sharing environments.
    B. The degree of genetic similarity is often correlated with environmental similarity.
    C. Siblings may share traits because they grew up in the same household.
    D. The fact that parents contribute 50 percent of their genes to each child.

  1. Which of the following methods provides the LEAST conclusive evidence that a trait is heritable?
    A. Family studies
    B. Twin studies
    C. Adoption studies
    D. Selective breeding

  1. Which of the following could potentially develop from a single fertilized egg?
    A. All siblings
    B. Fraternal twins
    C. Identical twins
    D. Zygotic twins

  1. _____ are also known as “monozygotic twins.”
    A. Fraternal twins
    B. Genotypic twins
    C. Identical twins
    D. Phenotypic twins

  1. Which of the following share 100 percent of their genes?
    A. Parents and children
    B. All siblings
    C. Dizygotic twins
    D. Monozygotic twins

  1. Dizygotic twins share _____ genes compared to ordinary siblings, and _____ genes compared to monozygotic twins.
    A. the same amount; less
    B. more; less
    C. more; more
    D. less; more

  1. A trait is likely to be heritable if _____ are more similar in that trait than _____.
    A. dizygotic twins; monozygotic twins
    B. monozygotic twins; dizygotic twins
    C. ordinary siblings; dizygotic twins
    D. dizygotic twins; ordinary siblings

  1. Which of the following estimates heritability most accurately?
    A. The difference between the correlations of MZ twins and DZ twins.
    B. Twice the difference between the correlations of MZ twins and DZ twins.
    C. One-half the difference between the correlations of MZ twins and DZ twins.
    D. Multiplying the correlations between MZ twins and DZ twins.

  1. One of the most common formulas for assessing heritability is
    A. heritability = (rdz – rmz).
    B. heritability2 = (rmz – rdz).
    C. heritability2 = 2(rmz – rdz).
    D. heritability = 2(rmz – rdz).

  1. The equal environments assumption states that
    A. all people in a population share similar environments.
    B. dizygotic twins are not treated differently from monozygotic twins.
    C. twins are not treated differently from ordinary siblings.
    D. parents treat all their children the same.

  1. Which of the following could be a violation of the equal environments assumption?
    A. Dressing identical twins in the identical clothes.
    B. Dressing fraternal twins in the identical clothes.
    C. Twins are treated differently than other children.
    D. Fraternal twins are similar to ordinary siblings.

  1. Mary Jo and Bobbi Jo are identical twins. Their parents dress them alike, put them in the same classes and treat them identically. If Betty Jo and Mary Jo were selected to participate in a twin study, they may contaminate the results by leading to a violation of the _____ assumption.
    A. Nonshared family variance
    B. Shared family environment
    C. Equal environments
    D. Confluence effects

  1. Researchers have studied cases where parents were wrong about whether their twins were identical or fraternal to address
    A. shared environments.
    B. selective breeding.
    C. genotype-environment correlation.
    D. the equal environments assumption.

  1. If adopted children differ in important ways from most other people, it would violate the _____ assumption.
    A. representativeness
    B. equal environments
    C. eugenics
    D. shared family environment

  1. If the correlation between adoptive parents’ traits and adopted children’s traits is high we can assume
    A. a genetic influence.
    B. an environmental influence.
    C. an influence of shared environment.
    D. adoptive parents pick children similar to themselves.

  1. An advantage of adoption studies is that they
    A. depend on the equal environments assumption.
    B. depend on the representativeness assumption.
    C. do not depend on the equal environments assumption.
    D. do not depend on the representativeness assumption.

  1. A trait is heritable if
    A. adoptive parents and the children they have adopted have similar levels of a characteristic.
    B. the biological parents of children they placed for adoption have similar levels of a characteristic.
    C. adoptive parents and biological parents of a child have similar levels of a characteristic.
    D. the children that have been adopted have levels of a characteristic that are similar to those of the other siblings in the home.

  1. Selective placement is a potential problem with behavior genetics studies as it artificially inflates the
    A. estimates of genetic influences.
    B. estimates of nonshared family environment.
    C. estimates of environmental influences.
    D. effects of the equal environments assumption.

  1. Jerold was adopted by his mother’s sister (his maternal aunt) and his uncle. If he were to participate in a behavior genetics study his scores would
    A. skew the results to favor the percentage of the variance for his scores to genetic influences.
    B. skew the results to favor the percentage of the variance for his scores to environmental influences.
    C. the results of his test scores would be skewed to show the greater effects of maternal influences.
    D. the results of his test scores would not bias the effects for either the genes or the environment.

  1. Combining adoption studies and twin studies
    A. methodologically is not appropriate in behavior genetics studies.
    B. provides an especially powerful method for studying behavior genetics.
    C. requires selective breeding over many generations of lab animals.
    D. provides an error-free estimate of heritability for behavior genetics studies.

  1. The personality traits of extraversion and neuroticism have been found to be
    A. highly heritable.
    B. moderately heritable.
    C. slightly heritable.
    D. not at all heritable.

  1. Most major personality traits
    A. have been found to be moderately heritable.
    B. have been found to be not at all heritable.
    C. have not been studied with respect to heritability.
    D. are more heritable than height.

  1. ______ traits show moderate to high heritability.
    A. Psychopathic
    B. Religious
    C. Idiographic
    D. Political

  1. Chimpanzees show moderate heritability for dominance and
    A. extraversion.
    B. well-being.
    C. aggressiveness.
    D. sociability.

  1. Which of the following attitudes has been found to be somewhat heritable?
    A. Traditionalism
    B. Belief in God
    C. Involvement in religious activities
    D. Attitudes about racial integration

  1. Which of the following is probably most heritable?
    A. Drinking behavior in men.
    B. Drinking behavior in women.
    C. Alcoholism in men and women.
    D. Alcoholism is not heritable.

  1. Recent findings from behavioral genetics and brain research point to the possibility that sexual orientation may
    A. be heritable only in men.
    B. be heritable only in women.
    C. be heritable in both women and men.
    D. not be at all heritable.

  1. According to recent research (e.g., the Bailey et al. study discussed in the text as support for Bem’s 1995 theory), it appears that
    A. sexual orientation is extremely heritable.
    B. childhood gender nonconformity may be the inherited component of adult sexual orientation.
    C. gender nonconformity is not heritable.
    D. homosexuals’ brains are the same as heterosexuals’ brains.

  1. Research on brain differences between homosexual and heterosexual men has found some evidence that homosexual men have
    A. brains substantially more like women’s brains than heterosexual males’ brains.
    B. substantially larger ascending reticular activating systems than heterosexual men.
    C. substantially smaller medial preoptic regions of the hypothalamus than heterosexual men.
    D. substantially smaller occipital lobes of the brain than heterosexual men.

  1. Which of the following is an example of a shared environmental influence?
    A. A child’s friends
    B. The grades a child gets
    C. Special treatment from a parent
    D. Parents’ values and attitudes

  1. _____ refers to the unique things that happen to one sibling and not another.
    A. Phenotypic variance
    B. Genotypic variance
    C. Shared environment
    D. Nonshared environment

  1. Nonshared family environment is best expressed as those aspects of the family environment that
    A. are uniquely experienced by the family.
    B. are uniquely experienced by an individual family member.
    C. are hoarded by the family members.
    D. represent differential genetic dimorphism

  1. Shared family environment is BEST expressed by which of the following?
    A. The friends a child selects while growing up.
    B. A shared family vacation.
    C. A parent’s rapid rise up the corporate ladder.
    D. Differential effects of grandparenting on children.

  1. The number of books in a child’s home is an example of
    A. phenotypic variance.
    B. genotypic variance.
    C. shared environment.
    D. nonshared environment.

  1. A yearly family trip to Uncle Earl and Aunt Eunice’s farm would be considered part of the _____ environment.
    A. shared common family
    B. nonshared family
    C. family experiential
    D. phenotypic family

  1. Research indicates that shared environmental factors correlate about _____ with personality.
    A. .05
    B. .25
    C. .50
    D. .65

  1. Evidence for the extremely small effects of shared family environment includes the low correlations
    A. across biological siblings for personality traits.
    B. between adopted children’s personality traits in the same family.
    C. between adopted and biological children in the same family for personality traits.
    D. between adopted children and their parents personality traits.

  1. One problem with attempting to study the effects of nonshared family environment is that
    A. there are myriad environmental variables that affect personality, but each may have only a small effect.
    B. the nonshared environmental effects on each child in the family are too subtle to analyze with current methods.
    C. the effects of shared family environments interfere with clearly observing the effects of the nonshared family environments.
    D. the equal environments assumption is violated by variables attributable to nonshared family environment.

  1. All of these are significant shared family environment variables EXCEPT
    A. smoking and drinking.
    B. gender nonconformity.
    C. verbal intelligence.
    D. health behavior.

  1. The idea that individuals with different genotypes respond differently to the same environmental cues is called
    A. passive genotype-environment interaction.
    B. genotype-environment interaction.
    C. active genotype-environment correlation.
    D. genotype-environment correlation.

  1. David, an extravert, and Tom, is an introvert, are studying in a small room with the television’s volume is quite loud. Based on what you know about genotype-environment interactions, what can you say about how effectively the two are studying?
    A. Tom will most likely study better then David due the background noise of the television.
    B. David will find the television much more distracting than Tom will.
    C. Tom will find the television much more distracting than David will.
    D. Both David and Tom will start watching television and scheme to move the test back one week.

  1. Genotype-environment _____ describes what occurs when people with different genotypes are exposed to different environments.
    A. interaction
    B. correlation
    C. variance
    D. concordance

  1. Juanita is a fantastic basketball player. She has great innate ability. She is tall, agile, and has a great head for the game. Her parents take every opportunity to send her to basketball camps and clinics, and make sure she gets extra coaching. Juanita’s basketball skills are due to a genotype-environment
    A. interaction.
    B. correlation.
    C. variance.
    D. concordance.

  1. A child shows early musical ability, which causes her parents to buy a piano for her. This scenario demonstrates the idea of genotype-environment
    A. interaction.
    B. correlation.
    C. variance.
    D. concordance.

  1. Which of the following is NOT a type of genotype-environment correlation?
    A. Interclass
    B. Active
    C. Passive
    D. Reactive

  1. Winston, the son of a professional musician, grew up surrounded by many musical instruments in his home. This is an example of a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A. interclass
    B. active
    C. passive
    D. reactive

  1. Barbara is a renowned naturalist. Her parents were both park rangers and she grew up in various national parks. Barbara’s predilection to become a naturalist was most likely due to a ______ genotype-environment correlation.
    A. active
    B. positive
    C. negative
    D. passive

  1. When individuals respond to someone else based on that person’s genotype, there is a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A. reactive
    B. interpersonal
    C. active
    D. evocative

  1. Alex scores high on the neuroticism scale. He acts extremely anxious much of the time, which causes other people to constantly try to calm him. The responses Alex elicits from others are an example of a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A. active
    B. reactive
    C. elicative
    D. evocative

  1. When a mother increases the number of times she holds a child because the child loves it so much, we observe a(n) _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A. direct
    B. active
    C. passive
    D. reactive

  1. Sharon scores high on the sensation seeking scale. There is nothing she likes better then to seek out thrills like skydiving or bungee jumping. Sharon seeks out these high-risk behaviors due to a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A. reactive
    B. aggressive
    C. active
    D. evocative

  1. An extravert who seeks out stimulating environments in which to work demonstrates a(n) _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A. direct
    B. active
    C. passive
    D. reactive

  1. Jerry is extremely extraverted and will monopolize conversations. His girlfriend, Elaine, does a good job of forcing Jerry to let other people get a few words into the conversation. Jerry’s incessant talkativeness and Elaine’s ability to do something about it is an example of a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A. passive
    B. restrained
    C. negative
    D. positive

  1. Brian always tries to decide the team’s strategy. Over time, the rest of the team works to let everybody have a voice in the team strategy. This is an example of a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A. positive
    B. negative
    C. reactive
    D. active

  1. _____ aims to identify specific genes associated with personality traits.
    A. Adoption studies
    B. Molecular genetics
    C. Twin studies
    D. Behavior Genetics

  1. The gene D4DR has been associated with
    A. neuroticism.
    B. novelty seeking.
    C. sexual orientation.
    D. traditionalism.

  1. Individuals with so-called “long repeat” versions of the D4DR gene tend to be relatively unresponsive to the effects of
    A. dopamine.
    B. epinephrine.
    C. serotonin.
    D. acetylcholine.

  1. Most studies linking a specific gene to personality
    A. fail to find a relationship.
    B. find that the gene accounts for a small percentage of variance.
    C. find that the gene accounts for a moderate percentage of variance.
    D. find that the gene accounts for a large percentage of variance.

  1. The search is for the discovery of specific genes that are responsible for personality traits is called _____ genetics.
    A. molecular
    B. behavior
    C. molar
    D. univariate

  1. It is unlikely that a single gene will ever be found that explains more than a _____ percentage of variation in personality.
    A. small
    B. marginal
    C. moderate
    D. large

  1. Based on the molecular genetic research done to date, we can speculate that
    A. personality is probably not related to genes.
    B. most traits are caused by a single gene plus the environment.
    C. the genetic component of a personality trait is likely the result of many genes.
    D. genes are more important than the environment in shaping personality.

  1. The idea that personality is determined primarily by socialization and parenting is called
    A. eugenics.
    B. the nature-nurture debate.
    C. the equal environments assumption.
    D. environmentalism.

  1. The idea that genes contribute to personality is
    A. unsupported by research.
    B. more accepted today than it was 10 years ago.
    C. less accepted today than is was 10 years ago.
    D. a branch of environmentalism.

c6 Key

  1. The “Jim twins”
    A.prove that personality traits are heritable.
    B. prove the effects of nonshared family environments.
    C. are very similar despite having been separated at birth.
    D. are identical in all ways.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #1

  1. The term _____ refers to the complete set of genes an organism possesses.
    A.“genome”
    B. “eugenics”
    C. “phenotypic”
    D. “genotypic”

Larsen – Chapter 06 #2

  1. All human genes are located somewhere on one of _____ pairs of chromosomes.
    A.12
    B. 17
    C. 23
    D. 32

Larsen – Chapter 06 #3

  1. The human genome contains about _____ separate genes.
    A.10,000-15,000
    B. 20,000-40,000
    C. 30,000-40,000
    D. 1,000,000-2,000,000

Larsen – Chapter 06 #4

  1. The goal of the Human Genome Project is to
    A.identify which genes are related to personality.
    B. identify the particular sequence of DNA molecules in humans.
    C. identify genotypic variance.
    D. solve the nature-nurture debate once and for all.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #5

  1. The Human Genome Project has
    A.been a large failure.
    B. identified the sequence of DNA molecules in humans.
    C. identified the functions of most human genes.
    D. discovered that people differ widely in their particular genes.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #6

  1. Which one of the following is NOT one of the fears about genetic research?
    A.Genetic research will lead to the development of “designer” babies.
    B. If criminal behavior is genetic then attempts at rehabilitation will be fruitless.
    C. Decoding genetic differences will reveal complexities in human nature.
    D. Genetic research will marginalize research in other areas of psychology.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #7

  1. The idea that people with “desirable” characteristics should be encouraged to have children while “less desirable” people should be discouraged from having children is called
    A.eugenics.
    B. molecular genetics.
    C. selective placement.
    D. heritability.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #8

  1. Most psychologists who study genetics
    A.support the idea of eugenics.
    B. believe creating “designer babies” is a worthwhile goal.
    C. believe that the environment does not contribute to personality.
    D. are interested in the causes of individual differences.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #9

  1. The fact that Americans are, on average, 2 inches taller than a hundred years ago demonstrates that
    A.the environment determines height.
    B. the environment can contribute to highly heritable traits.
    C. height is not heritable.
    D. height is only slightly heritable.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #10

  1. If a score for a characteristic is divided into its different causes researchers are typically assessing the _____ due each of the causes of that score.
    A.genotype-environment interaction
    B. genotype-environment correlation
    C. percentage of variance
    D. environmentalism

Larsen – Chapter 06 #11

  1. Behavioral geneticists are generally NOT interested in the
    A.percentage of variance due to environment.
    B. percentage of variance due to genes.
    C. percentage of genetic variance in an individual.
    D. ways in which genes and the environment interact to form personality.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #12

  1. The proportion of phenotypic variation in a group of individuals due to genetic variance is called
    A.“heritability.”
    B. the “phenotypic percentage of variance.”
    C. the “genome.”
    D. “eugenics.”

Larsen – Chapter 06 #13

  1. _____ refers to the proportion of variance in a group of individuals that can be accounted for by genetic variance.
    A.Heritability
    B. Phenotypic percentage of variance
    C. The genome
    D. Eugenics

Larsen – Chapter 06 #14

  1. _____ refers to observed differences among individuals.
    A.Heritability
    B. Phenotypic variance
    C. Genotypic variance
    D. Environmentality

Larsen – Chapter 06 #15

  1. _____ refers to individual differences in the collection of genes of each person.
    A.Heritability
    B. Phenotypic variance
    C. Genotypic variance
    D. Environmentality

Larsen – Chapter 06 #16

  1. If the heritability of sociability is .30, the environment is responsible for
    A.70 percent of phenotypic variation.
    B. 70 percent of genotypic variation.
    C. 30 percent of phenotypic variation.
    D. 30 percent of genotypic variation.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #17

  1. The percentage of variance in a group of individuals that can be attributed to nongenetic differences is called
    A.heritability.
    B. phenotypic variance.
    C. genotypic variance.
    D. environmentality.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #18

  1. If the heritability of a trait is very large, then the _____ of the trait is small.
    A.phenotypic variance
    B. genotypic variance
    C. environmentality
    D. genomic variance

Larsen – Chapter 06 #19

  1. Which of the following statements about heritability is NOT true?
    A.Heritability can be applied to an individual.
    B. Heritability can change over time.
    C. The heritability of the same trait can be different in different groups.
    D. The phenotype is the expression of a characteristic’s genotype.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #20

  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason why heritability can vary?
    A.It is an imprecise estimate.
    B. Environments change.
    C. Unreliability in measurement.
    D. Heritability coefficients are fixed in a population.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #21

  1. The argument over whether the environment or genes determines personality is known as
    A.the eugenics debate.
    B. the nature-nurture debate.
    C. heritability.
    D. the equal environments assumption.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #22

  1. If we were attempting to determine how much of George’s personality was due to genetics and how much were due to the environment we would
    A.measure George’s genome.
    B. compare George to his siblings.
    C. be asking an impossible question.
    D. map his chromosomes.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #23

  1. At the level of the individual
    A.there is no nature-nurture debate.
    B. genes are useful in studying personality.
    C. the idiographic genetic approach should be used.
    D. genes determine most of personality.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #24

  1. The technical term for dividing a trait’s score genetic and environmental variance at the population level is called
    A.apportioning.
    B. subdivision.
    C. partitioning.
    D. extrapolating.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #25

  1. Which of the following methods in NOT used with humans?
    A.Selective breeding
    B. Twin studies
    C. Adoption studies
    D. Family studies

Larsen – Chapter 06 #26

  1. The use of selective breeding in animals can be used to study
    A.sexual selection pressures for behaviors.
    B. the heritability of behaviors.
    C. natural selection pressures for behaviors.
    D. the dominance hierarchies of animals.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #27

  1. _____ is shown when successive generations show more and more of a trait.
    A.Shared environment
    B. Selective breeding
    C. Genotype-environment correlation
    D. The equal environments assumption

Larsen – Chapter 06 #28

  1. Selective breeding in dogs demonstrates that
    A.behavioral traits can be heritable.
    B. human personality is heritable.
    C. the equal environments assumption is not violated.
    D. the representativeness assumption is not violated.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #29

  1. For selective breeding to be successful, the desired trait must
    A.be entirely under genetic control.
    B. occur in all offspring.
    C. be heritable.
    D. not effected by the environment.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #30

  1. A parent shares, on average, _____ percent of his or her genes with each child.
    A.25
    B. 50
    C. 75
    D. 100

Larsen – Chapter 06 #31

  1. Aunts and uncles share, on average, _____ percent of their genes with nieces and nephews.
    A.0
    B. 12.5
    C. 25
    D. 50

Larsen – Chapter 06 #32

  1. If a trait is highly heritable,
    A.all family members will possess the trait.
    B. all children in the family will possess the trait.
    C. the more closely family members are genetically related; the more similar they will be on the trait.
    D. all members of the population will possess the trait.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #33

  1. Which of the following is NOT a problem with the family-study method?
    A.Family members sharing environments.
    B. The degree of genetic similarity is often correlated with environmental similarity.
    C. Siblings may share traits because they grew up in the same household.
    D. The fact that parents contribute 50 percent of their genes to each child.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #34

  1. Which of the following methods provides the LEAST conclusive evidence that a trait is heritable?
    A.Family studies
    B. Twin studies
    C. Adoption studies
    D. Selective breeding

Larsen – Chapter 06 #35

  1. Which of the following could potentially develop from a single fertilized egg?
    A.All siblings
    B. Fraternal twins
    C. Identical twins
    D. Zygotic twins

Larsen – Chapter 06 #36

  1. _____ are also known as “monozygotic twins.”
    A.Fraternal twins
    B. Genotypic twins
    C. Identical twins
    D. Phenotypic twins

Larsen – Chapter 06 #37

  1. Which of the following share 100 percent of their genes?
    A.Parents and children
    B. All siblings
    C. Dizygotic twins
    D. Monozygotic twins

Larsen – Chapter 06 #38

  1. Dizygotic twins share _____ genes compared to ordinary siblings, and _____ genes compared to monozygotic twins.
    A.the same amount; less
    B. more; less
    C. more; more
    D. less; more

Larsen – Chapter 06 #39

  1. A trait is likely to be heritable if _____ are more similar in that trait than _____.
    A.dizygotic twins; monozygotic twins
    B. monozygotic twins; dizygotic twins
    C. ordinary siblings; dizygotic twins
    D. dizygotic twins; ordinary siblings

Larsen – Chapter 06 #40

  1. Which of the following estimates heritability most accurately?
    A.The difference between the correlations of MZ twins and DZ twins.
    B. Twice the difference between the correlations of MZ twins and DZ twins.
    C. One-half the difference between the correlations of MZ twins and DZ twins.
    D. Multiplying the correlations between MZ twins and DZ twins.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #41

  1. One of the most common formulas for assessing heritability is
    A.heritability = (rdz – rmz).
    B. heritability2 = (rmz – rdz).
    C. heritability2 = 2(rmz – rdz).
    D. heritability = 2(rmz – rdz).

Larsen – Chapter 06 #42

  1. The equal environments assumption states that
    A.all people in a population share similar environments.
    B. dizygotic twins are not treated differently from monozygotic twins.
    C. twins are not treated differently from ordinary siblings.
    D. parents treat all their children the same.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #43

  1. Which of the following could be a violation of the equal environments assumption?
    A.Dressing identical twins in the identical clothes.
    B. Dressing fraternal twins in the identical clothes.
    C. Twins are treated differently than other children.
    D. Fraternal twins are similar to ordinary siblings.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #44

  1. Mary Jo and Bobbi Jo are identical twins. Their parents dress them alike, put them in the same classes and treat them identically. If Betty Jo and Mary Jo were selected to participate in a twin study, they may contaminate the results by leading to a violation of the _____ assumption.
    A.Nonshared family variance
    B. Shared family environment
    C. Equal environments
    D. Confluence effects

Larsen – Chapter 06 #45

  1. Researchers have studied cases where parents were wrong about whether their twins were identical or fraternal to address
    A.shared environments.
    B. selective breeding.
    C. genotype-environment correlation.
    D. the equal environments assumption.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #46

  1. If adopted children differ in important ways from most other people, it would violate the _____ assumption.
    A.representativeness
    B. equal environments
    C. eugenics
    D. shared family environment

Larsen – Chapter 06 #47

  1. If the correlation between adoptive parents’ traits and adopted children’s traits is high we can assume
    A.a genetic influence.
    B. an environmental influence.
    C. an influence of shared environment.
    D. adoptive parents pick children similar to themselves.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #48

  1. An advantage of adoption studies is that they
    A.depend on the equal environments assumption.
    B. depend on the representativeness assumption.
    C. do not depend on the equal environments assumption.
    D. do not depend on the representativeness assumption.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #49

  1. A trait is heritable if
    A.adoptive parents and the children they have adopted have similar levels of a characteristic.
    B. the biological parents of children they placed for adoption have similar levels of a characteristic.
    C. adoptive parents and biological parents of a child have similar levels of a characteristic.
    D. the children that have been adopted have levels of a characteristic that are similar to those of the other siblings in the home.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #50

  1. Selective placement is a potential problem with behavior genetics studies as it artificially inflates the
    A.estimates of genetic influences.
    B. estimates of nonshared family environment.
    C. estimates of environmental influences.
    D. effects of the equal environments assumption.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #51

  1. Jerold was adopted by his mother’s sister (his maternal aunt) and his uncle. If he were to participate in a behavior genetics study his scores would
    A.skew the results to favor the percentage of the variance for his scores to genetic influences.
    B. skew the results to favor the percentage of the variance for his scores to environmental influences.
    C. the results of his test scores would be skewed to show the greater effects of maternal influences.
    D. the results of his test scores would not bias the effects for either the genes or the environment.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #52

  1. Combining adoption studies and twin studies
    A.methodologically is not appropriate in behavior genetics studies.
    B. provides an especially powerful method for studying behavior genetics.
    C. requires selective breeding over many generations of lab animals.
    D. provides an error-free estimate of heritability for behavior genetics studies.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #53

  1. The personality traits of extraversion and neuroticism have been found to be
    A.highly heritable.
    B. moderately heritable.
    C. slightly heritable.
    D. not at all heritable.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #54

  1. Most major personality traits
    A.have been found to be moderately heritable.
    B. have been found to be not at all heritable.
    C. have not been studied with respect to heritability.
    D. are more heritable than height.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #55

  1. ______ traits show moderate to high heritability.
    A.Psychopathic
    B. Religious
    C. Idiographic
    D. Political

Larsen – Chapter 06 #56

  1. Chimpanzees show moderate heritability for dominance and
    A.extraversion.
    B. well-being.
    C. aggressiveness.
    D. sociability.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #57

  1. Which of the following attitudes has been found to be somewhat heritable?
    A.Traditionalism
    B. Belief in God
    C. Involvement in religious activities
    D. Attitudes about racial integration

Larsen – Chapter 06 #58

  1. Which of the following is probably most heritable?
    A.Drinking behavior in men.
    B. Drinking behavior in women.
    C. Alcoholism in men and women.
    D. Alcoholism is not heritable.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #59

  1. Recent findings from behavioral genetics and brain research point to the possibility that sexual orientation may
    A.be heritable only in men.
    B. be heritable only in women.
    C. be heritable in both women and men.
    D. not be at all heritable.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #60

  1. According to recent research (e.g., the Bailey et al. study discussed in the text as support for Bem’s 1995 theory), it appears that
    A.sexual orientation is extremely heritable.
    B. childhood gender nonconformity may be the inherited component of adult sexual orientation.
    C. gender nonconformity is not heritable.
    D. homosexuals’ brains are the same as heterosexuals’ brains.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #61

  1. Research on brain differences between homosexual and heterosexual men has found some evidence that homosexual men have
    A.brains substantially more like women’s brains than heterosexual males’ brains.
    B. substantially larger ascending reticular activating systems than heterosexual men.
    C. substantially smaller medial preoptic regions of the hypothalamus than heterosexual men.
    D. substantially smaller occipital lobes of the brain than heterosexual men.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #62

  1. Which of the following is an example of a shared environmental influence?
    A.A child’s friends
    B. The grades a child gets
    C. Special treatment from a parent
    D. Parents’ values and attitudes

Larsen – Chapter 06 #63

  1. _____ refers to the unique things that happen to one sibling and not another.
    A.Phenotypic variance
    B. Genotypic variance
    C. Shared environment
    D. Nonshared environment

Larsen – Chapter 06 #64

  1. Nonshared family environment is best expressed as those aspects of the family environment that
    A.are uniquely experienced by the family.
    B. are uniquely experienced by an individual family member.
    C. are hoarded by the family members.
    D. represent differential genetic dimorphism

Larsen – Chapter 06 #65

  1. Shared family environment is BEST expressed by which of the following?
    A.The friends a child selects while growing up.
    B. A shared family vacation.
    C. A parent’s rapid rise up the corporate ladder.
    D. Differential effects of grandparenting on children.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #66

  1. The number of books in a child’s home is an example of
    A.phenotypic variance.
    B. genotypic variance.
    C. shared environment.
    D. nonshared environment.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #67

  1. A yearly family trip to Uncle Earl and Aunt Eunice’s farm would be considered part of the _____ environment.
    A.shared common family
    B. nonshared family
    C. family experiential
    D. phenotypic family

Larsen – Chapter 06 #68

  1. Research indicates that shared environmental factors correlate about _____ with personality.
    A..05
    B. .25
    C. .50
    D. .65

Larsen – Chapter 06 #69

  1. Evidence for the extremely small effects of shared family environment includes the low correlations
    A.across biological siblings for personality traits.
    B. between adopted children’s personality traits in the same family.
    C. between adopted and biological children in the same family for personality traits.
    D. between adopted children and their parents personality traits.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #70

  1. One problem with attempting to study the effects of nonshared family environment is that
    A.there are myriad environmental variables that affect personality, but each may have only a small effect.
    B. the nonshared environmental effects on each child in the family are too subtle to analyze with current methods.
    C. the effects of shared family environments interfere with clearly observing the effects of the nonshared family environments.
    D. the equal environments assumption is violated by variables attributable to nonshared family environment.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #71

  1. All of these are significant shared family environment variables EXCEPT
    A.smoking and drinking.
    B. gender nonconformity.
    C. verbal intelligence.
    D. health behavior.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #72

  1. The idea that individuals with different genotypes respond differently to the same environmental cues is called
    A.passive genotype-environment interaction.
    B. genotype-environment interaction.
    C. active genotype-environment correlation.
    D. genotype-environment correlation.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #73

  1. David, an extravert, and Tom, is an introvert, are studying in a small room with the television’s volume is quite loud. Based on what you know about genotype-environment interactions, what can you say about how effectively the two are studying?
    A.Tom will most likely study better then David due the background noise of the television.
    B. David will find the television much more distracting than Tom will.
    C. Tom will find the television much more distracting than David will.
    D. Both David and Tom will start watching television and scheme to move the test back one week.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #74

  1. Genotype-environment _____ describes what occurs when people with different genotypes are exposed to different environments.
    A.interaction
    B. correlation
    C. variance
    D. concordance

Larsen – Chapter 06 #75

  1. Juanita is a fantastic basketball player. She has great innate ability. She is tall, agile, and has a great head for the game. Her parents take every opportunity to send her to basketball camps and clinics, and make sure she gets extra coaching. Juanita’s basketball skills are due to a genotype-environment
    A.interaction.
    B. correlation.
    C. variance.
    D. concordance.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #76

  1. A child shows early musical ability, which causes her parents to buy a piano for her. This scenario demonstrates the idea of genotype-environment
    A.interaction.
    B. correlation.
    C. variance.
    D. concordance.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #77

  1. Which of the following is NOT a type of genotype-environment correlation?
    A.Interclass
    B. Active
    C. Passive
    D. Reactive

Larsen – Chapter 06 #78

  1. Winston, the son of a professional musician, grew up surrounded by many musical instruments in his home. This is an example of a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A.interclass
    B. active
    C. passive
    D. reactive

Larsen – Chapter 06 #79

  1. Barbara is a renowned naturalist. Her parents were both park rangers and she grew up in various national parks. Barbara’s predilection to become a naturalist was most likely due to a ______ genotype-environment correlation.
    A.active
    B. positive
    C. negative
    D. passive

Larsen – Chapter 06 #80

  1. When individuals respond to someone else based on that person’s genotype, there is a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A.reactive
    B. interpersonal
    C. active
    D. evocative

Larsen – Chapter 06 #81

  1. Alex scores high on the neuroticism scale. He acts extremely anxious much of the time, which causes other people to constantly try to calm him. The responses Alex elicits from others are an example of a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A.active
    B. reactive
    C. elicative
    D. evocative

Larsen – Chapter 06 #82

  1. When a mother increases the number of times she holds a child because the child loves it so much, we observe a(n) _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A.direct
    B. active
    C. passive
    D. reactive

Larsen – Chapter 06 #83

  1. Sharon scores high on the sensation seeking scale. There is nothing she likes better then to seek out thrills like skydiving or bungee jumping. Sharon seeks out these high-risk behaviors due to a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A.reactive
    B. aggressive
    C. active
    D. evocative

Larsen – Chapter 06 #84

  1. An extravert who seeks out stimulating environments in which to work demonstrates a(n) _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A.direct
    B. active
    C. passive
    D. reactive

Larsen – Chapter 06 #85

  1. Jerry is extremely extraverted and will monopolize conversations. His girlfriend, Elaine, does a good job of forcing Jerry to let other people get a few words into the conversation. Jerry’s incessant talkativeness and Elaine’s ability to do something about it is an example of a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A.passive
    B. restrained
    C. negative
    D. positive

Larsen – Chapter 06 #86

  1. Brian always tries to decide the team’s strategy. Over time, the rest of the team works to let everybody have a voice in the team strategy. This is an example of a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
    A.positive
    B. negative
    C. reactive
    D. active

Larsen – Chapter 06 #87

  1. _____ aims to identify specific genes associated with personality traits.
    A.Adoption studies
    B. Molecular genetics
    C. Twin studies
    D. Behavior Genetics

Larsen – Chapter 06 #88

  1. The gene D4DR has been associated with
    A.neuroticism.
    B. novelty seeking.
    C. sexual orientation.
    D. traditionalism.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #89

  1. Individuals with so-called “long repeat” versions of the D4DR gene tend to be relatively unresponsive to the effects of
    A.dopamine.
    B. epinephrine.
    C. serotonin.
    D. acetylcholine.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #90

  1. Most studies linking a specific gene to personality
    A.fail to find a relationship.
    B. find that the gene accounts for a small percentage of variance.
    C. find that the gene accounts for a moderate percentage of variance.
    D. find that the gene accounts for a large percentage of variance.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #91

  1. The search is for the discovery of specific genes that are responsible for personality traits is called _____ genetics.
    A.molecular
    B. behavior
    C. molar
    D. univariate

Larsen – Chapter 06 #92

  1. It is unlikely that a single gene will ever be found that explains more than a _____ percentage of variation in personality.
    A.small
    B. marginal
    C. moderate
    D. large

Larsen – Chapter 06 #93

  1. Based on the molecular genetic research done to date, we can speculate that
    A.personality is probably not related to genes.
    B. most traits are caused by a single gene plus the environment.
    C. the genetic component of a personality trait is likely the result of many genes.
    D. genes are more important than the environment in shaping personality.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #94

  1. The idea that personality is determined primarily by socialization and parenting is called
    A.eugenics.
    B. the nature-nurture debate.
    C. the equal environments assumption.
    D. environmentalism.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #95

  1. The idea that genes contribute to personality is
    A.unsupported by research.
    B. more accepted today than it was 10 years ago.
    C. less accepted today than is was 10 years ago.
    D. a branch of environmentalism.

Larsen – Chapter 06 #96

c6 Summary

Category# of Questions
Larsen – Chapter 0696

c7

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

  1. After Elliot’s brain tumor was removed his _____ changed.
    A. personality
    B. intelligence
    C. memories
    D. language skills

  1. A small bit of Elliot’s brain that transmitted _____ information to the higher reasoning centers of the brain was destroyed when his tumor was removed.
    A. spatial
    B. emotional
    C. reasoning
    D. memory

  1. The idea that personality characteristics could be related to biology dates back to
    A. the 1950s.
    B. 1892.
    C. the 1400s.
    D. 170 A.D.

  1. One of the first people to suggest that biological differences could be responsible for personality differences was
    A. Eysenck.
    B. Pavlov.
    C. Galen.
    D. Sheldon.

  1. The _____ theory of personality suggests that differences in sociability are caused by differences in the amount of blood an individual has present in his or her body compared to other substances.
    A. arousal
    B. bodily fluid
    C. reinforcement sensitivity
    D. circadian rhythm

  1. According to Galen’s theory of bodily fluids, if a person is passive, calm, and thoughtful they had a greater abundance of _____ than other fluids in their bodies.
    A. phlegm
    B. black bile
    C. blood
    D. yellow bile

  1. If a person is unstable, aggressive, and excitable they would have an abundance of _____, according to Galen’s theory of bodily fluids.
    A. black bile
    B. phlegm
    C. yellow bile
    D. blood

  1. Galen believed that a person who was happy, outgoing, and lively could be described as being
    A. phlegmatic.
    B. melancholic.
    C. choleric.
    D. sanguine.

  1. Individuals with an abundance of black bile were described by Galen as being
    A. sanguine.
    B. choleric.
    C. melancholic.
    D. phlegmatic.

  1. Which of the following was NOT a part of the bodily-fluid theory of personality?
    A. Phlegm
    B. Black bile
    C. Blood
    D. Green bile

  1. Phineas Gage’s personality became _____ after his brain was penetrated by an iron rod in an accident.
    A. agreeable and conscientious
    B. obstinate and capricious
    C. extraverted and neurotic
    D. extraordinarily conventional

  1. Following his accident, Phineas Gage
    A. returned to his job and led a fairly normal life.
    B. became a circus side show curiosity.
    C. held a variety of farm jobs.
    D. died of complications due to his injury.

  1. An advantage of the physiological approach to personality is that physiology
    A. is easy to measure.
    B. can be measured mechanically and reliably.
    C. is the most important part of personality.
    D. is the same for all people.

  1. Most physiological psychologists would agree that
    A. physiology is destiny.
    B. physiology does not change over time.
    C. physiology is one cause of personality.
    D. physiology determines behavior

  1. Most physiological personality psychologists today focus on
    A. body types.
    B. physiological systems.
    C. the four humors.
    D. telemetry.

  1. Sensors placed on the surface of the skin can be used to measure
    A. brain waves, cardiovascular measures, and electrodermal activity.
    B. neurotransmitters.
    C. dopamine.
    D. telemetry.

  1. Electrodermal activity measures
    A. alpha waves.
    B. how much sweat is present on the skin.
    C. cardiovascular activity.
    D. actual biological substrates of personality.

  1. Measuring the amount of electricity that passes between two electrodes placed on a person’s skin measures
    A. cardiovascular reactivity.
    B. electrocardiogram activity.
    C. electrodermal activity.
    D. electroencephalogram activity.

  1. Some individuals have spontaneous electrodermal responses even when in a resting state in a quiet room. The personality traits most consistently associated with these nonspecific electrodermal responses are
    A. extroversion and openness to experience.
    B. anxiety and neuroticism.
    C. sensation seeking and aggression.
    D. impulsivity and psychoticism.

  1. Which of the following best indicates cardiovascular activity?
    A. Skin conductance
    B. Alpha waves
    C. Electrodermal activity
    D. Blood pressure

  1. To obtain an accurate measure of cardiovascular activity researchers typically
    A. measure the number of heartbeats per minute.
    B. measure skin conductance between heartbeats.
    C. measure the intervals between heartbeats.
    D. measure the average systolic blood pressure.

  1. The increase in blood pressure observed in response to stress is an indication of
    A. cardiovascular reactivity.
    B. alpha waves.
    C. skin conductance.
    D. hormonal activity

  1. People with Type A personality show
    A. lower levels of cardiovascular reactivity.
    B. higher levels of cardiovascular reactivity.
    C. higher levels of electrodermal activity.
    D. lower levels of electrodermal activity.

  1. Carlos is very competitive, hostile, impatient, and has a strong level of cardiac reactivity. Carlos most likely has a _____ personality.
    A. mesomorphic
    B. Type A
    C. impulsive
    D. reactive

  1. Terry, a Type A personality, suffers from chronic cardiovascular activity. He should be careful as these behaviors may contribute to
    A. cancer proneness.
    B. coronary artery disease.
    C. chronic diabetes.
    D. Crohn’s disease.

  1. Electrical activity in the brain is measured with
    A. cardiovascular reactivity.
    B. the electrocardiogram.
    C. skin conductance.
    D. the electroencephalogram or EEG.

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used by psychologists to study
    A. the portions of the brain that are active while performing a task.
    B. vascular system in humans during stress.
    C. how much magnetic activity can be measured on a person’s skin.
    D. assess how quickly blood flows through the bloodstream.

  1. Monica is shown some pictures with very negative content. Activity in the frontal brain would indicate that she may have the personality trait of
    A. extroversion.
    B. neuroticism.
    C. quarrelsomeness.
    D. sensation seeking.

  1. According to Eysenck, _____ is related to low physiological arousal.
    A. extraversion
    B. introversion
    C. the Behavioral Activation System
    D. the Behavioral Inhibition System

  1. A person who is sociable, outgoing, venturesome, and easily bored
    A. has a Type A personality.
    B. is an introvert.
    C. is an extravert.
    D. would score high on harm avoidance.

  1. Which of the following physiological mechanisms is thought to control overall cortical arousal?
    A. Parasympathetic nervous system
    B. Ascending reticular activating system or ARAS
    C. Behavioral activation system or BAS
    D. Behavioral inhibition system or BIS

  1. According to Hebb’s theory, there is a(n) _____ state of arousal for every task that will lead to the highest level of performance for each individual.
    A. marginal
    B. optimal
    C. maximal
    D. progressive

  1. Which of the following is NOT part of Hebb’s theory about “optimal levels of arousal”?
    A. A person can be too aroused to perform well.
    B. A person has the same optimal level of arousal for all stimuli.
    C. A person can perform poorly because they are not sufficiently aroused.
    D. Different activities have different optimal levels of arousal.

  1. According to Eysenck, introverts avoid social situations because
    A. they do not like people.
    B. they also score high on measures of anxiety.
    C. they have too much monoamine oxidase.
    D. they are likely to become over aroused in social situations.

  1. According to Eysenck, extraverts seek out social situations and stimulation as they
    A. need the arousal of social situations.
    B. have high levels of anxiety when alone.
    C. have overactive ascending reticular activating systems.
    D. have greater impulse control when in social situations.

  1. Eysenck’s revised theory of extraversion suggests that introverts and extraverts differ in
    A. baseline level of arousal.
    B. their arousal response.
    C. maximal level of arousal.
    D. behavioral activating systems.

  1. The following were all findings of Russell Geen’s study of introverts and extraverts EXCEPT
    A. introverts preferred lower levels of arousal than extraverts.
    B. extraverts and introverts had different levels of baseline arousal.
    C. introverts performed better under conditions of low arousal.
    D. extraverts performed better when they chose their own level of arousal.

  1. Which name is most associated with the reinforcement sensitivity theory?
    A. Pavlov
    B. Eysenck
    C. Gray
    D. Zuckerman

  1. According to Gray, _____ is responsive to cues for incentives, rewards, and approach behavior.
    A. the behavioral activation system
    B. the behavioral inhibition system
    C. dopamine
    D. frontal brain asymmetry

  1. According to Gray, _____ is responsive to cues for punishment, frustration, and uncertainty resulting in a personality dimension assessing anxiety.
    A. the behavioral activation system
    B. the behavioral inhibition system
    C. dopamine
    D. frontal brain asymmetry

  1. Gray thought that _____ was responsible for avoidance behavior.
    A. reward dependence
    B. the behavioral inhibition system
    C. monoamine oxidase
    D. a strong nervous system

  1. In Gray’s model of personality, individuals with a reactive behavioral inhibition system are very sensitive to
    A. positive emotions.
    B. punishment or frustration.
    C. incentives and rewards.
    D. changes in MAO levels.

  1. Individuals with a reactive behavioral activating system may be very
    A. extraverted.
    B. impulsive.
    C. conscientious.
    D. psychopathic.

  1. According to Gray, a person who scores high on extraversion and somewhat high on the neuroticism dimensions in Eysenck’s model will also score high on
    A. anxiety.
    B. Type A personality.
    C. cardiovascular reactivity.
    D. impulsivity.

  1. According to Gray, a person who scores high on introversion and somewhat high on the neuroticism dimensions in Eysenck’s model will also score high on
    A. anxiety.
    B. Type A personality.
    C. cardiovascular reactivity.
    D. impulsivity.

  1. Most of Gray’s research has
    A. been done on the brains of animals.
    B. used questionnaires.
    C. used measures of electrodermal activity.
    D. been done on college sophomores.

  1. In Gray’s theory of personality, anxiety and impulsivity are related to
    A. emotional stability and openness to experience.
    B. psychoticism and extraversion.
    C. sensation seeking and liberalism.
    D. reinforcement and punishment.

  1. Individuals with high scores on the behavioral activating scale perform better when they are working
    A. to obtain a reward.
    B. to avoid a punishment.
    C. working alone on a task.
    D. working in a group on a task.

  1. According to Gray’s theory, people in jails probably
    A. score high on measures of anxiety.
    B. lack sufficient levels of dopamine.
    C. have strong behavioral activation systems.
    D. have strong behavioral inhibition systems.

  1. Sheri wants to get her husband, Carlos, to finish waxing the car before they go out for the evening. Being a student of Jeffery Gray’s theory of personality Sheri knows that the best way get her impulsive husband to complete the task is to
    A. go about her business because she knows Carlos will finish waxing the car on his own.
    B. promise to reward him with his favorite dinner if he finishes waxing the car.
    C. threaten to not make dinner if he does not complete the wax job.
    D. yell at Carlos every time he starts to slack off from working on the wax job.

  1. _____ tend to take more risks and engage in more exciting activities.
    A. People who score high on introversion
    B. People who score high on sensation seeking
    C. People who score high on Type A personality
    D. People with weak nervous systems

  1. Bored people may seek out mild stimulation to
    A. invigorate their nervous systems.
    B. reach an optimal level of arousal.
    C. avoid a much higher level of stimulation.
    D. to reduce tension in their systems.

  1. Hebb’s theory of an optimal level of arousal was controversial as it hypothesized that individuals
    A. seek out tension and stimulation as well as try to reduce tension in the body.
    B. seek out higher levels of tension without a means for reducing that tension in the body.
    C. cannot maintain an optimal low arousal for significant period of time.
    D. are punished when the individual is not in a state of optimal arousal.

  1. Zuckerman found that people _____ found sensory deprivation particularly unpleasant.
    A. who score on introversion scales
    B. with more activation in the left hemisphere
    C. who were sensation seekers
    D. who scored high on harm avoidance

  1. There is a _____ correlation between scores for Zuckerman’s sensation seeking scale and Eysenck’s trait of extraversion.
    A. very low positive
    B. marginally negative
    C. moderately strong positive
    D. very strong negative

  1. Research has found that _____ tend to score lower on sensation seeking scales.
    A. people who enjoy skydiving
    B. people who have more sexual partners
    C. students who volunteer for unconventional psychology experiments
    D. endure sensory deprivation conditions for long periods of time

  1. The enzyme monoamine oxidase works by
    A. blocking too many neurotransmitters from entering the synaptic cleft.
    B. acting as a conductor to facilitate the transmission of neurotransmitters between neurons.
    C. manufacturing neurotransmitters inside of the neuron.
    D. breaking down neurotransmitters after a nerve impulse has passed.

  1. If there is too little monoamine oxide present
    A. too much transmission will take place between the nerves.
    B. not enough neurotransmitters will be produced in the nervous system.
    C. the neurons will fire at a slow rate, inhibiting behavior.
    D. the lack of oxides will damage the nervous system.

  1. Monoamine oxidase acts upon the nervous system by _____ neurotransmission.
    A. maximizing
    B. inhibiting
    C. optimizing
    D. moderating

  1. Monoamine oxidase
    A. breaks down neurotransmitters.
    B. facilitates nerve transmissions.
    C. is linked to cardiovascular reactivity.
    D. holds neurons together.

  1. According to Zuckerman, _____ have _____ levels of monoamine oxidase.
    A. sensation seekers; low
    B. introverts; low
    C. sensation seekers; high
    D. extraverts; low

  1. The neurotransmitter _____ is associated with feeling pleasure.
    A. norepinepherine
    B. serotonin
    C. dopamine
    D. monoanamine oxide

  1. Drugs such as Prozac and Zoloft act to block the reuptake of
    A. norepinepherine.
    B. serotonin.
    C. dopamine.
    D. monoamine oxidase.

  1. Which of the following neurotransmitters is involved in activating the sympathetic nervous system for fight-or-flight responses?
    A. Serotonin
    B. Dopamine
    C. Norepinephrine
    D. Monoamine oxide

  1. Who of the following associated specific neurotransmitters with personality traits?
    A. Eysenck
    B. Pavlov
    C. Gray
    D. Cloninger

  1. Which of the following is NOT a trait in Cloninger’s tridimensional personality model?
    A. Harm avoidance
    B. Sensation seeking
    C. Novelty seeking
    D. Reward dependence

  1. According to Cloninger, the trait of novelty seeking is related to low levels of
    A. norepinepherine.
    B. serotonin.
    C. dopamine.
    D. monoamine oxidase.

  1. Initially increased levels of serotonin may result in _____, but over time may lead to _____.
    A. high levels of anxiety; decreased vulnerability to overreacting to stress
    B. strong euphoric states; generally increased happiness
    C. high levels of depression; modal levels of euphoria
    D. low sensation seeking; high vulnerability to stress

  1. Individuals who score high on harm avoidance can be described as
    A. energetic, outgoing, and optimistic.
    B. cautious, inhibited, and apprehensive.
    C. shy, paranoid, and tense.
    D. happy, positive, and extroverted.

  1. People who score high on the trait of _____ are persistent and continue to work in situations in which others would likely give up.
    A. extraversion
    B. novelty seeking
    C. reward dependence
    D. sensation seeking

  1. Recent work in the area of genetics and personality has led researchers to conclude that
    A. there is a one-to-one correspondence between genes and personality traits.
    B. there are a large number of genes involved in the creation of any single personality trait.
    C. only genes associated with neurotransmitters are responsible for the creation of personality traits.
    D. genes appear to exist in bipolar hairs on the chromosomes and affect behavior in opposing ways.

  1. Cloninger’s model of personality has much in common with all of these models of personality EXCEPT
    A. Wiggins’ circumplex model of personality.
    B. Eysenck’s three-dimensional model of personality.
    C. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory.
    D. Zuckerman’s model of sensation seeking.

  1. Which of the following traits is most related to biological rhythms?
    A. Extraversion
    B. Sensation seeking
    C. Morningness-eveningness
    D. Impulsivity

  1. A person who is deprived of time cues in his or her environment to influence behaviors or biology is said to be ______ in time.
    A. showing frontal asymmetry
    B. free running
    C. off track
    D. symmetrical

  1. Which of the following has been shown to fluctuate with a circadian rhythm?
    A. Body temperature
    B. Extraversion
    C. Frontal asymmetry
    D. Serotonin

  1. A person with a circadian rhythm that is longer than 24 hours will score higher on _____ scales.
    A. eveningness
    B. sensation-seeking
    C. harm avoidance
    D. morningness

  1. The trait of morningness-eveningness
    A. often changes over time.
    B. remains stable over time.
    C. has been studied only in America.
    D. is correlated with anxiety.

  1. A study discussed in the text showed that roommates who scored similarly on the trait of _____ liked each other more than roommates who were mismatched on this trait.
    A. extraversion
    B. anxiety
    C. morningness-eveningness
    D. achievement motivation

  1. Drinking caffeinated coffee in the morning will provide a greater performance boost to this group than if they drink coffee in the evening.
    A. People with greater left-hemisphere activation
    B. People with a greater right-hemisphere activation
    C. People scoring high on morningness
    D. People scoring high on eveningness

  1. Mike flies non-stop from San Francisco to London. He finds he has little trouble with the time change. Most likely Mike is a(n)
    A. novelty-seeking type.
    B. evening type.
    C. extraverted type.
    D. diurnal type.

  1. Disruptions in sleep-wake cycles due to long airline flights that pass through many time zones are best tolerated by
    A. Morning types, if the flights are eastbound.
    B. Evening types, if the flights are westbound.
    C. Morning types, regardless of the direction of the flight.
    D. Evening types, regardless of the direction of the flight.

  1. The greater the alpha wave activity in the brain, the
    A. greater the level of harm avoidance is present at a given time.
    B. less amount of symmetrical brain activity is present at a given time.
    C. greater amount of norepinepherine is present at a given time.
    D. less brain activity is present at a given time.

  1. An electroencephalograph measures
    A. alpha waves.
    B. skin conductance.
    C. cardiovascular reactivity.
    D. morningness-eveningness.

  1. People who have higher levels of activation in the _____ hemisphere of the brain tend to have more _____.
    A. right; positive emotions
    B. right; sexual partners
    C. left; positive emotions
    D. left; sexual partners

  1. A study by Fox and Davidson showed that infants who reacted more strongly to bitter solutions placed in their mouths
    A. had more activation in the left hemispheres than in the right hemispheres of their brains.
    B. had more activation in the right hemispheres than in the left hemispheres of their brains.
    C. were more likely to be morning types than evening types.
    D. tended to score lower on activity scales than less sensitive infants did.

  1. Test-retest correlations of frontal asymmetry have been shown to be
    A. weak and positive.
    B. strong and positive.
    C. weak and negative.
    D. strong and negative.

  1. If a person responds to an amusing film with more positive emotions than average, that person is likely to
    A. be a morning type.
    B. be an evening type.
    C. have more activation in the right hemisphere.
    D. have more activation in the left hemisphere.

  1. Increased activation of the right hemisphere of the brain has been found to be related to increased levels of _____ in both monkeys and 6-month-old children.
    A. cortisol
    B. norepinepherine
    C. serotonin
    D. dopamine

  1. A person who has greater right than left hemispheric activation would likely score high on a measure of
    A. BAS or behavioral activation system.
    B. BIS or behavioral inhibition system.
    C. morningness.
    D. sensation seeking.

c7 Key

  1. After Elliot’s brain tumor was removed his _____ changed.
    A.personality
    B. intelligence
    C. memories
    D. language skills

Larsen – Chapter 07 #1

  1. A small bit of Elliot’s brain that transmitted _____ information to the higher reasoning centers of the brain was destroyed when his tumor was removed.
    A.spatial
    B. emotional
    C. reasoning
    D. memory

Larsen – Chapter 07 #2

  1. The idea that personality characteristics could be related to biology dates back to
    A.the 1950s.
    B. 1892.
    C. the 1400s.
    D. 170 A.D.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #3

  1. One of the first people to suggest that biological differences could be responsible for personality differences was
    A.Eysenck.
    B. Pavlov.
    C. Galen.
    D. Sheldon.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #4

  1. The _____ theory of personality suggests that differences in sociability are caused by differences in the amount of blood an individual has present in his or her body compared to other substances.
    A.arousal
    B. bodily fluid
    C. reinforcement sensitivity
    D. circadian rhythm

Larsen – Chapter 07 #5

  1. According to Galen’s theory of bodily fluids, if a person is passive, calm, and thoughtful they had a greater abundance of _____ than other fluids in their bodies.
    A.phlegm
    B. black bile
    C. blood
    D. yellow bile

Larsen – Chapter 07 #6

  1. If a person is unstable, aggressive, and excitable they would have an abundance of _____, according to Galen’s theory of bodily fluids.
    A.black bile
    B. phlegm
    C. yellow bile
    D. blood

Larsen – Chapter 07 #7

  1. Galen believed that a person who was happy, outgoing, and lively could be described as being
    A.phlegmatic.
    B. melancholic.
    C. choleric.
    D. sanguine.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #8

  1. Individuals with an abundance of black bile were described by Galen as being
    A.sanguine.
    B. choleric.
    C. melancholic.
    D. phlegmatic.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #9

  1. Which of the following was NOT a part of the bodily-fluid theory of personality?
    A.Phlegm
    B. Black bile
    C. Blood
    D. Green bile

Larsen – Chapter 07 #10

  1. Phineas Gage’s personality became _____ after his brain was penetrated by an iron rod in an accident.
    A.agreeable and conscientious
    B. obstinate and capricious
    C. extraverted and neurotic
    D. extraordinarily conventional

Larsen – Chapter 07 #11

  1. Following his accident, Phineas Gage
    A.returned to his job and led a fairly normal life.
    B. became a circus side show curiosity.
    C. held a variety of farm jobs.
    D. died of complications due to his injury.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #12

  1. An advantage of the physiological approach to personality is that physiology
    A.is easy to measure.
    B. can be measured mechanically and reliably.
    C. is the most important part of personality.
    D. is the same for all people.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #13

  1. Most physiological psychologists would agree that
    A.physiology is destiny.
    B. physiology does not change over time.
    C. physiology is one cause of personality.
    D. physiology determines behavior

Larsen – Chapter 07 #14

  1. Most physiological personality psychologists today focus on
    A.body types.
    B. physiological systems.
    C. the four humors.
    D. telemetry.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #15

  1. Sensors placed on the surface of the skin can be used to measure
    A.brain waves, cardiovascular measures, and electrodermal activity.
    B. neurotransmitters.
    C. dopamine.
    D. telemetry.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #16

  1. Electrodermal activity measures
    A.alpha waves.
    B. how much sweat is present on the skin.
    C. cardiovascular activity.
    D. actual biological substrates of personality.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #17

  1. Measuring the amount of electricity that passes between two electrodes placed on a person’s skin measures
    A.cardiovascular reactivity.
    B. electrocardiogram activity.
    C. electrodermal activity.
    D. electroencephalogram activity.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #18

  1. Some individuals have spontaneous electrodermal responses even when in a resting state in a quiet room. The personality traits most consistently associated with these nonspecific electrodermal responses are
    A.extroversion and openness to experience.
    B. anxiety and neuroticism.
    C. sensation seeking and aggression.
    D. impulsivity and psychoticism.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #19

  1. Which of the following best indicates cardiovascular activity?
    A.Skin conductance
    B. Alpha waves
    C. Electrodermal activity
    D. Blood pressure

Larsen – Chapter 07 #20

  1. To obtain an accurate measure of cardiovascular activity researchers typically
    A.measure the number of heartbeats per minute.
    B. measure skin conductance between heartbeats.
    C. measure the intervals between heartbeats.
    D. measure the average systolic blood pressure.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #21

  1. The increase in blood pressure observed in response to stress is an indication of
    A.cardiovascular reactivity.
    B. alpha waves.
    C. skin conductance.
    D. hormonal activity

Larsen – Chapter 07 #22

  1. People with Type A personality show
    A.lower levels of cardiovascular reactivity.
    B. higher levels of cardiovascular reactivity.
    C. higher levels of electrodermal activity.
    D. lower levels of electrodermal activity.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #23

  1. Carlos is very competitive, hostile, impatient, and has a strong level of cardiac reactivity. Carlos most likely has a _____ personality.
    A.mesomorphic
    B. Type A
    C. impulsive
    D. reactive

Larsen – Chapter 07 #24

  1. Terry, a Type A personality, suffers from chronic cardiovascular activity. He should be careful as these behaviors may contribute to
    A.cancer proneness.
    B. coronary artery disease.
    C. chronic diabetes.
    D. Crohn’s disease.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #25

  1. Electrical activity in the brain is measured with
    A.cardiovascular reactivity.
    B. the electrocardiogram.
    C. skin conductance.
    D. the electroencephalogram or EEG.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #26

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used by psychologists to study
    A.the portions of the brain that are active while performing a task.
    B. vascular system in humans during stress.
    C. how much magnetic activity can be measured on a person’s skin.
    D. assess how quickly blood flows through the bloodstream.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #27

  1. Monica is shown some pictures with very negative content. Activity in the frontal brain would indicate that she may have the personality trait of
    A.extroversion.
    B. neuroticism.
    C. quarrelsomeness.
    D. sensation seeking.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #28

  1. According to Eysenck, _____ is related to low physiological arousal.
    A.extraversion
    B. introversion
    C. the Behavioral Activation System
    D. the Behavioral Inhibition System

Larsen – Chapter 07 #29

  1. A person who is sociable, outgoing, venturesome, and easily bored
    A.has a Type A personality.
    B. is an introvert.
    C. is an extravert.
    D. would score high on harm avoidance.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #30

  1. Which of the following physiological mechanisms is thought to control overall cortical arousal?
    A.Parasympathetic nervous system
    B. Ascending reticular activating system or ARAS
    C. Behavioral activation system or BAS
    D. Behavioral inhibition system or BIS

Larsen – Chapter 07 #31

  1. According to Hebb’s theory, there is a(n) _____ state of arousal for every task that will lead to the highest level of performance for each individual.
    A.marginal
    B. optimal
    C. maximal
    D. progressive

Larsen – Chapter 07 #32

  1. Which of the following is NOT part of Hebb’s theory about “optimal levels of arousal”?
    A.A person can be too aroused to perform well.
    B. A person has the same optimal level of arousal for all stimuli.
    C. A person can perform poorly because they are not sufficiently aroused.
    D. Different activities have different optimal levels of arousal.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #33

  1. According to Eysenck, introverts avoid social situations because
    A.they do not like people.
    B. they also score high on measures of anxiety.
    C. they have too much monoamine oxidase.
    D. they are likely to become over aroused in social situations.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #34

  1. According to Eysenck, extraverts seek out social situations and stimulation as they
    A.need the arousal of social situations.
    B. have high levels of anxiety when alone.
    C. have overactive ascending reticular activating systems.
    D. have greater impulse control when in social situations.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #35

  1. Eysenck’s revised theory of extraversion suggests that introverts and extraverts differ in
    A.baseline level of arousal.
    B. their arousal response.
    C. maximal level of arousal.
    D. behavioral activating systems.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #36

  1. The following were all findings of Russell Geen’s study of introverts and extraverts EXCEPT
    A.introverts preferred lower levels of arousal than extraverts.
    B. extraverts and introverts had different levels of baseline arousal.
    C. introverts performed better under conditions of low arousal.
    D. extraverts performed better when they chose their own level of arousal.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #37

  1. Which name is most associated with the reinforcement sensitivity theory?
    A.Pavlov
    B. Eysenck
    C. Gray
    D. Zuckerman

Larsen – Chapter 07 #38

  1. According to Gray, _____ is responsive to cues for incentives, rewards, and approach behavior.
    A.the behavioral activation system
    B. the behavioral inhibition system
    C. dopamine
    D. frontal brain asymmetry

Larsen – Chapter 07 #39

  1. According to Gray, _____ is responsive to cues for punishment, frustration, and uncertainty resulting in a personality dimension assessing anxiety.
    A.the behavioral activation system
    B. the behavioral inhibition system
    C. dopamine
    D. frontal brain asymmetry

Larsen – Chapter 07 #40

  1. Gray thought that _____ was responsible for avoidance behavior.
    A.reward dependence
    B. the behavioral inhibition system
    C. monoamine oxidase
    D. a strong nervous system

Larsen – Chapter 07 #41

  1. In Gray’s model of personality, individuals with a reactive behavioral inhibition system are very sensitive to
    A.positive emotions.
    B. punishment or frustration.
    C. incentives and rewards.
    D. changes in MAO levels.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #42

  1. Individuals with a reactive behavioral activating system may be very
    A.extraverted.
    B. impulsive.
    C. conscientious.
    D. psychopathic.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #43

  1. According to Gray, a person who scores high on extraversion and somewhat high on the neuroticism dimensions in Eysenck’s model will also score high on
    A.anxiety.
    B. Type A personality.
    C. cardiovascular reactivity.
    D. impulsivity.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #44

  1. According to Gray, a person who scores high on introversion and somewhat high on the neuroticism dimensions in Eysenck’s model will also score high on
    A.anxiety.
    B. Type A personality.
    C. cardiovascular reactivity.
    D. impulsivity.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #45

  1. Most of Gray’s research has
    A.been done on the brains of animals.
    B. used questionnaires.
    C. used measures of electrodermal activity.
    D. been done on college sophomores.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #46

  1. In Gray’s theory of personality, anxiety and impulsivity are related to
    A.emotional stability and openness to experience.
    B. psychoticism and extraversion.
    C. sensation seeking and liberalism.
    D. reinforcement and punishment.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #47

  1. Individuals with high scores on the behavioral activating scale perform better when they are working
    A.to obtain a reward.
    B. to avoid a punishment.
    C. working alone on a task.
    D. working in a group on a task.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #48

  1. According to Gray’s theory, people in jails probably
    A.score high on measures of anxiety.
    B. lack sufficient levels of dopamine.
    C. have strong behavioral activation systems.
    D. have strong behavioral inhibition systems.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #49

  1. Sheri wants to get her husband, Carlos, to finish waxing the car before they go out for the evening. Being a student of Jeffery Gray’s theory of personality Sheri knows that the best way get her impulsive husband to complete the task is to
    A.go about her business because she knows Carlos will finish waxing the car on his own.
    B. promise to reward him with his favorite dinner if he finishes waxing the car.
    C. threaten to not make dinner if he does not complete the wax job.
    D. yell at Carlos every time he starts to slack off from working on the wax job.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #50

  1. _____ tend to take more risks and engage in more exciting activities.
    A.People who score high on introversion
    B. People who score high on sensation seeking
    C. People who score high on Type A personality
    D. People with weak nervous systems

Larsen – Chapter 07 #51

  1. Bored people may seek out mild stimulation to
    A.invigorate their nervous systems.
    B. reach an optimal level of arousal.
    C. avoid a much higher level of stimulation.
    D. to reduce tension in their systems.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #52

  1. Hebb’s theory of an optimal level of arousal was controversial as it hypothesized that individuals
    A.seek out tension and stimulation as well as try to reduce tension in the body.
    B. seek out higher levels of tension without a means for reducing that tension in the body.
    C. cannot maintain an optimal low arousal for significant period of time.
    D. are punished when the individual is not in a state of optimal arousal.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #53

  1. Zuckerman found that people _____ found sensory deprivation particularly unpleasant.
    A.who score on introversion scales
    B. with more activation in the left hemisphere
    C. who were sensation seekers
    D. who scored high on harm avoidance

Larsen – Chapter 07 #54

  1. There is a _____ correlation between scores for Zuckerman’s sensation seeking scale and Eysenck’s trait of extraversion.
    A.very low positive
    B. marginally negative
    C. moderately strong positive
    D. very strong negative

Larsen – Chapter 07 #55

  1. Research has found that _____ tend to score lower on sensation seeking scales.
    A.people who enjoy skydiving
    B. people who have more sexual partners
    C. students who volunteer for unconventional psychology experiments
    D. endure sensory deprivation conditions for long periods of time

Larsen – Chapter 07 #56

  1. The enzyme monoamine oxidase works by
    A.blocking too many neurotransmitters from entering the synaptic cleft.
    B. acting as a conductor to facilitate the transmission of neurotransmitters between neurons.
    C. manufacturing neurotransmitters inside of the neuron.
    D. breaking down neurotransmitters after a nerve impulse has passed.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #57

  1. If there is too little monoamine oxide present
    A.too much transmission will take place between the nerves.
    B. not enough neurotransmitters will be produced in the nervous system.
    C. the neurons will fire at a slow rate, inhibiting behavior.
    D. the lack of oxides will damage the nervous system.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #58

  1. Monoamine oxidase acts upon the nervous system by _____ neurotransmission.
    A.maximizing
    B. inhibiting
    C. optimizing
    D. moderating

Larsen – Chapter 07 #59

  1. Monoamine oxidase
    A.breaks down neurotransmitters.
    B. facilitates nerve transmissions.
    C. is linked to cardiovascular reactivity.
    D. holds neurons together.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #60

  1. According to Zuckerman, _____ have _____ levels of monoamine oxidase.
    A.sensation seekers; low
    B. introverts; low
    C. sensation seekers; high
    D. extraverts; low

Larsen – Chapter 07 #61

  1. The neurotransmitter _____ is associated with feeling pleasure.
    A.norepinepherine
    B. serotonin
    C. dopamine
    D. monoanamine oxide

Larsen – Chapter 07 #62

  1. Drugs such as Prozac and Zoloft act to block the reuptake of
    A.norepinepherine.
    B. serotonin.
    C. dopamine.
    D. monoamine oxidase.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #63

  1. Which of the following neurotransmitters is involved in activating the sympathetic nervous system for fight-or-flight responses?
    A.Serotonin
    B. Dopamine
    C. Norepinephrine
    D. Monoamine oxide

Larsen – Chapter 07 #64

  1. Who of the following associated specific neurotransmitters with personality traits?
    A.Eysenck
    B. Pavlov
    C. Gray
    D. Cloninger

Larsen – Chapter 07 #65

  1. Which of the following is NOT a trait in Cloninger’s tridimensional personality model?
    A.Harm avoidance
    B. Sensation seeking
    C. Novelty seeking
    D. Reward dependence

Larsen – Chapter 07 #66

  1. According to Cloninger, the trait of novelty seeking is related to low levels of
    A.norepinepherine.
    B. serotonin.
    C. dopamine.
    D. monoamine oxidase.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #67

  1. Initially increased levels of serotonin may result in _____, but over time may lead to _____.
    A.high levels of anxiety; decreased vulnerability to overreacting to stress
    B. strong euphoric states; generally increased happiness
    C. high levels of depression; modal levels of euphoria
    D. low sensation seeking; high vulnerability to stress

Larsen – Chapter 07 #68

  1. Individuals who score high on harm avoidance can be described as
    A.energetic, outgoing, and optimistic.
    B. cautious, inhibited, and apprehensive.
    C. shy, paranoid, and tense.
    D. happy, positive, and extroverted.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #69

  1. People who score high on the trait of _____ are persistent and continue to work in situations in which others would likely give up.
    A.extraversion
    B. novelty seeking
    C. reward dependence
    D. sensation seeking

Larsen – Chapter 07 #70

  1. Recent work in the area of genetics and personality has led researchers to conclude that
    A.there is a one-to-one correspondence between genes and personality traits.
    B. there are a large number of genes involved in the creation of any single personality trait.
    C. only genes associated with neurotransmitters are responsible for the creation of personality traits.
    D. genes appear to exist in bipolar hairs on the chromosomes and affect behavior in opposing ways.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #71

  1. Cloninger’s model of personality has much in common with all of these models of personality EXCEPT
    A.Wiggins’ circumplex model of personality.
    B. Eysenck’s three-dimensional model of personality.
    C. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory.
    D. Zuckerman’s model of sensation seeking.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #72

  1. Which of the following traits is most related to biological rhythms?
    A.Extraversion
    B. Sensation seeking
    C. Morningness-eveningness
    D. Impulsivity

Larsen – Chapter 07 #73

  1. A person who is deprived of time cues in his or her environment to influence behaviors or biology is said to be ______ in time.
    A.showing frontal asymmetry
    B. free running
    C. off track
    D. symmetrical

Larsen – Chapter 07 #74

  1. Which of the following has been shown to fluctuate with a circadian rhythm?
    A.Body temperature
    B. Extraversion
    C. Frontal asymmetry
    D. Serotonin

Larsen – Chapter 07 #75

  1. A person with a circadian rhythm that is longer than 24 hours will score higher on _____ scales.
    A.eveningness
    B. sensation-seeking
    C. harm avoidance
    D. morningness

Larsen – Chapter 07 #76

  1. The trait of morningness-eveningness
    A.often changes over time.
    B. remains stable over time.
    C. has been studied only in America.
    D. is correlated with anxiety.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #77

  1. A study discussed in the text showed that roommates who scored similarly on the trait of _____ liked each other more than roommates who were mismatched on this trait.
    A.extraversion
    B. anxiety
    C. morningness-eveningness
    D. achievement motivation

Larsen – Chapter 07 #78

  1. Drinking caffeinated coffee in the morning will provide a greater performance boost to this group than if they drink coffee in the evening.
    A.People with greater left-hemisphere activation
    B. People with a greater right-hemisphere activation
    C. People scoring high on morningness
    D. People scoring high on eveningness

Larsen – Chapter 07 #79

  1. Mike flies non-stop from San Francisco to London. He finds he has little trouble with the time change. Most likely Mike is a(n)
    A.novelty-seeking type.
    B. evening type.
    C. extraverted type.
    D. diurnal type.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #80

  1. Disruptions in sleep-wake cycles due to long airline flights that pass through many time zones are best tolerated by
    A.Morning types, if the flights are eastbound.
    B. Evening types, if the flights are westbound.
    C. Morning types, regardless of the direction of the flight.
    D. Evening types, regardless of the direction of the flight.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #81

  1. The greater the alpha wave activity in the brain, the
    A.greater the level of harm avoidance is present at a given time.
    B. less amount of symmetrical brain activity is present at a given time.
    C. greater amount of norepinepherine is present at a given time.
    D. less brain activity is present at a given time.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #82

  1. An electroencephalograph measures
    A.alpha waves.
    B. skin conductance.
    C. cardiovascular reactivity.
    D. morningness-eveningness.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #83

  1. People who have higher levels of activation in the _____ hemisphere of the brain tend to have more _____.
    A.right; positive emotions
    B. right; sexual partners
    C. left; positive emotions
    D. left; sexual partners

Larsen – Chapter 07 #84

  1. A study by Fox and Davidson showed that infants who reacted more strongly to bitter solutions placed in their mouths
    A.had more activation in the left hemispheres than in the right hemispheres of their brains.
    B. had more activation in the right hemispheres than in the left hemispheres of their brains.
    C. were more likely to be morning types than evening types.
    D. tended to score lower on activity scales than less sensitive infants did.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #85

  1. Test-retest correlations of frontal asymmetry have been shown to be
    A.weak and positive.
    B. strong and positive.
    C. weak and negative.
    D. strong and negative.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #86

  1. If a person responds to an amusing film with more positive emotions than average, that person is likely to
    A.be a morning type.
    B. be an evening type.
    C. have more activation in the right hemisphere.
    D. have more activation in the left hemisphere.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #87

  1. Increased activation of the right hemisphere of the brain has been found to be related to increased levels of _____ in both monkeys and 6-month-old children.
    A.cortisol
    B. norepinepherine
    C. serotonin
    D. dopamine

Larsen – Chapter 07 #88

  1. A person who has greater right than left hemispheric activation would likely score high on a measure of
    A.BAS or behavioral activation system.
    B. BIS or behavioral inhibition system.
    C. morningness.
    D. sensation seeking.

Larsen – Chapter 07 #89

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Larsen – Chapter 0789

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