Solution Manual for Accounting for Governmental and Nonprofit Entities 17TH ed by Jacqueline Reck , Earl Wilson +A

$35.00
Solution Manual for Accounting for Governmental and Nonprofit Entities 17TH ed by Jacqueline Reck , Earl Wilson +A

Solution Manual for Accounting for Governmental and Nonprofit Entities 17TH ed by Jacqueline Reck , Earl Wilson +A

$35.00
Solution Manual for Accounting for Governmental and Nonprofit Entities 17TH ed by Jacqueline Reck , Earl Wilson +A

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL REPORTING FOR GOVERNMENTAL AND NOT-FOR-PROFIT ENTITIES

OUTLINE

NumberTopicType/TaskStatus

(re: 17/e)

Questions:
1-1Differences between types of organizationsIdentifyNew
1-2Distinguishing between general purpose and special purpose governmentsIdentifyRevised
1-3Standards-setting bodiesIdentifySame
1-4Determining which standard-setting body sets standards for a nongovernmental NFPCategorizeNew
1-5Nature and significance of interperiod equityExplainSame
1-6Determining the purpose of the two types of accountabilityDetermineRevised
1-7Primary reporting objectives for NFPs and governmentsCompareNew
1-8Comprehensive annual financial reportRecognizeSame
1-9Federal government performance and accountability reportIdentify/DescribeSame
1-10NFP reporting of expensesExplainNew

Cases:

1-11Research Case—GASBWritten reportSame
1-12Research Case—FASBWritten reportNew
1-13Research Case—FASABWritten reportSame
1-14Research Case—Comparing Financial Reporting ObjectivesAnalyzeNew
1-15Research Case—Federal Financial Reporting ObjectivesAnalyzeNew
Exercises/Problems:
1-16Examine the CAFRExamineRevised
1-17Financial Statement DifferencesDifferentiateNew
1-18VariousMultiple ChoiceItems 1, 2, and 4 are new; other items are the same or revised
1-19Concepts and reporting characteristics or requirements for governmental and NFP organizationsMatchingSame

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL REPORTING FOR GOVERNMENTAL AND NOT-FOR-PROFIT ENTITIES

Answers to Questions

1-1. Following is a list of some of the differences between business organizations and government/not-for-profit organizations.

Business OrganizationsGovernment/Not-for-for profit Organizations
Providers of resources expect either repayment or economic benefits proportionate to the resources provided.Many providers of resources do not expect repayment or economic benefits proportionate to the resources provided.
Primary operations are undertaken to provide goods or services at a profit.Primary operations are not undertaken to provide goods or services at a profit or profit equivalent.
There are defined ownership interests that can be sold, transferred or redeemed or entitle the owner to a share of remaining resources at liquidation.There are no defined ownership interests.

General Problem Information: Differences between types of organizations

Learning Objective: 1-1

Topic: Distinguishing Characteristics of Governmental and Not-for-Profit Entities

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: BB Industry

Level of Difficulty: Easy

1-2. a. GP c. SP e. SP

  1. b. SP d. GP f. GP

General Problem Information: Distinguishing between general purpose and special purpose governments

Learning Objective: 1-1

Topic: What are Governmental and Not-for-profit Organizations?

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: BB Industry

Level of Difficulty: Easy

Ch. 1, Answers (Cont’d)

1-3. Illustration 1-1 depicts the standard-setting jurisdiction of the FASB, GASB and FASAB. As shown, the FASB has responsibility for setting accounting and financial reporting standards for business enterprises and nongovernmental not-for-profit organizations. The GASB has responsibility for setting standards for state and local governments and governmental not-for-profit organizations. The FASAB has responsibility for setting accounting and reporting standards for the federal government and its agencies and departments.

General Problem Information: Standards-setting bodies

Learning Objective: 1-2

Topic: Sources of Financial Reporting Standards

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Easy

1-4. No, I do not agree with this board member’s statement. Since Beth House Museum is a nongovernmental not-for-profit organization, it is required to follow the standards issued by FASB. Since its purpose is not the same as a business organization, FASB has developed reporting standards for organizations such as Beth House Museum that reflect its unique purpose and users. Governmental not-for-profit organizations must follow GASB financial reporting standards. (See illustration 1-1.)

General Problem Information: Determining which standard-setting body sets standards for a nongovernmental NFP

Learning Objective: 1-2

Topic: Sources of Financial Reporting Standards

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Medium

1-5. Interperiod equity, whether current period revenues are sufficient to pay for current period services, is an important component of accountability. Failure to pay for current period services means that the financial burden is being passed to future year taxpayers who may not receive any benefit from the past services.

General Problem Information: Nature and significance of interperiod equity

Learning Objective: 1-3

Topic: Objectives of Financial Reporting

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Medium

Ch. 1, Answers (Cont’d)

  • The purpose of operational accountability is to assess whether the government has used its resources efficiently and effectively in meeting its operating objectives. The purpose of fiscal accountability is to assess the short-term flow of current financial resources. Government–wide financial statements are primarily focused on providing information to assess operational accountability, while fund financial statements are focused on providing information to assess fiscal accountability.

General Problem Information: Determining the purpose of the two types of accountability

Learning Objective: 1-3

Topic: Overview of Financial Reporting for State and Local Governments, the Federal Government, and Not-for-profit Organizations

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Medium

  • The primary financial reporting objective for not-for-profit organizations is to provide decision-useful financial information to resource providers, such as donors, members, and creditors. The primary financial reporting objective for a government organization is accountability, but other objectives include providing useful information for economic, social and political decisions. Thus, the reporting focus for the two types of organizations differs in that the not-for-profit organization financial reports are to focus on providing information that is useful in making decisions; while the government organization is to focus primarily on providing information that can be used to assess whether public resources were raised and used for their intended purposes.

General Problem Information: Primary reporting objectives for NFPs and governments

Learning Objective: 3-3

Topic: Objectives of Financial Reporting

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Medium

  • A CAFR should have an introductory section, financial section, and statistical section. The contents of each section are described briefly in the section headed Comprehensive Annual Financial Report. Minimum requirements for general external financial reports are but a portion of the content of the CAFR. The minimum requirements of the general external financial report include the basic financial statements (government-wide and fund), management’s discussion & analysis (MD&A), and other required supplementary information (RSI). As can be seen, the minimum requirements for the general external financial report do not include an introductory section, other supplementary financial information, or a statistical section.

Ch. 1, Answers, Question 1-8 (Cont’d)

General Problem Information: Comprehensive annual financial report

Learning Objective: 1-4

Topic: Overview of Financial Reporting for State and Local Governments, the Federal Government, and Not-for-profit Organizations

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Easy

  • The four sections of a federal agency’s performance and accountability report (PAR) are (1) an MD&A, which provides a brief overview of the entire PAR and describes the agency’s mission and performance goals, among other items; (2) the performance section, essentially consisting of the agency’s annual performance report (APR); (3) the basic financial statements, which are listed in this chapter; and (4) other accompanying information, such as information about the nation’s tax burden, the tax gap, challenges facing the agency’s management, and revenue forgone.

General Problem Information: Federal government performance and accountability report

Learning Objective: 1-5

Topic: Overview of Financial Reporting for State and Local Governments, the Federal Government, and Not-for-profit Organizations

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Easy

  • Reporting program expenses separately from management and general expenses and fund-raising costs provides information to donors, members and oversight bodies to assess the effectiveness of the organization in accomplishing its purpose. Most donors and members wish to have the funds they contribute used for the organizational purpose rather than supporting management costs or fund-raising expenses. This reporting is also necessary for oversight bodies, such as the Internal Revenue Service, to permit the continued existence of the organization as a not-for-profit.

General Problem Information: NFP reporting of expenses

Learning Objective: 1-5

Topic: Overview of Financial Reporting for State and Local Governments, the Federal Government, and Not-for-profit Organizations

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Medium

Ch. 1, Solutions (Cont’d)

Solutions to Cases

  • Instructors may wish to provide specific instructions for the format of the students’ brief reports. The GASB’s Web site (gasb.org) provides extensive information about the Board’s mission, structure, the due-process it follows in setting standards, and the role of its advisory council, the Governmental Accounting Standards Advisory Council (GASAC). Significant information about the GASB’s strategic plan is also provided at the Web site.

The GASB Codification of Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards is available for purchase from its Web site in either hardcopy or as a searchable online system called GARS, the Governmental Accounting Research System. Those colleges and universities with an access code for the online FASB Accounting Standards Codification will also be able to access GARS. At time of this edition’s publication, the GASB also sells an annually updated compendium of its official pronouncements—Original Pronouncements and an annually updated Comprehensive Implementation Guide. The GASB’s Web site provides full information on how to order all publications and their cost, as well as information about becoming an annual subscriber to GASB pronouncements and due process documents.

General Problem Information: Research Case—Understanding GASB

Learning Objective: 1-2

Topic: Sources of Financial Reporting Standards

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Research

Level of Difficulty: Easy

  • Instructors may wish to provide specific instructions for the format of the students’ brief reports. The objective of this project is to reexamine existing standards for financial statement presentation by not-for-profit entities, focusing on improving:

  1. Net asset classification requirements
  2. Information provided in financial statements and notes about liquidity, financial performance, and cash flows

The Not-for-profit Advisory Committee (NAC) presented suggestions for improving the financial reporting of not-for-profit organizations at the Committee’s September 2011 meeting. The NAC continues to be an integral part of this project.

General Problem Information: Research Case—FASB NFP Project

Learning Objective: 1-2

Topic: Sources of Financial Reporting Standards

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Research

Level of Difficulty: Medium

Ch. 1, Solutions (Cont’d)

  • Instructors may wish to provide specific instructions for their students’ brief reports. FASAB’s Web site may change over time, but the Web site does provide extensive information about the board’s mission, structure, and due-process. A good source of information is the Memorandum of Understanding between the Comptroller General, Director of OMB, and the Secretary of the Treasury that created the FASAB, which currently is a 9-member board. Because FASAB’s technical projects and members of the Accounting and Auditing Policy Committee will change over time, students should describe the projects and committee representation that currently exist.

All statements and other pronouncements of the FASAB are contained in a compendium of all original pronouncements called Pronouncements as Amended and are available for downloading from its Web site at no charge. All due process documents are available at that site as well.

General Problem Information: Research Case—Understanding FASAB

Learning Objective: 1-2

Topic: Sources of Financial Reporting Standards

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Research

Level of Difficulty: Easy

  • Government and not-for-profit financial reports are used by a variety of individuals for a variety of purposes. However, a major group of users are the resource providers (or their representatives) who generally do not expect to receive a direct or economic benefit from the resources they provide. Since these organizations do not exist to return a direct or economic benefit (i.e., there is not profit motive) to the resource providers, information that helps the providers determine whether the organization can continue to provide services and meet its obligations becomes important. Additionally, the resource providers of both organizations are interested in ensuring that management is using the resources they have provided efficiently and effectively and in accordance with the purpose for which the resources were provided.

The use of financial reports by the resource providers of government and not-for-profit organizations differs from the resource providers of for-profit reports. For-profit resource providers are interested in the economic benefit they can receive. Therefore, they want information that helps them make decisions about the potential return on their investment, whether it is an equity or debt investment. These differing purposes result in financial reports that have different structures.

General Problem Information: Research Case—Comparing Financial Reporting Objectives

Learning Objective: 1-3

Topic: Objectives Financial Reporting

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analyze

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Critical Thinking, AICPA: FN Research

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

Ch. 1, Solutions (Cont’d)

  • Instructors may wish to provide specific instructions for the format of the students’ brief reports. The four major groups of users identified by the board are citizens, Congress, executives, and program managers.

Citizens – Citizens pay for and receive government services. Therefore, they are interested in individual government programs, candidates for office, and the fiscal and operational accountability of their elected officials. They want to know what services are provided, and what the outputs or outcomes of the services are, as well as the efficiency and effectiveness with which they are provided.

Congress – Congress is concerned with broad policies, priorities and the programs that implement the priorities. It is responsible for imposing taxes, and determining the amount of funds that should be spent and the purposes of the expenditures. They are concerned with how to finance and execute programs. They also assist in monitoring and assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of programs, as well as evaluating the management performance of the executive branch.

Executives – Executives focus on strategic plans and programs to accomplish specific goals and implement policies. One primary focus is on budgets, which are used to provide funding for these plans and programs. They propose funding amounts to Congress and develop plans for financing and generating revenues to provide the funding. They are also concerned with the efficiency and effectiveness of plans and programs.

Program Managers – Program managers assist in the design and delivery of program objectives, and provide input into funding requirements. They must manage their programs within the budget approved by Congress.

The four objectives identified are budgetary integrity, operating performance, stewardship and systems and controls. Students should be able to make connections between the needs of the user groups and the objectives identified.

General Problem Information: Research Case—Federal Financial Reporting Objectives

Learning Objective: 1-3

Topic: Objectives of Financial Reporting

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analyze

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Hard

Ch. 1, Solutions (Cont’d)

Solutions to Exercises and Problems

  • As students may have different CAFRs, there is no single solution to this exercise. It works well to devote class time to asking students some of the questions listed in the exercise, and perhaps tabulating the numbers of reports containing statements that are audited (1) by CPAs, (2) by state auditors, and (3) by employees of the reporting government. If such a tabulation is made, students may be interested in knowing in which states the local governmental units are located that are audited by each of the classes of auditors (or whatever other characteristic is being tabulated). Requiring that students download a CAFR is a good exercise in obtaining financial information. Allow students to share their experiences, as some organizations make it easier to get CAFRs than others. Remind students that governments are not required to prepare a full CAFR, so some governments may simply refer to their report as the “audited annual financial statement,” or even the “audit report.”

General Problem Information: Examine the CAFR

Learning Objective: 1-4

Topic: Overview of Financial Reporting for State and Local Governments, the Federal Government, and Not-for-profit Organizations

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Easy

1-17. Although the major similarities and differences have been provided, students will undoubtedly also find additional items which you may wish to discuss.

  1. The following represent some of the similarities and differences in Denver’s Statement of Net Position and the American Diabetes Association’s (ADA) Balance Sheet.

Similarities

  • Both have the same three sections in the statement – Assets, Liabilities and Net Assets/Net Position
  • Both list assets in the order of liquidity
  • Both list current liabilities prior to noncurrent liabilities (although the American Diabetes Association only has current liabilities)

Dissimilarities

  • Denver does not provide a comparative year as does the ADA
  • Denver lists a primary government and divides it into two columns – governmental activities and business-type activities. It then also includes a component units column. The ADA has only one column for the year’s activity.
  • Denver has an additional section in its statement called Deferred Outflows of Resources (this appears below Total Assets). The ADA has nothing similar to this.

Ch. 1, Solutions, Exercise 1-17 (Cont’d)

  • Denver uses net position rather than net assets and divides the net position into net investment in capital assets, restricted, and unrestricted. However, the ADA uses the term net assets and divides the net assets into unrestricted, temporarily restricted, and permanently restricted.

  1. Other than the name there are very few similarities between Denver’s Statement of Activities and the ADA’s Statement of Activities. Listed below are some similarities and differences.

Similarities

  • Both use the terms revenues and expenses
  • Both list revenues by sources and expenses by function
  • Both add beginning net assets/position to the change in net assets/position to arrive at the ending net assets/position.

Dissimilarities

  • Denver divides its revenues into program revenues (charges for services, operating grants and contributions, and capital grants and contributions) and general revenues; whereas, the ADA divides its revenues into contributions and grants, and fees from exchange transactions.
  • The ADA divides its expenses into program activities and support activities; whereas, Denver does not make this distinction.
  • The general format of the statements is different with Denver starting the statement by listing expenses from which it deducts program revenues and general revenues. The ADA uses the traditional format, starting with revenues and deducting expenses.
  • As with the statement of net position, Denver includes separate sections for governmental activities, business-type activities, and component units on its statement.
  • The ADA includes separate columns showing the activity in each of its net asset components – unrestricted, temporarily restricted, and permanently restricted. Denver does not show activity by net position component.

General Problem Information: Financial Statement Differences

Learning Objective: 1-4

Learning Objective: 1-5

Topic: Overview of Financial Reporting for State and Local Governments, the Federal Government, and Not-for-profit Organizations

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analyze

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Knowledge Application, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Hard

Ch. 1, Solutions (Cont’d)

1-18. 1. c. 6. d.

  1. b. 7. a.
  2. b. 8. b.
  3. d. 9. d.
  4. c. 10. d.

General Problem Information: Various

Learning Objective: 1-1

Learning Objective: 1-2

Learning Objective: 1-3

Learning Objective: 1-4

Learning Objective: 1-5

Topic: Various chapter topics

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Easy

  • This is an exercise that may generate considerable discussion in class, as some of the answers will be absolutely true and others partially true, depending on individual judgments and interpretations. Keeping this in mind, you may wish to provide some leeway in grading this exercise, depending on how literally you interpret the particular item’s relationship to type of organization.

Characteristic, Concept, or Financial Reporting Requirement

State and Local Governments

Federal Government

Nongovernmental Not-for-profit Organizations
Organization-wide financial

statements

YYY
Management’s discussion and

analysis (MD&A)

YYN
Annual performance reportNYN*
Modified accrualYNN
Reporting of program expenses

separate from supporting expenses

N**NY
Absence of defined ownership

interests

YYY
Standards set by GASBYNN
Standards set by FASBNNY
Standards set by FASABNYN
Standards focused on both internal and external users of financial informationNYN

Ch. 1, Solutions, Exercise 1-19 (Cont’d)

* Technically, the answer here is “no.” However, as discussed in Chapter 16, NFP health care entities are required to provide limited financial performance information as part of a “performance indicator.” So, it is possible that an exceptionally bright student might reasonably answer this item as “yes” rather than “no.”

** Referring to the statement of activities illustrated in Appendix A to Chapter 2, it might appear that program expenses are reported separate from supporting expenses. To some extent, that is true. But, in most cases, the expenses for state and local governments are reported by function rather than program and may include some supporting rather program expenses within those functions. Either way, partial credit might be warranted here.

General Problem Information: Concepts and reporting characteristics or requirements for governmental and NFP organizations

Learning Objective: 1-1

Learning Objective: 1-2

Learning Objective: 1-4

Learning Objective: 1-5

Topic: Various chapter topics

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Accreditation Skills tag: AACSB: Communication, AICPA: FN Reporting

Level of Difficulty: Medium

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