Test Bank Abnormal Psychology 3rd Edition by William J. Ray

$35.00
Test Bank Abnormal Psychology 3rd Edition by William J. Ray

Test Bank Abnormal Psychology 3rd Edition by William J. Ray

$35.00
Test Bank Abnormal Psychology 3rd Edition by William J. Ray

Test Bank Abnormal Psychology 3rd Edition by William J. Ray

Chapter 1: An Overview of Psychopathology and Changing Conceptualizations of Mental Illness

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

  1. The study of mental illness is called ______.
  2. pathophysiology
  3. psychopathology
  4. pathology
  5. physiology

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Defining Psychopathology and Understanding Its Components

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Dr. Alfonso investigates the cause of psychological disorders. Dr. Alfonso's field of specialization is known as ______ psychology.
  2. abnormal
  3. developmental
  4. medical
  5. pathological

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Defining Psychopathology and Understanding Its Components

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Dr. Badeaux describes her specialization as abnormal psychology. Dr. Carruthers states that her field is psychopathology. Based on information provided in the text, it is MOST likely that Drs. Badeaux and Carruthers specialize in ______ field(s).
  2. different
  3. the same
  4. unrelated
  5. opposing

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Defining Psychopathology and Understanding Its Components

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. During any given year, approximately ______ of the American population experiences a diagnosable mental illness.
  2. 6%
  3. 11%
  4. 18%
  5. 24%

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Impact of Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which term is used to refer to the negative attitudes and beliefs that sometimes cause the general public to avoid those with mental illness?
  2. stigma
  3. charisma
  4. crenate
  5. achate

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Stigma and Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Compared to the loss of productivity and quality of life caused by such physical diseases as cancer, the loss of productivity and quality of life caused by mental illnesses such as major depression is ______.
  2. somewhat less
  3. about the same
  4. greater
  5. much greater

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Stigma and Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. According to the MacArthur Foundation, which phrase BEST describes the proportion of those hospitalized with mental illness who go on to commit violence with a gun?
  2. very few (less than 10%)
  3. some (10% to 20%)
  4. about half (around 50%)
  5. most (over 55%)

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Stigma and Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. George believes that people are generally caring and sympathetic toward people with mental illness. However, he also believes that people with depression should just be able to think positive and snap out of it. This is BEST seen as an example of the ______.
  2. focus of the biopsychosocial approach to psychopathology
  3. adaptive value of traits related to psychopathology
  4. relationship between culture and psychopathology
  5. tension in American attitudes toward mental illness

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Stigma and Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Based on the textbook’s discussion, Americans’ attitudes toward those with mental illness are BEST described as ______.
  2. contradictory
  3. hostile
  4. indifferent
  5. sympathetic

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Stigma and Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Stigma can be manifested through all of the following EXCEPT this:
  2. no longer treating an individual as a person but only as part of a group that is different
  3. believing that as a general rule, most individuals with mental illness show more violence than that seen in the general population
  4. understanding that a behavior that might be acceptable in one culture could be seen as “crazy” in another
  5. believing that a person can recover from a mental illness by willpower and spending less money setting up clinics and training professionals

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Stigma and Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. People suffering from mental illness often report such symptoms as feeling sad or anxious. Because everyone has a different baseline for feelings, these symptoms are BEST described as ______.
  2. subjective
  3. invective
  4. objective
  5. inferred

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.2: Discuss the major themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Three Major Themes of This Book

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. If they can be measured, the signs of mental illness are BEST described as ______.
  2. dichotomous
  3. subjective
  4. concrete
  5. objective

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.2: Discuss the major themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Three Major Themes of This Book

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The ______ perspective examines psychopathological experience from the standpoint of the structure and function of the brain.
  2. behavioral and experiential
  3. neuroscience
  4. evolutionary
  5. psychodynamic

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.2: Discuss the major themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Three Major Themes of This Book

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The ______ perspective examines psychological disorders with respect the adaptive value of particular traits or characteristics.
  2. behavioral and experiential
  3. neuroscience
  4. evolutionary
  5. psychodynamic

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.2: Discuss the major themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Three Major Themes of This Book

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Abnormal psychology can be investigated from several levels of analysis. The text mentions all of the following levels of analysis EXCEPT the ______ level.
  2. cultural
  3. philosophical
  4. neurological
  5. physiological

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.2: Discuss the major themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Levels of Analysis

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Which term identifies the broadest approach to understanding mental illness?
  2. biopsychosocial approach
  3. behavioral and experiential perspective
  4. neuroscience perspective
  5. evolutionary perspective

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.2: Discuss the major themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Biopsychosocial Approach

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The ______ perspective focuses on information that people acquire from others through teaching, imitation, and other forms of social transmission.
  2. neuroscience
  3. behavioral
  4. cultural
  5. evolutionary

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Relation of Evolution and Culture to Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which catchphrase BEST captures psychopathologists’ current understanding of the origins of mental illness?
  2. nature, not nurture
  3. nurture, not nature
  4. nature or nurture
  5. nature and nurture

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Relation of Evolution and Culture to Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. In round figures, approximately ______ of white Americans are lactose intolerant, meaning they cannot digest milk products.
  2. 5%
  3. 10%
  4. 20%
  5. 25%

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Relation of Evolution and Culture to Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The fact that foods with milk are found in European diets and not Asian diets might suggest that ______.
  2. culture and evolution are closely linked, as more Europeans are lactose tolerant
  3. culture is socially driven, as there are no biological explanations for this behavior
  4. culture and environment are linked, as more milk products were available in Europe
  5. culture and family are closely linked, as the diets are often transgenerational

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Relation of Evolution and Culture to Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Keiko is Japanese and lives in Kyoto. Kristin is Danish and lives in Copenhagen. Which statement is MOST accurate with respect to whether these women carry the serotonin-related gene 5-HTT, which makes people more prone to depression?
  2. Keiko is more likely to carry the gene.
  3. Kristin probably carries the gene.
  4. Kristin is more likely to carry the gene.
  5. Keiko does not carry the gene.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Relation of Evolution and Culture to Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Many studies have demonstrated that many forms of mental illness, such as schizophrenia, might be more related to nature than nurture because they are found ______.
  2. mostly in Western cultures
  3. at an ever increasing rate around the world
  4. at similar rates around the world
  5. mostly in industrialized countries

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Relation of Evolution and Culture to Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Genetic studies have shown that a higher percentage of Japanese people have a gene related to serotonin that results I higher levels of anxiety and depression. Approximately how much more likely it is for Japanese people to have this gene than Europeans?
  2. 80%
  3. 10%
  4. 5%
  5. 30%

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Relation of Evolution and Culture to Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In the 1970s, psychopathology was seen as a myth created by Western societies. How did Jane Murphy disprove this idea?
  2. Her research showed that all people have the same idea of what is normal.
  3. She studied Inuit and Nigerian people and found they define abnormal in similar terms.
  4. Murphy was the first to study psychopathology in non-white populations.
  5. She proved that culture has no influence on what people see as normal behavior.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Is Psychopathology Universal?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The notion that psychopathology is socially constructed is consistent with each of the following statements EXCEPT this one:
  2. A number of languages lack words for anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia.
  3. Anxiety disorders and major depression are the most common mental disorders in every nation for which data exist.
  4. Mental illness is expressed in very different ways in different parts of the world.
  5. The types of mental illnesses seen and their rates of occurrence vary greatly from one historical period to another.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Is Psychopathology Universal?

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. A medical anthropologist is examining the words used to describe mental illness in a variety of cultures, including an array of traditional, non-Western societies. The anthropologist is MOST likely to find ______.
  2. words for anxiety and depression in most cultures
  3. few, if any, words for disorders in some cultures
  4. a word for schizophrenia only in Western cultures
  5. that there is no consistency of disorders found across cultures

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Is Psychopathology Universal?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Traditionally, psychologists have used the term neurosis to refer to ______.
  2. schizophrenia
  3. anxiety
  4. bipolar disorder
  5. antisocial personality disorder

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Is Psychopathology Universal?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A scholar is writing a book titled The History of Psychopathology. Which of the following potential subtitles is NOT appropriate in light of the textbook’s discussion of changing views of mental illness?
  2. From Dopamine to Demons
  3. From Exorcism to Rx
  4. From Magic to Molecules
  5. From Simple to Complex

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Historical Considerations in Understanding Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Writers now routinely use people-first language when describing people with mental illnesses. For example, schizophrenics are now described as people with schizophrenia, and drug addicts are described as people living with drug addiction. The use of people-first language MOST directly reflects the contemporary understanding that ______.
  2. mental illness is complex and may be described on many levels
  3. people with mental illness are whole people, with both abilities and disabilities
  4. mental illness is best understood using the scientific method
  5. the brain is the structure most involved in mental illness

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Historical Considerations in Understanding Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In the sixth century BCE, the philosopher ______ set the stage for understanding human behavior and experience as related to internal processes and natural causes. He is also known for his theorem regarding the sides of a right triangle.
  2. Hippocrates
  3. Plato
  4. Aristotle
  5. Pythagoras

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ancient Greek and Roman Influences—Mental Illness Involves the Brain

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. With respect to psychopathology, Pythagoras’s two MOST important contributions were ______.
  2. his theorem regarding the sides of a right triangle and the invention of the word philosophy
  3. the belief that behavior reflects natural and internal causes and the invention of the word philosophy
  4. his theorem regarding the sides of a right triangle and the idea that the brain is the seat of intellect and mental illness
  5. the belief that behavior reflects natural and internal causes and the idea that the brain is the seat of intellect and mental illness

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ancient Greek and Roman Influences—Mental Illness Involves the Brain

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Often considered to be the father of modern medicine, the philosopher ______ emphasized careful observation and the idea that the causes of all disorders, both mental and physical, should be sought within the patient.
  2. Hippocrates
  3. Galen
  4. Aristotle
  5. Pythagoras

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ancient Greek and Roman Influences—Mental Illness Involves the Brain

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In the Renaissance, a group of philosophers known as the British Empiricists argued that all knowledge comes from the senses. The British Empiricists’ ideas were foreshadowed by those of the Roman physician ______.
  2. Hippocrates
  3. Galen
  4. Galileo
  5. Pythagoras

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ancient Greek and Roman Influences—Mental Illness Involves the Brain

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. With respect to Galen’s notion of spirits, the brain is to ______ spirits as the ______ is to natural spirits.
  2. vital; heart
  3. vital; liver
  4. animal; liver
  5. animal; heart

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ancient Greek and Roman Influences—Mental Illness Involves the Brain

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What was one reason given in the text to explain why Western science and medicine remained fairly stagnant during the Middle Ages?
  2. Very few people received a formal education.
  3. The was little or no communication between groups of peoples.
  4. Sickness and death were rampant.
  5. The church was able to determine the standard of truth.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Psychopathology in the Middle Ages

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The French philosopher ______ argued that the reflexes and involuntary actions of organisms were based on mechanical principles similar to those in machines.
  2. Jean-Marc Ferry
  3. Antoine Arnauld
  4. Edmond Fleg
  5. René Descartes

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: From the Renaissance to the 1700s—The Beginning of Modern Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In explaining why humans are not completely mechanical, Descartes has become associated with the ______ distinction.
  2. mind–body
  3. voluntary–involuntary
  4. heart–brain
  5. material–immaterial

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: From the Renaissance to the 1700s—The Beginning of Modern Science

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Descartes suggested that the rational soul was able to control the mechanical body by having both functions come together in a structure of the brain called the ______.
  2. brain stem
  3. cerebellum
  4. pineal gland
  5. occipital lobe

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: From the Renaissance to the 1700s—The Beginning of Modern Science

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In learning theory, classical conditioning applies to involuntary responses, whereas operant conditioning applies to voluntary actions. This distinction ultimately reflects the intellectual legacy of ______.
  2. Galen
  3. Newton
  4. Galileo
  5. Descartes

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: From the Renaissance to the 1700s—The Beginning of Modern Science

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. This physicist, mathematician, engineer, astronomer, and philosopher who invented the telescope and led a movement that would eventually replace authority with experimentation is ______.
  2. Newton
  3. Galileo
  4. Descartes
  5. Galen

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: From the Renaissance to the 1700s—The Beginning of Modern Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Thomas Willis suggested that lower brain structures were responsible for ______, whereas structures located higher in the brain were involved in ______.
  2. basic functions of life; advanced processes
  3. advanced processes; fine motor movements
  4. fine motor movements; basic functions of life
  5. basic functions of life; fine motor movements

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Discovering the Function of the Brain in Behavior and Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The white matter of the brain is involved in ______.
  2. storing information
  3. transferring information
  4. basic functions of life
  5. advanced processes

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Discovering the Function of the Brain in Behavior and Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Myelin is made up of fats and proteins and wraps around axons to ______.
  2. store information
  3. increase the speed of information transmission
  4. protect the nerve
  5. provide support and stability for the nerve

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Discovering the Function of the Brain in Behavior and Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. One contribution that helped scientists to understand how the nervous system developed and worked was the realization that the body created and used ______.
  2. specific nerve cells called glial cells
  3. an intricate system of sensory nerve endings
  4. the primary motor cortex to control motor movement
  5. electrical activity in its basic processes

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The 1700s to the 1900s

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. At the level of the spinal cord, sensory information is conveyed by the ______ root, whereas motor information is conveyed by the ______ root.
  2. lateral; dorsal
  3. ventral; lateral
  4. dorsal; lateral
  5. dorsal; ventral

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The 1700s to the 1900s

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In the 1850s, Hermann von Helmholtz measured the speed of the nerve impulse at about ______ feet per second.
  2. 30
  3. 60
  4. 90
  5. 120

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The 1700s to the 1900s

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Although Joseph Gall’s ideas regarding phrenology were inaccurate, one important idea that he suggested was that ______.
  2. functions were localized in the brain
  3. the brain was capable of processing and integrating sensory information almost instantaneously
  4. the brain was divided into hemispheres that are distinct and connected through the corpus callosum
  5. the brain was malleable, and specific regions could be adapted to perform a variety of functions

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The 1700s to the 1900s

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______’s area is located in the brain’s left frontal lobe and is related to language production.
  2. Broca
  3. Wernicke
  4. Bouillaud
  5. Jackson

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The 1700s to the 1900s

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. After a stroke, Mr. Larkin’s ability to produce fluent speech remains intact. However, he seems unable to understand speech. Because he cannot understand his own words as he speaks them, his speech tends to be nonsensical and often includes made-up words. The stroke appears to have damaged ______’s area in the left ______ lobe.
  2. Broca; frontal
  3. Broca; temporal
  4. Wernicke; frontal
  5. Wernicke; temporal

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The 1700s to the 1900s

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The principle of ______ states that the levels of the brain interact with each other and that interactions from the higher levels of the brain restrict or inhibit the lower levels of the brain.
  2. encephalization
  3. evolutionary functioning
  4. hierarchical integration
  5. natural selection

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The 1700s to the 1900s

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. According to Darwin’s idea of ______, if an individual has even a slight variation that helps it to compete for survival, then over time, the species will be made up more of more members with this variation.
  2. hierarchical integration
  3. encephalization
  4. sexual selection
  5. natural selection

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: A Growing Understanding of the Role of Evolution

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Sam complains of muscular tension and a constant, nagging sense of worry or apprehension. These complaints reflect ______ of generalized anxiety disorder.
  2. symptoms
  3. signs
  4. self-reports
  5. selfies

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: A Search for Organization

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A clinician notes that a patient seems emotionless and remains immobile for long periods. These features reflect ______ of schizophrenia.
  2. symptoms
  3. signs
  4. self-reports
  5. syndromes

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: A Search for Organization

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Together, signs and symptoms constitute a ______.
  2. diagnosis
  3. disease
  4. disorder
  5. syndrome

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: A Search for Organization

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Jean-Martin Charcot showed that the human motor cortex is organized with the ______ hemisphere controlling the ______ side of the body and vice versa.
  2. dorsal; lateral
  3. left; right
  4. anterior; posterior
  5. superior; volar

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: A Search for Organization

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. All of the following people were important to the “moral treatment of the insane,” EXCEPT this man:
  2. Benjamin Rush
  3. Phillipe Pinel
  4. Vincenzo Chiarugi
  5. James Norris

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.6: Discuss past and present methods of care for those with mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Care for Those with Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ is often considered to be the father of American psychiatry and saw mental illness as a problem of the mind.
  2. Benjamin Rush
  3. Phillipe Pinel
  4. Vincenzo Chiarugi
  5. James Norris

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.6: Discuss past and present methods of care for those with mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Care for Those with Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Who removed the chains from asylum inmates in Paris, abandoned bloodletting as a cure for mental illness, and developed a classification system of mental illness, published in 1789?
  2. Benjamin Rush
  3. Phillipe Pinel
  4. Vincenzo Chiarugi
  5. James Norris

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Discuss past and present methods of care for those with mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Care for Those with Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Very roughly, the beginning of the movement toward the humane, or “moral,” treatment of those with mental disorders may be dated to approximately ______.
  2. 1700
  3. 1800
  4. 1900
  5. 1950

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Discuss past and present methods of care for those with mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Care for Those with Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Paul has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Had Paul lived in another century, Phillipe Pinel would MOST likely have diagnosed him with ______.
  2. melancholia
  3. idiocy
  4. dementia
  5. mania without delirium

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.6: Discuss past and present methods of care for those with mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Care for Those with Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill in the United States is BEST described as a(n) ______.
  2. complete failure
  3. mixed blessing
  4. unqualified success
  5. unrealized dream

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Discuss past and present methods of care for those with mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Care for Those with Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. According to the text, the discovery of psychotropic drugs allowed for those with mental illnesses to live more independently. Considering deinstitutionalization, the discovery of these drugs MOST likely occurred in the ______.
  2. 1930s
  3. 1950s
  4. 1970s
  5. 1980s

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Discuss past and present methods of care for those with mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: From the Past to the Present

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. One example of a benzodiazepine is ______; it is used to treat ______.
  2. Thorazine; anxiety
  3. Thorazine; schizophrenia
  4. Valium; anxiety
  5. Valium; schizophrenia

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Biological Approaches to Treating Mental Illness

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which drug is matched with the disorder it is used to treat?
  2. Prozac—bipolar disorder
  3. Thorazine—schizophrenia
  4. lithium—anxiety
  5. Valium—depression

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Biological Approaches to Treating Mental Illness

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. With respect to biological treatments for mental illness, invasive is to noninvasive as ______ is to ______.
  2. frontal lobotomy; deep brain stimulation
  3. electroconvulsive therapy; transcranial magnetic stimulation
  4. deep brain stimulation; frontal lobotomy
  5. deep brain stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Biological Approaches to Treating Mental Illness

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, there was a movement to determine the effectiveness of medical and psychological treatments in a scientific manner. In psychology, treatments that have scientific evidence that the treatment is effective are called ______.
  2. empirically based treatments
  3. systematically supported treatments
  4. research-based treatments
  5. evidence-based treatments

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Psychological Treatment Perspectives in the 20th Century

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Empirically based treatments in psychology are BEST seen as ______ to evidence-based medicine.
  2. unrelated
  3. dissimilar
  4. analogous
  5. identical

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Psychological Treatment Perspectives in the 20th Century

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Psychoanalysis was developed by Freud and based on ______.
  2. the search for ideas and emotions that are in conflict on an unconscious level
  3. the search for self-actualization
  4. the need for individuals to receive unconditional positive regard
  5. the notion that dreams are the window into the unconscious

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Psychodynamic Perspectives on Treatment

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which perspective is based on the notion that psychological problems are the result of unresolved inner conflicts?
  2. behavioral
  3. humanist
  4. existential
  5. psychodynamic

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Psychodynamic Perspectives on Treatment

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In Freud’s concept of repression, higher cortical areas inhibit the experience of lower ones. Repression MOST directly reflects ______’s concept of ______.
  2. Darwin; hierarchical integration
  3. Darwin; natural selection
  4. Hughlings Jackson; hierarchical integration
  5. Hughlings Jackson; natural selection

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Psychodynamic Perspectives on Treatment

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Dynamic psychotherapy is an effective treatment for ______.
  2. personality disorders
  3. major depression
  4. schizophrenia
  5. phobias

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Psychodynamic Perspectives on Treatment

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which idea BEST matches the principles of a psychodynamic approach?
  2. Behaviors are the result of input from the environment, not a process in the mind.
  3. Experiencing is the basis of thought, feeling, and action.
  4. Behaviors and experiences may be influenced by processes that are outside of our awareness.
  5. Negative thought patterns are the basis of disorders like depression.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Psychodynamic Perspectives on Treatment

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. The ______ approach to psychotherapy focuses on the experience of the person in the moment and the manner in which he or she interprets these experiences.
  2. psychodynamic
  3. existential-humanistic
  4. behavioral
  5. cognitive

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Existential-Humanistic Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ was the creator of client-centered therapy.
  2. Carl Rogers
  3. Leslie Greenburg
  4. Abraham Maslow
  5. Carl Jung

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Existential-Humanistic Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is NOT a key characteristic of client-centered therapy?
  2. the need to meet lower-level needs before attaining higher-level needs
  3. empathic understanding
  4. unconditional positive regard
  5. genuineness and congruence

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Existential-Humanistic Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Emotion-focused therapy is one example of a(n) ______ therapy.
  2. existential-humanistic
  3. psychodynamic
  4. biological
  5. cognitive behavioral

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Existential-Humanistic Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ is NOT a key characteristic of Rogers’s client-centered therapy.
  2. Empathic understanding
  3. Unconditional positive regard
  4. Genuineness and congruence
  5. Challenging cognitive distortions

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Existential-Humanistic Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. ______ is a technique that involves a focused, purposeful awareness of the present moment in an accepting, nonjudgmental manner.
  2. Presentism
  3. Person-centered experience
  4. Relativism
  5. Mindfulness

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Existential-Humanistic Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The final phase in emotion-focused therapy is ______.
  2. transformation and generation of alternatives
  3. evocation and exploration
  4. mindfulness and meditation
  5. bonding and awareness

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Existential-Humanistic Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Nobel Prize winner ______ demonstrated that a sensory stimulus, such as a sound, would produce salivation when it was paired with food.
  2. Ivan Pavlov
  3. John Watson
  4. B. F. Skinner
  5. Aaron Beck

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Every time somebody flushes a toilet in the house, the shower becomes very cold and causes the person to jump back. Over time, the person begins to jump back automatically after hearing the flush, before the water temperature changes. This is an example of ______.
  2. operant conditioning
  3. classical conditioning
  4. positive reinforcement
  5. response cost

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. For a behaviorist like John Watson, ______ is the only important aspect in understanding human behavior.
  2. observable behavior
  3. an internal conflict in the subconscious mind
  4. the striving toward wholeness
  5. a hierarchy of needs

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Every time John gets in his car and begins to drive without a seatbelt, an annoying red flashing light blinks. John is less likely to drive the car without his seatbelt in the future. This is an example of ______.
  2. operant conditioning
  3. classical conditioning
  4. positive reinforcement
  5. extinction

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Who developed a cognitive therapy for depression in which the client must become aware of thinking patterns that tend to lead to self-blame and negative interpretations of events?
  2. John Watson
  3. B. F. Skinner
  4. Aaron Beck
  5. Albert Bandura

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Beck’s cognitive triad does NOT include negative views about ______.
  2. the world
  3. the future
  4. oneself
  5. the past

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. A therapist asks a client to record his thoughts, along with how these thoughts make him feel, for a week. When they next meet, they review this list and discuss different ways that these thoughts might be illogical. This description BEST characterizes a session of what kind of therapy?
  2. dynamic psychotherapy
  3. emotion-focused therapy
  4. cognitive-behavioral therapy
  5. client-centered therapy

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The thought that “Nothing will ever be any good ever again” is an example of ______.
  2. dichotomous thinking
  3. overgeneralization
  4. personalization
  5. catastrophizing

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. An example of the “new way” of CBT is ______ therapy.
  2. acceptance and commitment
  3. emotion-focused
  4. client-centered
  5. process-experiential

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

True/False

  1. Depression contributes to more loss of productivity than cancer does.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Defining Psychopathology and Understanding Its Components

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In recent years, the stigma surrounding mental illness in the United States has grown more negative.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Stigma and Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The term signs refers to the features of a disorder that are observed and reported by the patient.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.2: Discuss the major themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Three Major Themes of this Book

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Research suggests that psychopathology is socially constructed.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Is Psychopathology Universal?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In Roman times, Galen was a champion of empiricism.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ancient Greek and Roman Influences—Mental Illness Involves the Brain

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Galileo led the movement that would eventually lead to authority being replaced by experimentation.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: From the Renaissance to the 1700s—The Beginning of Modern Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The textbook credits 17th-century doctor Thomas Willis with being the first to use the word psychology in English.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Discovering the Function of the Brain in Behavior and Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Gray matter is responsible for transmitting information throughout the brain.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Discovering the Function of the Brain in Behavior and Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Luigi Galvani and Emil Du Bois-Reymond were among the first to demonstrate that electrical stimulation would cause a frog’s leg to twitch.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The 1700s to the 1900s

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The number of individuals in mental hospitals in the United States has decreased substantially since the 1950s.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.6: Discuss past and present methods of care for those with mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Care for Those with Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. There is no empirical support for the effectiveness of humanistic-experiential therapies.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Existential-Humanistic Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In extinction, a conditioned stimulus will no longer produce the response when it is presented in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. John Watson suggested that the proper study of psychology is both behavior and the mind.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. One limitation of behaviorism is that it ignores internal processes.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. From the cognitive behavioral perspective, dysfunctional thinking is common to all psychological disturbances.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

Completion (Fill-in-the-Blank)

  1. ______ is the study of psychological dysfunctions that a person experiences in terms of distress or impairment in functioning.

Ans: Abnormal psychology

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Defining Psychopathology and Understanding Its Components

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The term ______ refers to the negative attitudes that might cause people to avoid those with a mental illness.

Ans: stigma

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Stigma and Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The behavior and ______ perspective on psychopathology is MOST likely to emphasize signs and symptoms.

Ans: experiential

Learning Objective: 1.2: Discuss the major themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Three Major Themes of This Book

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Abnormal psychology has been enriched not only by the evolutionary perspective but also by the ______ perspective, which emphasizes the importance of the information, skills, values, and attitudes that one acquires from other people.

Ans: cultural

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Relation of Evolution and Culture to Psychopathology

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. When neuroscientists investigate how mental processes arise from the brain, their work reflects a problem highlighted by the French philosopher ______ at the beginning of the Renaissance.

Ans: Descartes, Rene Descartes

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: From the Renaissance to the 1700s—The Beginning of Modern Science

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The idea that the prefrontal cortex may inhibit the impulses of such limbic system structures as the amygdala reflects Hughlings Jackson’s principle of ______.

Ans: hierarchical integration

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The 1700s to the 1900s

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Benjamin ______ signed the Declaration of Independence and is considered the “father of American psychiatry.”

Ans: Rush

Learning Objective: 1.6: Discuss past and present methods of care for those with mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Care for Those with Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Disorders as diverse as major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia may be treated with drugs called ______ medications.

Ans: psychotropic

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Biological Approaches to Treating Mental Illness

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. One example of an existential-humanistic therapy is Greenberg’s ______-focused therapy, also called process-experiential therapy.

Ans: emotion

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Existential-Humanistic Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Easy

Essay

  1. Define stigma, and discuss how it may influence how people with psychological disorders are perceived and treated.

Ans: Stigma refers to the negative attitudes that may cause people to avoid those with psychological disorders. One example of this stigma is the belief that people with psychological disorders are violent; in fact, only a small percentage of mentally ill persons are ever involved with gun violence. Fear of stigma and possible embarrassment lead to low numbers of mentally ill people seeking treatment. It is estimated that only 20% of mentally ill people seek treatment. Because mental illness is seen as a personal failing, society is reluctant to allocate sufficient funds to the hospitals, clinics, programs, and so on that might treat the mentally ill.

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the components and key considerations of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Stigma and Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. List the three perspectives that form the themes of the textbook. Suggest how each perspective may enrich our understanding of anxiety or depression.

Ans: Behavioral and experiential perspective, neuroscience perspective, and evolutionary perspective. The behavioral and experiential perspective might emphasize the subjective symptoms of anxiety or depression, such as worry or sadness, as well as such objective signs as inhibited emotional expression or changes in sleeping patterns. The neuroscience perspective focuses on the brain bases of disorders and contributes to the development of antianxiety or antidepressant medication. Finally, the evolutionary perspective considers the adaptive value of such disorders as anxiety or depression; anxiety may inhibit one from taking unnecessary risks, for example. The evolutionary perspective also examines the extent to which disorders are universal across cultures.

Learning Objective: 1.2: Discuss the major themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Three Major Themes of this Book.

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. What is meant by the notion that mental illness is a social construction? How does cross-cultural research suggest that psychopathology is universal rather than a social construction?

Ans: The view that mental illness is a social construction suggests that thought or behavior may be abnormal only in relation to social norms; mental illness may be defined very differently from one society or historical period to another. Cross-cultural research by Jane Murphy discredits this view by showing that similar disorders are found at similar rates in very different cultures, including non-Western groups. Diverse cultures have words to refer to neurosis, psychosis, and normalcy.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain how evolution and culture are relevant to psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Is Psychopathology Universal?

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Explain how the insights of (a) Pythagoras, (b) Hippocrates, and (c) Galen are reflected in the present-day sciences of normal and abnormal behavior.

Ans: (a) Pythagoras sought to identify the scientific principles underlying behavior; argued that the causes of behavior are not supernatural but are natural and internal to the individual; saw the brain as the organ involved in intellect and mental disorders. (b) Hippocrates emphasized knowledge through observation and discussed the role of the brain at length. (c) Galen described the brain, the cranial nerves, and the sympathetic nervous system; theory of spirits in the blood foreshadowed our modern understanding of the endocrine system.

Learning Objective: 1.4: Summarize the historical influences on modern conceptions of mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ancient Greek and Roman Influences—Mental Illness Involves the Brain

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Name three people who were important proponents of the idea of localization of function in the brain. Describe their contributions. Why was localization of function an important discovery in the history of psychology?

Ans: Any three of the following will do: Joseph Gall, Paul Broca, Carl Wernicke, or John Hughlings Jackson. Gall correctly described some of the functions of the frontal lobe; Broca and Wernicke identified brain areas involved in speech production and comprehension; and Hughlings Jackson described the hierarchical organization of the brain. Understanding that specific locations in the brain were responsible for specific functions set the foundation for our current understanding of the brain.

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain how discoveries about the brain contributed to an understanding of psychopathology.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The 1700s to the 1900s

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Identify the positive and negative consequences of the deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill that began in the 1950s. How might the negative consequences be mitigated? Suggest how stigma might hamper the mitigation of these consequences.

Ans: While deinstitutionalization allowed many people with mental illness to live independently, others ended up homeless or incarcerated. Community clinics and other support systems were not built or were inadequately funded, perhaps because mental illness is seen as a personal failing rather than a social problem.

Learning Objective: 1.6: Discuss past and present methods of care for those with mental disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Care for Those with Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. How were Sigmund Freud’s theories influenced by the neurologist John Hughlings Jackson?

Ans: Jackson suggested that there are levels of the brain, from more primitive to more evolved, and that higher levels restrict lower levels. As such, it was possible for the psyche to also be in conflict with itself and to have different layers representing different processes. Freud’s notion of repression is a direct development of Hughlings Jackson’s notions of hierarchical integration and inhibitory control.

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Psychodynamic Perspectives on Treatment

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Suppose a friend is considering visiting a humanistic-experiential psychotherapist. Briefly outline several themes of humanistic-experiential therapy you might describe when she asks you what you think this type of therapy might be like.

Ans: The response should mention an emphasis on human growth and the need for positive psychology, the idea that psychological health is more than just an absence of pathology, the importance of finding meaning in life, and a focus on both the external world and the individual’s subjective experience.

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Existential-Humanistic Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A student struggling with depression visits the campus counseling center. In one session, the counselor asks the student to complete a cognitive triad by listing some negative thoughts under each of the three headings. Identify the headings that might appear on the sheet; for each, list a negative thought the student might write.

Ans: Heading should refer to the self, the world, and the future. Examples might include, “I am no good at all,” (Self) “Life is too difficult,” (World) and, “I’ll never graduate and find a job,” (Future).

Learning Objective: 1.7: Describe the major present-day empirical treatment perspectives.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Hard

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