Test Bank Adolescence 17th edition By John Santrock

Test Bank Adolescence 17th edition By John Santrock

Test Bank Adolescence 17th edition By John Santrock

Test Bank Adolescence 17th edition By John Santrock

Test Bank Adolescence 17th edition By John Santrock

Adolescence, 17e (Santrock)

Chapter 1 Introduction

1) According to Plato, reasoning first appears during

A) early childhood.

B) middle childhood.

C) adolescence.

D) young adulthood.

2) Plato thought children should study

A) science.

B) music.

C) art.

D) mathematics.

3) Plato thought that adolescents should study

A) science.

B) language.

C) music.

D) history.

4) Which ability did Aristotle argue is the most important aspect of adolescence?

A) the ability to reason

B) the ability to think critically

C) the ability to debate

D) the ability to choose

5) What did Aristotle see as the hallmark of maturity?

A) self-determination

B) empathy

C) self-efficacy

D) critical thinking

6) Rousseau believed that curiosity should be especially encouraged in the education of

A) 6- to 8-year-old children.

B) 8- to 11-year-old children.

C) 12- to 15-year-old children.

D) 17- to 19-year-old children.

7) Ms. Bowen encourages her students, ages 12-15, to engage their curiosity in their learning. This teacher's ideas most closely resemble those of

A) Sigmund Freud.

B) Aristotle.

C) Hall.

D) Rousseau.

8) G. Stanley Hall believed that development is controlled primarily by ________ factors.

A) cultural

B) psychological

C) social

D) biological

9) The "storm and stress" view of adolescence was postulated by

A) Jean Rousseau.

B) Alfred Adler.

C) G. Stanley Hall.

D) Margaret Mead.

10) The "storm and stress" view of adolescence sees adolescence as a time of

A) turbulence.

B) conflict.

C) mood swings.

D) All of these choices are correct.

11) Mary tells her husband that she is not looking forward to the time their son becomes an adolescent, because she has read that it is a time of great conflict and stress for the family. Which of the following theorists would agree with Mary's view of adolescence?

A) Carl Jung

B) Carol Gilligan

C) Anna Freud

D) G. Stanley Hall

12) Anthropologist Margaret Mead concluded that the basic nature of adolescence is

A) biological.

B) psychological.

C) sociocultural.

D) cognitive.

13) Mead believed that cultures in which adolescents' experiences are quite different from adults' experiences produce adolescents who

A) experience more stress.

B) experience less stress.

C) develop empathy at early ages.

D) develop empathy later in life.

14) Every state had developed special laws for youth between the ages of 16 and 18-20 by which year?

A) 1920

B) 1930

C) 1940

D) 1950

15) Which of the following historical events changed both the description and the study of adolescents?

A) the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s

B) the feminist movement of the 1970s

C) the anti-war protests of the 1960s

D) the Great Depression of the 1930s

16) Millennials are more ________ than their counterparts of previous generations.

A) diverse

B) tolerant

C) open-minded

D) All of these choices are correct.

17) Which of the following statements regarding Laurence Steinberg's position on the state of adolescent well-being in today's generation is NOT TRUE?

A) The academic achievement in math and science among U.S. teens falls well below the academic achievement of teens in many other countries.

B) Almost one-third of today's teenage girls become pregnant by the age of 20.

C) Rates of first sexual intercourse prior to age 18 has risen dramatically over the past several years.

D) College graduation rates among U.S. college students falls below the college graduation rates among college students in other countries.

18) Which of the following statements about stereotypes is NOT true?

A) There are very few stereotypes related to adolescents.

B) Stereotypes are difficult to give up once assigned.

C) Stereotypes are generalizations about a broad category of people.

D) Stereotypes describe a typical member of a specific group.

19) Howard is a manager of a fast-food restaurant that employs many adolescents. Howard tells his wife, "They are all self-centered mopes who have no work ethic!" Howard's statement about adolescents is

A) a prototype.

B) an exaggeration.

C) a stereotype.

D) a sign that he needs counseling.

20) The term "adolescent generalization gap" refers to

A) differences in decision-making skills between adolescents and older adults.

B) generalizations based on information about a limited group of adolescents.

C) technological skill differences between adolescents and grade school children.

D) differences in social abilities between younger and older adolescents.

21) Daniel Offer and his colleagues discovered that most adolescents have

A) a negative self-image.

B) negative attitudes towards their schools.

C) a positive self-image.

D) an ambiguous self-image.

22) Julie, age 15, has dyed her hair purple and will only wear black jeans and white tops. Julie's parents should know that, according to adolescent psychologists

A) Julie is showing signs of a conduct disorder.

B) Julie needs counseling for her hostility issues.

C) Julie is testing boundaries and discovering her identity.

D) Julie needs more parental control over her behavior.

23) Which of the following factors influence the developmental trajectory of every adolescent?

A) socioeconomic

B) ethnic

C) lifestyle

D) All of these choices are correct.

24) The settings in which development occurs are known as

A) arenas.

B) compounds.

C) cohorts.

D) context.

25) The fastest-growing ethnic group of adolescents in the United States is

A) non-Latino Whites.

B) Asian Americans.

C) Latinos.

D) African Americans.

26) Sherry's community college has partnerships with the local hospital, the library, and the Boys' and Girls' Club to encourage students to engage in cooperative learning experiences and build strong community relationships. This is an example of what Peter Benson and his colleagues would call a

A) developmentally attentive youth policy.

B) community-enhancing initiative.

C) cross-generational policy.

D) socially enhancing planned model.

27) Research has shown that children living in poverty have elevated levels of

A) blood glucose.

B) stress.

C) anger.

D) growth hormones.

28) Which of the following statements about adolescent health and well-being is TRUE?

A) Adolescent health and well-being have improved in all areas.

B) More adolescents around the world die of malnutrition today than at any time in the past.

C) More adolescents around the world die of infectious diseases today than at any time in the past.

D) Extensive increases in the rates of HIV in adolescents have occurred in many sub-Saharan countries.

29) What do studies show about gender differences?

A) In many countries, males have less freedom than females to engage in leisure activities.

B) Except in a few areas, males have greater access to educational opportunities than females.

C) Gender differences are similar in all countries.

D) In some parts of the world, control over adolescent girls' sexual relationships is increasing.

30) Which of the following is NOT a trend related to families around the world?

A) migration to rural areas

B) smaller families

C) increase in mothers' employment

D) greater family mobility

31) Which of the following is true about adolescents' peers?

A) Peers figure prominently in the lives of adolescents in most Western nations.

B) Peers can serve as surrogate families for some street youth.

C) Peers have a limited role for girls in Arab cultures.

D) All of these choices are correct.

32) Development

A) involves growth.

B) is complex.

C) continues through the lifespan.

D) All of these choices are correct.

33) Which of the following is NOT a biological process?

A) advances in motor skills

B) development of the brain

C) weight gains

D) changes in personality

34) Which process of human development includes the hormonal changes of puberty?

A) socioemotional

B) cognitive

C) biological

D) psychological

35) Which of the following is associated with the developmental period of early childhood?

A) beginning of symbolic thought

B) school readiness

C) extreme dependence on adults

D) beginning of sensorimotor skills

36) The developmental period of childhood includes all of the following periods EXCEPT

A) prenatal.

B) perinatal.

C) infancy.

D) early childhood.

37) A key task of adolescence is

A) refining sensorimotor coordination.

B) development of an understanding of one's culture.

C) mastery of language skills.

D) preparation for adulthood.

38) In the United States and most other cultures, adolescence begins at approximately ________ years of age.

A) 9-12

B) 11-14

C) 10-13

D) 12-15

39) Alex has begun dating and he is interested in taking a course called "Career Exploration" that will help him decide on a future career. Alex is probably in which period?

A) early adolescence

B) late adolescence

C) late childhood

D) early adulthood

40) The developmental period when people are interested in transmitting their values to the next generation is

A) emerging adulthood.

B) middle adulthood.

C) late adulthood.

D) early adulthood.

41) Paul spends much of his time working in his garden and reading books on photography. He doesn't have as much strength as he used to have, but he is enjoying his time of decreased responsibility. Developmental psychologists would say that Paul is probably in

A) emerging old age.

B) middle adulthood.

C) late adulthood.

D) terminal adulthood.

42) The transition from childhood to adolescence includes all of the following EXCEPT

A) biological changes of puberty.

B) more abstract ways of thinking.

C) desire to spend more time with family.

D) greater interest in romantic relationships.

43) The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been referred to as

A) pre-adulthood.

B) post-adolescence.

C) transitional adulthood.

D) emerging adulthood.

44) According to Jeffrey Arnett, emerging adulthood is characterized by five key factors. Which of the following is NOT one of these features?

A) stability

B) identity exploration

C) feeling in-between

D) self-focused

45) Jeffrey Arnett saw emerging adulthood as a time when many individuals are

A) secure in their adult status.

B) absorbed in social obligations and family duties.

C) optimistic about their futures.

D) fairly stable in love and career.

46) In the United States the most widely recognized marker for entry into adulthood is

A) graduation from high school.

B) graduation from college.

C) holding a permanent, full-time job.

D) getting married.

47) The ability to adapt positively and achieve successful outcomes despite significant risks and adverse consequences is

A) hardiness.

B) resilience.

C) self-efficacy.

D) propriate striving.

48) Ann Masten and her colleagues found that emerging adults who overcame adversity and went on to become competent adults had all of the following characteristics EXCEPT

A) they were well-traveled.

B) they were intelligent.

C) they had high-quality parenting.

D) they had a higher socioeconomic status.

49) Which of the following events may be seen as a turning-point opportunity for changing the life course during emerging adulthood?

A) marriage

B) work opportunities

C) higher education

D) All of these choices are correct.

50) Dr. Jackson argues that human beings have basic growth tendencies genetically wired into them. Dr. Albright believes that humans are basically shaped by their environments. Dr. Jackson supports the ________ approach to development, while Dr. Albright advocates for the ________ approach.

A) nurture; nature

B) nature; nurture

C) continuity; discontinuity

D) cognitive; biological

51) Which of the following would a proponent of the nature approach to human development cite as evidence of the strength of genetics?

A) the fact that we grow rapidly in infancy

B) the fact that development is affected by nutritional status

C) the fact that development is shaped by the media

D) the fact that access to medical care affects development

52) Developmentalists who emphasize the importance of experience describe development as

A) a series of distinct stages.

B) a gradual, continuous process.

C) chaotic and unpredictable.

D) None of these choices are correct.

53) Developmentalists who emphasize the importance of nature describe development as

A) a series of distinct stages.

B) a gradual, continuous process.

C) alternating periods of turbulence and calm.

D) None of these choices are correct.

54) Carrie was abused by her parents. She was eventually removed from their care and was later adopted at age 6 by her foster parents. Which of the following doctrines would assert that Carrie's later quality of parental care can overcome her earlier negative experience?

A) early-experience

B) later-experience

C) middle-experience

D) positive-experience

55) Which of the following is NOT a step in the scientific method?

A) conceptualize a problem to be studied

B) collect data

C) analyze data

D) publish study results

56) An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomenon and to make predictions is called

A) a hypothesis.

B) an operational definition.

C) a theory.

D) an independent variable.

57) Specific assertions and predictions that can be tested are

A) theories.

B) hypotheses.

C) independent variables.

D) extraneous variables.

58) The pioneering architect of psychoanalytical theory was

A) Carl Jung.

B) Erik Erikson.

C) Karen Horney.

D) Sigmund Freud.

59) Psychoanalytic theories emphasize that development is all of the following EXCEPT

A) primarily related to observable behavior.

B) primarily unconscious.

C) shaped by early experiences with parents.

D) heavily colored by emotions.

60) Which of the following is NOT one of Freud's psychosexual stages?

A) phallic

B) genital

C) oral

D) moral

61) Which of the following is a structure in Freud's concept of personality?

A) the collective unconscious

B) the id

C) the self

D) the personal unconscious

62) According to Freud, the moral branch of the personality is the

A) ego.

B) id.

C) superego.

D) self.

63) According to Freud, ________ is the most powerful and pervasive defense mechanism.

A) reaction formation

B) denial

C) regression

D) repression

64) Which of the following statements about defense mechanisms is TRUE?

A) Defense mechanisms are always unhealthy.

B) Defense mechanisms are unconscious.

C) Defense mechanisms are conscious.

D) Defense mechanisms are always helpful in avoiding reality.

65) Erikson believed that we develop in ________ stages.

A) psychosocial

B) psychosexual

C) psychodynamic

D) psychometric

66) Denise argues that early experiences are more important; Barbara believes that both early and later experiences are important. Denise's view is consistent with ________, while Barbara's view would be supported by ________.

A) Skinner; Erikson

B) Erikson; Freud

C) Freud; Erikson

D) Erikson; Skinner

67) Erikson's ________ psychosocial stage is experienced in the first year of life.

A) autonomy versus shame and doubt

B) initiative versus guilt

C) generativity versus stagnation

D) trust versus mistrust

68) Harper, age 19 months, has just begun to assert her independence. Harper is probably in Erikson's psychosocial stage of

A) identity versus identity confusion.

B) trust versus mistrust.

C) autonomy versus shame and doubt.

D) industry versus inferiority.

69) The negative outcome of Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development is

A) mistrust.

B) shame.

C) doubt.

D) inferiority.

70) According to Erikson, adolescents are in the psychosocial stage of

A) intimacy versus isolation.

B) identity versus identity confusion.

C) initiative versus guilt.

D) industry versus inferiority.

71) According to Erikson, the core developmental task of early adulthood is to develop

A) intimacy.

B) integrity.

C) identity.

D) initiative.

72) Edith, age 57, believes that she has done little to help nurture the next generation. According to Erikson, Edith has experienced ________ associated with the seventh stage of psychosocial development.

A) inferiority

B) role confusion

C) selfishness

D) stagnation

73) Cognitive theories emphasize

A) behaviors.

B) emotions.

C) conscious thoughts.

D) None of these choices are correct.

74) For Piaget, the two processes that underlie cognitive construction of the world are

A) denial and distortion.

B) internalizing and externalizing.

C) organization and adaptation.

D) ordering and differentiating.

75) Which of the following statements about Piaget's theory is NOT true?

A) Piaget believed that people go through six stages in understanding the world.

B) Piaget believed that people go through four stages in understanding the world.

C) Each of Piaget's stages is age related.

D) Each of Piaget's stages represents a different way of understanding the world.

76) Caleb, age 3, is in which of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?

A) sensorimotor

B) preoperational

C) concrete operational

D) formal operational

77) Which of the following statements about Piaget's concrete operational stage is TRUE?

A) It lasts from birth to about 2 years of age.

B) It encompasses the ability to think in an abstract manner.

C) It lasts from approximately 7 to 11 years of age.

D) Children can perform operations that involve developing hypotheses.

78) Jenn has just begun to think abstractly and develop images of ideal circumstances. According to Piaget, Jenn is in the ________ stage of cognitive development.

A) sensorimotor

B) concrete operational

C) formal operational

D) post-formal operational

79) Vygotsky emphasized the role of ________ in cognitive development.

A) culture

B) social interaction

C) learning to use the inventions of society

D) All of these choices are correct.

80) Which of the following operations is emphasized by information-processing theorists?

A) encoding information

B) storing information

C) retrieving information

D) All of these choices are correct.

81) Which of the following is a version of behaviorism?

A) Social Cognitive Theory

B) Information-processing Theory

C) Psychosocial Theory

D) Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

82) Which of the following statements describing Skinner's theory of operant conditioning is NOT true?

A) A behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus is likely to be repeated.

B) A behavior followed by a punishing stimulus is less likely to recur.

C) A behavior that is ignored will be repeated.

D) Rewards and punishments shape behavior.

83) The leading theorist in the development of social cognitive theory is

A) Albert Bandura.

B) Walter Mischel.

C) George Kelly.

D) John Watson.

84) Craig sees his father help an elderly man who seems to have become confused and lost his way. Several days later, Craig notices a woman looking in the shrubs for her lost wallet. Craig tries to help her look for her wallet. Bandura would say that Craig's behavior was learned through

A) observation of his father.

B) teaching of moral values in Sunday School.

C) being punished in the past for not offering to help an older person.

D) being given a reward in the past for turning in a lost wallet to the police.

85) Bandura's model of learning and development includes the elements of behavior, person/cognition, and the

A) unconscious mind.

B) environment.

C) rewards available.

D) All of these choices are correct.

86) Bronfenbrenner developed ________, a perspective that has important implications for understanding adolescent development.

A) ecological theory

B) environmental theory

C) socioeconomic theory

D) existential theory

87) What is the system in Bronfenbrenner's theory that considers sociohistorical circumstances?

A) mesosystem

B) microsystem

C) chronosystem

D) exosystem

88) Which of the following of Bronfenbrenner's systems considers the culture in which adolescents live?

A) chronosystem

B) microsystem

C) exosystem

D) macrosystem

89) Harry fights constantly with his parents. Bronfenbrenner would predict that Harry might have difficulty relating to his teacher because of a disruption in his

A) mesosystem.

B) exosystem.

C) chronosystem.

D) macrosystem.

90) An approach to understanding adolescent development that selects from each theory whatever is considered its best features is called

A) a hybrid theory.

B) a patchwork theory.

C) an eclectic theory.

D) a blended theory.

91) Scientific observations

A) require a special set of skills.

B) are the first step in collecting data.

C) have to be systematic.

D) All of these choices are correct.

92) Researchers can conduct observations in the everyday world or in the

A) laboratory.

B) virtual world.

C) theoretical world.

D) None of these choices are correct.

93) Which of the following is a drawback to conducting observational research in a laboratory?

A) People must be paid for their time.

B) People behave more naturally when they are away from the stresses of the "real world."

C) People may be too relaxed in a laboratory setting.

D) People who are willing to come to a laboratory might not be representative of the general population.

94) Lilly is a researcher who wants to know how often high-school students are using their cell phones to cheat on tests. Lilly pretends to be a visiting student. She sits in on classes and observes students as they take tests. Lilly's method of research is known as

A) in situ research.

B) naturalistic observation.

C) covert research.

D) in vivo research.

95) Which of the following statements about using surveys to collect data is TRUE?

A) People answer in ways that they see as socially desirable.

B) Surveys need to be conducted in person so the participant can be observed.

C) Surveys can only be done on a limited range of topics.

D) All of these choices are correct.

96) The Stanford-Binet Intelligence test is an example of

A) a projective test.

B) a case study.

C) a standardized test.

D) a subjective test.

97) Which of the following statements about standardized tests is TRUE?

A) They assume that people will perform differently depending on the setting of the test.

B) They assume that a person's behavior is consistent and stable.

C) They do not allow a person's performance to be compared with the performance of other people.

D) They do not provide any information about differences among people.

98) Measuring the levels of hormones in an adolescent's blood stream is an example of which type of measure of adolescent development?

A) psychological

B) experience sampling

C) physiological

D) concrete

99) MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses ________ to construct an image of the ________.

A) x-rays; brain

B) radio waves; brain

C) radioactive glucose; brain

D) electrical activity levels; heart

100) Corey is participating in research. She is given an electronic pager, and a researcher "beeps" her several times a day to ask her what she is doing. The researcher is using which of the following methods?

A) random sampling

B) experimental design

C) experience sampling

D) correlational research

101) A research method in which a single individual is examined in depth is called the

A) single-subject design.

B) case-study method.

C) observational design.

D) descriptive method.

102) The three main types of research designs are descriptive, correlational, and

A) observational.

B) covert.

C) experimental.

D) overt.

103) Dr. Tremble sends out surveys to faculty at 57 randomly selected colleges to assess their perceptions of faculty harassment. This is an example of ________ research.

A) correlational

B) descriptive

C) experimental

D) observational

104) Which of the following statements regarding correlational research is NOT true?

A) The goal of correlational research is to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships.

B) The goal of correlational research is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics.

C) The results of correlational research are reported in a numerical measure called a correlation coefficient.

D) A negative correlation coefficient means an inverse relationship.

105) Professor Sands studies the relationship between the number of minutes that an adolescent spends text messaging each semester and his/her grades in school. She found a correlation of +.60. What can we conclude from this report?

A) Text messaging results in lower grades for adolescents.

B) Text messaging has no effect on grades for adolescents.

C) Text messaging and academic grades are related in adolescents.

D) The more an adolescent text messages, the higher his or her grades.

106) Three doctoral students are using correlational research designs for their dissertation research. When all of the work is done, Marilyn's data yielded a correlation coefficient of -.45, Susan's data was at +.30 and Bryan's data a -.50. Which student's data shows the strongest correlation between variables?

A) Bryan

B) Susan

C) Marilyn

D) All students showed very similar results.

107) Which of the following correlation coefficients shows the weakest correlation?

A) -.10

B) +.15

C) +.70

D) -.80

108) The factor that is manipulated in experimental research is the

A) independent variable.

B) dependent variable.

C) extraneous variable.

D) None of these choices are correct.

109) The variable that is measured and that is expected to change as a result of experimental research is the

A) independent variable.

B) dependent variable.

C) extraneous variable.

D) experimental variable.

110) Which of the following statements about experimental research is NOT true?

A) All experiments involve at least one independent variable and one dependent variable.

B) Experiments demonstrate cause and effect.

C) Experimental design uses experimental groups only.

D) Experimental design uses experimental and control groups.

111) Assigning participants to experimental or control groups by chance is known as

A) random assignment.

B) lottery assignment.

C) nonrandom assignment.

D) convenience assignment.

112) The type of research that involves studying people all at the same time is known as

A) single-subject research.

B) longitudinal research.

C) sequential research.

D) cross-sectional research.

113) A disadvantage of cross-sectional research is

A) the variable under investigation is assessed all at the same time.

B) it is not very effective.

C) it gives no information about how individuals change over time.

D) it is time-consuming and expensive to conduct.

114) Professor Kelly is interested in seeing how adolescents' prosocial behavior changes over time. He assesses a group of adolescents at ages 12, 15, and 18. Professor Kelly is doing ________ research.

A) sequential

B) longitudinal

C) cross-sectional

D) experimental

115) A disadvantage of longitudinal research is

A) it is expensive to conduct.

B) it is time-consuming to conduct.

C) participants who remain in the study may be dissimilar to those who dropped out.

D) All of these choices are correct.

116) Which of the following is NOT one of the APA's guidelines for ethical research?

A) full disclosure to participants regarding the exact nature of the research

B) informed consent

C) confidentiality

D) debriefing

117) Melissa has agreed to participate in a 90-day study of food preferences among adolescents. After participating for two weeks, Melissa wants to withdraw from the study because it is taking too much of her time. According to the APA guidelines

A) Melissa has to give the researchers a two-week notice before she can withdraw.

B) Melissa can withdraw at any time.

C) Melissa cannot withdraw once she has signed an informed consent form.

D) Melissa can withdraw only if she has a valid reason, such as a health issue or family emergency.

118) Which of the following statements about gender bias is TRUE?

A) Gender bias is a preconceived idea about the abilities of females and males that prevents them from reaching their full potential.

B) When gender differences are found, they sometimes are unduly magnified.

C) Gender bias happens when conclusions are drawn about females from research conducted with only males.

D) All of these choices are correct.

119) Using an ethnic label such as Asian or Latino in a way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogenous than it is, is known as

A) ethnic stereotyping.

B) ethnic gloss.

C) ethnic shine.

D) ethnic categorization.

120) Compare and contrast G. Stanley Hall's "storm and stress" view of adolescence with the inventionist view.

121) What were the underlying themes of the 1960s and 1970s?

122) List at least four stereotypes of adolescents today.

123) Compare and contrast psychologists' early views of adolescents with views common now.

124) Describe how the cultural contexts of the United States are changing, especially with respect to immigration patterns and the projections for future demographics.

125) List and describe at least four cultural variations of adolescence around the world.

126) Discuss major trends in health and well-being for adolescents around the world. Include both positive and negative changes.

127) Discuss gender differences in the experiences of male and female adolescents, with respect to education, leisure activities, sexual experiences, family, and peers.

128) List and briefly define the three determinants of human development.

129) Explain what modern theorists mean when they say, "Development is a lifelong process."

130) Briefly describe the three periods of adult development.

131) Beth is 22 years old. What developmental transition period is Beth in, and what are the two main characterizations of this period?

132) List Jeffrey Arnett's five key features of emerging adulthood.

133) What are some of the factors that make it difficult to determine when an individual becomes an adult?

134) List and briefly describe the three types of assets that Jacquelynne Eccles and her colleagues determined are especially important for making a competent transition through adolescence and emerging adulthood.

135) List and define the three major issues in studying adolescent development.

136) List the four steps in the scientific method.

137) List and describe Freud's three parts to the personality.

138) Describe Piaget's formal operational stage of cognitive development. Be sure to address ages and major changes in thinking.

139) What are the main ideas behind Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development?

140) What is the main idea behind Skinner's theory of operant conditioning?

141) List the three key factors in development, according to social cognitive theory.

142) List and describe the five environmental systems in Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory. Explain how the systems relate to each other.

143) Compare and contrast laboratory observation and naturalistic observation.

144) Describe one advantage and one disadvantage of case-study research.

145) Compare and contrast correlational and experimental research.

146) List and briefly describe the four APA guidelines that must be followed in the conduction of ethical research.

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