Test Bank Applied Social Psychology 3rd Edition by Jamie A. Gruman A+

$35.00
Test Bank Applied Social Psychology 3rd Edition by Jamie A. Gruman A+

Test Bank Applied Social Psychology 3rd Edition by Jamie A. Gruman A+

$35.00
Test Bank Applied Social Psychology 3rd Edition by Jamie A. Gruman A+

1. Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in the scientific process?

a. creating specific hypotheses

b. observation

c. theory development

d. registering the research study

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Scientific Process

Difficulty Level: Easy

2. The first step of the scientific process is ______.

a. creating a hypothesis

b. developing a theory

c. observation

d. designing a research study

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Scientific Process

Difficulty Level: Easy

3. For social psychologists, the observation stage of the scientific process may consist of

a. reviewing existing research evidence and a single vivid incident from everyday life

b. reviewing existing research evidence and deduction testing

c. induction testing and deduction testing

d. induction testing and a single vivid incident from everyday life

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Scientific Process

Difficulty Level: Easy

4. A(n) ______ is a set of interrelated hypotheses concerning a particular phenomenon.

a. psychological law

b. theory

c. observation

d. operational definition

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Scientific Process

Difficulty Level: Easy

5. ______ is the process of moving from the specific to the general.

a. Deduction

b. Reasoning

c. Induction

d. Theory development

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Scientific Process

Difficulty Level: Medium

6. The majority of social psychological theories are constructed by

a. inferring general principles from observing specific instances

b. modifying already existing theories in psychology

c. developing specific concepts from general principles

d. mixing theories

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Scientific Process

Difficulty Level: Easy

7. Which of the following statements is false?

a. Hypotheses are not a critical component of theories.

b. A hypothesis can be developed through deduction.

c. A hypothesis can be tested through interventions.

d. A hypothesis is a prediction about the relationship between variables.

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Scientific Process

Difficulty Level: Easy

8. In the scientific process, what step comes after hypothesis development?

a. statistical analysis

b. hypothesis testing

c. modifying the theory

d. screening

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Scientific Process

Difficulty Level: Easy

9. Which of the following is NOT a function of a theory?

a. to guide intervention

b. to provide organization

c. to aid in education

d. to give direction in research

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology—Functions of Social Psychological Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

10. One function of a theory is to provide organization. This function is most related to the ______ component of the scientific process.

a. theory development

b. hypothesis testing

c. observation

d. creating specific hypotheses

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology—Functions of Social Psychological Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

11. One function of a theory is to provide direction. This function is most related to the ______ component of the scientific process.

a. creating a research study

b. hypothesis testing

c. theory development

d. observation

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology—Functions of Social Psychological Theories

Difficulty Level: Medium

12. One function of a theory is to guide intervention. This function is most related to ______.

a. observation

b. creating hypotheses

c. application

d. objectivity

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology—Functions of Social Psychological Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

13. Social psychological theories differ from each other in terms of ______.

a. scope and range

b. range and relevance

c. relevance and generalizability

d. generalizability and scope

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology—Characteristics of Social Psychological Theories

Difficulty Level: Medium

14. The ______ of a theory refers to the number of different human behaviors that the theory attempts to explain.

a. range

b. scope

c. parsimony

d. depth

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology—Characteristics of Social Psychological Theories

Difficulty Level: Medium

15. Many social psychological theories attempt to explain one way of thinking or behaving that is relevant in a number of different situations. One example is cognitive dissonance theory. This theory is a ______ theory.

a. grand

b. mid-level

c. mini

d. parsimonious

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology—Characteristics of Social Psychological Theories

Difficulty Level: Medium

16. ______ theories attempt to explain a particular human behavior when faced with a particular set of circumstances.

a. Broad

b. Social psychological

c. Mid-level

d. Mini

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology—Characteristics of Social Psychological Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

17. The ______ of a theory refers to whether the theory predicts the behavior of only a specific group of people or all human beings.

a. parsimony

b. range

c. scope

d. depth

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology—Characteristics of Social Psychological Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

18. Testability refers to the idea that a good theory is capable of being ______.

a. studied

b. quantified

c. disproved

d. published

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology—Characteristics of Social Psychological Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

19. ______ refers to the idea that a theory should use the fewest possible number of propositions to explain the phenomenon in question.

a. Parsimony

b. Frugality

c. Testability

d. Scope

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology—Characteristics of Social Psychological Theories

Difficulty Level: Medium

20. Central to cognitive dissonance theory is the idea that human beings are motivated to maintain ______ among their cognitions.

a. accuracy

b. reasonableness

c. comfort

d. consistency

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory—Description

Difficulty Level: Easy

21. ______ is said to exist when two cognitions are psychologically inconsistent with each other.

a. Belief hypocrisy

b. A subjective norm

c. Cognitive dissonance

d. Cognition change

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory—Description

Difficulty Level: Medium

22. A key element of cognitive dissonance theory is the proposition that people will reduce dissonance in the ______ way possible.

a. easiest

b. fastest

c. most logical

d. most socially acceptable

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory—Description

Difficulty Level: Medium

23. In terms of the functions of a theory, cognitive dissonance theory is one of the best social psychological theories with regard to

a. organizing what psychologists know about human consistency

b. providing direction for research

c. developing interventions

d. providing insight into reactions to natural disasters such as earthquakes

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory—Direction

Difficulty Level: Hard

24. According to cognitive dissonance theory, which of the following is NOT an example of a potential dissonance situation?

a. insufficient justification

b. postdecisional dissonance

c. effort justification

d. behavioral intention

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory—Direction

Difficulty Level: Hard

25. Postdecisional dissonance is said to occur

a. after you realize you have made a bad decision

b. when you had to choose between two attractive alternatives

c. when you are unable to make up your mind about something

d. if you make a decision without weighing the facts

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory—Direction

Difficulty Level: Medium

26. You have decided to buy a new car and narrow your choice down to two equally attractive alternatives. You finally decide on one, but when you get home you start to worry about whether you made the best decision. According to Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory, what will you most likely do?

a. Go back to the car dealership, and get the other car instead.

b. Try to distract yourself from the conflicting thoughts.

c. Ask a trusted friend for her opinion.

d. Decide that the car you chose was clearly the better of the two.

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory—Direction

Difficulty Level: Medium

27. Salespeople who employ the low-ball technique are taking advantage of the implications of ______.

a. postdecisional dissonance

b. insufficient justification

c. effort justification

d. bad taste

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory—Direction

Difficulty Level: Medium

28. In a situation in which you have put a high degree of effort into attaining a goal that you then come to feel may not have been worth all of the effort, according to cognitive dissonance theory, you are most likely to

a. reevaluate the amount of effort you put in, and judge it to be less than it really was

b. reevaluate the goal you attained, and convince yourself it was, in fact, worth it

c. decide to put less effort into attaining goals in the future

d. decide to put in no effort into your next activity

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory—Direction

Difficulty Level: Hard

29. In a situation where you tell a lie with very little external justification, according to cognitive dissonance theory you are most likely to

a. feel guilty because lying is wrong

b. apologize and tell the truth to reduce feelings of guilt

c. tell the truth the next time you are in a similar situation to make up for lying in the past

d. convince yourself you weren’t really lying by changing your opinion regarding what you did lie about

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory—Direction

Difficulty Level: Easy

30. Elliot Aronson modified Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory in his proposal of self-consistency dissonance theory. The main idea of Aronson’s modification is

a. some people’s personalities cause them to be reliably consistent or inconsistent

b. some people are prone to higher degrees of dissonance than others in certain situations

c. people experience dissonance when they act in ways they see as reflecting poorly on themselves

d. some people do not experience dissonance at all

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory—Direction

Difficulty Level: Medium

31. With regard to research on cognitive dissonance theory, it is NOT true that research has shown that

a. there are differences in people’s levels of preference for consistency

b. there are cultural differences in beliefs about the importance of attitude–behavior consistency

c. even people with a low preference for consistency have been found to change their attitudes to match their behaviors

d. only people with low self-esteem alter their attitudes to match their behaviors

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory—Summing Up Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

32. In the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior, behavioral intention refers to

a. what a person thinks will be the likely outcome of a behavior

b. a person’s attitude toward a certain behavior and subjective norms

c. whether or not someone intends to engage in a certain behavior

d. attitude strength

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior—Description

Difficulty Level: Easy

33. In the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior, subjective norms refer to

a. what a person thinks will be the likely outcome of a behavior

b. a person’s belief about what others would think about the behavior

c. whether the person subjectively feels positive or negative about the behavior

d. the extent to which people believe other people often engage in the behavior

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior—Description

Difficulty Level: Easy

34. Ajzen (1985) decided to extend the theory of reasoned action by introducing which of the following variables?

a. subjective norms

b. behavioral control

c. behavioral intention

d. attitude

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior—Description

Difficulty Level: Easy

35. Imagine that you take out the garbage at home because you believe your parents think you should be taking out the garbage, and doing this chore will help you secure the use of the family car on Friday. According to the theory of planned behavior, in this example, your perception of your parents’ thoughts represents ______.

a. behavioral intention

b. attitude

c. subjective norm

d. volitional control

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior—Description

Difficulty Level: Medium

36. In the theory of planned behavior, volitional control refers to

a. the amount of influence a person thinks he or she has over a behavior

b. the degree to which a person believes he or she can modify his or her past behavior

c. whether the person believes she or he can control the attitudes of other people

d. the person’s perception of the likely outcome of the behavior

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior—Description

Difficulty Level: Easy

37. The theory of planned behavior allowed researchers to better understand conflicting results from prior research. This served which function of a theory?

a. description

b. organization

c. direction

d. intervention

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior—Description

Difficulty Level: Medium

38. The theory of planned behavior allows researchers to better understand why some people download music illegally and then figure out ways to curb that behavior. This serves which function of a theory?

a. description

b. organization

c. direction

d. intervention

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior—Description

Difficulty Level: Medium

39. The theory of planned behavior suggested new relationships among phenomena such as behavioral control and behavioral intentions. This served which function of a theory?

a. description

b. organization

c. direction

d. intervention

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior—Description

Difficulty Level: Medium

40. Ajzen (1985) developed the theory of planned behavior based on his analysis of experiments that tested which of the following theories?

a. the theory of subjective norms

b. the theory of reasoned action

c. social cognitive theory

d. stages of change model

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior—Organization

Difficulty Level: Easy

True or False

1. At the core of Festinger’s (1975) dissonance theory is the idea that humans are motivated to maintain consistency among their cognitions as psychological inconsistency makes people uncomfortable.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Social psychological theories differ based on specific characteristics; these include scope, reliability, testability, and durability.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology

Difficulty Level: Medium

3. The cognitive dissonance theory and the theory of planned behavior are minitheories that attempt to explain one way of thinking or behaving that is relevant in a number of different situations.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

4. Aronson updated Festinger’s theory of dissonance by suggesting that dissonance may arise from any situation in which there is an inconsistency between self-concept and awareness of one’s behavior.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

5. The scientific process consists of a series of steps. The second step, theory development, involves the process of moving from the specific to the general, known as deduction.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Scientific Process

Difficulty Level: Easy

6. The theory of planned behavior was developed based on the theory of reasoned action.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

7. The theory of reasoned action is concerned with four key features: subjective norms, behavioral intention, attitude, and norms and effort justification.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

8. The scientific process involves a continuing cycle of observation, theory development, deduction of hypotheses, and hypothesis testing.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Scientific Process

Difficulty Level: Easy

9. Direct tests of the theory of planned behavior confirm the predictive value of perceived behavioral control on intentions and goal attainment but suggest that the theory is more predictive for some types of behavioral intentions than others.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

10. Social psychological theory serves many functions, three of which include organization, application, and scope.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Function of Social Psychological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Essay Questions

1. Name and describe the four steps involved in the scientific process.

Ans: 1. Observation—As noted in the text, the observation stage might consist of a single vivid incident from everyday life, a systematic program of descriptive data gathering, a review of existing research evidence, or the analysis of intervention outcomes.

2. Theory Development—Following observation is theory development. Through the process of induction (moving from the general to the specific), interrelated hypotheses or propositions about a phenomenon are derived.

3. Specific Hypotheses—This step takes place through a process called deduction, during which specific hypotheses are derived from general hypotheses. (The aim of this is to attempt to specify the relationship between two phenomena.)

4. Hypothesis Testing—The fourth step is hypothesis testing. To test hypotheses, social psychologists often rely of a variety of strategies, including conducting research and carrying out interventions. The results (observations) of such research may provide support for the hypothesis and thus for the theory from which it was derived. Observations that do not support the hypothesis may lead to modifications of the original theory or to the development of a new one. Applied social psychologists may be interested in the application aspect of the knowledge gained. As highlighted in the text, intervention strategies derived from theory and research results lead to further observations, to the modification of existing theories or the construction of new ones, to the testing of hypotheses derived from these theories, and to new possibilities for application.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Scientific Process

Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Social psychological theories, such as the theory of planned behavior or cognitive dissonance theory, serve particular functions. Name and describe the three functions of a theory.

Ans: 1. Providing organization—The first function of a theory is to provide organization. Organization refers to the systematic arrangement of observations that demonstrate their relationship to one another.

2. Providing direction—The second function of theory is to provide direction. Direction refers to guidance as to where research efforts should be focused. Social psychological theories may suggest possible previously unconsidered relationships between observed phenomena and may provide stimulation and guidance for further hypothesis testing and the possible alteration of the theory or even the generation of new theories.

3. Providing guidance for the development of interventions—The third function of a theory, which is related most directly to application, is to guide intervention. Intervention refers to the attempt to bring about a change in the world. Theories in social psychology provide prescriptions for the solutions to social and practical problems.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

3. Cognitive dissonance theory is a well-cited social psychological theory. Describe, in detail, what this theory purports, and give an example of a situation in which cognitive dissonance may result.

Ans: • The cognitive dissonance theory purports that humans are motivated to maintain consistency among their cognitions. Cognitive dissonance refers to the discomfort that arises when two cognitions are psychologically inconsistent with one another (for example, when one’s actions and one’s attitudes do not match). As a result of the discomfort that arises, Festinger proposed that people try to reduce the dissonance experienced in the easiest way possible. An example of a situation that could lead to dissonance is the following:

• Gary works for the Humane Society for Animals and considers himself to be an animal lover. On his way home from work after a long and exhaustive day, he kicked a cat that got in his way. In this situation, his attitude as an animal lover doesn’t match up with his behavior of kicking an innocent animal. As a result, Gary is expected to experience discomfort over his actions and try to reduce the discomfort by either changing his attitude, justifying his behavior, or blaming the occurrence on the cat.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

4. Festinger (1957) derived a number of intriguing hypotheses from cognitive dissonance theory. One dissonance-producing situation is effort justification. There are two others that have received a lot of academic attention. List the other two, and explain all three.

Ans: 1. Post-decisional dissonance. With post-decisional dissonance, dissonance almost always exists after a decision has been made between two or more alternatives. 


2. Effort justification. With effort justification, dissonance almost always exists when a person engages in an unpleasant activity to obtain some desirable outcome. 


3. Insufficient justification. With insufficient justification, dissonance almost always exists after a successful attempt has been made to elicit overt behavior that is at variance with private opinion by offering a reward that is just sufficient to elicit the overt behavior.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Difficulty Level: Hard

5. The central premise of cognitive dissonance theory is that psychological inconsistency makes people uncomfortable. The discomfort experienced is what is typically referred to as dissonance. Name two ways of reducing dissonance, and apply it to an example.

Ans: The following are three primary ways of reducing dissonance:

1. Change one or more of the dissonant cognitions. 


2. Add new cognitions to make existing cognitions consistent.

3. Downplay importance of dissonant cognitions.

In applying the example of Gary, who kicked a cat despite being a self-proclaimed animal lover, he could attempt to reduce the dissonance experienced by (1) changing one or more of the cognitions (i.e., “I never really liked cats anyway”), (2) adding new cognitions to make existing cognitions consistent (i.e., “The cat might have attacked me at a later point if I didn’t scare it away” or, “The cat walked into me; I didn’t purposely kick the cat”), or (3) “It was just one cat; I still care deeply about the lives of all animals.”

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Difficulty Level: Hard

6. The foundation for the theory of planned behavior is the theory of reasoned action, proposed by Fishbein and Ajzen in 1975. Using the theory of reasoned action as a starting point, explain how this theory evolved into the theory of planned behavior.

Ans: Fishbein and Ajzen, in 1975, coined the theory of reasoned action to explain and predict a variety of volitional behaviors. The theory of reasoned action states that people enact behaviors because they intend to do so, although intentions can change over time as people take in new information. The theory of reasoned action focuses on the interplay between its three key features: behavioral intention, attitude, and norms. Ajzen (1985) decided to extend the theory of reasoned action by introducing the variable of volitional control. Therefore, the theory of planned behavior builds upon the theory of reasoned action, as it encompasses the interplay of four features: behavioral intention, attitude, norms, and volitional control. Ajzen noted that many different factors outside of a person’s control may influence whether or not she or he attempts a behavior. Therefore, volitional control, the amount of control a person believes she or he has over a behavior, and her or his perception of the probability that there will be obstacles (control beliefs), as well as her or his evaluation of how much of an impact will occur with facilitating or obstructing factors, will affect a person’s intentions to attempt a behavior.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

7. Social psychological theories differ based on specific characteristics, these include scope, range, testability, and parsimony. Explain each characteristic in detail.

Ans: 1. Scope—As described in the text, the scope of a theory refers to the number of different human behaviors that the theory attempts to explain. For example, social psychology has been influenced by many different perspectives, such as the behaviorist perspective, psychoanalytic perspective, and phenomenological perspective.

2. Range—Refers to whether a theory predicts the behaviors of only a specific group of people or all humans.

3. Testability—Testability refers to the idea that a good theory is capable of being refuted or disproved.

4. Parsimony—The term parsimony, in the context of psychological theories, has to do with a reliance on the fewest possible propositions to explain the phenomenon in question. A theory should be parsimonious in that it should be easily explained.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory in Social Psychology

Difficulty Level: Medium

8. Aronson (1999) disagreed with aspects of Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory, which led to the development of Aronson’s self-consistency dissonance theory. Describe this theory, and explain how this differs from Festinger’s.

Ans: Aronson’s self-consistency dissonance theory purports that situations evoke dissonance because of an inconsistency between self-concept and awareness of one’s behavior. According to this theory, people experience dissonance when they behave in ways that they view as reflecting negatively on themselves (that they are incompetent, immoral, irrational, etc.). This theory differs from Festinger’s approach to cognitive dissonance in that Festinger believes that dissonance arrives only when two cognitions are psychologically inconsistent and contradict each other. However, as mentioned earlier, Aronson believes that dissonance may arise from any situation in which there is an inconsistency between self-concept and awareness of one’s behavior. Aronson’s (1968, 1992) reinterpretation of cognitive dissonance always involves some form of self-justification.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Difficulty Level: Hard

9. One area where the theory of planned behavior has provided ample direction is behaviors related to health and safety. Using the specific health-enhancing behavior of exercise, explain how the four core features of the theory of planned behavior would be applied to explain someone’s decision to exercise.

Ans: Subjective Norms → Everyone thinks I should exercise on a regular basis.

Perceived Behavioral Control→ I have the ability to start and maintain an exercise regime.

Attitude → Consistent exercise is good for my physical and psychological health.

Behavioral Intention → I will start exercising.

Attempt the behavior → I will go for a run and eventually join a running group.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Theory of Planned Behavior

Difficulty Level: Hard

10. Theory development involves the processes of induction and deduction. Describe these processes in detail.

Ans: Induction refers to the process of moving from the specific to the general—that is, inferring general principles from observing specific instances. According to the authors of Chapter 2, the vast majority of social psychological theories are constructed through the process of induction. Deduction, on the other hand, refers to the process of deriving specific hypotheses from the general hypotheses and propositions of the theory.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Scientific Process

Difficulty Level: Medium

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