1. A knowledge of statistics provides the necessary tools to differentiate between sound and questionable conclusions.
TRUE
To make intelligent decisions we all have to understand statistics – the language of data.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.
Topic: The Relevance of Statistics
2. Statisticsisthe methodology of extracting unnecessary information from a data set.
FALSE
Statisticsisthemethodologyofextractinguseful information from a data set.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
3. Thebranchofstatisticalstudiescalleddescriptivestatisticssummarizesimportantaspectsof a data set.
TRUE
Descriptivestatisticsrefers to the summary of important aspects of a data set.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
4. Thebranchofstatisticalstudiescalledinferentialstatisticsreferstodrawingconclusionsaboutsampledataby analyzing the corresponding population.
FALSE
Inferential statistics refers to drawing conclusions about a population from analyzing sample data.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
5. A population is a larger data set than its corresponding sample.
TRUE
A population is defined as all members of a specified group. A sample is a representative subset of the population.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
6. Populationparametersareusedtoestimatecorrespondingsamplestatistics.
FALSE
Samplestatisticsareusedtoestimatethecorrespondingpopulationparameter.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
7. Typically,itispossibletoexamineeverymemberofthe population.
FALSE
Typically,it is too expensive, too time-consuming, or even impossible to examine every member of the population.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
8. Cross-sectionaldatacontainvaluesofa characteristic of one subject collected over time.
FALSE
Cross-sectionaldatacontainvaluesofa characteristic of many subjects at the same point or approximately the same point in time, or without regards todifferencesintime.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
9. Timeseriesdatacontainvaluesofa characteristic of a subject over time.
TRUE
Timeseriescanincludehourly,daily,weekly,monthly,quarterly,or annual observations.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
10. Structureddatatendstoincludenumbers,dates,andgroupsofwordsandnumberscalledstrings.
TRUE
Structuredatagenerallyreferstodatathathasa well-defined length and format. This type of data is not open to interpretation.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
11. Unstructureddataconformstoa predefined row-column format.
TRUE
Unstructureddatadoesnotconformtoa predefined row-column format. Examples include be textual like email and multimedia content like photos or videos.
AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
12. Bigdataisa catchphrase that implies a complete set of population data.
TRUE
Bigdataisa massive volume of data that is extremely difficult to manage, but it does not necessarily imply complete (population) data.
AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
13. A qualitative variable assumes meaningful numerical values.
FALSE
A quantitative variable assumes meaningful numerical values, while values of a qualitative variable are typically described in labels or names.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
14. Bothdiscreteandcontinuousvariablesmayassumeanuncountablenumberofvalues.
FALSE
A discrete variable assumes a countable number of values because these values can be put in a sequence x1,x2,x3,and so on. Even if this sequence is infinite, itsvalues can be counted as the first, the second, the third one, and so on. On the other hand, a continuous variable assumes any value from an interval, and suchvaluescannotbecounted(therearetoomanyofthem).
AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
15. A discrete variable cannot assume an infinite number of values.
FALSE
Thenumberofobtainedheadswhena fair coin is tossed an infinite number of times may potentially assume any distinct integer value. An upper bound on thisnumber does not exist. Since it is only distinct integer values, though, that is what makes it discrete instead of continuous.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
16. A continuous variable assumes any value from an interval (or collection of intervals).
TRUE
A continuous variable is characterized by infinitely uncountable values and can take any value within an interval.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
17. A professor's gender (male, female) as well as rank (assistant, associate, full) represent ordinal data.
FALSE
Professor'sgenderisnominalandrankisordinal.Thecategoriesfornominaldatadonothaveanynaturalordering,whilesuchanorderingexistsforordinaldata.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
18. A professor's rank (assistant, associate, and full), as well as salary, represent ordinal data.
FALSE
Professor'srankisordinalbutthesalaryisratio.A quantitative data with ratio scale of measurement has a meaningful zero point, and hence all ratio values arenaturally interpretable.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
19. Manypeoplebelievethatstatisticshasno use in real life.
FALSE
Inordertomakeintelligentdecisionsin a world of uncertainty, we all have to understand statistics.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.
Topic: The Relevance of Statistics
20. Theweatherforecastcannotbe based on only the weather for the last three days.
TRUE
Weatherforecastisbasedona lot of data collected over years.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.
Topic: The Relevance of Statistics
21. Data and data interpretation do not show up in every facet of life.
FALSE
Dataand data interpretation show up in virtually every facet of life.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.
Topic: The Relevance of Statistics
22. A population is defined as all possible subjects of a specific group.
TRUE
A population is defined as all members of a specific group (not necessarily people).
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
23. Researchersuse sample results in an attempt to estimate an unknown population statistic.
FALSE
Researchersusesampleresultsinanattempttoestimateanunknownpopulationparameter.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
24. Therecordedbodytemperatureofpatientsinthe group of patients under research study is an example of time series data.
FALSE
Therecordedbodytemperatureofpatientsinthegroupofpatientsunderresearchstudyisanexampleofcross-sectionaldata.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
25. Bodyweightisanexampleofa discrete variable.
FALSE
Bodyweightisa continuous variable. A continuous variable assumes any value from an interval, and such values cannot be counted (there are too many ofthem).
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
26. Themathematicaloperationofadditioncanbeperformedon nominal data.
FALSE
Theonlythingwecandowithnominaldatais to categorize or group the data.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
27. A ZIP code is an example of quantitative data.
FALSE
ZIPcodeisanexampleofqualitativedata.Itisanobservationofwheretheperson/entitylives,butitisnotsomethingthatismeasured.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
28. Ordinalscalereflectsa stronger level of measurement than the nominal scale.
TRUE
Withordinaldataweareablebothtocategorizeandrankthedatawithrespectto some characteristic.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
29. Allmathematicaloperationscanbeperformedonratio-scaleddata.
TRUE
Arithmeticoperationsarevalidonratio-scaleddata.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
30. A respondent to a survey indicates that she drives a Nissan Pathfinder. This is an example of qualitative data.
TRUE
Thecar’smodelcanonlybecategorized.Labelsornamescanbeusedtoidentifythedistinguishingcharacteristicsofanobservation.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
31. Thezeropointof an interval scale reflects a complete absence of what is being measured.
FALSE
Thezeropointofanintervalscaledoesnotreflecta complete absence of what is being measured; the value of zero is arbitrary chosen.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
32. Nominalandintervalscalesareusedforqualitativevariables.
FALSE
Anintervalscaleis used for quantitative variables, and the nominal scale is used for qualitative variables.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
33. Thestudyof statistics can be defined as
A. thelanguageofdata.
B. theartandscienceofgettinginformationfromdata.
C. thestudyofcollecting,analyzing,presenting,andinterpretingdata.
D. Allofthesechoicesarecorrect.
Statisticsareusedasa language of data, tools for getting information from data, and the study of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
34. Whenreadingpublishedstatistics(numericalfacts),youshould
A. neverbelievewhatyouread,becauseallstatisticsarelies.
B. onlybelievethosestatisticsthatareadequatelysupported.
C. believewhatyouread,becausetheywouldn’tbepublishediftheyweren’tcorrect.
D. onlybelievethosestatisticsthatarepresentedinso-calledqualitypublications.
Often,publishedstatisticsarepresentedina way that is biased. The authors attempt to use statistics to support their position. Valid statistics are only those that are adequatelysupported.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.
Topic: The Relevance of Statistics
35. Thetwobranchesofthe study of statistics are generally referred to as
A. descriptiveandinferentialstatistics.
B. inferentialanddifferentialstatistics.
C. descriptiveandreferentialstatistics.
D. differentialanddescriptivestatistics.
Thetwobranchesofstatisticsaredescriptiveandinferentialstatistics.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
36. Populationparametersaredifficulttocalculatedueto
A. costprohibitionsondatacollection.
B. theinfeasibilityofcollectingdataonthe entire population.
C. thefactthatsamplesaredifficulttodrawduetothenatureofthedata.
D. bothcostprohibitionsondatacollectionandtheinfeasibilityofcollectingdataonthe entire population.
Gatheringpopulationdatacanbe very expensive and difficult if not impossible to obtain.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
37. Theteachers’unioninCaliforniawantsto know the average salary for high school teachers throughout the country. What is the teachers’ union presumably planning tocalculate?
A. Samplestatistic
B. Sampleparameter
C. Populationstatistic
D. Populationparameter
Theteachers’unioninCaliforniashouldbeconsideredasa sample, and a sample statistic will be calculated.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
38. A population consists of
A. allitemsofinterestina sample.
B. a subject of interest in a sample.
C. allitemsofinterestina statistical problem.
D.a subject of interest in a statistical problem.
A population is defined as all members of a specified group under study.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
39. Ininferentialstatistics,wecalculatestatisticsof sample data to
A. estimateunknownpopulationparameters.
B. conducttestsaboutunknownpopulationparameters.
C. Bothofthesechoicesarecorrect.
D.Neitherof these choices is correct.
Inferentialstatisticsisconcernedwithestimatingunknownpopulationparametersandtestinghypothesesaboutthem.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
40. Whichofthefollowingrepresentsa population and a sample from that population?
A. Residentsof Albany, New York, and registered voters in Albany, New York
B. Teachersofa high school and members of the parent-teacher group
C. Fansat a concert who purchase T-shirts, and fans at a concert who purchase soda
D. FreshmenatSt.Joseph’sUniversityandbasketballplayersatSt.Joseph’sUniversity
TheregisteredvotersinAlbanyareclearlya subset of the residents of Albany.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
41. Whichofthefollowingrepresentsa population and a sample from that population?
A. Attendeesata sporting event, and those who purchased popcorn at said sporting event
B. Full-timeemployeesat a marketing firm, and temporary summer interns at the marketing firm
C. SeniorsatBostonCollegeandstudentsina first-semester business statistics course
D. Stocksavailableonthe NYSE and stocks on the NASDAQ
Thoseindividualswhopurchasepopcornatsaidsportingeventareclearlya subset of all attendees at a given sporting event.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
42. Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofcross-sectionaldata?
A. GDPofthe United States from 1990–2010
B. DailypriceofDuPontstockduringthefirstquarter
C. Quarterlyhousingstartscollectedoverthelast60 years
D. Resultsofmarketresearchtestingconsumerpreferencesforsoda
Cross-sectionaldatareferstodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of many subjects at the same point in time, or without regard to differences in time.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
43. Whichofthefollowingisanexampleoftimeseriesdata?
A. Thesalepricesoftownhousessoldlastyear
B. Quarterlyhousingstartscollectedoverthelast60 years
C. Resultsofmarketresearchtestingconsumerpreferencesforsoda
D. Startingsalariesof recent business graduates at Penn State University
Timeseriesdatareferstodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of a subject over several time periods.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
44. Theestimationofwhichofthefollowingrequiressampling?
A. U.S.unemploymentrate
B. TotalrainfallinPhoenix,Arizona,in2010
C. TheClevelandIndians’hittingpercentagein2010
D. TheaverageSATscoreofincomingfreshmenata university
Itisimpossibletogathercompletedataontheunemployedpopulationof the U.S. Not everyone that is unemployed files for unemployment benefits.
AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
45. A company wants to estimate the mean price of oil over the past 10 years. What kind of data does the company need?
A. Timeseriesdata
B. Inferentialstatistics
C. Cross-sectionaldata
D. Descriptivestatistics
Timeseriesdatareferstodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of a subject over several time periods.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
46. Forwhichofthe following population parameters is sampling not necessary?
A. TheaverageheightofNBAplayers
B. Theaveragelifeof light bulbs produced by a manufacturer
C. Theaveragecontentofcerealboxesproducedbya manufacturer
D. ThepercentageoftheU.S.publicschoolteacherswhosupportDemocrats
Forallotherpopulations,itisveryimpracticalto collect all data. The heights are readily available for all NBA players.
AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
47. Samplingisusedheavilyinmanufacturingandservicesettingstoensurehigh-qualityproducts.Inwhichofthe following areas would sampling be inappropriate?
A. Computerassembly
B. Customcabinetmaking
C. Cellphonemanufacturing
D. Technicalsupportbyphone
Customcabinetsarenotmeanttobestandardizedintheircharacteristics.Therefore,samplingwouldmakenosense.Theratioscalehasa meaningful zero point and we caninterpretratiosof values. In this case, the linebacker would have no tackles.
AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
48. Whichofthefollowingareexamplesof cross-sectional data?
A. Thetestscoresofstudentsina class
B. Thecurrentaveragepricesofregulargasolineindifferentstates
C. Thesalespricesofsingle-familyhomessoldlastmonthinCalifornia
D. Allofthesechoicesarecorrect.
Cross-sectionaldatareferstodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of many subjects at the same point in time, or without regard to differences in time.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
49. An analyst studies a data set of the year-end book value per share for all companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange. This data set is best described as
A. timeseriesdata.
B. cross-sectionaldata.
C. neithertimeseriesnorcross-sectionaldata.
D. a combination of time series and cross-sectional data.
Cross-sectionaldatareferstodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of many subjects without regard to differences in time.
AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
50. Whichtypeof data, cross-sectional versus time series, is more important to research?
A. Neithertypeofdataisimportant.
B. Cross-sectionaldataismoreimportantthantimeseriesdata.
C. Timeseriesdataismoreimportantthancross-sectionaldata.
D. Timeseriesdataandcross-sectionaldataareequallyasvaluableindifferenttypesofresearch.
Sampledataaregenerallycollectedinoneoftwoways,ascross-sectionaldataortimeseriesdata,bothequallyimportant.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
51. Whichofthefollowingvariablesisqualitative?
A. Height
B. Gender
C. Weight
D. Temperature
Valuescorrespondingto a qualitative variable are typically expressed in words.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
52. Whichofthefollowingvariablesisquantitative?
A. Gender
B. Temperature
C. Maritalstatus
D. Religiousaffiliation
A quantitative variable assumes meaningful numerical values.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
53. Whichofthefollowingisa quantitative variable?
A. Houseage
B. House size
C. Houseprice
D. Allofthesechoicesarecorrect.
A quantitative variable assumes meaningful numerical values.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
54. SanFrancisco49ers’linebackerPatrickWilliswontheDefensiveRookieofthe YearAwardin2007witha total of 174 tackles. Tackles are measured on what kind of a scale? Isa variable measuring the number of tackles considered continuous or discrete?
A. Ratioscale;discrete
B. Intervalscale;discrete
C. Ratioscale;continuous
D. Intervalscale;continuous
A discrete variable takes on individually distinct values. The ratio scale has a meaningful zero point and we can interpret ratios of values. In this case, the linebacker wouldhaveno tackles.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
55. Whichofthefollowingvariablesisnotcontinuous?
A. HeightofNBAplayers
B. Timeofa flight between Atlanta and Chicago
C. AveragetemperatureinthemonthofJulyinOrlando
D. Thenumberof obtained heads when a fair coin is tossed 20 times
Althoughinpracticetheexactvaluesofsuchvariablesasheight,time,andtemperatureareapproximated,theyarecontinuousinnature.Ifa fair coin is tossed 20 times, thepossiblenumbersof obtained heads are 0, 1, 2, …, 20.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
56. Theordinalscaleof data measurement is
A. lesssophisticatedthanthe nominal scale.
B. moresophisticatedthantheintervalscale.
C. moresophisticatedthanthenominalscale.
D.as equally sophisticated as the nominal scale.
Comparedtonominalscale,theordinalscalereflectsa stronger level of measurement. The order of the four scales is nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
57. Theintervalscaleofdatameasurementis
A.lesssophisticatedthantheratioscale.
B. moresophisticatedthantheratioscale.
C. lesssophisticatedthantheordinalscale.
D. equallysophisticatedastheratioscalebecausebothareappropriateforquantitativedata.
Theratioscalerepresentsthe strongest level of measurement. The order of the four scales is nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
58. A recent survey of 200 small firms (annual revenue less than $10 million) asked whether an increase in the minimum wage would cause the firm to decrease capital spending.Possibleresponsestothesurveyquestionwere:"Yes,""No,"or "Don’t Know." This data is best classified as
A. ratioscale.
B. ordinalscale.
C. intervalscale.
D. nominalscale.
Withnominaldataallwecandoiscategorizeorgroupthedata.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
59. WhichscaleofdatameasurementisappropriateforthenamesofcompanieslistedontheDowJonesIndustrialAverage?
A. Ratioscale
B. Ordinalscale
C. Intervalscale
D. Nominalscale
Thereisnotanynaturalorderingof the names of these 30 companies and the names are not something that is measured.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
60. An analyst collects data on the weekly closing price of gold throughout a year. The scale of this data is
A.ratioscale.
B. ordinalscale.
C. intervalscale.
D. nominalscale.
Thescaleforweeklyclosingpriceofgoldisratio.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
61. An undergraduate student’s status (freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior) is an example of which scale of measurement?
A. Ratioscale
B. Ordinalscale
C. Intervalscale
D. Nominalscale
Undergraduatestudentsareclassifiedintothefourcategoriesbasedon the number of credit hours earned. There is a natural ordering between the four categories;sophomoreshavemorecredithoursthanfreshmen,andsoon.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
62. TheFahrenheitscaleformeasuringtemperaturewouldbeclassifiedasa(n)
A. ratioscale.
B. ordinalscale.
C. intervalscale.
D.nominalscale.
ZeroinFahrenheitdegreesdoesnotmean"notemperature."Wecannotsay,forexample,thattodayistwiceaswarmassixmonthsago,whichcharacterizestheratioscale.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
63. At the end of a semester college students evaluate their instructors by assigning them to one of the following categories: Excellent, Good, Average, Below Average, and Poor.Themeasurementscaleisa(n)
A. ratioscale.
B. ordinalscale.
C. intervalscale.
D. nominalscale.
A standard way to record the ratings is to use ordinal scale.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
64. Whatisthescaleof measurement of the distance between any two locations?
A.Ratioscale
B. Ordinalscale
C. Intervalscale
D. Nominalscale
Becausezeroismeaningful,thedistancebetweentwolocationsisanexampleof ratio scale.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
65. Whichscalesofdatameasurementareassociatedwithquantitativedata?
A.Intervalandratio
B. Ratioandnominal
C. Ordinalandinterval
D. Nominalandordinal
Twoscalesareassociatedwithquantitativedata:intervalscaleandratioscale.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
66. Whichdatascalesof measurement are associated with qualitative data?
A. Intervalandratio
B. Ratioandnominal
C. Ordinalandinterval
D. Nominalandordinal
Twoscalesareassociatedwithqualitativedata:nominalscaleandordinalscale.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
67. Thedatarepresentsthestockpricefor Google at the end of the past four quarters. Which of the following types of data best describe these values?
A. Cross-sectional
B. Nominal
C. Timeseries
D.Ordinal
Timeseriesdatareferstodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of a subject over several time periods.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
68. Yourbusinessstatisticsclasshada test last week. The average score for the class is an example of
A. secondarydata
B. qualitativedata
C. descriptivestatistics
D.inferentialstatistics
Descriptivestatisticsreferstosummarizinga set of data.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
69. A sample statistic is an estimate of
A.populationparameter.
B. populationstatistic.
C. sampleparameter.
D. descriptivestatistic.
Populationparameterisestimatedby sample statistic.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
70. A represents all possible subjects of interest.
A. sample
B. population
C. statistic
D. parameter
A population consists of the complete collection of items with the characteristic we want to understand.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
71. A major portion of is concerned with the problem of estimating population parameters or testing hypothesis about such parameters.
A. descriptivestatistics
B. populationstatistics
C. inferentialstatistics
D.businessstatistics
Inferentialstatisticsrefersto extracting useful information from a sample to draw a conclusion about a population.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
72. Datathatdescribea characteristic about a sample is known as a
A. population.
B. survey.
C. parameter.
D. statistic.
A statistic is taken from any sample drawn from the larger population.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
73. Whena characteristic of interest differs among various observations, then it can be termed a
A. parameter.
B. variable.
C. data.
D. information.
A variable is the general characteristic being observed on a set of people, objects, or events, where each observation varies in kind or degree.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
74. A(n) variableischaracterizedbyinfinitelyuncountablevaluesandcantakeanyvaluewithininterval.
A. discrete
B. infinite
C. continuous
D.quantitative
A continuous variable can take on any value within an interval, while a discrete variable assumes a countable number of distinct values.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
75. Differencesbetweencategoriesaremeaninglesswith data.
A.ordinal
B. interval
C. ratio
D. continuous
Thedifferencesbetweentherankedvaluesaremeaninglessforordinalscaledata.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
76. Whichofthefollowingscalesrepresentsthestrongestlevelof measurement?
A. Ordinal
B. Nominal
C. Ratio
D.Interval
Theratioscalerepresentsthe strongest level of measurement.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
77. Whichofthefollowingscalesrepresentstheleastsophisticatedlevelofmeasurement?
A. Ordinal
B. Nominal
C. Ratio
D. Interval
Thenominalscalerepresentsthelesssophisticatedlevelof measurement.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
78. Thevaluesof data on a(n) scale can be categorized and ranked.
A.ordinal
B. nominal
C. ratio
D. interval
Theordinalscaledatacanbe categorized and ranked.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
79. Whichofthefollowingcharacteristicsdoestheintervalscalenothave?
A. Valuescanbecategorized.
B. Valuescanberanked.
C. Thereisa true zero point.
D.Thedifferencesbetweenvaluesarevalid.
Onlyratioscaledatahavea true zero point.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
80. Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofquantitativedata?
A. TheZIP code of your home address
B. Google’sclosingstockpricetoday
C. Yourgender
D. YourSocialSecuritynumber
Google’sclosingstockpriceisquantitativedata.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
81. Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofqualitativedata?
A. Today’shightemperature
B. Theclassaverageof last test
C. Theamountoftimeyouspentfor your homework
D. Yourlastname
Wecannotcalculatesummarymeasuresifthevariableisqualitativeinnature.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
82. A respondent of a survey is asked whether the Philadelphia Flyers’ performance in the last game was excellent, good, fair, or poor. The person indicates that the performancewas"good."Thisisanexampleof
A. nominaldata
B. ordinaldata
C. intervaldata
D. ratiodata
Theordinalscaledatacanbe categorized and ranked.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
83. Philadelphiaexperienceda record amount of rainfall in August. During the last week of the month, the city received additional rain from a hurricane. Because global warming isthoughttocauseextremeweatherpatterns,oneconclusionthatcouldbedrawnisthatthesepatternsareevidenceofglobalwarming.Whatiswrongwiththisconclusion?
A knowledge of statistics provides the necessary tools to differentiate between sound statistical conclusions and questionable conclusions drawn from an insufficient numberof data points.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.
Topic: The Relevance of Statistics
84. AdministratorshaveconcludedthattheSATexamresultsfor2011showa distinct change in student capabilities when compared with the year 1991. In 1991 the SAT examincludedonlymultiplechoicesectionsandwaslaterredesigned.Whatiswrongwiththisconclusion?
A knowledge of statistics provides the necessary tools to differentiate between sound statistical conclusions and questionable conclusions drawn from an insufficient numberof data points, "bad" data points, incomplete data points, etc.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.
Topic: The Relevance of Statistics
85. A university is interested in tracking the success of its graduates by measuring the length of each graduate’s job search before getting a position in his or her chosen field.Howwouldyoudefinetheappropriatepopulation?
A population consists of the complete collection of items with the characteristic we want to understand.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
86. Wewouldliketodeterminewhetherthereisa difference between the height of a college team of basketball players at the Ohio State University and the height of the overallstudentbody.Identifythetwopopulationsinthisstudy.
A population consists of the complete collection of items with the characteristic we want to understand.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
87. Ineachofthefollowingstatements,determinewhetherthebranchof statistics is best classified as descriptive statistics or inferential statistics.
A. Theaverageof a data set is equal to 35.7.
B. Theminimumvalueofa data set is 78, and the maximum value is 146.
C. Becausetheaverageageina sample is 23, it is likely that the average age in the population is about 23.
D. Becausethevaluesinthe sample are so widely dispersed, the spread of the population must be high.
Descriptivestatisticsrefersto the summary of a data set, and inferential statistics refers to drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
88. A car company wants to know the average age of cars of their brand that are still on the road. How would you define the appropriate population? Will the car companycalculatea population parameter or a sample statistic? Why?
Obtaininginformationon the entire population is expensive.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
89. Whataretheprimaryreasonsthatsamplingisnecessary?
Weareunabletousepopulationdatafortwomainreasons:Itisimpossibleto examine every member of the population and obtaining information on the entire population isexpensiveandtimeconsuming.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
90. Aninvestorwantsto know today’s average closing price of the stocks listed on the Standard and Poor’s 500 Index. Will the investor calculate a population parameter orsamplestatistic?Why?
Ifthepopulationunderstudyiscompletelyknown,thenalldatacanbe used to obtain the population parameter.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
91. Wewouldliketodeterminetheaverageheightof a college team of basketball players at Ohio State University. Is it necessary to take a sample of basketball players? Explain.
Ifthepopulationunderstudyissmall,wecanusetheentirepopulationtoobtainthedesiredparameter.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
92. Wewouldliketodeterminetheaverageheightof the overall student body at Ohio State University. Does it seem necessary to take a sample from the overall student body?
Obtaininginformationon the entire population is expensive, impractical, and time consuming.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
93. Researchersareinterestedincompletinga study examining trends in the sale of foods in the U.S. They have decided to examine the quantity of organic vegetables sold bysupermarkets.Willresearchersbeabletogatherpopulationdata?
Obtaininginformationon the entire population is expensive, impractical, and time consuming.
AACSB: Reflective ThinkingAccessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
94. Every10years,a census is taken in the U.S. by the Census Bureau. Despite the intent of gathering data on the population of the United States, issues exist that make truepopulationdataimpossibletogather.Identifyatleasttwoissuesincollectingthesedata.
Obtaininginformationon the entire population is expensive, impractical, and time consuming.
AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
95. Socialnetworkingsitessupportthemselvesinlargepartbysellingadvertisingspace.Thehitrateontheseadsisa critical measure when trying to solicit advertising. The hitrateisusedasa measure of success for ads. How would you recommend a social networking site use sampling to evaluate its existing ads?
Weuse sample data rather than population data to draw a conclusion about a population.
AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
96. Thefollowingtableincludesthenumberof white women over the age of 20 in the civilian labor force. Because it is time series data, what would the entries of the first columnreferto?
| Numberin Civilian |
? | LaborForce |
| 43216 |
| 43479 |
| 44663 |
| 45409 |
| 45543 |
| 46613 |
| 47051 |
| 47833 |
| 48611 |
| 49128 |
| 48562 |
Source: http://data.bls.gov
Timeseriesdatarefertodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of a subject over several time periods.
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
97. A study of teen smoking is planned. Researchers are interested in collecting cross-sectional data, which allow them to draw conclusions about the likelihood, frequency, andlongevityof teen smoking. You have been asked to design this study and will collect no more than five pieces of data. What information will you collect?
Cross-sectionaldatarefertodatacollectedbyrecordingcharacteristicsatthesamepointintime.
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?
98. Definethemeasurementscaleofa car’s fuel efficiency (measured in miles per gallon). Is a car’s fuel efficiency discrete or continuous?
A continuous variable can take on any value within an interval. Ratio scale is the strongest level of measurement and it has a true zero point.
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
99. A study of teen smoking is planned. Researchers are interested in collecting data which allow them to draw conclusions about the likelihood, frequency, and longevity of teensmoking.Thequestionsaskedinclude:“Whatisyourgender?”,“Whatisyourage?”,“Doyousmoke(yesor no)?”, “How many cigarettes per day do you smoke?”, “For howlonghaveyousmoked(in years)?” What is the measurement scale for each variable?
Ifwearepresentedwithnominaldata,allwecandoiscategorizeor group the data. The values in the data set differ merely by name or label. With ordinal data, we are able tobothcategorizeandrankthedatawithrespecttosomecharacteristicor trait. With data on an interval scale, not only can we categorize and rank the data, but we are alsoassuredthatthedifferencesbetweenscalevaluesaremeaningful.Ratio-scaleddatahaveall the characteristics of interval-scaled data as well as a meaningful zero point, whichallowsusto interpret the ratios of values.
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
100.Thefollowingdatarepresenta sample of property sales in Cape May County during the year 2000. Identify the qualitative and quantitative variables. What are the naturalcategoriesfor Town and Class? Identify the measurement scales for all variables.
Town | Class | Date | Price | Assessment |
Avalon | Residential | 12/28/2000 | $500,000 | $ 288,600 |
Avalon | Residential | 04/14/2000 | $500,000 | $ 325,900 |
Wildwood | Commercial | 05/01/2000 | $500,000 | $ 250,000 |
Avalon | Residential | 05/22/2000 | $500,000 | $ 332,500 |
NorthWildwood | Commercial | 06/02/2000 | $500,000 | $ 607,700 |
Avalon | Residential | 09/16/2000 | $518,000 | $ 269,900 |
NorthWildwood | Residential | 04/07/2000 | $520,000 | $ 373,100 |
Avalon | Commercial | 01/15/2000 | $520,000 | $ 414,600 |
Avalon | Residential | 01/15/2000 | $525,000 | $ 373,500 |
Wildwood | Residential | 06/14/2000 | $525,000 | $ 379,600 |
A variable whose values are described verbally is qualitative, while a variable that assumes meaningful numerical values is quantitative. The categories for qualitative nominaldatadonothaveanynaturalordering,whilesuchanorderingisvisiblefor qualitative ordinal data. A quantitative data with a ratio scale of measurement has a meaningful zeropoint,andhenceallratiovaluesarenaturallyinterpretable.
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
101.Thefollowingdatarepresenta sample of non-elementary mathematics teachers in Bergen County, New Jersey. Identify the qualitative and quantitative variables, thecategoriesassociatedwitheachqualitativevariable,andthe measurement scales for all variables.
| Years | | Classes |
School | Degree | Experience | Salary | Taught |
BrooksideE.S. | Masters | 8 | $67,945 | 6 |
Program3-EmotionallyDistur. | Masters | 25 | $82,910 | 4 |
Program3-EmotionallyDistur. | Bachelors | 25 | $86,030 | 7 |
Program3-EmotionallyDistur. | Bachelors | 3 | $62,690 | 5 |
Program3-EmotionallyDistur. | Masters | 21 | $82,620 | 5 |
Program5-LifeSkills | Masters | 11 | $82,330 | 5 |
Program5-LifeSkills | Masters | 41 | $79,790 | 4 |
Bergen Academies-Hackensack | Masters | 31 | $82,626 | 5 |
Bergen Academies-Hackensack | Masters | 10 | $82,626 | 4 |
Bergen Academies-Hackensack | Masters | 3 | $98,291 | 4 |
Source: http://php.app.com/edstaff/results2.php?county=BERGEN&district=%25&school=%25&lname=&fname=&job1=Math+Non-Elementary&Submit=Submit
A variable whose values are described verbally is qualitative, while a variable that assumes meaningful numerical values is quantitative. The categories for nominal data do nothaveanynaturalordering,whilesuchanorderingisvisiblefor ordinal data. A quantitative data with a ratio scale of measurement has a meaningful zero point, and henceall ratio values are naturally interpretable.
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement
102. Thefollowingdataconcerna sample of employees of the U.S. Marshalls in the state of New York. Identify the qualitative and quantitative variables, the categories associatedwitheachqualitativevariable,andthemeasurementscalesfor all variables.
Country | Station | Title | Grade | Salary |
NewYorkCountry | NEWYORK-NY | MISCELLANEOUSCLERKANDASSISTANT | GS07 | $51,030 |
NewYorkCountry | NEWYORK-NY | MISCELLANEOUSCLERKANDASSISTANT | GS07 | $55,405 |
KingsCountry | NEWYORK-KINGS | ACCOUNTING TECHNICIAN | GS 07 | $45,196 |
ErieCountry | BUFFALO | ADMINISTRATIVEOFFICER | GS13 | $95,023 |
OnondagaCountry | SYRACUSE | BUDGETANALYSIS | GS09 | $53,773 |
NewYorkCountry | NEWYORK-NY | GENERALBUSINESSANDINDUSTRY | GS 11 | $66,887 |
OnondagaCountry | SYRACUSE | GENERALBUSINESSANDINDUSTRY | GS 11 | $74,628 |
ErieCountry | BUFFALO | MISCELLANEOUSADMINISTRATIONANDPROGRAM | GS09 | $59,962 |
NewYorkCountry | NEWYORK-NY | MISCELLANEOUSADMINISTRATIONANDPROGRAM | GS09 | $57,065 |
KingsCountry | NEWYORK-KINGS | GENERALBUSINESSANDINDUSTRY | GS 11 | $66,887 |
Source: http://php.app.com/fed_employees10/results.php?fullname=&agency_name=U.S.+MARSHALS+SERVICE&statename=New+York&countyname=%25& Submit=Search
A variable whose values are described verbally is qualitative, while a variable that assumes meaningful numerical values is quantitative. The categories for nominal data do nothaveanynaturalordering,whilesuchanorderingisvisiblefor ordinal data. A quantitative data with a ratio scale of measurement has a meaningful zero point, and henceall ratio values are naturally interpretable.
AACSB: Knowledge Application
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.
Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement