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## Test Bank Business Statistics Communicating with Numbers 3rd Edition By Sanjiv Jaggia A+

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Test Bank Business Statistics Communicating with Numbers 3rd Edition By Sanjiv Jaggia A+

1. A knowledge of statistics provides the necessary tools to differentiate between sound and questionable conclusions.

# TRUE

## To make intelligent decisions we all have to understand statistics – the language of data.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.

Topic: The Relevance of Statistics

2. Statisticsisthe methodology of extracting unnecessary information from a data set.

# FALSE

## Statisticsisthemethodologyofextractinguseful information from a data set.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

3. Thebranchofstatisticalstudiescalleddescriptivestatisticssummarizesimportantaspectsof a data set.

# TRUE

## Descriptivestatisticsrefers to the summary of important aspects of a data set.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

4. Thebranchofstatisticalstudiescalledinferentialstatisticsreferstodrawingconclusionsaboutsampledataby analyzing the corresponding population.

# FALSE

## Inferential statistics refers to drawing conclusions about a population from analyzing sample data.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

5. A population is a larger data set than its corresponding sample.

# TRUE

## A population is defined as all members of a specified group. A sample is a representative subset of the population.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

6. Populationparametersareusedtoestimatecorrespondingsamplestatistics.

# FALSE

## Samplestatisticsareusedtoestimatethecorrespondingpopulationparameter.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

7. Typically,itispossibletoexamineeverymemberofthe population.

# FALSE

## Typically,it is too expensive, too time-consuming, or even impossible to examine every member of the population.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

8. Cross-sectionaldatacontainvaluesofa characteristic of one subject collected over time.

# FALSE

## Cross-sectionaldatacontainvaluesofa characteristic of many subjects at the same point or approximately the same point in time, or without regards todifferencesintime.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

9. Timeseriesdatacontainvaluesofa characteristic of a subject over time.

# TRUE

## Timeseriescanincludehourly,daily,weekly,monthly,quarterly,or annual observations.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

10. Structureddatatendstoincludenumbers,dates,andgroupsofwordsandnumberscalledstrings.

# TRUE

## Structuredatagenerallyreferstodatathathasa well-defined length and format. This type of data is not open to interpretation.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

11. Unstructureddataconformstoa predefined row-column format.

# TRUE

## Unstructureddatadoesnotconformtoa predefined row-column format. Examples include be textual like email and multimedia content like photos or videos.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

12. Bigdataisa catchphrase that implies a complete set of population data.

# TRUE

## Bigdataisa massive volume of data that is extremely difficult to manage, but it does not necessarily imply complete (population) data.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

13. A qualitative variable assumes meaningful numerical values.

# FALSE

## A quantitative variable assumes meaningful numerical values, while values of a qualitative variable are typically described in labels or names.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

14. Bothdiscreteandcontinuousvariablesmayassumeanuncountablenumberofvalues.

# FALSE

## A discrete variable assumes a countable number of values because these values can be put in a sequence x1,x2,x3,and so on. Even if this sequence is infinite, itsvalues can be counted as the first, the second, the third one, and so on. On the other hand, a continuous variable assumes any value from an interval, and suchvaluescannotbecounted(therearetoomanyofthem).

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

15. A discrete variable cannot assume an infinite number of values.

# FALSE

## Thenumberofobtainedheadswhena fair coin is tossed an infinite number of times may potentially assume any distinct integer value. An upper bound on thisnumber does not exist. Since it is only distinct integer values, though, that is what makes it discrete instead of continuous.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

16. A continuous variable assumes any value from an interval (or collection of intervals).

# TRUE

## A continuous variable is characterized by infinitely uncountable values and can take any value within an interval.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

17. A professor's gender (male, female) as well as rank (assistant, associate, full) represent ordinal data.

# FALSE

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

18. A professor's rank (assistant, associate, and full), as well as salary, represent ordinal data.

# FALSE

## Professor'srankisordinalbutthesalaryisratio.A quantitative data with ratio scale of measurement has a meaningful zero point, and hence all ratio values arenaturally interpretable.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

19. Manypeoplebelievethatstatisticshasno use in real life.

# FALSE

## Inordertomakeintelligentdecisionsin a world of uncertainty, we all have to understand statistics.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.

Topic: The Relevance of Statistics

20. Theweatherforecastcannotbe based on only the weather for the last three days.

# TRUE

## Weatherforecastisbasedona lot of data collected over years.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.

Topic: The Relevance of Statistics

21. Data and data interpretation do not show up in every facet of life.

# FALSE

## Dataand data interpretation show up in virtually every facet of life.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.

Topic: The Relevance of Statistics

22. A population is defined as all possible subjects of a specific group.

# TRUE

## A population is defined as all members of a specific group (not necessarily people).

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

23. Researchersuse sample results in an attempt to estimate an unknown population statistic.

# FALSE

## Researchersusesampleresultsinanattempttoestimateanunknownpopulationparameter.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

24. Therecordedbodytemperatureofpatientsinthe group of patients under research study is an example of time series data.

# FALSE

## Therecordedbodytemperatureofpatientsinthegroupofpatientsunderresearchstudyisanexampleofcross-sectionaldata.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

25. Bodyweightisanexampleofa discrete variable.

# FALSE

## Bodyweightisa continuous variable. A continuous variable assumes any value from an interval, and such values cannot be counted (there are too many ofthem).

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

# FALSE

## Theonlythingwecandowithnominaldatais to categorize or group the data.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

27. A ZIP code is an example of quantitative data.

# FALSE

## ZIPcodeisanexampleofqualitativedata.Itisanobservationofwheretheperson/entitylives,butitisnotsomethingthatismeasured.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

28. Ordinalscalereflectsa stronger level of measurement than the nominal scale.

# TRUE

## Withordinaldataweareablebothtocategorizeandrankthedatawithrespectto some characteristic.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

29. Allmathematicaloperationscanbeperformedonratio-scaleddata.

# TRUE

## Arithmeticoperationsarevalidonratio-scaleddata.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

30. A respondent to a survey indicates that she drives a Nissan Pathfinder. This is an example of qualitative data.

# TRUE

## Thecar’smodelcanonlybecategorized.Labelsornamescanbeusedtoidentifythedistinguishingcharacteristicsofanobservation.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

31. Thezeropointof an interval scale reflects a complete absence of what is being measured.

# FALSE

## Thezeropointofanintervalscaledoesnotreflecta complete absence of what is being measured; the value of zero is arbitrary chosen.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

32. Nominalandintervalscalesareusedforqualitativevariables.

# FALSE

## Anintervalscaleis used for quantitative variables, and the nominal scale is used for qualitative variables.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

33. Thestudyof statistics can be defined as

A. thelanguageofdata.

B. theartandscienceofgettinginformationfromdata.

C. thestudyofcollecting,analyzing,presenting,andinterpretingdata.

D. Allofthesechoicesarecorrect.

Statisticsareusedasa language of data, tools for getting information from data, and the study of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

D. onlybelievethosestatisticsthatarepresentedinso-calledqualitypublications.

Often,publishedstatisticsarepresentedina way that is biased. The authors attempt to use statistics to support their position. Valid statistics are only those that are adequatelysupported.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.

Topic: The Relevance of Statistics

35. Thetwobranchesofthe study of statistics are generally referred to as

A. descriptiveandinferentialstatistics.

B. inferentialanddifferentialstatistics.

C. descriptiveandreferentialstatistics.

D. differentialanddescriptivestatistics.

Thetwobranchesofstatisticsaredescriptiveandinferentialstatistics.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

36. Populationparametersaredifficulttocalculatedueto

A. costprohibitionsondatacollection.

B. theinfeasibilityofcollectingdataonthe entire population.

C. thefactthatsamplesaredifficulttodrawduetothenatureofthedata.

D. bothcostprohibitionsondatacollectionandtheinfeasibilityofcollectingdataonthe entire population.

Gatheringpopulationdatacanbe very expensive and difficult if not impossible to obtain.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

37. Theteachers’unioninCaliforniawantsto know the average salary for high school teachers throughout the country. What is the teachers’ union presumably planning tocalculate?

A. Samplestatistic

B. Sampleparameter

C. Populationstatistic

D. Populationparameter

Theteachers’unioninCaliforniashouldbeconsideredasa sample, and a sample statistic will be calculated.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

38. A population consists of

A. allitemsofinterestina sample.

B. a subject of interest in a sample.

C. allitemsofinterestina statistical problem.

D.a subject of interest in a statistical problem.

A population is defined as all members of a specified group under study.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

39. Ininferentialstatistics,wecalculatestatisticsof sample data to

A. estimateunknownpopulationparameters.

C. Bothofthesechoicesarecorrect.

D.Neitherof these choices is correct.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

40. Whichofthefollowingrepresentsa population and a sample from that population?

A. Residentsof Albany, New York, and registered voters in Albany, New York

B. Teachersofa high school and members of the parent-teacher group

C. Fansat a concert who purchase T-shirts, and fans at a concert who purchase soda

TheregisteredvotersinAlbanyareclearlya subset of the residents of Albany.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

41. Whichofthefollowingrepresentsa population and a sample from that population?

A. Attendeesata sporting event, and those who purchased popcorn at said sporting event

B. Full-timeemployeesat a marketing firm, and temporary summer interns at the marketing firm

C. SeniorsatBostonCollegeandstudentsina first-semester business statistics course

D. Stocksavailableonthe NYSE and stocks on the NASDAQ

Thoseindividualswhopurchasepopcornatsaidsportingeventareclearlya subset of all attendees at a given sporting event.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

42. Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofcross-sectionaldata?

A. GDPofthe United States from 1990–2010

B. DailypriceofDuPontstockduringthefirstquarter

C. Quarterlyhousingstartscollectedoverthelast60 years

D. Resultsofmarketresearchtestingconsumerpreferencesforsoda

Cross-sectionaldatareferstodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of many subjects at the same point in time, or without regard to differences in time.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

43. Whichofthefollowingisanexampleoftimeseriesdata?

A. Thesalepricesoftownhousessoldlastyear

B. Quarterlyhousingstartscollectedoverthelast60 years

C. Resultsofmarketresearchtestingconsumerpreferencesforsoda

Timeseriesdatareferstodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of a subject over several time periods.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

44. Theestimationofwhichofthefollowingrequiressampling?

A. U.S.unemploymentrate

B. TotalrainfallinPhoenix,Arizona,in2010

C. TheClevelandIndians’hittingpercentagein2010

D. TheaverageSATscoreofincomingfreshmenata university

Itisimpossibletogathercompletedataontheunemployedpopulationof the U.S. Not everyone that is unemployed files for unemployment benefits.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

45. A company wants to estimate the mean price of oil over the past 10 years. What kind of data does the company need?

A. Timeseriesdata

B. Inferentialstatistics

C. Cross-sectionaldata

D. Descriptivestatistics

Timeseriesdatareferstodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of a subject over several time periods.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

46. Forwhichofthe following population parameters is sampling not necessary?

A. TheaverageheightofNBAplayers

B. Theaveragelifeof light bulbs produced by a manufacturer

C. Theaveragecontentofcerealboxesproducedbya manufacturer

D. ThepercentageoftheU.S.publicschoolteacherswhosupportDemocrats

Forallotherpopulations,itisveryimpracticalto collect all data. The heights are readily available for all NBA players.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

47. Samplingisusedheavilyinmanufacturingandservicesettingstoensurehigh-qualityproducts.Inwhichofthe following areas would sampling be inappropriate?

A. Computerassembly

B. Customcabinetmaking

C. Cellphonemanufacturing

D. Technicalsupportbyphone

Customcabinetsarenotmeanttobestandardizedintheircharacteristics.Therefore,samplingwouldmakenosense.Theratioscalehasa meaningful zero point and we caninterpretratiosof values. In this case, the linebacker would have no tackles.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

48. Whichofthefollowingareexamplesof cross-sectional data?

A. Thetestscoresofstudentsina class

B. Thecurrentaveragepricesofregulargasolineindifferentstates

C. Thesalespricesofsingle-familyhomessoldlastmonthinCalifornia

D. Allofthesechoicesarecorrect.

Cross-sectionaldatareferstodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of many subjects at the same point in time, or without regard to differences in time.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

49. An analyst studies a data set of the year-end book value per share for all companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange. This data set is best described as

A. timeseriesdata.

B. cross-sectionaldata.

C. neithertimeseriesnorcross-sectionaldata.

D. a combination of time series and cross-sectional data.

Cross-sectionaldatareferstodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of many subjects without regard to differences in time.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

50. Whichtypeof data, cross-sectional versus time series, is more important to research?

A. Neithertypeofdataisimportant.

B. Cross-sectionaldataismoreimportantthantimeseriesdata.

C. Timeseriesdataismoreimportantthancross-sectionaldata.

D. Timeseriesdataandcross-sectionaldataareequallyasvaluableindifferenttypesofresearch.

Sampledataaregenerallycollectedinoneoftwoways,ascross-sectionaldataortimeseriesdata,bothequallyimportant.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

51. Whichofthefollowingvariablesisqualitative?

A. Height

B. Gender

C. Weight

D. Temperature

Valuescorrespondingto a qualitative variable are typically expressed in words.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

52. Whichofthefollowingvariablesisquantitative?

A. Gender

B. Temperature

C. Maritalstatus

D. Religiousaffiliation

A quantitative variable assumes meaningful numerical values.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

53. Whichofthefollowingisa quantitative variable?

A. Houseage

B. House size

C. Houseprice

D. Allofthesechoicesarecorrect.

A quantitative variable assumes meaningful numerical values.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

54. SanFrancisco49ers’linebackerPatrickWilliswontheDefensiveRookieofthe YearAwardin2007witha total of 174 tackles. Tackles are measured on what kind of a scale? Isa variable measuring the number of tackles considered continuous or discrete?

A. Ratioscale;discrete

B. Intervalscale;discrete

C. Ratioscale;continuous

D. Intervalscale;continuous

A discrete variable takes on individually distinct values. The ratio scale has a meaningful zero point and we can interpret ratios of values. In this case, the linebacker wouldhaveno tackles.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

55. Whichofthefollowingvariablesisnotcontinuous?

A. HeightofNBAplayers

B. Timeofa flight between Atlanta and Chicago

C. AveragetemperatureinthemonthofJulyinOrlando

D. Thenumberof obtained heads when a fair coin is tossed 20 times

Althoughinpracticetheexactvaluesofsuchvariablesasheight,time,andtemperatureareapproximated,theyarecontinuousinnature.Ifa fair coin is tossed 20 times, thepossiblenumbersof obtained heads are 0, 1, 2, …, 20.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

56. Theordinalscaleof data measurement is

A. lesssophisticatedthanthe nominal scale.

B. moresophisticatedthantheintervalscale.

C. moresophisticatedthanthenominalscale.

D.as equally sophisticated as the nominal scale.

Comparedtonominalscale,theordinalscalereflectsa stronger level of measurement. The order of the four scales is nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

57. Theintervalscaleofdatameasurementis

A.lesssophisticatedthantheratioscale.

B. moresophisticatedthantheratioscale.

C. lesssophisticatedthantheordinalscale.

D. equallysophisticatedastheratioscalebecausebothareappropriateforquantitativedata.

Theratioscalerepresentsthe strongest level of measurement. The order of the four scales is nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

58. A recent survey of 200 small firms (annual revenue less than \$10 million) asked whether an increase in the minimum wage would cause the firm to decrease capital spending.Possibleresponsestothesurveyquestionwere:"Yes,""No,"or "Don’t Know." This data is best classified as

A. ratioscale.

B. ordinalscale.

C. intervalscale.

D. nominalscale.

Withnominaldataallwecandoiscategorizeorgroupthedata.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

59. WhichscaleofdatameasurementisappropriateforthenamesofcompanieslistedontheDowJonesIndustrialAverage?

A. Ratioscale

B. Ordinalscale

C. Intervalscale

D. Nominalscale

Thereisnotanynaturalorderingof the names of these 30 companies and the names are not something that is measured.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

60. An analyst collects data on the weekly closing price of gold throughout a year. The scale of this data is

A.ratioscale.

B. ordinalscale.

C. intervalscale.

D. nominalscale.

Thescaleforweeklyclosingpriceofgoldisratio.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

61. An undergraduate student’s status (freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior) is an example of which scale of measurement?

A. Ratioscale

B. Ordinalscale

C. Intervalscale

D. Nominalscale

Undergraduatestudentsareclassifiedintothefourcategoriesbasedon the number of credit hours earned. There is a natural ordering between the four categories;sophomoreshavemorecredithoursthanfreshmen,andsoon.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

62. TheFahrenheitscaleformeasuringtemperaturewouldbeclassifiedasa(n)

A. ratioscale.

B. ordinalscale.

C. intervalscale.

D.nominalscale.

ZeroinFahrenheitdegreesdoesnotmean"notemperature."Wecannotsay,forexample,thattodayistwiceaswarmassixmonthsago,whichcharacterizestheratioscale.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

63. At the end of a semester college students evaluate their instructors by assigning them to one of the following categories: Excellent, Good, Average, Below Average, and Poor.Themeasurementscaleisa(n)

A. ratioscale.

B. ordinalscale.

C. intervalscale.

D. nominalscale.

A standard way to record the ratings is to use ordinal scale.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

64. Whatisthescaleof measurement of the distance between any two locations?

A.Ratioscale

B. Ordinalscale

C. Intervalscale

D. Nominalscale

Becausezeroismeaningful,thedistancebetweentwolocationsisanexampleof ratio scale.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

65. Whichscalesofdatameasurementareassociatedwithquantitativedata?

A.Intervalandratio

B. Ratioandnominal

C. Ordinalandinterval

D. Nominalandordinal

Twoscalesareassociatedwithquantitativedata:intervalscaleandratioscale.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

66. Whichdatascalesof measurement are associated with qualitative data?

A. Intervalandratio

B. Ratioandnominal

C. Ordinalandinterval

D. Nominalandordinal

Twoscalesareassociatedwithqualitativedata:nominalscaleandordinalscale.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

67. Thedatarepresentsthestockpricefor Google at the end of the past four quarters. Which of the following types of data best describe these values?

A. Cross-sectional

B. Nominal

C. Timeseries

D.Ordinal

Timeseriesdatareferstodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of a subject over several time periods.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

68. Yourbusinessstatisticsclasshada test last week. The average score for the class is an example of

A. secondarydata

B. qualitativedata

C. descriptivestatistics

D.inferentialstatistics

Descriptivestatisticsreferstosummarizinga set of data.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

69. A sample statistic is an estimate of

A.populationparameter.

B. populationstatistic.

C. sampleparameter.

D. descriptivestatistic.

Populationparameterisestimatedby sample statistic.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

70. A represents all possible subjects of interest.

A. sample

B. population

C. statistic

D. parameter

A population consists of the complete collection of items with the characteristic we want to understand.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

71. A major portion of is concerned with the problem of estimating population parameters or testing hypothesis about such parameters.

A. descriptivestatistics

B. populationstatistics

C. inferentialstatistics

Inferentialstatisticsrefersto extracting useful information from a sample to draw a conclusion about a population.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

72. Datathatdescribea characteristic about a sample is known as a

A. population.

B. survey.

C. parameter.

D. statistic.

A statistic is taken from any sample drawn from the larger population.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

73. Whena characteristic of interest differs among various observations, then it can be termed a

A. parameter.

B. variable.

C. data.

D. information.

A variable is the general characteristic being observed on a set of people, objects, or events, where each observation varies in kind or degree.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

74. A(n) variableischaracterizedbyinfinitelyuncountablevaluesandcantakeanyvaluewithininterval.

A. discrete

B. infinite

C. continuous

D.quantitative

A continuous variable can take on any value within an interval, while a discrete variable assumes a countable number of distinct values.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

75. Differencesbetweencategoriesaremeaninglesswith data.

A.ordinal

B. interval

C. ratio

D. continuous

Thedifferencesbetweentherankedvaluesaremeaninglessforordinalscaledata.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

76. Whichofthefollowingscalesrepresentsthestrongestlevelof measurement?

A. Ordinal

B. Nominal

C. Ratio

D.Interval

Theratioscalerepresentsthe strongest level of measurement.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

77. Whichofthefollowingscalesrepresentstheleastsophisticatedlevelofmeasurement?

A. Ordinal

B. Nominal

C. Ratio

D. Interval

Thenominalscalerepresentsthelesssophisticatedlevelof measurement.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

78. Thevaluesof data on a(n) scale can be categorized and ranked.

A.ordinal

B. nominal

C. ratio

D. interval

Theordinalscaledatacanbe categorized and ranked.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

79. Whichofthefollowingcharacteristicsdoestheintervalscalenothave?

A. Valuescanbecategorized.

B. Valuescanberanked.

C. Thereisa true zero point.

D.Thedifferencesbetweenvaluesarevalid.

Onlyratioscaledatahavea true zero point.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

80. Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofquantitativedata?

C. Yourgender

D. YourSocialSecuritynumber

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

81. Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofqualitativedata?

A. Today’shightemperature

B. Theclassaverageof last test

D. Yourlastname

Wecannotcalculatesummarymeasuresifthevariableisqualitativeinnature.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

82. A respondent of a survey is asked whether the Philadelphia Flyers’ performance in the last game was excellent, good, fair, or poor. The person indicates that the performancewas"good."Thisisanexampleof

A. nominaldata

B. ordinaldata

C. intervaldata

D. ratiodata

Theordinalscaledatacanbe categorized and ranked.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

83. Philadelphiaexperienceda record amount of rainfall in August. During the last week of the month, the city received additional rain from a hurricane. Because global warming isthoughttocauseextremeweatherpatterns,oneconclusionthatcouldbedrawnisthatthesepatternsareevidenceofglobalwarming.Whatiswrongwiththisconclusion?

A knowledge of statistics provides the necessary tools to differentiate between sound statistical conclusions and questionable conclusions drawn from an insufficient numberof data points.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.

Topic: The Relevance of Statistics

84. AdministratorshaveconcludedthattheSATexamresultsfor2011showa distinct change in student capabilities when compared with the year 1991. In 1991 the SAT examincludedonlymultiplechoicesectionsandwaslaterredesigned.Whatiswrongwiththisconclusion?

A knowledge of statistics provides the necessary tools to differentiate between sound statistical conclusions and questionable conclusions drawn from an insufficient numberof data points, "bad" data points, incomplete data points, etc.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-01 Describe the importance of statistics.

Topic: The Relevance of Statistics

85. A university is interested in tracking the success of its graduates by measuring the length of each graduate’s job search before getting a position in his or her chosen field.Howwouldyoudefinetheappropriatepopulation?

A population consists of the complete collection of items with the characteristic we want to understand.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

86. Wewouldliketodeterminewhetherthereisa difference between the height of a college team of basketball players at the Ohio State University and the height of the overallstudentbody.Identifythetwopopulationsinthisstudy.

A population consists of the complete collection of items with the characteristic we want to understand.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

87. Ineachofthefollowingstatements,determinewhetherthebranchof statistics is best classified as descriptive statistics or inferential statistics.

A. Theaverageof a data set is equal to 35.7.

B. Theminimumvalueofa data set is 78, and the maximum value is 146.

C. Becausetheaverageageina sample is 23, it is likely that the average age in the population is about 23.

D. Becausethevaluesinthe sample are so widely dispersed, the spread of the population must be high.

Descriptivestatisticsrefersto the summary of a data set, and inferential statistics refers to drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

LearningObjective: 01-02 Differentiate between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

88. A car company wants to know the average age of cars of their brand that are still on the road. How would you define the appropriate population? Will the car companycalculatea population parameter or a sample statistic? Why?

Obtaininginformationon the entire population is expensive.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

89. Whataretheprimaryreasonsthatsamplingisnecessary?

Weareunabletousepopulationdatafortwomainreasons:Itisimpossibleto examine every member of the population and obtaining information on the entire population isexpensiveandtimeconsuming.

Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

90. Aninvestorwantsto know today’s average closing price of the stocks listed on the Standard and Poor’s 500 Index. Will the investor calculate a population parameter orsamplestatistic?Why?

Ifthepopulationunderstudyiscompletelyknown,thenalldatacanbe used to obtain the population parameter.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

91. Wewouldliketodeterminetheaverageheightof a college team of basketball players at Ohio State University. Is it necessary to take a sample of basketball players? Explain.

Ifthepopulationunderstudyissmall,wecanusetheentirepopulationtoobtainthedesiredparameter.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

92. Wewouldliketodeterminetheaverageheightof the overall student body at Ohio State University. Does it seem necessary to take a sample from the overall student body?

Obtaininginformationon the entire population is expensive, impractical, and time consuming.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

93. Researchersareinterestedincompletinga study examining trends in the sale of foods in the U.S. They have decided to examine the quantity of organic vegetables sold bysupermarkets.Willresearchersbeabletogatherpopulationdata?

Obtaininginformationon the entire population is expensive, impractical, and time consuming.

Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

94. Every10years,a census is taken in the U.S. by the Census Bureau. Despite the intent of gathering data on the population of the United States, issues exist that make truepopulationdataimpossibletogather.Identifyatleasttwoissuesincollectingthesedata.

Obtaininginformationon the entire population is expensive, impractical, and time consuming.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

95. Socialnetworkingsitessupportthemselvesinlargepartbysellingadvertisingspace.Thehitrateontheseadsisa critical measure when trying to solicit advertising. The hitrateisusedasa measure of success for ads. How would you recommend a social networking site use sampling to evaluate its existing ads?

Weuse sample data rather than population data to draw a conclusion about a population.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard

Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.

Topic: What Is Statistics?

96. Thefollowingtableincludesthenumberof white women over the age of 20 in the civilian labor force. Because it is time series data, what would the entries of the first columnreferto?

 Numberin Civilian ? LaborForce 43216 43479 44663 45409 45543 46613 47051 47833 48611 49128 48562

Source: http://data.bls.gov

Timeseriesdatarefertodatacollectedbyrecordinga characteristic of a subject over several time periods.

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?

97. A study of teen smoking is planned. Researchers are interested in collecting cross-sectional data, which allow them to draw conclusions about the likelihood, frequency, andlongevityof teen smoking. You have been asked to design this study and will collect no more than five pieces of data. What information will you collect?

Cross-sectionaldatarefertodatacollectedbyrecordingcharacteristicsatthesamepointintime.

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain various data types.
Topic: What Is Statistics?

98. Definethemeasurementscaleofa car’s fuel efficiency (measured in miles per gallon). Is a car’s fuel efficiency discrete or continuous?

A continuous variable can take on any value within an interval. Ratio scale is the strongest level of measurement and it has a true zero point.

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

99. A study of teen smoking is planned. Researchers are interested in collecting data which allow them to draw conclusions about the likelihood, frequency, and longevity of teensmoking.Thequestionsaskedinclude:“Whatisyourgender?”,“Whatisyourage?”,“Doyousmoke(yesor no)?”, “How many cigarettes per day do you smoke?”, “For howlonghaveyousmoked(in years)?” What is the measurement scale for each variable?

Ifwearepresentedwithnominaldata,allwecandoiscategorizeor group the data. The values in the data set differ merely by name or label. With ordinal data, we are able tobothcategorizeandrankthedatawithrespecttosomecharacteristicor trait. With data on an interval scale, not only can we categorize and rank the data, but we are alsoassuredthatthedifferencesbetweenscalevaluesaremeaningful.Ratio-scaleddatahaveall the characteristics of interval-scaled data as well as a meaningful zero point, whichallowsusto interpret the ratios of values.

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

100.Thefollowingdatarepresenta sample of property sales in Cape May County during the year 2000. Identify the qualitative and quantitative variables. What are the naturalcategoriesfor Town and Class? Identify the measurement scales for all variables.

 Town Class Date Price Assessment Avalon Residential 12/28/2000 \$500,000 \$ 288,600 Avalon Residential 04/14/2000 \$500,000 \$ 325,900 Wildwood Commercial 05/01/2000 \$500,000 \$ 250,000 Avalon Residential 05/22/2000 \$500,000 \$ 332,500 NorthWildwood Commercial 06/02/2000 \$500,000 \$ 607,700 Avalon Residential 09/16/2000 \$518,000 \$ 269,900 NorthWildwood Residential 04/07/2000 \$520,000 \$ 373,100 Avalon Commercial 01/15/2000 \$520,000 \$ 414,600 Avalon Residential 01/15/2000 \$525,000 \$ 373,500 Wildwood Residential 06/14/2000 \$525,000 \$ 379,600

A variable whose values are described verbally is qualitative, while a variable that assumes meaningful numerical values is quantitative. The categories for qualitative nominaldatadonothaveanynaturalordering,whilesuchanorderingisvisiblefor qualitative ordinal data. A quantitative data with a ratio scale of measurement has a meaningful zeropoint,andhenceallratiovaluesarenaturallyinterpretable.

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

101.Thefollowingdatarepresenta sample of non-elementary mathematics teachers in Bergen County, New Jersey. Identify the qualitative and quantitative variables, thecategoriesassociatedwitheachqualitativevariable,andthe measurement scales for all variables.

 Years Classes School Degree Experience Salary Taught BrooksideE.S. Masters 8 \$67,945 6 Program3-EmotionallyDistur. Masters 25 \$82,910 4 Program3-EmotionallyDistur. Bachelors 25 \$86,030 7 Program3-EmotionallyDistur. Bachelors 3 \$62,690 5 Program3-EmotionallyDistur. Masters 21 \$82,620 5 Program5-LifeSkills Masters 11 \$82,330 5 Program5-LifeSkills Masters 41 \$79,790 4 Bergen Academies-Hackensack Masters 31 \$82,626 5 Bergen Academies-Hackensack Masters 10 \$82,626 4 Bergen Academies-Hackensack Masters 3 \$98,291 4

A variable whose values are described verbally is qualitative, while a variable that assumes meaningful numerical values is quantitative. The categories for nominal data do nothaveanynaturalordering,whilesuchanorderingisvisiblefor ordinal data. A quantitative data with a ratio scale of measurement has a meaningful zero point, and henceall ratio values are naturally interpretable.

AACSB: Knowledge Application
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe variables and types of measurement scales.

Topic: Variables and Scales of Measurement

102. Thefollowingdataconcerna sample of employees of the U.S. Marshalls in the state of New York. Identify the qualitative and quantitative variables, the categories associatedwitheachqualitativevariable,andthemeasurementscalesfor all variables.

 Country Station Title Grade Salary NewYorkCountry NEWYORK-NY MISCELLANEOUSCLERKANDASSISTANT GS07 \$51,030 NewYorkCountry NEWYORK-NY MISCELLANEOUSCLERKANDASSISTANT GS07 \$55,405 KingsCountry NEWYORK-KINGS ACCOUNTING TECHNICIAN GS 07 \$45,196 ErieCountry BUFFALO ADMINISTRATIVEOFFICER GS13 \$95,023 OnondagaCountry SYRACUSE BUDGETANALYSIS GS09 \$53,773 NewYorkCountry NEWYORK-NY GENERALBUSINESSANDINDUSTRY GS 11 \$66,887 OnondagaCountry SYRACUSE GENERALBUSINESSANDINDUSTRY GS 11 \$74,628 ErieCountry BUFFALO MISCELLANEOUSADMINISTRATIONANDPROGRAM GS09 \$59,962 NewYorkCountry NEWYORK-NY MISCELLANEOUSADMINISTRATIONANDPROGRAM GS09 \$57,065 KingsCountry NEWYORK-KINGS GENERALBUSINESSANDINDUSTRY GS 11 \$66,887

A variable whose values are described verbally is qualitative, while a variable that assumes meaningful numerical values is quantitative. The categories for nominal data do nothaveanynaturalordering,whilesuchanorderingisvisiblefor ordinal data. A quantitative data with a ratio scale of measurement has a meaningful zero point, and henceall ratio values are naturally interpretable.

AACSB: Knowledge Application