Test Bank Children′s Thinking Cognitive Development 6th Edition by David F. Bjorklund

$35.00
Test Bank Children′s Thinking Cognitive Development 6th Edition by David F. Bjorklund

Test Bank Children′s Thinking Cognitive Development 6th Edition by David F. Bjorklund

$35.00
Test Bank Children′s Thinking Cognitive Development 6th Edition by David F. Bjorklund

Test Bank Children′s Thinking Cognitive Development 6th Edition by David F. Bjorklund

Chapter 1: Introduction to Cognitive Development

Multiple Choice

  1. According to the text, how does one obtain mental prowess?
  2. rapidly over childhood without any changes
  3. rapidly over childhood, changing in quality as it does
  4. gradually over childhood, changing in quality as it does
  5. throughout the lifespan

Ans: C

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction to Cognitive Development
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Cognition is defined as:
  2. learning, thinking, and the development of the brain.
  3. physical development of the brain.
  4. a Piagetian concept rooted in research.
  5. the processes or faculties by which knowledge is acquired and manipulated.

Ans: D

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognition

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is not true regarding cognition?
  2. usually thought of as being mental
  3. It is not directly observable.
  4. It is inferred from the behaviors we can observe.
  5. It is a theoretical concept and cannot be proven it occurs.

Ans: D

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Cognition

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Cognition includes:
  2. our conscious and deliberate attempts at solving problems.
  3. the conscious and deliberate processes involved in routine daily tasks.
  4. a person’s ability to only understand certain concepts.
  5. a difficult process in the development of the brain.

Ans: A

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognition

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is not a higher order process of cognition, which are often available to consciousness?
  2. developing a plan for solving a problem
  3. executing the plan
  4. evaluating the success of the plan and making modifications as needed.
  5. highlighting your textbook to understand the plan

Ans: D

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognition

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. As 6-year-old Johnny began to increase his knowledge of the terms dog, lion, and zebra, he was developing his:
  2. mental structure.
  3. mental acuity.
  4. mental growth.
  5. mental disparity.

Ans: A

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Change Over Time
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. If Michael is retrieving the definition of a word from memory, he in engaging what aspect of cognitive development?
  2. structure
  3. abstraction
  4. function
  5. extraction

Ans: C

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Change Over Time
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. If 4-year-old Emily’s highly active causing her parents not to keep her in her playpen her development will be affected by what type of relationship?
  2. a symbiotic relationship
  3. a bidirectional relationship
  4. a positive reinforcement relationship
  5. a negative feedback loop

Ans: B

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Structure, Function, and Development
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. According to the text, Intellectual Growth is:
  2. a 20% increase in IQ scores.
  3. the result of an active interaction between acting and thinking children and their world.
  4. being identified as a gifted and talented student.
  5. a direct relationship to physical growth.

Ans: B

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Structure, Function, and Development
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Developmental function refers to:
  2. the form that cognition takes over time—to age-related differences in thinking.
  3. the ability to function universally on all domains.
  4. a developmental domain concept.
  5. the in-depth study of one individual’s development over time.

Ans: A

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Structure, Function, and Development
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A particular 4-year-old will often show a wide range of behaviors on very similar tasks, depending on the context that child is in. This is known as:
  2. variation-discrimination theory.
  3. theory of varied assumptions.
  4. variability in cognitive functioning.
  5. deciphering techniques.

Ans: C

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Developmental Function and Individual Differences
Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Which of the following would not be an example of an early or immature form of development which adapts the infant or young child to his or her particular environment?
  2. A young infant’s relatively poor perceptual abilities which protect their nervous systems from sensory overload.
  3. Preschool children tendencies to overestimate their physical and cognitive skills causing to persist at different tasks.
  4. Infant’s slow information processing seems to prevent them from establishing intellectual habits later in life.
  5. The spontaneous activity of the skeletal structures necessary for physical development.

Ans: D

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Adaptive Nature of Cognitive Immaturity
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following is not a truth of cognitive development?
  2. Cognitive development is constructed within a social context.
  3. Cognitive development involves both stability and plasticity over time.
  4. Cognitive development involves changes in domain-general abilities but not in domain-specific abilities.
  5. Cognitive development involves changes in the way information is represented.

Ans: C

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Six Truths of Cognitive Development
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. According to your text, species-typical behaviors or species-typical patterns of cognition are:
  2. behaviors and cognitive strategies rooted in biogenetic determinism.
  3. those behaviors or aspects of cognition which seem to have a strong biological basis and to typify all members of a species at some time in their development.
  4. same as the old adage “birds of a feather flock together.”
  5. are only seen in lower animal forms but not in humans.

Ans: B

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: What Does it Mean to Say Something is Innate?
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which model requires an individual to consider the organism’s context as a unit and that there are multiple levels of the organism and multiple levels of the context?
  2. developmental synthesis model
  3. model of developmental intricacies
  4. developmental contextual model
  5. lifespan developmental model

Ans: c

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Nature/Nurture and Developmental Contextualism
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. According to the text, developmental contextual, sociocultural, and evolutionary models of development also represent:
  2. three levels of analysis.
  3. a supreme contextual view.
  4. a superficial model of development.
  5. an ongoing process of developmental theories.

Ans: a

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Integrating Approaches
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. What is the correct sequence of the levels of analysis of developmental phenomenon?
  2. sociohistory, ontogeny, phylogeny
  3. phylogeny, sociohistory, ontogeny
  4. ontogeny, phylogeny, sociohistory
  5. phylogeny, ontogeny, sociohistory

Ans: b

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Integrating Approaches
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. According to Jerome Kagan (1976), which of the following is referred to as the tape recorder model of development according to many other psychologists?
  2. Only certain experiences could be recorded for posterity, with the opportunity to only rewrite something once it was recorded.
  3. Certain experiences could never be recorded and thus at times could never be rewritten.
  4. Every experience is seen as being recorded for posterity, without the opportunity to rewrite or erase something once it had been recorded.
  5. Every experience recorded will always repeat itself for all eternity.

Ans: C

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Cognitive Development Involves Both Stability and Plasticity Over Time
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Evidence for the permanence of the effects of early experience can be found in the animal literature by which psychologist?
  2. Freud
  3. Bjorklund
  4. Causey
  5. Harlow

Ans: D

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognitive Development Involves Both Stability and Plasticity Over Time

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. According to the authors of your text, what do they contend regarding experiences which impact an individual?
  2. Stimulation and experience are important in the early years of life but so is later experience.
  3. Only stimulation and experience are important in the early years of life.
  4. Only late experience in life is important.
  5. Stimulation and later experience are important only in the latter years.

Ans: A

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognitive Development Involves Both Stability and Plasticity Over Time

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. According to your text, what is not true regarding strategies?
  2. They are deliberate, goal-directed mental operations.
  3. They are used to intentionally help us achieve a goal.
  4. They can be seen in infants.
  5. They do not change with ongoing development.

Ans: D

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Children Develop Increasing Intentional Control Over Their Behavior and Cognition

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What are the processes involved in regulating attention and in determining what to with information just gathered or retrieved from long-term memory called?
  2. classical learning
  3. executive function
  4. adaptive functioning
  5. sequential learning

Ans: B

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Children Develop Increasing Intentional Control Over Their Behavior and Cognition

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is not a basic cognitive ability that comprises executive function?
  2. inhibiting responding and resisting interference
  3. cognitive flexibility
  4. establishing mental frameworks
  5. working memory

Ans: c

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Children Develop Increasing Intentional Control Over Their Behavior and Cognition

Difficulty Level: medium

True/False

  1. Developmental function is the species-typical form that cognition takes over time.

Ans: T

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognition
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Cognition refers to the processes or faculties by which knowledge is dispersed and disseminated.

Ans: F

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognition
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Ontogeny refers to changes in structure or function over time within an individual.

Ans: T

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Change Over Time

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Intellectual growth is the result of a passive interaction between acting and thinking children and their world.

Ans: F

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Structure, Function, and Development
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. People concerned with developmental function are usually interested in universals—what is generally true about the course and causes of development for all members of the species.

Ans: T

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Developmental Function and Individual Differences
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Cognitive development does not proceed as a result of the dynamic and reciprocal transaction of internal and external factors.

Ans: F

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Six Truths of Cognitive Development
Difficulty Level: H

  1. A child’s biology interacts with a child’s social environment to influence a child’s developmental trajectory.

Ans: T

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Development is Constructed Within a Social Context
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Sociocultural models examine the development of psychological processes over an individual’s lifetime, beginning before birth.

Ans: F

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Integrating Approaches
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. One prominent hypothesis about the origins of infantile amnesia is that there are differences in the way experiences are represented between infancy and later in childhood.

Ans: T

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Cognitive Development Involves Changes in the Way Information is Represented
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Strategies are usually defined as non-deliberate, action-oriented mental operations aimed at developing a problem.

Ans: F

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Children Develop Increasing Intentional Control Over Their Behavior and Cognition
Difficulty Level: Medium

Essay

  1. What does Jerome Kagan mean when he proposed that one reason to expect resilience is that development does not proceed as a tape recorder.

Ans: Development is transformational, with relatively drastic changes occurring between adjacent stages or phases.

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Development Involves Both Stability and Plasticity Over Time
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Explain the three levels of analysis of developmental phenomena.

Ans: Developmental contextual, social cultural, and evolutionary models of development represent three levels of analysis. Developmental contextual models examine the development of psychological processes over in individual’s lifetime, beginning before birth. Sociocultural models also look at the immediate causes of behavior but, in addition, take into account the impact of humans’ 10,000-year cultural history on development. Evolutionary theory takes a truly long view of human history, examining the role that natural selection has played in shaping human development, particularly since the emergence of humans about 2 million years ago.

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Integrating Approaches
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. How do different cultures construct different experiences for their children to learn, and what consequences does this have for how they learn?

Ans: Some researchers have noted that children living in traditional societies are more attentive to what adults do and, thus, develop a keener ability to learn through observation than children from schooled societies such as ours. These types of cultural experiences affect how children learn. Research findings are consistent with the observations that “traditional” children pay more attention to the actions of the adults and learn more through observation rather than seeking instructions from adults or learning through verbal instructions.

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Sociocultural Perspectives
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Explain the basic concepts in cognitive development.

Ans: Cognition refers to the processes or faculties by which knowledge is acquired and manipulated. It is usually thought of being mental and thus a reflection of a mind. It is not directly observable. It is never measured directly. I is inferred from the behaviors we can observe. It includes not only our conscious and deliberate attempts at solving problems but also the unconscious and nondeliberate processes involved in routine daily tasks. It involves mental activity of all types, including activity geared toward acquiring, understanding, and modifying information.

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognition

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Discuss the concept whereby the functioning of mental structures promotes changes in the structures themselves.

Ans: This view is reflected in the idea that the activity of the child or of the child’s cognitive structures are necessary conditions for development to occur. That is, for structures to change, they must be active. The structure’s contact with the external world is responsible, to a large extent, for its development. Such a viewpoint makes children important contributors to their own development. Intellectual growth is the result of an active interaction between acting and thinking children and their world.

Learning Objective:

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Structure, Function, and Development
Difficulty Level: Hard

+
-
Only 0 units of this product remain

You might also be interested in