Test Bank Cognitive Psychology Connecting Mind, Research and Everyday Experience, 4th Edition By E. Bruce Goldstein A+

$35.00
Test Bank Cognitive Psychology Connecting Mind, Research and Everyday Experience, 4th Edition By E. Bruce Goldstein A+

Test Bank Cognitive Psychology Connecting Mind, Research and Everyday Experience, 4th Edition By E. Bruce Goldstein A+

$35.00
Test Bank Cognitive Psychology Connecting Mind, Research and Everyday Experience, 4th Edition By E. Bruce Goldstein A+

1. The example at the beginning of the book, in which Raphael talks to his friend on a cell phone on his way to class, was used to illustrate how

a. cognitive psychologists study problem solving in adults.

b. complex but seemingly effortless human cognition is.

c. human cognition is affected by emotional events.

d. both physiology and behavior is important to the study of cognition.

ANS: B REF: page 2

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: MODERATE

2. The branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind is called

a. cognitive psychology.

b. introspection.

c. behaviorism.

d. memory consolidation.

ANS: A REF: page 5

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

3. Attention, perception, memory, and decision making are all different types of mental processes in which the mind engages. These are known as different types of

a. models.

b. cognition.

c. reaction times.

d. savings.

ANS: B REF: page 5

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

4. Donders’ main reason for doing his choice reaction time experiment was to study

a. perception.

b. attention.

c. decision making.

d. memory.

ANS: C REF: page 7

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: MODERATE

5. By comparing reaction times across different tasks, Donders was able to conclude how long the mind needs to perform a certain cognitive task. Donders interpreted the difference in reaction time between the simple and choice conditions of his experiment as indicating how long it took to

a. perceive the stimulus.

b. process the stimulus.

c. attend to the stimulus.

d. make a decision about the stimulus.

ANS: D REF: page 7

TYPE: APPLIED DIF: MODERATE

6. The main point of the Donders’ reaction time experiments was to

a. show that reaction times can be measured accurately.

b. measure the amount of time it takes to make a decision.

c. determine differences in the way people react to stimuli.

d. show that our cognitions are often based on unconscious inferences.

ANS: B REF: page 7 KEY: WWW

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: MODERATE

7. In Donders' experiment on decision making, when participants were asked to press a button upon presentation of a light, they were engaged in a

a. reaction time task.

b. simple reaction time task.

c. choice reaction time task.

d. presentation task.

ANS: B REF: page 7 KEY: WWW

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: MODERATE

8. In Donders' experiment on decision making, when participants were asked to press one button if the light on the left was illuminated and another button if the light on the right was illuminated, they were engaged in a

a. reaction time task.

b. simple reaction time task.

c. choice reaction time task.

d. presentation task.

ANS: C REF: page 7 KEY: WWW

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: MODERATE

9. Reaction time refers to the time between the ________ of a stimulus and a person’s response to it.

a. perception

b. mental awareness

c. disappearance

d. presentation

ANS: D REF: pages 6-7 KEY: WWW

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

10. Donders’ reaction time experiment was performed using stimuli in which of the following sensory modalities?

a. Touch

b. Hearing

c. Smell

d. Vision

ANS: D REF: pages 6-7

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: MODERATE

11. A common feature of both a reaction time experiment and an operant conditioning experiment is

a. the presentation of positive reinforcers.

b. the measurement of behavior.

c. the inference of mental processes.

d. all of these are common features

ANS: B REF: pages 6, 10

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: DIFICULT

12. Donders’ measurement of reaction time is particularly important because it demonstrated the “time course” on which the mind operates. Donders found that it took ______ to decide which of two buttons to push in response to a stimulus.

a. 1/100 second

b. 1/10 second

c. a second

d. two seconds

ANS: B REF: page 7

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

13. The first experiments in cognitive psychology were based on the idea that mental responses can be

a. measured directly.

b. inferred from the participant’s behavior.

c. measured by comparing the presentation of the stimulus and the participant’s response.

d. measured by comparing responses among different participants.

ANS: B REF: page 8

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: MODERATE

14. The relationship between the _____ is NOT measured directly by cognitive psychologists.

a. physiological response and the behavioral outcome

b. cognitive task and the behavioral outcome

c. cognitive task and the physiological response

d. cognitive task and the mental response

ANS: D REF: page 8

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: DIFICULT

15. Which of the following stimuli were used in Ebbinghaus' "memory" experiment discussed in your text?

a. Common words

b. Light illuminated on the left or the right of a computer screen

c. Grey rectangles in front of light rectangles

d. Three-letter nonsense words

ANS: D REF: page 7

TYPE: APPLIED DIF: DIFICULT

16. According to Ebbinghaus' savings curve, savings is a function of

a. word familiarity.

b. sensory modality.

c. retention interval.

d. reaction time.

ANS: C REF: page 8

TYPE: APPLIED DIF: DIFICULT

17. Ebbinghaus' "memory" experiments were important because they

a. described complex decision-making.

b. plotted functions that described the operation of the mind.

c. were the first to combine basic elements of experience called sensations.

d. showed how positive reinforcers strengthen behavior.

ANS: B REF: page 8

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: DIFICULT

18. The founder of the first laboratory of scientific psychology was

a. Franciscus Donders.

b. Hermann von Helmholtz.

c. Wilhelm Wundt.

d. Hermann Ebbinghaus.

ANS: C REF: page 8

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

19. Which of the following methods, often associated with structuralism, was used in the psychology laboratory established by Wilhelm Wundt?

a. Analytic introspection

b. Measuring reaction times

c. Conditioning

d. All of these were used in Wundt’s laboratory

ANS: A REF: pages 8-9

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: DIFICULT

20. The procedure in which trained participants describe their experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli presented under controlled conditions is known as

a. information processing.

b. analytic introspection.

c. functional analysis.

d. behavioral analysis.

ANS: B REF: page 8

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

21. An important contribution to the field of psychology resulting from Wilhelm Wundt founding his laboratory at the University of Leipzig in 1879 was

a. the rise of behaviorism’s popularity.

b. recognizing 1879 as “the birthday of cognitive science.”

c. producing Ph.D.s who later established psychology departments at many U.S. universities.

d. the first demonstration of the forgetting curve.

ANS: C REF: page 9

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: DIFICULT

22. Which of the following is a criticism of analytic introspection?

a. It infers mental processes based on objective data.

b. It produces results that are too easy to verify.

c. It produces variable results from person to person.

d. It requires no training.

ANS: C REF: page 9 KEY: WWW

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: MODERATE

23. John Watson believed that psychology should focus on the study of

a. observable behavior.

b. mental processes.

c. consciousness.

d. attention.

ANS: A REF: page 10

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: MODERATE

24. Which of the following was considered positive by the behaviorists?

a. Observable behavior

b. Consciousness

c. Introspection

d. The mind

ANS: A REF: page 10

TYPE: APPLIED DIF: MODERATE

25. The “Little Albert” experiment involving the rat and the loud noise is an example of which of the following types of experiments?

a. Reaction time

b. Unconscious inference

c. Classical conditioning

d. Operant conditioning

ANS: C REF: page 10

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: MODERATE

26. Behaviorists believe that the presentation of_______ increases the frequency of behavior.

a. positive reinforcers

b. negative reinforcers

c. practice trials

d. excitatory neurotransmitters

ANS: A REF: page 10 KEY: WWW

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: MODERATE

27. Which of the following psychologists is known for research on operant conditioning?

a. Franciscus Donders

b. Wilhelm Wundt

c. John Watson

d. B.F. Skinner

ANS: D REF: page 10

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

28. The investigation of how behavior is strengthened by presentation of positive reinforcers (e.g., food) or withdrawal of negative reinforcers (e.g., shock) is best known as

a. classical conditioning.

b. the method of savings.

c. choice reaction time.

d. operant conditioning.

ANS: D REF: page 10

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

29. Who developed the concept of the cognitive map?

a. Watson

b. Ebbinghaus

c. Wundt

d. Tolman

ANS: D REF: page 11 KEY: WWW

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: MODERATE

30. A mental conception of the layout of a physical space is known as a(n)

a. cognitive map.

b. mental model.

c. artificial intelligence.

d. memory consolidation.

ANS: A REF: page 11 KEY: WWW

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

31. Regarding children’s language development, Noam Chomsky noted that children generate many sentences they have never heard before. From this, he concluded that language development is driven largely by

a. inborn programming.

b. cultural influences.

c. classical conditioning.

d. operant conditioning.

ANS: A REF: page 12

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: EASY

32. Who proposed that children’s language development was caused by imitation and reinforcement?

a. Noam Chomsky

b. John Watson

c. Keller Breland

d. B.F. Skinner

ANS: D REF: page 12

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

33. Which of the following events is most closely associated with the decline of behaviorism as an approach to psychology?

a. Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment

b. Skinner’s publication of the book, Verbal Behavior

c. Development of the technique of analytic introspection

d. The proposal of cognitive maps

ANS: B REF: page 12 KEY: WWW

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: MODERATE

34. Which of the following does NOT characterize the information processing (IP) approach to the study of cognition?

a. IP depicts the mind as processing information in a sequence of stages.

b. IP supports the principle of behaviorism that behavior is a stimulus-response relationship.

c. IP involves the use of computers as a metaphor to understand human cognition.

d. IP has an interest in investigating unobservable mental events.

ANS: B REF: page 12

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: MODERATE

35. Your text describes the occurrence of a “cognitive revolution” during which dramatic changes took place in the way psychology was studied. This so-called “revolution” occurred parallel to (and, in part, because of) the introduction of

a. cognitive psychology textbooks.

b. analytic introspection.

c. Skinner boxes.

d. computers.

ANS: D REF: page 12 KEY: WWW

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: MODERATE

36. The scene of a human sitting at a computer terminal, responding to stimuli flashed on the computer screen, would most likely be described as depicting a(n) _________ experiment.

a. information processing

b. analytic introspection

c. operant conditioning

d. behaviorist

ANS: A REF: pages 12-13

TYPE: APPLIED DIF: DIFICULT

37. Donald Broadbent was the first person to develop which of the following?

a. A diagram depicting the mind as processing information in a sequence of stages

b. A computer program for solving logic problems

c. An experimental procedure for studying the way people process information

d. The first textbook of cognitive psychology

ANS: A REF: page 13

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: DIFICULT

38. Who introduced the flow diagram to represent what is happening in the mind?

a. Donald Broadbent

b. Colin Cherry

c. Newell and Simon

d. Wilhelm Wundt

ANS: A REF: page 13

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: DIFICULT

39. Colin Cherry’s experiment in which participants listen to two messages simultaneously, one in each ear, found that

a. people can focus on one message and ignore the other one.

b. people can focus on the message they were repeating.

c. people take in very little information about the ignored message.

d. all of these

ANS: D REF: page 13

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: MODERATE

40. Broadbent's notion that the mind could be represented as operating in a sequence of stages, often represented by boxes, allows cognitive psychologists to develop that can be tested by further experiments.

a. models

b. approaches

c. memories

d. cognitive maps

ANS: A REF: page 13

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: MODERATE

41. The field that studies how to make machines behave in ways that are intelligent if a human were so behaving is known as

a. cognitive psychology.

b. behaviorism.

c. artificial intelligence.

d. flow diagramming.

ANS: C REF: page 14

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

42. The use of the term "artificial intelligence" was coined by

a. B.F. Skinner.

b. Colin Cherry.

c. Edward Tolman.

d. John McCarthy.

ANS: D REF: page 14

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: MODERATE

43. Newell and Simon were among the first to use computers in cognitive psychology. Their computer program

a. simulated human attention.

b. solved logic problems.

c. controlled presentation of visual stimuli during cognitive psychology experiments.

d. introduced the first flow diagram.

ANS: B REF: page 14

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: MODERATE

44. At the MIT Symposium on Information Theory, George Miller presented a paper suggesting that

a. the human ability to process information is unlimited.

b. there are limits to the human ability to process information.

c. intelligent machines can be successfully created.

d. memory consolidation is enhanced by REM sleep.

ANS: B REF: page 14

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: DIFICULT

45. What year is usually cited as the “birthday” of cognitive science (pick the closest year)?

a. 1879

b. 1945

c. 1956

d. 1967

ANS: C REF: page 14

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: MODERATE

46. The “cognitive revolution”

a. occurred rapidly, within a period of a few years, in response to the attacks on Skinner and the development of computers.

b. extended over a long period of time, beginning in the early part of the century, in reaction to Wundt’s introspection experiments.

c. was a gradual process that occurred over a few decades.

d. was not really necessary because the study of the mind has been a constant part of experimental psychology since the founding of the first psychology laboratory.

ANS: C REF: page 14

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: DIFICULT

47. Using behavior to infer mental processes is the basic principle of

a. behaviorism.

b. Donderism.

c. cognitive psychology.

d. operant conditioning.

ANS: C REF: page 15

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

48. According to your text, the behavioral approach to the study of the mind involves

a. measuring the relation between stimulation and brain processes.

b. controlling behavior by presenting positive reinforcements.

c. measuring the relation between stimuli and behavior.

d. controlling behavior by presenting negative reinforcements.

ANS: C REF: page 15 KEY: WWW

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

49. The process during which information is strengthened and transformed into a strong memory that is resistant to interference is known as

a. savings.

b. memory consolidation.

c. introspection.

d. cognition.

ANS: B REF: page 15 KEY: WWW

TYPE: FACTUAL DIF: EASY

50. Gais et al.'s research on the impact of sleep on memory consolidation illustrates which type of approach to the study of the operations of the mind?

a. Behavioral

b. Structural

c. Physiological

d. Mathematical

ANS: C REF: page 16 KEY: WWW

TYPE: CONCEPTUAL DIF: DIFICULT

ESSAY

1. Explain how Donders' and Ebbinghaus's pioneering methods, though very different from each other, allowed for behavior to determine a property of the mind.

REF: 6-8

2. Describe analytic introspection. Give an experimental example. Also, describe two limitations to this method.

REF: 8

3. Describe operant conditioning. How did B.F. Skinner explain language development in terms of operant conditioning? What were Noam Chomsky’s criticisms of Skinner’s account?

REF: 10-12

4. Define flow diagram. Describe its importance to the information processing approach. Draw Broadbent's filter model of memory as a flow diagram.

REF: 13

5. Compare and contrast the behavioral and physiological approaches to the study of the mind. Explain how memory consolidation could be studied differently using each approach.

REF: 15-17

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