Test Bank Crime Control in America What Works, 4th Edition John L. Worrall A+

$35.00
Test Bank Crime Control in America What Works, 4th Edition John L. Worrall A+

Test Bank Crime Control in America What Works, 4th Edition John L. Worrall A+

$35.00
Test Bank Crime Control in America What Works, 4th Edition John L. Worrall A+

1)

_______

  1. A)

property crimes

  1. B)

morality crimes

  1. C)

violent crimes

  1. D)

white-collar crimes

2)

Quantitative research typically involves ________.

2)

_______

  1. A)

a conclusive legislative change in a law

  1. B)

diffusing salient issues between researchers

  1. C)

less detailed research on a large number of cases

  1. D)

descriptive and in-depth research on a specific group or location

3)

Who signed the Patriot Act into law following the events of September 11th?

3)

_______

  1. A)

President Clinton

  1. B)

President Bush

  1. C)

Supreme Court Justice O'Connor

  1. D)

Senator Ted Kennedy

4)

The Elusive Criminal Justice Experiment means that ________.

4)

_______

  1. A)

social phenomena such as crime is relatively simple to measure and thus produces a

concrete field for study

  1. B)

a true classical experiment is hard to create in some areas of crime control

  1. C)

criminologists lack the expertise to properly identify and study a macro-level crime problem

  1. D)

legislators are highly effective in creating social policy to eliminate crime

5)

Crime control policies that push crime into other neighborhoods is a problem known as ________.

5)

_______

  1. A)

confusion

  1. B)

displacement

  1. C)

diffusion

  1. D)

redirection

6)

Which of the following terms denotes researchers who have an interest in receiving funding to research a hot topic?

6)

_______

  1. A)

original research

  1. B)

cross-sectional researcher

  1. C)

academic crusader

  1. D)

bandwagon science

7)

Targeting low-level crimes, such as street-level drug dealing and prostitution, in an effort to deter more serious crime is known as the ________.

7)

_______

  1. A)

broken windows theory

  1. B)

fractured society theory

  1. C)

fragmented circle theory

  1. D)

collapsed neighborhood theory

8)

A private foundation supplying a criminal justice agency with funding is providing ________.

8)

_______

  1. A)

solution funding

  1. B)

soft money

  1. C)

research shortage funding

  1. D)

hard money

9)

Which type of science would evaluate the DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) program?

9)

_______

  1. A)

indeterminate sciences

  1. B)

soft sciences

  1. C)

hard sciences

  1. D)

determinate sciences

10)

A method used to determine whether an approach to the crime problem is a success or failure is called ________.

10)

______

  1. A)

methodology analysis

  1. B)

outcome evaluation

  1. C)

process evaluation

  1. D)

learning outcomes

11)

Micro-level crime control is ________.

11)

______

  1. A)

seen as affecting an entire state or nation

  1. B)

one that affects many people

  1. C)

more isolated geographically

  1. D)

concerned with large numbers of individuals

12)

Which of the following is not a type of displacement?

12)

______

  1. A)

spatial

  1. B)

tactical

  1. C)

vector

  1. D)

target

13)

Science used by someone to advance his or her own political priorities is known as a(n) ________.

13)

______

  1. A)

academic bias

  1. B)

academic attention getter

  1. C)

academic crusade.

  1. D)

academic lobbyist

14)

A person who evades paying taxes is committing what type of crime?

14)

______

  1. A)

morality crime

  1. B)

property crime

  1. C)

white-collar crime

  1. D)

violent crime

15)

Determining whether the addition of more patrol officers reduces crime in a specific beat or precinct, is an example of ________.

15)

______

  1. A)

input

  1. B)

summation

  1. C)

output

  1. D)

evaluation.

16)

Which of the following seeks to use the most rigorous scientific methodology available to identify and implement crime control techniques that are most likely to make best use of taxpayer monies?

16)

______

  1. A)

evidence-based justice

  1. B)

methodology analysis

  1. C)

bandwagon science

  1. D)

hard checks

17)

There is a great deal that we can do to effectively control crime, and the odds are that ________ will do the most to make society safer.

17)

______

  1. A)

several approaches combined together

  1. B)

tunnel vision

  1. C)

one main approach

  1. D)

vigilante forces

18)

What type of legislation is intended to both prevent and control crime?

18)

______

  1. A)

malicious

  1. B)

three-strikes

  1. C)

preventative

  1. D)

Robert's

19)

If someone surveys several people today and finds that there is a relationship between fear of crime and prior victimization, this is a ________.

19)

______

  1. A)

cross-sectional design

  1. B)

quotient design

  1. C)

correlative quotient

  1. D)

cognitive design

20)

The ________ is concerned with the extent to which a researcher's findings can be carried over to another location or series of locations.

20)

______

  1. A)

bandwagon approach

  1. B)

generalization problem

  1. C)

cross-sectional design

  1. D)

methodology analysis

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

21)

The mass media heightens people's fear of crime.

21)

______

22)

As crime rates decline, people tend to express less fear of being a crime victim.

22)

______

23)

Public order crimes such as prostitution, pornography, gambling and substance abuse are called vice crimes.

23)

______

24)

Tax evasion is a white-collar crime.

24)

______

25)

Criminology is called a hard science.

25)

______

26)

Longitudinal studies take place at a single point in time.

26)

______

27)

An academic crusade involves the practice of convincing others that one approach to crime control is superior to another.

27)

______

28)

Decriminalization expands the number of activities that are defined as criminal.

28)

______

29)

Three-strikes legislation is solely intended to control crime and not to prevent it.

29)

______

30)

Crime reduction policies can cause criminal activity to be displaced.

30)

______

31)

Targeting low-level crimes, such as street-level drug dealing and prostitution, in an effort to deter more serious crime is known as the Broken Windows Theory.

31)

______

32)

Determining whether the addition of more patrol officers reduces crime in a specific beat or precinct, is an example of evaluation.

32)

______

33)

Violent crimes cause the greatest fear in the minds of most Americans.

33)

______

34)

The Generalization Problem is concerned with the extent to which a researcher's findings can be carried over to another location or series of locations.

34)

______

35)

Hard science would evaluate the DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) program.

35)

______

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

36)

________ law constitutes the "bread and butter" of crime control.

36)

_____________

37)

________ research involves number crunching and statistical analysis of data.

37)

_____________

38)

________ can drive crime problems into neighboring areas.

38)

_____________

39)

________ knowledge can be considered tentative, because researchers use different measures to represent the same phenomenon.

39)

_____________

40)

The funding of a police agency through the appropriations process is termed ________ Money.

40)

_____________

41)

A researcher following the same group over a long period of time is conducting ________

research.

41)

_____________

42)

________ is a problem concerned with the extent to which researchers' findings can be carried over to a series of locations.

42)

_____________

43)

________ sectional research is a study that takes place at a single point in time.

43)

_____________

44)

White-collar crime is ill defined but generally consists of crimes committed by people during the course of their ________ careers.

44)

_____________

45)

________ distribution of crime is concerned with crime patterns over time.

45)

_____________

MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.

Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.

46)

Victimization paradox

  1. A)

A method of determining whether a program or policy is operating as it should be.

46)

______

47)

Outcome (crime control)



47)

______

48)



  1. B)

A method of determining whether some form of social action is a success or a failure.

Outcome evaluation

48)

______

49)

Process evaluation



49)

______



  1. C)

A high level of fear with a correspondingly low likelihood of victimization.

  1. D)

That which is likely to be affected by the solution.

Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.

50)

Soft sciences

  1. A)

The social sciences fields that focus on the study of social phenomena in their natural settings.

50)

______

51)

Hard sciences

  1. A)

Scientific fields of study characterized by research that is usually conducted in tightly controlled laboratory settings.

51)

______

52)

Classical experiment



52)

______

53)



  1. B)

A largely exploratory method of inquiry characterized by in-depth research on a specific location or group of subjects.

Qualitative research

53)

______

  1. C)

The gold standard for scientific research, a study that includes (1) a treatment group and a control group, (2) a pretest and a posttest, and (3) a controlled intervention.

Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.

54)

Quantitative research

  1. A)

A method of inquiry characterized by the analysis of numerical data designed to represent concepts of interest.

54)

______

55)

Macro-level crime control



55)

______

56)



  1. B)

Consists of approaches to the crime problem that are intended to have a dramatic and desirable effect on crime in an entire neighborhood, city, or state or even across the nation.

Micro-level crime control

56)

______

57)

Displacement

57)

______

  1. C)

The spillover or movement of crime (in the case of crime control) into a surrounding area not targeted by the intervention in question.

  1. D)

Consists of approaches to the crime problem that are more isolated geographically.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

58)

Explain what is meant by the term victimization paradox and describe its consequences.

59)

Define the term displacement and provide some examples of the various types.

60)

Describe the elements of a classical experiment and explain why it is not commonly used in the field of criminal justice.

61)

Suppose you work as a police officer in the 8th largest city in your state. During the past 5 years the residential burglary rate has slowly increased and at present your city has the highest rate in the whole state. Your city has the highest police/citizen ratio in the state, so your chief is perplexed. She checked with all the surrounding cities and discovered that each of them have been conducting miscellaneous micro-level crime control activities for the last 3-5 years. She also discovered that each of the surrounding cities had a decrease in the residential burglary rates during the prior 3-5 years. Because of your criminal justice degree, she asks you why the burglary rate is going up while other cities are seeing a decrease. She also asks you for advice as to what might work to lower the burglary rate in your city. What information and advice could you offer?

62)

Quantitative research is generally preferred, but sometimes it is difficult to know which interventions are mainly responsible for changes in particular statistics, such as a crime rate decreasing over a period of time. Besides just looking at the numbers, how could a police department obtain information on what works?

1)

C

2)

C

3)

B

4)

B

5)

B

6)

D

7)

A

8)

B

9)

B

10)

B

11)

C

12)

C

13)

C

14)

C

15)

D

16)

A

17)

A

18)

B

19)

A

20)

B

21)

TRUE

22)

FALSE

23)

TRUE

24)

TRUE

25)

FALSE

26)

FALSE

27)

TRUE

28)

FALSE

29)

FALSE

30)

TRUE

31)

TRUE

32)

TRUE

33)

TRUE

34)

TRUE

35)

FALSE

36)

Criminal

37)

Quantitative

38)

Displacement

39)

Scientific

40)

Hard

41)

longitudinal

42)

Generalization

43)

Cross

44)

professional

45)

Temporal

46)

C

47)

D

48)

B

49)

A

50)

A

51)

A

52)

C

53)

B

54)

A

55)

B

56)

D

57)

C

58)

The term victimization paradox suggests that most people's fear of being the victim of a violent crime is far greater than the actual likelihood of being victimized. Research has shown that although women and the elderly are least likely to be crime victims, their fear of crime remains relatively high. Unfortunately, the fear of crime can have negative consequences upon one's quality of life. Excessive fear causes people to withdraw from normal everyday interaction within the community they reside. Additionally, fear discourages business development and can contribute to the deterioration of neighborhoods.

59)

Research has suggested that even when crime control policy leads to a short-term reduction in crime, the policy might in fact be displacing the problem to another neighborhood. Not only can criminal activity be pushed from one neighborhood to another, displacement can cause a variety of other possible outcomes. These other outcomes might include temporal displacement, which causes a criminal to change the time of day that they plan to execute a crime. Another outcome of displacement might be tactical, wherein a criminal acquires a new method of operation for the purpose of committing a crime. Sometimes displacement causes offenders to select new property or persons to victimize. This is known as target displacement. Another form of displacement can result when criminals are arrested and new offenders replace them, committing similar offences known as perpetrator displacement.

60)

The classical experiment consists of three distinct elements. These elements include: a) a treatment group and a control group, b) a pretest and a posttest, and c) a controlled intervention. The treatment group is the one that will receive an intervention. The control group is the one that does not get exposed to the intervention. In other words, this group will conduct "business as usual". Next the pretest and posttest are measured before and after the intervention. Finally, a controlled intervention is administered by the researcher. Due to the inherent limitations in the social sciences, classical experiments are rare in criminal justice. Many times the difficulties associated with the classical experiment are too dangerous to be carried out. More specifically, death, injury, or even psychological coercion may create too dangerous of an environment for experimentation. Studying the social phenomena of crime is a very challenging and complex task.

61)

The surrounding cities are all actively conducting micro-level crime control, which is meant to control isolated areas, such as neighborhoods or hot spots in the city. Your city has not been involved in any deterrent activity, so it likely that the increase of crime is due to displacement. Through the passage of time, perpetrators from surrounding cities have moved their criminal activity to your city where no visible deterrence is present other than marked police cars. A recommendation might be to implement crime control strategies that would change the perception of perpetrators who think your city is an easier target. By joining in with other cities in target hardening, there is a likelihood of a decrease in burglaries in your city and possibly an additional diffusion effect in other cities. Some ideas might include visible cameras on street corners, marked cars parked in residential areas, a well publicized saturation of police in unmarked cars parking in residential areas for apprehension enhancement, target hardening activities in the neighborhoods (better lighting and neighborhood watch), and burglary alarm stickers on windows or those who participate in the program. The most important element of any crime intervention (intended as a deterrent) is that the potential perpetrator must know about it.

62)

Often qualitative information is extremely helpful in evaluating what works. A helpful strategy for police departments is self reporting from the criminals themselves. Although some apprehended criminals may choose not to disclose much information, a surprising number of criminals will confess and then give a wealth of information to police. The key is for the investigator to ask. Many types of crimes are now better understood because of self reporting, including pedophilia, sexual assault, and serial killing. The learned information is utilized in theory development, profiling, and crime control. Numbers alone can't give the kind of information that is needed for external validity (relating what works in one place with what might work in other places or with other crimes).

+
-
Only 0 units of this product remain

You might also be interested in