Test Bank Criminal Investigation 12th Edition By Charles Swanson A+

$35.00
Test Bank Criminal Investigation 12th Edition By Charles Swanson A+

Test Bank Criminal Investigation 12th Edition By Charles Swanson A+

$35.00
Test Bank Criminal Investigation 12th Edition By Charles Swanson A+

) The first modern detective force was:

A) the Bow Street Runners.

B) established by the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829.

C) created by Patrick Colquhoun.

D) the London Metropolitan Police.

Answer: A

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2) The London Metropolitan Police was established in 1829. At first, the British public was suspicious of, and at times even hostile toward, it because:

A) King Edward II had supported its creation.

B) Rowan and Mayne had intimate ties to the royal family.

C) social reformers such as Jeremy Bentham had long argued that it was a danger to personal liberty.

D) French citizens had experienced oppression under centralized police.

Answer: D

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3) In 1833, ________ passed an ordinance creating America's first paid, daylight police force.

A) Philadelphia

B) Chicago

C) New York City

D) Baltimore

Answer: A

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4) Which of the following is a reason for the absence of reliable detectives in America during the 1800's?

A) Graft and corruption were common among America's big city police officers.

B) Police jurisdictions were limited.

C) There was little information sharing by law enforcement agencies.

D) All of the above.

Answer: D

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5) Which city was the first to create a unified police force in the United States?

A) New Orleans

B) New York

C) Baltimore

D) Philadelphia

Answer: B

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6) After the Civil War, Pinkerton's National Detective Agency engaged in the two broad areas of:

A) locating war criminals and investigating the KKK.

B) protecting members of Congress and the Supreme Court.

C) following up on initial reports of interstate crimes and locating offenders who fled to a foreign country.

D) controlling a discontented working class and pursuing bank and railroad robbers.

Answer: D

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7) What municipal agency was the first to establish a Criminal Identification Bureau?

A) Chicago

B) Atlanta

C) Philadelphia

D) New Orleans

Answer: A

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8) Which of the following statements about a rogues' gallery is true?

A) It is only practical in cities with populations of 100,000 or more.

B) It consists of photographs of known criminals arranged by criminal specialty and height.

C) Its use was abandoned because of the cost of maintaining it.

D) All of the above.

Answer: B

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9) What was the original mission of the Secret Service when created by Congress in 1865?

A) combat counterfeiting

B) providing protection for the President

C) preventing drug importation into the country

D) All of the above

Answer: A

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10) Which agency was the prototype for modern state police organizations?

A) New York State Police

B) Georgia State Police

C) Pennsylvania State Police

D) Pinkerton International Detective Agency

Answer: C

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11) The Harrison Act of 1914 made the distribution of nonmedical drugs a crime. The agency currently charged with enforcing its provisions is the ________.

A) Federal Bureau of Investigations

B) Narcotics Bureau

C) Drug Enforcement Administration

D) Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs

Answer: C

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12) During 1961-1966, the U.S. Supreme Court became unusually active in hearing cases involving the rights of criminal suspects and defendants. This period is referred to as the ________.

A) radical court era

B) leftist court decisions

C) due process revolution

D) ex-post facto period

Answer: C

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13) The first major book describing the application of scientific disciplines to criminal investigation was written in 1893 by Hans Gross. Translated into English in 1906, it remains highly respected today as a seminal work in the field. What is the book's title?

A) Criminal Investigation

B) The Scientific Method of Criminal Inquiry

C) Science and Criminals

D) Forensic Science and Crime

Answer: A

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14) An early method of criminal identification was based on the thought that every human being differs from every other one in the exact measurements of their body. Also, the sum of those measurements was thought to yield a characteristic formula for each individual. What was this method of criminal identification?

A) Dactylography

B) Ectomorphism

C) Anthropometry

D) Accutron

Answer: C

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15) The father of criminal identification is:

A) Hans Gross.

B) Alphonse Bertillon.

C) Edward Henry.

D) William Herschel.

Answer: B

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16) The first country to use fingerprints as a system of criminal identification was:

A) Germany.

B) France.

C) China.

D) England.

Answer: D

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17) In 1892, who published the first definitive book on dactylography, Finger Prints?

A) Sir Francis Galton

B) Henri Lacassagne

C) Henry Balthazard

D) Calvin Goddard

Answer: A

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18) Which 1903 case was the most important incident to advance the use of fingerprints in the United States?

A) Lindberg

B) Fauld

C) West

D) Vucetich

Answer: C

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19) In 1985, research by ________ and his colleagues at Leicester University, England, led to the discovery that portions of the DNA structure of certain genes are as unique to individuals as are fingerprints.

A) James Watson

B) Dawn Ashworth

C) Francis Crick

D) Alec Jeffreys

Answer: D

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20) What is the significance of the Enderby cases?

A) They questioned the scientific validity of fingerprint evidence.

B) Those trials were the first use of "voice prints" to convict a criminal.

C) The precedent of using DNA in a criminal case was established.

D) None of the above.

Answer: C

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21) The 1992 palo verde seedpod case is significant because it:

A) excluded case evidence because of police misuse of plant pathology procedures.

B) involved the use of plant DNA in a criminal case.

C) established the scientific basis for identifying suspects from their fingerprints on flora.

D) None of the above.

Answer: D

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22) Who made the first successful attempt to identify a murderer from a bullet recovered from the body of a victim?

A) Paul Jeserich

B) Henri Lacassagne

C) Henry Balthazard

D) Henry Goddard

Answer: D

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23) ________ is considered most responsible for raising firearms identification to a science and for perfecting the bullet comparison microscope.

A) Paul Jeserich

B) Henri Lacassagne

C) Henry Balthazard

D) Calvin Goddard

Answer: D

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24) Lattes developed a procedure that:

A) suggested an eye iris might have characteristics for individual identification.

B) established when DNA was left on an object recovered from a crime scene.

C) allowed evidence gathered from touch DNA to be preserved for over a span of 10 years.

D) permitted blood typing from a dried bloodstain.

Answer: D

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25) Identify a true statement about touch DNA. It:

A) helps determine how an object was used.

B) analysis of it is only successful in 5 percent of all cases.

C) does not leave a visible residue.

D) cannot be accumulated.

Answer: C

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26) Which of the following provides a genomic-based, probabilistic estimation of the image of a person of interest?

A) DNA phenotyping.

B) Touch DNA.

C) Biometrics.

D) None of the above.

Answer: A

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27) Forensic science draws from diverse disciplines, such as geology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics, to study physical evidence related to crime.

Answer: TRUE

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28) The Metropolitan Police Act was enacted in 1829, the first time a strong central professional police force for London was considered by England's Parliament.

Answer: FALSE

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29) The Metropolitan Police headquarters came to be known as "Scotland Yard" because the building formerly had housed Scottish royalty.

Answer: TRUE

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30) After Prohibition was adopted nationally in 1920, the Bureau of Internal Revenue was responsible for its enforcement.

Answer: TRUE

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31) When Prohibition was repealed by the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1933, many former bootleggers turned to bank robbery and kidnapping.

Answer: TRUE

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32) The Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD) was an offshoot organization from the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) that was formed to handle national terroristic drug use.

Answer: FALSE

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33) Edmond Benet produced the portrait parlé or "speaking picture," which combines full-face and profile photographs of each criminal with his or her exact body measurements and other descriptive data onto a single card.

Answer: FALSE

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34) DNA is a chemical "blueprint" that determines everything from hair color to susceptibility to

diseases.

Answer: TRUE

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35) The Orlando cases set the stage for the first use of DNA in criminal investigations in the United States.

Answer: TRUE

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36) In 1913, Professor Balthazard published an article on firearms identification in which he noted that the firing pin, breechblock, extractor, and ejector all leave marks on cartridges, and that they vary among weapons.

Answer: TRUE

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37) The time it takes for touch DNA to be deposited is constant.

Answer: FALSE

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38) Currently, the age of a person of interest in a case can be determined by phenotyping.

Answer: FALSE

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39) ________ efforts led to the establishment of the London Metropolitan Police in 1829.

Answer: Sir Robert Peel's

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40) Stephen Girard bequeathed $33,190 to ________ to develop a competent police force.

Answer: Philadelphia

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41) The major private detective agency of the 19th century was formed by ________.

Answer: Pinkerton

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42) To supplement the rogues' gallery, Thomas Byrnes instituted the:

Answer: Mulberry Street Morning Parade

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43) In 1967 ________ was made operational by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, providing data on wanted persons and property stolen from all 50 states.

Answer: National Crime Information Center or NCIC

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44) Locard established the first ________ in Lyon in 1910.

Answer: forensic laboratory

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45) All crime scenes are searched on the basis of Locard's ________, which asserts that when perpetrators come into contact with the scene, they will leave something of themselves and take away something from the scene.

Answer: exchange principle

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46) The first foreigner trained in the use of the Henry classification system was New York City Detective Sergeant ________ in 1904.

Answer: Faurot

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47) The ________ cases involved testing blood samples from about 5,500 men living in the area in an attempt to identify a rape suspect.

Answer: Enderby

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48) ________ helped produce the first workable polygraph in 1921 and established America's first full forensic laboratory in Los Angeles in 1923.

Answer: Vollmer

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49) ________ refers to the measurable and automated physiological or behavioral characteristics that can be used to verify the identity of an individual.

Answer: Biometrics

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50) Who were the Bow Street Runners, and what is their historical importance?

Answer: The Bow Street Runners were a small group of volunteer, non-uniformed homeowners established in 1750 by Henry Fielding to "take thieves." They would hurry to the scene of a crime and begin an investigation, thus becoming the first modern detective force.

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51) What parallels can be drawn between Allan Pinkerton and J. Edgar Hoover?

Answer: Both of them understood the importance of: (1) information, (2) criminal records, and (3) publicity favorable to their efforts.

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52) What did the "due process revolution" and subsequent Supreme Court decisions change with respect to the police?

Answer: Questionable and improper police procedures and tactics were greatly reduced. In turn, this created the need to develop new procedures and tactics and to make sure that officers were well trained in their uses. There has been an ongoing cycle of decisions and adaptation to them by the police since the due process revolution. To no small extent, this ongoing cycle has hastened the continuing professionalization of the police, while also asserting the principle that the action of police officers anywhere may be subject to close scrutiny by the Supreme Court.

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53) Why does the Henry classification enjoy greater use than Vucetich's system?

Answer: In 1917, the Argentine government seized all of Vucetich's records and forbade him to do further work (because of strong protests in Buenos Aires against wide-spread fingerprint registration). In 1925, Vucetich died a disappointed man. In contrast, Henry became the head of what was then the world's most prestigious police organization and enjoyed the support of his country. These advantages, coupled with Vucetich's loss of support in his own country, meant that the Henry classification system would become adopted virtually worldwide.

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54) What are seven different human sources of DNA material?

Answer: (1) blood, (2) tissue, (3) spermatozoa, (4) bone marrow, (5) tooth pulp, (6) saliva, and (7) hair root cells.

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