Test Bank Culture and Psychology 6th Edition by David Matsumoto A+

$35.00
Test Bank Culture and Psychology 6th Edition by David Matsumoto A+

Test Bank Culture and Psychology 6th Edition by David Matsumoto A+

$35.00
Test Bank Culture and Psychology 6th Edition by David Matsumoto A+

1. In the context of psychology, which of the following is true of cross-cultural research?

a) It is topic-specific, and not a method.

b) It concludes that humans are inherently alike and what is true of one culture is always true of another culture.

c) Traditionally, it incorporated knowledge contrasting human cultures versus nonhuman animal cultures.

d) It involves participants of differing cultural backgrounds and allows for comparisons of findings across those cultures.

ANS: d

A-head: Psychology with a Cultural Perspective

REF: 5

Feedback: Cross-cultural research is a research methodology that tests the cultural parameters of psychological knowledge. It involves participants of differing cultural backgrounds and allows for comparisons of findings across those cultures.

2. Cross-cultural research helps us _____.

a) demonstrate that there are no cultural differences in attributional styles among different human cultures

b) understand principles about human behaviors within a global perspective

c) establish that the relationship between culture and behaviors is a one-way street

d) exhibit the reactions of infants to music

ANS: b

A-head: Psychology with a Cultural Perspective

REF: 6

Feedback: Cross-cultural research is a way of understanding principles about human behaviors within a global perspective. Cross-cultural research not only tests whether people of different cultures are similar or different; it also tests possible limitations in our knowledge by examining whether psychological theories and principles are universal or culture-specific.

3. A universal psychological process is one that is considered to be true for some people of some cultures.

a) True

b) False

ANS: b

A-head: Psychology with a Cultural Perspective

REF: 6

Feedback: A universal psychological process is one that is found to be true or applicable for all people of all cultures. A culture-specific psychological process is one that is considered to be true for some people of some cultures but not for others.

4. What distinguishes cultural psychology from mainstream psychology?

a) The topic of study

b) The interest in a narrow range of phenomena related to human behavior

c) Topic-specific cross-cultural research methods

d) The interest in understanding cultural influences on behavior

ANS: d

A-head: Psychology with a Cultural Perspective

REF: 7

Feedback: What distinguishes cultural psychology from mainstream psychology is not the topic of study but the interest in understanding cultural influences on behavior, and the testing of limitations to knowledge using cross-cultural research methods. The impact of the growth of cultural psychology and cross-cultural research on mainstream psychology has been enormous.

5. Population density influences culture, whereas climate does not.

a) True

b) False

ANS: b

A-head: What Is Culture?

REF: 9

Feedback: One aspect of ecology that influences cultures is climate. Another ecological factor that influences culture is population density.

6. Which of the following statements regarding language is correct?

a) Nonhuman animals have the ability to symbolize their physical and metaphysical world.

b) Some nonhuman animals can create sounds representing symbols (morphemes).

c) Some nonhuman animals can construct sentences.

d) Syntax and grammar are unique to humans.

ANS: d

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 12

Feedback: Humans, unlike other animals, have the unique ability to symbolize their physical and metaphysical world, to create sounds representing those symbols (morphemes), to create rules connecting those symbols to meaning (syntax and grammar), and to put all these abilities together in sentences. Language is one of the tools in the toolkit of humans.

7. One of the most important thinking abilities that humans have unlike other animals is the ability to _____.

a) believe that other people are intentional agents

b) maintain social networks and hierarchies

c) communicate with each other

d) invent and use tools

ANS: a

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 12

Feedback: One of the most important thinking abilities that humans have unlike other animals is the ability to believe that other people are intentional agents—that is, that they have wishes, desires, and intentions to act and behave. Humans have causal beliefs.

8. Morality is a uniquely human product that apparently turns on in humans around nine months of age.

a) True

b) False

ANS: a

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 12

Feedback: Morality is a uniquely human product that apparently turns on in humans around nine months of age. This is a critical time of development of many cognitive abilities.

9. _____ refers to knowledge about motivations concerning behaviors that are common among people in a group.

a) Shared intentionality

b) Self-concept

c) Hypercognition

d) Collective identity

ANS: a

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 12

Feedback: Shared intentionality refers to knowledge about motivations concerning behaviors that are common among people in a group. Shared intentionality may be at the heart of social coordination, which allows for the creation of human culture.

10. Which of the following statements is true of the ratchet effect?

a) It refers to the idea that humans continually improve on improvements, that they do not go backward or revert to a previous state.

b) It is a set of basic psychological skills and abilities that people can use to meet their needs.

c) It is a psychological process that is found to be applicable for humans only after the beginning of civilization.

d) It is the process of learning about and being indoctrinated into a culture.

ANS: a

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 12

Feedback: The ratchet effect is the concept that humans continually improve on improvements, that they do not go backward or revert to a previous state. Progress occurs because improvements move themselves upward, much like a ratchet.

11. Which of the following statements is NOT true of animal culture?

a) Many animals are social; that is, they work and live in groups.

b) In animal societies, there are clear social networks and hierarchies.

c) Animals have the cognitive ability to share their intentions with others.

d) Many animals communicate with each other.

ANS: c

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 12

Feedback: One thing that differentiates humans from other animals is the fact that we have the cognitive ability to share our intentions with others. One of the major functions of language, in fact, is to allow us to communicate a shared intentionality.

12. Human culture is a unique meaning and information system, shared by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and well-being, and derive meaning from life.

a) True

b) False

ANS: a

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 15

Feedback: Human cultureis aunique meaning and information system, shared by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and well-being, and derive meaning from life. Human cultures exist first to enable us to meet basic needs of survival.

13. Which of the following statements is true of animals?

a) All animals are solitary and do not live in groups.

b) In animal societies, there are no clear social networks and hierarchies.

c) Many animals communicate with each other.

d) Animals do not have the ability to invent and use tools.

ANS: c

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 16

Feedback: Many animals communicate with each other. Bees communicate via a complex dance concerning the source of flowers.

14. What are the three characteristics of human cultures that differentiate them from animal cultures?

a) Social groups, family, and language

b) Complexity, differentiation, and institutionalization

c) Communication, groups, and institutionalization

d) Language, groups, and social needs

ANS: b

A-head: What Is Culture?

REF: 16

Feedback: Cumulative culture allows human cultures to differ from animal cultures on complexity, differentiation, and institutionalization. For example, not only do humans make tools, we make tools to make tools.

15. In the context of culture, which of the following statements is true?

a) Groups are less efficient because they divide labor.

b) Morality, a uniquely human product, is present since the birth of a child.

c) Both humans and animals have the ability to continually build upon improvements.

d) Unlike humans, other animals cannot achieve a cumulative culture that ratchets up.

ANS: d

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 16

Feedback: Recent research has demonstrated that humans have specialized socio-cognitive skills, which include teaching through verbal instructions, imitation, and prosociality, that allow them to reach higher-level solutions when solving problems. Other animals do not possess these skills, which prevents them from achieving a cumulative culture that ratchets up.

16. In the context of society and culture, which of the following statements is true?

a) Society is a system of interrelationships among people.

b) Only humans are social and have societies.

c) Both culture and society refer to the meanings and information that are associated with social networks.

d) All human cultures assign similar or the same meanings to their social groups.

ANS: a

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 16

Feedback: Societyis “a system of interrelationships among people.” It refers to the structure of relationships that exist among individuals.

17. _____ refers to the structure of relationships that exist among individuals.

a) Culture

b) Individualism

c) Collectivism

d) Society

ANS: d

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 16

Feedback: Society is “a system of interrelationships among people.” It refers to the structure of relationships that exist among individuals.

18. Unlike humans, nonhuman animals do not have social groups.

a) True

b) False

ANS: b

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 16

Feedback: Nonhuman animals are social and have societies. “Family,” for example, is a social group that exists in both the human and nonhuman animal world.

19. Countries have their own unique sociocultural history, language, government, and economic base, all of which affect culture.

a) True

b) False

ANS: a

A-head: What Is Culture?

REF: 17

Feedback: Countries have their own unique sociocultural history, language, government, and economic base, all of which affect culture. Countries also have differences in mean levels of aggregate personality traits, which can affect culture.

20. _____ refers to the biological differences between men and women.

a) Personality

b) Race

c) Sex

d) Culture

ANS: c

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 18

Feedback: Sex refers to the biological differences between men and women, the most obvious being the anatomical differences in their reproductive systems. Accordingly, the term sex roles is used to describe the behaviors and patterns of activities men and women engage in that are directly related to their biological differences and the process of reproduction.

21. _____ refers to the behaviors or patterns of activities that a society or culture deems appropriate for men and women.

a) Ethnicity

b) Gender

c) Religion

d) Nationality

ANS: b

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 18

Feedback: Gender refers to the behaviors or patterns of activities that a society or culture deems appropriate for men and women. These behavior patterns may or may not be related to sex and sex roles, although they oftentimes are.

22. Which of the following statements about race is true?

a) Many psychologists today agree that race is more of a biological essential than a social construction.

b) A racial group is solely determined by its cultural characteristics.

c) Studies of genetic systems suggest that racially defined groups are more similar than different.

d) Most anthropologists use skin color, hair, and other physical characteristics to define race.

ANS: c

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 20

Feedback: Studies of genetic systems, including blood groups, serum proteins, and enzymes, have shown considerably more within-group than between-group variation, suggesting that racially defined groups are actually more similar than different. Some authors have suggested that the distinctions among races are arbitrary and dubious at best.

23. In the context of culture and race, which of the following statements is true?

a) Intelligence is determined by a person’s race.

b) Race is a social construction.

c) People of different cultures have similar definitions of race.

d) Race and culture are interchangeable terms.

ANS: b

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 20

Feedback: Many psychologists today agree that race is more of a social construction than a biological essential. Interesting issues arise when race is understood as a social construction. Category boundaries among the socially constructed races are ambiguous and vary with social context.

24. _____ is the social psychological frame within which individuals reside, much like the structure of our houses and homes.

a) Society

b) Culture

c) Personality

d) Race

ANS: b

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 20

Feedback: Culture is the social psychological frame within which individuals reside, much like the structure of our houses and homes. It a macro, social, group-level construct.

25. _____ refers to the individual differences that exist among individuals within groups.

a) Personality

b) Temperament

c) Culture

d) Family

ANS: a

A-head: What is Culture?

REF: 20

Feedback: Personality refers to the individual differences that exist among individuals within groups. It refers to the unique constellation of traits, attributes, qualities, and characteristics of individuals within those frames.

26. Which of the following is NOT part of Hofstede’s value dimensions?

a) Individualism versus collectivism

b) Masculinity versus femininity

c) Power distance

d) Personality

ANS: d

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 22–23

Feedback: Hofstede suggests that there are five value dimensions that differentiate cultures. They are individualism vs. collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity vs. femininity, and long- vs. short-term orientation.

27. Hofstede’s value dimension of _____ refers to the degree to which cultures will encourage less powerful members of groups to accept that power is distributed unequally.

a) masculinity versus femininity

b) individualism versus collectivism

c) power distance

d) power game

ANS: c

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 22

Feedback: Power distance refers to the degree to which cultures will encourage less powerful members of groups to accept that power is distributed unequally. Power distance is positively correlated with long-term orientation, embeddedness, and hierarchy.

28. Hofstede’s value dimension of _____ refers to the degree to which people feel threatened by the unknown or ambiguous situations, and have developed beliefs, institutions, or rituals to evade them.

a) power distance

b) masculinity versus femininity

c) individualism

d) uncertainty avoidance

ANS: d

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 22

Feedback: Uncertainty avoidance refers to the degree to which people feel threatened by the unknown or ambiguous situations, and have developed beliefs, institutions, or rituals to avoid them. Cultures high on the dimension of uncertainty avoidance are associated with higher means on the personality trait known as Neuroticism.

29. Which of the following statements is true regarding Hofstede’s value dimensions?

a) Hofstede suggests that there are four dimensions that differentiate cultures.

b) Power distance refers to the degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations.

c) Masculinity vs. femininity refers to the distribution of emotional roles between males and females.

d) Intellectual autonomy refers to the degree to which cultures emphasize the promotion and protection of people’s independent pursuit of positive experiences.

ANS: c

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 22–23

Feedback: Masculinity vs. femininity refers to the distribution of emotional roles between males and females. This dimension is characterized on one pole by success, money, and things, and on the other pole by caring for others and quality of life.

30. In the context of Schwartz’s value dimensions, _____ refers the degree to which cultures will emphasize the maintenance of the status quo, propriety, and restraint of actions or inclinations that might disrupt the solidarity of the group or the traditional order.

a) embeddedness

b) ambiguity

c) personality

d) power distance

ANS: a

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 23

Feedback: Embeddedness is the degree to which cultures will emphasize the maintenance of the status quo, propriety, and restraint of actions or inclinations that might disrupt the solidarity of the group or the traditional order. It fosters social order, respect for tradition, family security, and self-discipline.

31. Schwartz’s value dimension of _____ refers to the degree to which cultures emphasize the legitimacy of pyramidal allocation of fixed roles and resources such as social power, authority, humility, or wealth.

a) mastery

b) hierarchy

c) intellectual autonomy

d) affective autonomy

ANS: b

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 23

Feedback: Hierarchy is the degree to which cultures emphasize the legitimacy of hierarchical allocation of fixed roles and resources such as social power, authority, humility, or wealth. It is one of the seven universal cultural values identified by Shalom Schwartz.

32. Schwartz’s value dimension of _____ refers to the degree to which cultures emphasize the promotion and protection of people’s independent pursuit of positive experiences.

a) egalitarianism

b) affective autonomy

c) harmony

d) intellectual autonomy

ANS: b

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 23

Feedback: Affective autonomy is the degree to which cultures emphasize the promotion and protection of people’s independent pursuit of positive experiences. It fosters pleasure and an exciting or varied life.

33. Hofstede’s dimension of _____ has been used to both predict and explain many differences across cultures, especially in many aspects of thinking and emotions.

a) power distance

b) uncertainty avoidance

c) masculinity vs. femininity

d) individualism vs. collectivism

ANS: d

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 23

Feedback: Hofstede’s dimension of individualism vs. collectivism has by far received the greatest attention in cross-cultural research. It has been used to both predict and explain many differences across cultures, especially in many aspects of thinking and emotions.

34. Which of the following statements is true of Shalom Schwartz’s research?

a) He reported data from 63 countries spanning over 100 different languages.

b) His affective and intellectual autonomy and egalitarianism are positively correlated with Hofstede’s individualism.

c) He identified six universal values.

d) His universal values include embeddedness, hierarchy, and uncertainty avoidance.

ANS: b

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 23

Feedback: Hofstede’s individualism is positively correlated with Schwartz’s affective and intellectual autonomy and egalitarianism. Shalom Schwartz identified seven cultural values that are universal.

35. Different cultures foster different belief systems.

a) True

b) False

ANS: a

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 24

Feedback: Different cultures foster different belief systems. A belief is a proposition that is regarded as true.

36. _____ are general beliefs and premises about oneself, the social and physical environment, and the spiritual world.

a) Attributions

b) Social norms

c) Attitudes

d) Social axioms

ANS: d

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 24

Feedback: Social axioms are general beliefs and premises about oneself, the social and physical environment, and the spiritual world. They are assertions about the relationship between two or more entities or concepts; people endorse and use them to guide their behavior in daily living.

37. _____ is a social axiom dimension that represents an outward-oriented, simplistic grappling with external forces that are construed to include fate and a supreme being.

a) Dynamic externality

b) Affective autonomy

c) Societal cynicism

d) Intellectual autonomy

ANS: a

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 24

Feedback: Dynamic externality represents an outward-oriented, simplistic grappling with external forces that are construed to include fate and a supreme being. It is the culture-level reflection of the belief structures that form part of a psychological constellation that aids citizens to mobilize psychologically to confront environmental difficulties.

38. _____ are organized system of beliefs that tie together many attitudes, values, beliefs, worldviews, and norms and provide guidelines for living.

a) Religions

b) Ethnicities

c) Norms

d) Ethics

ANS: a

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 25

Feedback: Religions are organized systems of beliefs, and are important to many people and cultures. They tie together many attitudes, values, beliefs, worldviews, and norms. They provide guidelines for living.

39. _____ are evaluations of things occurring in ongoing thoughts about those things, or stored in memory.

a) Attitudes

b) Worldviews

c) Beliefs

d) Norms

ANS: a

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 26

Feedback: Attitudes are evaluations of things occurring in ongoing thoughts about those things, or stored in memory. Cultures facilitate attitudes concerning actions and behaviors, which produces cultural filters.

40. Which of the following statements is true regarding cultural worldviews?

a) Cultural worldviews contain attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and values about the world.

b) Cultural worldviews are universal belief systems about the world.

c) A person’s cultural worldview always remains unchanged over his or her lifetime.

d) Having a worldview is a psychological process specific only to certain cultures.

ANS: a

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 26

Feedback: Cultural worldviews are culturally specific belief systems about the world; they contain attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and values about the world. They are assumptions people have about their physical and social realities.

41. Which of the following is true about worldviews?

a) People have worldviews because of evolved, complex cognition.

b) Having a worldview is a psychological process specific only to certain cultures.

c) The content of worldviews is the same for every culture.

d) Behaviors have a direct influence on cultural worldviews.

ANS: a

A-head: The Contents of Culture

REF: 27

Feedback: People have worldviews because of evolved, complex cognition; thus, having a worldview is a universal psychological process. The content of worldviews, however, is specific and different to each culture.

42. In the context of the relationship between culture and human behavior, which of the following statements is correct?

a) Culture is a uniquely human product.

b) Culture is a tangible concept and not an abstract one.

c) Culture influences psychological processes, not behaviors.

d) Newborns have no culture.

ANS: d

A-head: How Does Culture Influence Human Behaviors and Mental Processes?

REF: 27

Feedback: Newborns have no culture. Individuals begin the process of learning about their culture, and more specifically, the rules and norms of appropriate behavior in specific situations and contexts, through a process known as enculturation.

43. The process by which individuals learn and adopt the ways and manners of their specific culture is called _____.

a) enculturation

b) globalization

c) grouping

d) motivation

ANS: a

A-head: How Does Culture Influence Human Behaviors and Mental Processes?

REF: 27

Feedback: Individuals begin the process of learning about their culture, and more specifically, the rules and norms of appropriate behavior in specific situations and contexts, through a process known as enculturation. The enculturation process gradually shapes and molds individuals’ psychological characteristics.

44. Scientists agree that many psychological processes—attitudes, values, beliefs, personality, cognition—are inherently constructed by culture.

a) True

b) False

ANS: a

A-head: How Does Culture Influence Human Behaviors and Mental Processes?

REF: 28

Feedback: Scientists agree that many psychological processes—attitudes, values, beliefs, personality, cognition—are inherently constructed by culture. They are so intertwined and infused with cultural influences that it doesn’t make sense to understand them outside of a cultural context.

45. _____ are beliefs about the underlying causes of behavior.

a) Attitudes

b) Attributions

c) Etics

d) Emics

ANS: b

A-head: How Does Culture Influence Human Behaviors and Mental Processes?

REF: 29

Feedback: Attributions are beliefs about the underlying causes of behavior. The process of making attributions may be something that is universal to all humans.

46. There are cultural differences in attributional styles among different human cultures.

a) True

b) False

ANS: a

A-head: How Does Culture Influence Human Behaviors and Mental Processes?

REF: 29

Feedback: While making attributions may be something universal to all humans, people of different cultures may differ in the way they make them. That is, there are cultural differences in attributional styles among different human cultures.

47. Which of the following statements is true of human cultures?

a) Culture is a uniquely human product.

b) Humans are not unique in their ability to recognize that other people are intentional agents.

c) There are no cultural differences in attributional styles among different human cultures.

d) All human cultures exist in their own specific, unique environment.

ANS: d

A-head: How Does Culture Influence Human Behaviors and Mental Processes?

REF: 29

Feedback: Because all human cultures exist in their own specific, unique environment, there are differences among them. Thus, while making attributions may be something universal to all humans, people of different cultures may differ in the way they make them.

48. _____ refer to those processes that are consistent across different cultures. _____ refer to those processes that are different across cultures.

a) Emics; Etics

b) Etics; Emics

c) Phonemes; Phonetics

d) Phonetics; Phonemes

ANS: b

A-head: How Does Culture Influence Human Behaviors and Mental Processes?

REF: 29

Feedback: Etics refer to those processes that are consistent across different cultures; that is, etics refer to universal psychological processes. Emics refer to those processes that are different across cultures; emics, therefore, refer to culture-specific processes.

49. All humans share the same basic needs and abilities, and it’s important to understand the reasons why people of different cultures do things the way they do them.

a) True

b) False

ANS: a

A-head: How Does Culture Influence Human Behaviors and Mental Processes?

REF: 29

Feedback: All humans share the same basic needs and abilities, and it’s important to understand the reasons why people of different cultures do things the way they do them. While people of different cultures are often different in what they do, they are very similar in why they do them.

50. Some cultures serve their purpose better than others, and not all cultures have worked until now.

a) True

b) False

ANS: b

A-head: How Does Culture Influence Human Behaviors and Mental Processes?

REF: 30

Feedback: An important thing to remember about all cultures is that they have all worked until now. Cultures have long histories of having worked for many generations in the past, and it is apparent that cultures are very successful in doing what they are supposed to do: help people survive.

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