Test Bank Discover Sociology Core Concepts 2nd Edition by Daina S. Eglitis

$35.00
Test Bank Discover Sociology Core Concepts 2nd Edition by Daina S. Eglitis

Test Bank Discover Sociology Core Concepts 2nd Edition by Daina S. Eglitis

$35.00
Test Bank Discover Sociology Core Concepts 2nd Edition by Daina S. Eglitis

Test Bank Discover Sociology Core Concepts 2nd Edition by Daina S. Eglitis

Test Bank

Chapter 1: Discover Sociology

Multiple Choice

  1. Which sociologist developed the concept of the sociological imagination?
  2. W. E. B. Du Bois
  3. Karl Marx
  4. Wright Mills
  5. Max Weber

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. C. Wright Mills developed the concept of ______ to uncover the relationship between personal troubles and public issues.
  2. the sociological imagination
  3. double consciousness
  4. urban sociology
  5. habitus

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In the United States, people tend to believe that each person creates his or her life’s path. By largely disregarding social context, the national culture emphasizes ______.
  2. the sociological imagination
  3. individualism
  4. social embeddedness
  5. collectivism

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. After being released from jail on good behavior after serving a five-year sentence for a non-violent drug offense, Owen struggles to reintegrate into society. Despite being a highly skilled and reliable carpenter, he is unable to secure a job due to his criminal record. Using the sociological imagination, which of the following can we conclude?
  2. Owen’s failure to get a job is his own personal failure; he shouldn’t have broken the law in the first place.
  3. While Owen is responsible for his crime, the U.S. criminal justice system is responsible for his failure to get a job.
  4. While Owen is responsible for his crime, his failure to get a job reflects in part a system that makes it very challenging for ex-offenders to reintegrate into society.
  5. Owen’s failure to get a job is no fault of his own; the U.S. criminal justice system makes it impossible for ex-offenders to reintegrate into society.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following is the ability of individuals and groups to make social changes on a small and large scale?
  2. structure
  3. agency
  4. power
  5. social control

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is most closely associated with the concept of free will?
  2. structure
  3. agency
  4. rationality
  5. inequality

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is the best example of agency?
  2. a student’s socioeconomic position
  3. the quality of a student’s public high school
  4. a student’s race
  5. a student’s ability to advocate for himself

ANS: D

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following refers to patterned social arrangements that affect and are affected by agency?
  2. power
  3. privilege
  4. social control
  5. structure

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Rosalyn and Anna live in Savannah, Georgia. They decided to get married shortly after same-sex marriage was legalized in all 50 states in accordance with the Supreme Court ruling in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges in 2015. In this scenario, which of the following most closely reflects the concept of structure?
  2. Rosalyn and Anna
  3. their decision to get married
  4. Savannah, GA
  5. the legalization of same-sex marriage

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Civil rights activists helped bring about legislation that overturned laws enforcing racial segregation. This effort reflects which of the following statements about agency and structure?
  2. Structures have a subtle influence.
  3. Structures are necessarily constraining.
  4. Agency is more powerful than structure.
  5. Agency itself can transform structures.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following characterizes the relationship between agency and structure?
  2. cyclical
  3. linear
  4. reciprocal
  5. nonexistent

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Students of parents who are well educated and economically prosperous have a position in the class structure that is ______, while students from poor families with no college background experience a class structure that is ______.
  2. enabling; constraining
  3. constraining; enabling
  4. static; dynamic
  5. dynamic; static

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence is referred to as ______.
  2. critical thinking
  3. the sociological imagination
  4. deduction
  5. common sense

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of critical thinking?
  2. recognizing weak arguments
  3. using anecdotal evidence
  4. relying on intuitive thought
  5. accepting common truisms

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Critical thinking rejects statements not supported by ______ evidence.
  2. analogical
  3. empirical
  4. anecdotal
  5. circumstantial

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following does critical thinking require?
  2. accepting all arguments as equally valid
  3. being open-minded
  4. rejecting inconvenient facts
  5. understanding something is true because it is consistent with our beliefs

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Evan is deciding on medical coverage. Which of these possible decisions reflects the use of critical thinking?
  2. He goes with the coverage he has had in the past out of convenience.
  3. He takes the recommendation of a friend who is in good health.
  4. He chooses the most popular coverage option.
  5. He examines all options before making a decision.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Amina rides the NYC subway for the first time and her train breaks down. She tweets about the dismal state of public transportation in New York. Although her frustration is understandable, which of the following rules of critical thinking has she broken?
  2. be willing to ask any question, no matter how difficult
  3. be willing to admit when you are wrong or uncertain about your results
  4. avoid anecdotal evidence
  5. think about the assumptions and biases—including your own—that underlie all studies

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. When did modern sociological concepts and research methods emerge?
  2. more than 2,000 years ago
  3. in the 14th century
  4. in the 19th century, after the Industrial Revolution
  5. in the 20th century, amidst the information revolution

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Development of Sociological Thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which 19th-century sociologist is credited with coining the term sociology, the study of “social physics”?
  2. Auguste Comte
  3. Harriet Martineau
  4. Émile Durkheim
  5. Max Weber

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Scientific Revolution

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following are Enlightenment ideals that found a home in the social sciences in the 19th century?
  2. equality, liberty, and human rights
  3. hard work, prosperity, and power
  4. atheism, critical thinking, and logic
  5. individualism, intelligence, and intuition

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Enlightenment

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following spurred the shift from small-scale production to profit-driven manufacturing based in factories?
  2. urbanization
  3. the scientific revolution
  4. the Industrial Revolution
  5. the Enlightenment

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Industrial Revolution

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. What effect did industrialization have on cities?
  2. It made urban farming obsolete.
  3. It improved the quality of life in cities.
  4. It fostered the growth of cities.
  5. It encouraged people to move away from cities.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Urbanization: The Population Shift Toward Cities

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Accepted social behaviors and beliefs are referred to as ______.
  2. norms
  3. culture
  4. social
  5. structure

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Urbanization: The Population Shift Toward Cities

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. People experience ______ when they lose sight of the shared rules and values that give order and meaning to their lives.
  2. social statics
  3. positivism
  4. norms
  5. anomie

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Urbanization: The Population Shift Toward Cities

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Émile Durkheim argued that Industrialization would have which of the following effects?
  2. Industrialization would reinforce shared culture and norms.
  3. Industrialization would cause people to feel less confused and anxious.
  4. Industrialization would increase anomie.
  5. Industrialization would make city populations more homogenous.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Urbanization: The Population Shift Toward Cities

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. According to Auguste Comte, social ______ refer to the way society is held together.
  2. dynamics
  3. rules
  4. interactions
  5. statics

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Auguste Comte

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Social ______ are laws that dictate social change.
  2. statics
  3. dynamics
  4. norms
  5. facts

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Auguste Comte

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. According to Auguste Comte, what does it mean for sociology to be a positivist discipline?
  2. It is characterized by abstract speculation.
  3. It requires a sociological imagination.
  4. It involves critical thinking.
  5. It is based on facts alone.

ANS: D

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Auguste Comte

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Auguste Comte viewed himself as leading the discipline of sociology from the ______ stage.
  2. theological stage to the positivist
  3. positivist stage to the theological
  4. metaphysical to the positivist
  5. positivist stage to the metaphysical

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Auguste Comte

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Harriet Martineau believed for a society to evolve, it must ensure social ______.
  2. statics
  3. dynamics
  4. solidarity
  5. justice

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Harriet Martineau

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Émile Durkheim believed that social facts can only be explained by ______.
  2. anomie
  3. other social facts
  4. social justice
  5. the sociological imagination

ANS: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Émile Durkheim

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. With regard to social solidarity, what was Émile Durkheim’s chief concern?
  2. He was concerned that mechanical solidarity, characteristic of modern society, is not as strong as organic solidarity, characteristic of traditional society.
  3. He was concerned that organic solidarity, characteristic of modern society, is not as strong as mechanical solidarity, characteristic of traditional society.
  4. He was concerned that the exploitation of industrial workers would strain social cohesion, signaling the shift from organic solidarity to a weaker mechanical solidarity.
  5. He was concerned that the exploitation of industrial workers would strain social cohesion, signaling the shift from mechanical solidarity to a weaker organic solidarity.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Émile Durkheim

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following is characteristic of mechanical solidarity?
  2. diversity
  3. class conflict
  4. a collective conscience
  5. anomie

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Émile Durkheim

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Karl Marx believed that human history should be understood as the product of ______.
  2. social cohesion
  3. class conflict
  4. anomie
  5. revolution

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Karl Marx

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following did Karl Marx condemn?
  2. the proletariat’s exploitation of the means of production
  3. the proletariat’s exploitation of the bourgeoisie
  4. the bourgeoisie’s exploitation of the collective conscience
  5. the bourgeoisie’s exploitation of the proletariat

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Karl Marx

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Karl Marx made which of the following predictions?
  2. The bourgeoisie would grow considerably in size.
  3. The ownership of the means of production would become less concentrated.
  4. Capitalism would lead to a devaluing of technology.
  5. Class inequality would ultimately disappear and be replaced by a utopia of equality.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Karl Marx

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Max Weber believed that sociologists should employ the method of ______ to understand how subjects being studied might have perceived and interpreted a situation.
  2. determinism
  3. positivism
  4. induction
  5. Verstehen

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Max Weber

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. According to Max Weber, ______ systems produce bureaucracies.
  2. traditional
  3. informal
  4. formally rational
  5. interpretive

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Max Weber

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following did Max Weber foresee?
  2. the irrational consequences of the bureaucratization of society
  3. the rise in popularity of flat reporting structures
  4. the increasingly customer-focused orientation of modern bureaucracies
  5. the rise of collectives that operate by cooperation and consensus

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Max Weber

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Robert Ezra Park pioneered the study of which of the following?
  2. social cohesion and class conflict
  3. feminism and intersectionality
  4. formal rationality and bureaucracies
  5. urban sociology and race relations

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Robert Ezra Park

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is true of W. E. B. Du Bois?
  2. He asserted that African Americans are unable to escape a fundamental awareness of race.
  3. He first described the concept of the collective conscious.
  4. His extensive writings on race relations earned him immediate, wide-spread recognition as an important thinker in the field.
  5. He was a member of the Chicago School.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: W. E. B. Du Bois

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Sociologist Charlotte Perkins Gilman authored the Yellow Wallpaper (1892), a story that highlights which of the following?
  2. women’s exclusion from politics
  3. the pressure women face to have children
  4. women’s lack of autonomy in marriage
  5. the discrimination women face in academia

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Robert K. Merton is best known for which of the following?
  2. his theory of deviance, his work on the sociology of science, and his iteration of the distinction between latent and manifest functions
  3. his pioneering of urban sociology and race relations
  4. his description of the sociological imagination, the imperative in sociology to see the connection between private and public issues
  5. his theories of social and economic organization

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Robert K. Merton

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. C. Wright Mills’ concept of the sociological imagination was heavily influenced by the following statement made by ______: “Man makes history, but not under circumstances of his own choosing.”
  2. Robert K. Merton
  3. W. E. B. Du Bois
  4. Karl Marx
  5. Max Weber

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: C. Wright Mills

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which sociologist pioneered the study of Chicago neighborhoods, helping create the field of community studies?
  2. W. E. B. Du Bois
  3. Jane Addams
  4. C. Wright Mills
  5. Robert K. Merton

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Women in Early Sociology

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What is a sociological theory?
  2. a truth about the social world
  3. a logical, rigorous framework for the interpretation of social life that makes particular assumptions and asks particular questions about the social world
  4. a law that governs social change
  5. knowledge gained by researchers through the scientific method

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Sociological Theory?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is a micro-level paradigm?
  2. social conflict theory
  3. symbolic interactionism
  4. the scientific method
  5. structural functionalism

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Is Sociological Theory?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is the key question posed by the functionalist perspective?
  2. What are the functions of an institution or phenomenon that are not recognized or expected?
  3. Who benefits from the way social institutions and relationships are structured? Who loses?
  4. What function does a particular institution, phenomenon, or social group serve for the maintenance of society?
  5. How do people acquire a sense of who they are through interaction with others?

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Who is credited with developing the early foundations of functionalism?
  2. Talcott Parsons
  3. Émile Durkheim
  4. Karl Marx
  5. Robert K. Merton

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Émile Durkheim believed that one function of deviance is to ______.
  2. erode social solidarity
  3. expose the interests of the dominant class
  4. oppress the less powerful in society
  5. reaffirm people’s understanding of right and wrong

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Talcott Parsons argued that traditional sex roles for men and women ______.
  2. reflect genetic predisposition
  3. are constantly being redefined through social interaction
  4. are complementary and positively functional
  5. are highly dysfunctional

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following is a critique of structural functionalism?
  2. It overemphasizes conflict and competition.
  3. It overlooks stabilizing forces in society.
  4. It tends to ignore macro-level factors.
  5. It justifies inequality.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is a latent function of war?
  2. to vanquish an enemy
  3. to defend territory
  4. to increase profits of military contractors
  5. to expand territory

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The fact that elementary schools in a sense serve as childcare institutions, allowing more parents to participate in the workforce reflects a ______ of education.
  2. manifest function
  3. latent function
  4. dysfunction
  5. paradigm

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Conflict theory emerged from ______.
  2. George Herbert Mead’s ideas about the nature of the self
  3. Émile Durkheim’s ideas about social solidarity
  4. Max Weber’s ideas about formal rationality
  5. Karl Marx’s ideas about class and power

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. What is the key question posed by the social conflict perspective?
  2. What are the functions of an institution or phenomenon that are not recognized or expected?
  3. Who benefits from the way social institutions and relationships are structured? Who loses?
  4. What function does a particular institution, phenomenon, or social group serve for the maintenance of society?
  5. How do people acquire a sense of who they are through interaction with others?

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following does conflict theory presume?
  2. Conflict is inevitable.
  3. Conflict is necessarily harmful.
  4. Shared interests drive relationships.
  5. All people have the power and resources to realize their interests.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Many key ideas of feminist theory have their roots in ______.
  2. functionalism
  3. conflict theory
  4. symbolic interactionism
  5. rational choice theory

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. According to conflict theory, which of the following is true of deviance?
  2. It is positively functional.
  3. It is defined based on the self-interests of dominant groups.
  4. Being labeled as deviant can create self-fulfilling prophecies.
  5. It reaffirms people’s understanding of right and wrong.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The assertion that conservative politicians oppose gun control reform because they receive contributions from wealthy progun lobbyists most closely reflects the ______ perspective.
  2. symbolic interactionist
  3. social conflict
  4. structural functionalist
  5. feminist

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Social Conflict Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following is true of symbolic interactionism?
  2. It is a macro-level paradigm.
  3. It originated in the work of Erving Goffman.
  4. It is considered conservative because it tends to accept the status quo.
  5. It claims that people understand themselves through their interaction with others.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Symbolic Interactionism

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following questions about deviance reflects the symbolic interactionist perspective?
  2. Can deviance be instructional for the non-deviant?
  3. How do ideas about what constitutes deviance change over time?
  4. How does being labeled deviant affect a person’s sense of self?
  5. What are the dominant group’s motives when they label groups of people as deviant?

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Symbolic Interactionism

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following refers to the ability to mobilize resources and succeed with plans in spite of resistance by others?
  2. power
  3. authority
  4. prestige
  5. charisma

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Inequality is a central focus of which of the following paradigms?
  2. functionalism
  3. conflict theory
  4. symbolic interactionism
  5. behaviorism

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is true of globalization?
  2. It is a new phenomenon.
  3. The rate of globalization increased considerably with the advent of the Information Age.
  4. As a result of globalization, the United States has experienced a decline in social diversity.
  5. Globalization is an inherently destructive process.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Globalization and Diversity

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. While studying abroad in Senegal, Elijah discovered that polygyny (a form of marriage in which a man may have multiple wives), is still practiced and socially accepted in the country. He was horrified and couldn’t get over how weird he considered the custom. Elijah’s reaction aligns with people’s tendency towards which of the following?
  2. transnationalism
  3. discrimination
  4. ethnocentrism
  5. cultural relativism

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Globalization and Diversity

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following revolutionary periods of technological change are we in the midst of today?
  2. the cloud computing revolution
  3. the social media revolution
  4. the post-industrial revolution
  5. the information revolution

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Technology and Society

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following helped spur the information revolution?
  2. the invention of the microchip
  3. the rise of scientific management
  4. the dominance of the modern bureaucracy
  5. the advent of wearable technology

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Technology and Society

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Today, postindustrial economics are based more heavily on ______.
  2. Fordism
  3. the production of knowledge
  4. the manufacturing of goods
  5. agriculture

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Technology and Society

Difficulty Level: Medium

True/False

  1. The sociological imagination and individualism are compatible perspectives.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The success of women’s activism in changing gender norms is an example of the effect agency can have on structure.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In order to be critical thinkers, we need to recognize that passion has no place in scientific research.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The study of social statics and social dynamics were central to Auguste Comte’s sociology.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Auguste Comte

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Émile Durkheim asserted that mechanical solidarity emerges from modern societies characterized by a division of labor.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Émile Durkheim

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Karl Marx believed that capitalism is fundamentally exploitative.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Karl Marx

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. W. E. B. Du Bois pioneered the study of urban sociology and race relations.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Robert Ezra Park

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Conflict theory assumes that if a phenomenon persists, it must have a function.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Functionalist Paradigm

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A weakness of the symbolic interactionist perspective is that it does not address the larger structural context of micro-level processes.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Symbolic Interactionism

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Economic inequality is increasing throughout the world.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Medium

Short Answer

  1. Explain the concept of the sociological imagination by choosing a particular phenomenon that could be understood as a private trouble and framing it in terms of public issues.

Ans: Answers may vary. The sociological imagination is the ability to grasp the relationship between individual lives and the larger social forces that shape them. For example, most people see marital separation as a personal failure, but using the sociological imagination we could examine macro-level factors that contribute to persistently high divorce rates, acknowledging that there are larger social issues at work as well.

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What does it mean that sociologists understand the relationship between agency and structure as reciprocal? Provide an example that illustrates this relationship.

Ans: Answers may vary. Agency and structure affect each other. For example, gender roles constrain women’s ability to make choices about their own lives, but women also challenge the status quo, transforming the gender roles that hamper them.

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the sociological imagination.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Critical thinking requires us all to be critical consumers of the information that surrounds us. Provide three examples of questions that we should ask about the quality of sources of information that we encounter.

Ans: Answers may vary. Is the source of the information known to be reliable? What data did they use to support their claims? How was the data gathered?

Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Identify and define Comte’s three stages of society.

Ans: Answers may vary. The first stage is a theological one, in which explanations of the world are framed in terms of superstition, imagination, and religion. The second stage is a metaphysical one, characterized by abstract speculation but framed by the basic belief that society is the product of natural rather than supernatural forces. The third and last stage is a positivist one, in which knowledge is based on fact-driven scientific reasoning.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Auguste Comte

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What were Harriet Martineau’s major contributions to the discipline of sociology?

Ans: Answers may vary. Harriet Martineau is considered the first female sociologist. She translated and edited Comte’s work, making it accessible to the English-speaking world. In addition, she put forth her own scholarship. Like Comte, she sought to outline the laws that govern society. While she derived three laws from other thinkers, the fourth was her own: In order for a society to evolve, it must ensure social justice for oppressed groups.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Harriet Martineau

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Not all of Karl Marx’s predictions have come true, but some have come to fruition. What did he accurately predict?

Ans: Answers may vary. Karl Marx accurately predicted that capitalism would lead to accelerated technological change, the replacement of workers by machines, and the growth of monopoly capitalism. In addition, he accurately predicted that the ownership of the means of production would become more concentrated, pushing more people into the proletariat.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Karl Marx

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Define the term bureaucracy and illustrate it with an example.

Ans: Answers may vary. Bureaucracies are formal organizations characterized by written rules, hierarchical authority, and a paid staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency. Today, we are surrounded by government and corporate bureaucracies. Examples include the Department of Health and Human Services and Comcast.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Max Weber

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Explain W. E. B. Du Bois’s idea of double consciousness.

Ans: Answers may vary. Double consciousness is an awareness of oneself as both American and as Black, never free of racial stigma.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: W. E. B. Du Bois

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In what way is functionalism considered conservative?

Ans: Answers may vary. Functionalism is considered conservative because it accepts rather than questions the status quo. Unlike the social conflict paradigm, the functionalist paradigm doesn’t ask whether an institution or phenomenon might benefit one group at the expense of another.

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Functionalist Perspective

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Define power and inequality. Explain the relationship between the two.

Ans: Answers may vary. Power is the ability to mobilize resources and achieve goals despite the resistance of others. Power is distributed unequally and can be used to marginalize groups, leading to inequality. Inequality refers to differences in wealth, power, opportunity, and other valued resources.

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Medium

Essay

  1. The text outlines six simple rules for critical thinking (adapted from Wade & Tavris, 1997). Choose at least three of these rules and discuss why they are important when conducting a sociological study.

Ans: Answers may vary. Choice of rules and discussion will vary, but should relate to at least three of the following: (1) Be willing to ask any question, no matter how difficult, (2) think logically, and be clear, (3) back up your arguments with evidence, (4) think about the assumptions and biases—including your own—that underlie all studies, (5) avoid anecdotal evidence, and (6) be willing to admit when you are wrong or uncertain about your results.

Learning Objective: 1.2: Understand the significance of critical thinking in the study of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Discuss how the scientific revolution, the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, and urbanization each played a role in the development of sociological thinking.

Ans: Answers may vary. Should include some of the following details: The Enlightenment: 18th-century philosophers believed humankind could attain new heights by applying scientific understanding to human affairs. Enlightenment ideals included equality, liberty, and fundamental human rights. There was a strong belief that sociological understanding would create a more egalitarian, peaceful society in which individuals would be free to realize their full potential. The Industrial Revolution: Traditional agricultural economies and the small-scale production of handicrafts in the home gave way to more efficient, profit-driven manufacturing based in factories. In the face of rapid social change and growing inequality, sociologists sought to gain a social scientific perspective on what was happening and how it had come about. Urbanization: Industrialization fostered the growth of cities, as people moved from rural fields to urban factories in search of work. Early industrial cities were characterized by pollution and dirt, crime, and crowded housing tenements. In Europe, early sociologists studied these conditions, lamenting the passing of communal village life and its replacement by a savage and alienating urban existence.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Development of Sociological Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Define the terms norms and anomie and explain the relationship between the two concepts. Identify one social problem or issue that could arise because of anomie.

Ans: Answers may vary. Norms are accepted social behaviors and beliefs. Anomie is a state of normlessness that occurs when people lose sight of the shared rules and values that give order and meaning to their lives. When communities undergo rapid change, they lose their norms, and anomie occurs. Higher rates of suicide is one social issue that could stem from anomie.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Urbanization: The Population Shift Toward Cities

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What was Émile Durkheim’s greatest concern?

Ans: Answers may vary. Durkheim’s greatest concern was explaining the effect of modern society on social solidarity, or the bonds that unite members of a social group. He asserted that traditional societies were characterized by mechanical solidarity forged by homogeneity, whereas diverse modern societies marked by a division of labor are characterized by organic solidarity forged by mutual reliance. He argued that organic solidarity is not as strong as mechanical solidarity and the result is anomie or a state of normlessness that occurs when people lose sight of the shared rules and values that give order and meaning to their lives.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Émile Durkheim

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Explain the relationship between urbanization and capitalism. Include a brief discussion of Marx’s ideas about capitalism.

Ans: Answers may vary. Urbanization meant a higher concentration of people in cities, which

led to a larger pool of cheap labor. This made it easier for the factory owners to exploit the working class. Karl Marx believed that capitalism is fundamentally exploitative. In his view, the bourgeoisie (the capitalists who own the means of production) take advantage of the proletariat (the working class) for their own gain.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Development of Sociological Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What role did the “Chicago School” of sociology play in the founding of U.S. sociology? How did the reception of the work of the “Chicago School” differ from that of W. E. B. Du Bois?

Ans: Answers may vary. The sociology department of the University of Chicago dominated the discipline at the beginning of the 20th century. Robert Ezra Park, a professor at the university, helped pioneer the study of urban sociology and race relations. While members of the Chicago School were widely recognized for their work, W. E. B. Du Bois, a Black sociologist and civil rights leader, did not find broad acceptance in the sociological community at the time. Today, his works on race relations and the lives of Black Americans are classics in the field.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Development of Sociological Thinking

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Why did so few women find their place among the discipline’s founders?

Ans: Answers may vary. Although the discipline of sociology emerged during a time when feminism was beginning to take root, women were routinely excluded from important positions at universities in Europe and in the United States. Even Jane Addams, who founded Hull House, pioneered the study of Chicago’s neighborhoods, wrote prolifically, and received the Nobel Peace Prize, was unable to secure a full-time position at the University of Chicago.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Trace the historical development of sociological thought.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Women in Early Sociology

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Explain the difference between a macro-level paradigm and a micro-level paradigm and provide an example of each.

Ans: Answers may vary. Macro-level paradigms are concerned with large-scale patterns and institutions (e.g., structural functionalism and social conflict). Micro-level paradigms are concerned with social relations and interactions in specific, individual situations (e.g., symbolic interactionism).

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Is Sociological Theory?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. How do structural functionalism, social conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism approach the study of deviance?

Ans: Answers may vary. Functionalists assume that if a phenomenon exists and persists in society, it has a function. They see deviance as functional, in so far as when it is punished, it reminds people what is considered right and wrong. Conflict theorists, on the other hand, examine how notions of deviance or criminality are shaped by the self-interests of the dominant group. Symbolic interactionists focus on how micro-level interactions, such as when a person is labeled as deviant, alter people’s sense of self and ultimately their behavior.

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify key theoretical paradigms in the discipline of sociology.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Is Sociological Theory?

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Define globalization. Identify three effects of globalization and how these effects can either be positive or negative for local or national communities.

Ans: Answers may vary. Globalization is the process by which people all over the planet become increasingly interconnected economically, politically, culturally, and environmentally. Globalization can expose people to social diversity and facilitate the sharing of ideas, but it also can threaten local cultures, lead to economic exploitation, and contribute to job loss.

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify the three main themes of this book.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Globalization and Diversity

Difficulty Level: Hard

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