Test Bank Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior 3rd Edition by Adam Prus

$35.00
Test Bank Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior 3rd Edition by Adam Prus

Test Bank Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior 3rd Edition by Adam Prus

$35.00
Test Bank Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior 3rd Edition by Adam Prus

Test Bank Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior 3rd Edition by Adam Prus

Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychopharmacology

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

  1. Which of the following fields are encompassed in psychopharmacology?
  2. psychology and pharmacology
  3. psychology and sociology
  4. biology and sociology
  5. pharmacy and pharmacology

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Psychopharmacology

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following describes a psychoactive drug?
  2. John feels better after rubbing an oral gel on his sore tooth.
  3. John’s headache pain is gone after taking a pain-relieving drug.
  4. John feels less depressed after taking his antidepressant medication.
  5. None of these answers describe a psychoactive drug.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Psychopharmacology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Drugs used to treat disorders are referred to as ______.
  2. psychotropic drugs
  3. psychoactive drugs
  4. alternative medicines
  5. recreational drugs

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Why Read a Book on Psychopharmacology?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A drug is defined as an administered substance that ______.
  2. produces psychological effects
  3. is taken orally
  4. is shaped like a pill or tablet
  5. alters physiological functioning

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is a Drug?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following might be considered a drug, based on the textbook’s definition?
  2. food
  3. vitamin
  4. aspirin
  5. All of these answers could be considered a drug.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: What Is a Drug?

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What type of use is defined as using a drug for addressing a specific purpose?
  2. recreational drug use
  3. drug misuse
  4. instrumental drug use
  5. deliberate drug use

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Psychoactive Drugs Are Described by Manner of Use

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What type of use is defined as using a drug entirely to experience its effects?
  2. recreational drug use
  3. therapeutic drug use
  4. instrumental drug use
  5. drug abuse

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Psychoactive Drugs Are Described by Manner of Use

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following best describes someone using a drug instrumentally?
  2. Bob inhaled fumes from the tube of glue in order to feel euphoric.
  3. Juan took some aspirin to reduce his headache pain.
  4. Jeff injected heroin to feel euphoric and to reduce feelings of heroin withdrawal.
  5. Susan consumed cough syrup in order to experience hallucinations.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Psychoactive Drugs Are Described by Manner of Use

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Joakim consumed a cup of coffee in order to feel more alert. Which of the following describes this type of drug use?
  2. drug misuse
  3. instrumental use
  4. recreational use
  5. drug abuse

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Psychoactive Drugs Are Described by Manner of Use

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. All of the following are characteristics of instrumental drug use EXCEPT ______.
  2. voluntarily taking a drug
  3. taking a drug for a reason other than feeling the drug’s effects
  4. taking a drug for a specific purpose
  5. taking a drug in order to feel high from the drug

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Psychoactive Drugs Are Described by Manner of Use

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. A(n) ______ drug refers to a treatment for a mental disorder.
  2. psychotropic
  3. recreational
  4. instrumental
  5. misused

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Psychoactive Drugs Are Described by Manner of Use

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following DOES NOT describe misuse of a therapeutic drug?
  2. Marie consumed cough syrup to cope with a stressful day at school.
  3. Juanita consumed cough syrup to reduce her cold symptoms.
  4. Tyrone consumed cough syrup to enhance the effects of alcohol.
  5. Ben consumed cough syrup to experience hallucinations.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Psychoactive Drugs Are Described by Manner of Use

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. For the statement, acetaminophen (Tylenol) is an analgesic drug, what is the brand name?
  2. acetaminophen
  3. Tylenol
  4. analgesic
  5. The brand name is not provided.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Generic, Brand, Chemical, and Street Names for Drugs

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. For the statement, acetaminophen (Tylenol) is an analgesic drug, what is the generic name?
  2. acetaminophen
  3. Tylenol
  4. analgesic
  5. The generic name is not provided.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Generic, Brand, Chemical, and Street Names for Drugs

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A drug’s ______ name is a nonproprietary name for a drug that indicates the classification of a drug and distinguishes it from other drugs in the class.
  2. street
  3. chemical
  4. brand
  5. generic

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Generic, Brand, Chemical, and Street Names for Drugs

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following provides the most information about a drug’s structure?
  2. pharmacological name
  3. brand name
  4. chemical name
  5. generic name

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Generic, Brand, Chemical, and Street Names for Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A drug used illegally for recreational purposes might be given a ______ name to convey the effects one experiences when using it.
  2. brand
  3. street
  4. chemical
  5. generic

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Generic, Brand, Chemical, and Street Names for Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Those who illegally make and sell a drug that causes a strong high might name it ______ to convey the drug’s effects.
  2. bentamine
  3. (5R,9R,13S,14S)-4,5a-epoxy-14-hydroxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one
  4. exhilarate
  5. ephinil

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Generic, Brand, Chemical, and Street Names for Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Dose consists of a ratio of the amount of drug per ______.
  2. an organism’s body weight
  3. person treated
  4. the amount needed
  5. the amount administered

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A veterinarian needed to treat an animal with a drug at a dose of 1.0 g/kg. If the animal weighed 5 kg, then what amount of drug would be given to the animal?
  2. 1 g
  3. 5 kg
  4. 5 g
  5. 1 kg

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. If a 10 kg animal were treated with 5 g of a drug, what dose of drug was given?
  2. 5 g/kg
  3. 0.5 g/kg
  4. 10 g/kg
  5. 10 g/5 kg

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. If an adult were prescribed to take a 500 mg of a drug, what does this suggest about the dose?
  2. The dose is likely 0.5 g/100 kg.
  3. The dose is likely 500 mg/kg.
  4. Insufficient information is provided to answer this question.
  5. The dose is likely 500 mg/the patient’s body weight.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A dose–effect curve depicts the magnitude of a drug effect by ______.
  2. volume
  3. toxicity
  4. therapeutic index
  5. dose

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. To describe the middle point on a dose–effect curve, a pharmacologist might state the drug’s ______.
  2. effective dose 50 (ED50) value
  3. lowest effective and maximally effective dose
  4. therapeutic index
  5. Certain Safety Index

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Drugs A and B produce similar types of effects. Drug A has an ED50 value of 10 mg/kg, and Drug B has an ED50 value of 5 mg/kg. What can be said about these drugs?
  2. Drug A will have a safer therapeutic index.
  3. Drug B will have a safer therapeutic index.
  4. Drug A is more potent than Drug B.
  5. Drug B is more potent than Drug A.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. How is an ED50 value similar to a TD50 value?
  2. Both values reflect a drug’s therapeutic effects.
  3. Both values indicate 50% of an effect.
  4. Both values are used to calculate a drug’s toxic effects.
  5. They can be added together to produce 100% efficacy.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. All of the following can describe why ED50 and TD50 values are not ideal for calculating a therapeutic index EXCEPT ______.
  2. the index uses a value based on only half of the subjects experiencing severe adverse effects
  3. the index uses a value based on only half of the subjects experiencing therapeutic drug effects
  4. the index uses the ED50 value, which is most common for reporting dose–effect curves
  5. no matter the size of the index, using 50% values suggests that an unacceptable number of patients will likely experience adverse effects

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. A Certain Safety Index is ______.
  2. a therapeutic index calculated from a low-percentage TD value and a high-percentage ED value
  3. a therapeutic index of 10 or greater
  4. a therapeutic index of 100 or greater
  5. a therapeutic index calculated from a high-percentage TD value and a high-percentage ED value

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following would most likely be used for calculating a Certain Safety Index?
  2. TD99 and ED50
  3. TD50 and ED50
  4. TD1 and ED99
  5. TD99 and ED1

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______, a major area of pharmacology, refers to the physiological actions of drugs.
  2. Pharmacogenetics
  3. Pharmacokinetics
  4. Physiodynamics
  5. Pharmacodynamics

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following describes a pharmacodynamic action?
  2. A drug is injected in the arm and later enters the bloodstream.
  3. A drug binds to a neuron and alters the neuron’s activity.
  4. A drug binds to another drug in the body.
  5. A drug enters the liver and is quickly metabolized.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______, a major area of pharmacology, refers to the passage of drugs through the body.
  2. Pharmacogenetics
  3. Pharmacokinetics
  4. Physiodynamics
  5. Pharmacodynamics

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following describes a pharmacokinetic action?
  2. A drug is exhaled through one’s breath.
  3. A drug acts in the hypothalamus to reduce hunger.
  4. A drug acts on the brain’s reward pathway to produce rewarding effects.
  5. A drug dissolves in water but not in physiological saline.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The field of ______ may help explain why one person is naturally a fast metabolizer for a drug, whereas another person is naturally a slow metabolizer for the drug.
  2. pharmacodynamics
  3. physiodynamics
  4. pharmacogenetics
  5. pharmacokinetics

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ refers to the amount of drug used to produce a certain magnitude of effect.
  2. Dose
  3. Therapeutic index
  4. Potency
  5. Pharmacodynamics

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. For which of the following reasons might a researcher compare the ED50 values between two drugs that produce similar effects?
  2. to determine which compound is more potent
  3. to calculate a therapeutic index
  4. to compare their pharmacodynamic properties
  5. to determine which drug has a dose large enough for adults

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following concerns an assessment of how genetic differences influence a drug’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects?
  2. therapeutic index
  3. potency
  4. developmental pharmacology
  5. pharmacogenetics

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Pharmacological effects that can be directly observed by others are referred to as ______.
  2. psychoactive effects
  3. objective effects
  4. pharmacodynamic effects
  5. subjective effects

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Objective and Subjective Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Pharmacological effects that cannot be directly observed by others are referred to as ______.
  2. psychoactive effects
  3. objective effects
  4. pharmacodynamic effects
  5. subjective effects

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Objective and Subjective Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Pam said that taking a particular drug made her feel happy. What type of effect is this?
  2. pharmacokinetic effect
  3. pharmacodynamic effect
  4. subjective effect
  5. objective effect

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Objective and Subjective Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Gary noticed that taking a particular drug made his heart rate increase. What type of effect is this?
  2. pharmacokinetic effect
  3. pharmacodynamic effect
  4. subjective effect
  5. objective effect

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Objective and Subjective Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following situations refers to a drug’s subjective effects?
  2. Juan experienced a rush sensation after ingesting a substance.
  3. John’s eyes were dilated after ingesting a substance.
  4. Katie’s pulse rate went down after ingesting a substance.
  5. Michelle noticed herself breathing harder after ingesting a substance.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Objective and Subjective Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following situations refers to a drug’s objective effects?
  2. Janis felt sad after consuming a substance.
  3. Carol felt feverish after consuming a substance.
  4. Gary rated a drug’s effects as highly reinforcing.
  5. Michael felt a sense of energy after consuming a substance.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Objective and Subjective Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A(n) ______ variable is a study variable measured by a researcher.
  2. independent
  3. dependent
  4. confound
  5. correlational

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A(n) ______ variable can be a study variable that affects another variable that is measured by researchers.
  2. independent
  3. dependent
  4. confound
  5. correlational

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Juanita, a researcher at a pharmaceutical company, is assessing the effects of an experimental drug on lever-pressing behavior in laboratory rats. For this study, what type of variable is the experimental drug?
  2. confound variable
  3. experimental variable
  4. independent variable
  5. dependent variable

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Juanita, a researcher at a pharmaceutical company, is assessing the effects of an experimental drug on lever-pressing behavior in laboratory rats. For this study, what type of variable is lever pressing?
  2. confound variable
  3. experimental variable
  4. independent variable
  5. dependent variable

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. In a(n) ______, an investigator does not alter the independent variable.
  2. correlational study
  3. experimental study
  4. single-blind procedure
  5. open-label study

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In a(n) ______, an investigator alters the independent variable.
  2. correlational study
  3. experimental study
  4. single-blind procedure
  5. longitudinal study

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. For a clinical study, researchers gave one group of participants a low dose of drug, another group a high dose of drug, and the final group placebo. How many treatment arms does this study have?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 3
  5. 4

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: From Actions to Effects: Therapeutic Drug Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Jin would like to conduct an experiment to compare the effects of a new drug in one group of participants to a group of participants who do not receive a drug. In the nontreated group, what would Jin most likely provide?
  2. a different drug
  3. a placebo
  4. a different dose of the new drug
  5. a single-blind design

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A ______ consists of a substance identical in appearance to a drug but physiologically inert.
  2. drug
  3. placebo
  4. teratogen
  5. control group

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Drug experiments in clinical trials describe the number of treatments and doses provided to groups of study participants as ______.
  2. control groups
  3. dependent variables
  4. placebos
  5. treatment arms

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the process of therapeutic drug development.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: From Actions to Effects: Therapeutic Drug Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Brian was asked to find detailed information about the study designs and results of studies on a particular drug used in clinical trials. Which of the following would be best for Brian to look at?
  2. the drug’s Certain Safety Index
  3. the study’s treatment arms
  4. a clinical study report for the drug
  5. informed consent documents for the drug

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the process of therapeutic drug development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: From Actions to Effects: Therapeutic Drug Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. While both single-blind and double-blind procedures prevent a study participant from knowing what a test drug is, single-blind procedures differ from double-blind procedures by ______.
  2. not allowing investigators to know which drug participants received
  3. allowing study participants to later choose which drug
  4. allowing participants in other groups to know which drug they received
  5. allowing investigators to know which drug participants received

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. All of the following are features of a double-blind procedure, EXCEPT ______.
  2. these procedures are used in clinical studies
  3. these procedures are best when ethical consequences prevent disguising study medications
  4. study participants do not know if they received a drug or placebo
  5. study investigators do not know which participants receive drug or placebo

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. A(n) ______ refers to the assignment of study treatments without preventing participants from knowing which treatment they receive.
  2. single-blind procedure
  3. double-blind procedure
  4. open-label study
  5. treatment arm

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ validity refers to the control of variables with potential to influence a dependent variable.
  2. Internal
  3. External
  4. Construct
  5. Confound

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Discovering that study participants learned they were given a placebo would serve as a threat to ______ validity.
  2. internal
  3. external
  4. construct
  5. face

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. ______ validity refers to how well study findings generalize beyond the study conditions.
  2. Face
  3. Construct
  4. Internal
  5. External

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Learning that a clinical trial examined the effects of a drug only in Caucasion males would serve as a threat to ______ validity.
  2. internal
  3. face
  4. external
  5. predictive

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. All of the following impact internal validity EXCEPT ______.
  2. the model used resembles the disorder
  3. using a placebo control group
  4. using inconsistent methods to measure the dependent variable
  5. accidentally changing the dose of the study drug

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. A substance found harmful for a fetus is called a ______.
  2. neurotoxin
  3. teratogen
  4. embryonic toxin
  5. nocebo

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Discovering a ______ variable may question the effectiveness of an independent variable.
  2. dependent
  3. confound
  4. pathological
  5. pharmacological

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ validity refers to the appearance of a test measuring what a researcher considers it to measure.
  2. Internal
  3. Predictive
  4. External
  5. Face

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A researcher develops an animal model, using monkeys, of Parkinson’s disease, which is noted by tremor, among other symptoms, in humans. In the behavioral procedure, monkeys also exhibited a clear tremor. What is this test an example of?
  2. face validity
  3. construct validity
  4. predictive validity
  5. external validity

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The type of validity that addresses how well a study’s findings relate to the underlying theory of a study’s objectives is called ______.
  2. face validity
  3. construct validity
  4. internal validity
  5. predictive validity

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A researcher develops an animal model, using monkeys, of Parkinson’s disease, which is noted by tremor, among other symptoms, in humans. In the behavioral procedure, monkeys also exhibited a clear tremor and the researchers find that the monkeys have degeneration to dopamine neurons similar to that seen in Parkinson’s disease patients. What is this test an example of?
  2. internal validity
  3. predictive validity
  4. face validity
  5. construct validity

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. ______ validity addresses how well a model predicts treatment effects.
  2. Face
  3. Predictive
  4. External
  5. Construct

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______ validity implies that a researcher can evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental treatment in a model that does not resemble the disorder to be treated.
  2. External
  3. Face
  4. Predictive
  5. Constructive

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is NOT an appropriate reason for conducting animal research?
  2. There is a lack of feasible alternatives (e.g., computer simulations or human research) available for the particular objectives of a study.
  3. Data collected from animal research are predictive of findings that might be found from tests conducted in humans.
  4. The potential adverse effects of a drug should be assessed in animals before giving the drug to humans.
  5. Animal research is less expensive than human research.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess the ethical conduct of drugs studies using animal or human subjects.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Considerations in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. When reviewing a study application to use animals in research, the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) uses the 3Rs, which stands for ______.
  2. require, restrict, and reduce
  3. refinement, restrict, and reduction
  4. replacement, reduction, and refinement
  5. refinement, replication, and reduction

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess the ethical conduct of drug studies using animal or human subjects.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Considerations in Research

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following would be an appropriate response to an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee’s (IACUC) request for more refinement in a study application to use animals in research?
  2. The researcher found an alternative study procedure that caused less pain and distress for study animals.
  3. The researcher decided to use fewer animals in the study.
  4. The researcher found a computer simulation that could be used instead.
  5. The researcher added new study objectives to increase the scientific value of the study.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess the ethical conduct of drug studies using animal or human subjects.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethical Considerations in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following has high ethical costs?
  2. Study animals experienced substantial pain and distress and significant scientific discoveries were made.
  3. Study animals experience substantial pain and distress and minimal scientific gains resulted from the study.
  4. Study animals experienced minimal pain and distress and significant scientific discoveries were made.
  5. Study animals experience minimal pain and distress and minimal scientific gains resulted from the study.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess the ethical conduct of drug studies using animal or human subjects.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethical Considerations in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ consists of a participant’s agreement to enroll in a study after having a thorough understanding of the study’s procedures, possible gains, and potential risks.
  2. The 3Rs
  3. Internal validity
  4. Clinical study report
  5. Informed consent

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess the ethical conduct of drug studies using animal or human subjects.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Considerations in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. When identifying a disorder to treat during the stages of drug development, which of the following would likely NOT be determined?
  2. the size of the population to be treated
  3. the likely toxic doses of the test drugs
  4. the current state of scientific knowledge on the disease or treatments for the disease
  5. the effectiveness of other treatments already on the market

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the process of therapeutic drug development.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: From Actions to Effects: Therapeutic Drug Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Experiments conducted to determine an experimental drug’s potential for abuse occur during which stage of drug development?
  2. drug synthesis
  3. clinical trial testing
  4. high-throughput screening
  5. safety pharmacology

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the process of therapeutic drug development.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: From Actions to Effects: Therapeutic Drug Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The following reasons describe why high-throughput screening methods could be used EXCEPT ______.
  2. to have data on the safety of drugs in order to proceed to clinical trials
  3. to send quick feedback to chemists who will produce more compounds based on the results
  4. to rapidly test a series of drugs for a biological target
  5. to determine which drugs from a large batch of compounds might be meeting project goals at a particular biological target

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the process of therapeutic drug development.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: From Actions to Effects: Therapeutic Drug Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Why might a study drug fail to proceed from Phase 2 to Phase 3 clinical trials?
  2. The drug produced too many adverse effects.
  3. The drug did not appear to be effective.
  4. The drug was not more effective than drugs already on the market.
  5. All of these answers are correct.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the process of therapeutic drug development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: From Actions to Effects: Therapeutic Drug Development

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following Clinical Trial Phases best describes a drug tested at low doses for only a short period of time?
  2. Phase 1
  3. Phase 2
  4. Phase 3
  5. Phase 4

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the process of therapeutic drug development.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: From Actions to Effects: Therapeutic Drug Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In a study of reaction time, an experimental drug, labeled Drug A for participants, increased response latency to a stimulus by 1 s. A second drug, Drug B, increased response latency by 2 s. When administered together, response latency increased by 3 s. This can be labeled as a(n) ______.
  2. synergistic drug effect
  3. interaction effect
  4. additive drug effect
  5. placebo effect

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. When a combination of drugs produces an effect equivalent to the combined magnitude of each drug alone, we refer to this as a(n) ______.
  2. nocebo effect
  3. additive drug effect
  4. synergistic drug effect
  5. stimulant effect

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In a study of reaction time, an experimental drug, labeled Drug A for participants, increased response latency to a stimulus by 1 s. A second drug, Drug B, increased response latency by 2 s. When administered together, response latency increased by 5 s. This can be labeled as a(n) ______.
  2. interaction effect
  3. synergistic drug effect
  4. additive drug effect
  5. placebo effect

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. When a combination of drugs produces an effect beyond the sum of each drug’s effect alone, we refer to this as a(n) ______.
  2. nocebo effect
  3. additive drug effect
  4. synergistic drug effect
  5. stimulant effect

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. After providing a dose of loweritol for lowering blood pressure, a patient needs to have blood pressure lowered by precisely 4 mmHg more. Which of the following treatments should you administer?
  2. a drug that produces a decrease of 4 mmHg and has a synergistic effect with loweritol
  3. a drug that produces a decrease of 4 mmHg and has an additive effect with loweritol
  4. a drug that you can convince the patient will lower blood pressure, although the drug is actually physiologically inactive
  5. a drug that produces a decrease of 4 mmHg more than loweritol

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess the ethical conduct of drugs studies using animal or human subjects.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: From Actions to Effects: Therapeutic Drug Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A study participant filed a complaint to a clinic director stating that he would not have joined the study if he had been told that blood samples would be taken. Based on this information, which of the following presents a potential ethical violation?
  2. The clinical director reviewed a complaint.
  3. Blood samples may not be required.
  4. Informed consent may not have been given.
  5. A double-blind study design was not used.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess the ethical conduct of drugs studies using animal or human subjects.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Considerations in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

True/False

  1. A person using a drug to feel a high is an example of instrumental drug use.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Psychoactive Drugs Are Described by Manner of Use

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Recreational drug use refers to using a drug to treat a disorder.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Psychoactive Drugs Are Described by Manner of Use

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A drug’s generic name is a nonproprietary name indicating the classification of a drug.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Generic, Brand, Chemical, and Street Names for Drugs

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A drug’s chemical name is trademarked.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Generic, Brand, Chemical, and Street Names for Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The magnitude of a drug’s effects based on dose can be illustrated on a dose–effect curve.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. An ED50 value indicates the dose at which 50% of the drug’s effect was produced.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The ED50 value for Drug B is 2.0 mg/kg and the ED50 value for Drug A is 4.0 mg/kg. This means that Drug B is more potent than Drug A.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The therapeutic index reflects a ratio of a drug’s toxic dose–effect curve value relative to a therapeutic dose–effect curve value.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A researcher studied how well a drug entered the brain after it was administered. Her study was a type of pharmacokinetic study.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Pharmacodynamics studies how well drugs pass through the body.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A researcher provided a test drug to a group of study participants and afterward asked participants to rate how the drug’s effects feel. The ratings serve as an example of objective effects.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Objective and Subjective Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A researcher provided a test drug to a group of study participants and afterward asked participants to rate how the drug’s effects feel. The dependent variable in this study was the rating on how the drug felt.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A placebo refers to a substance identical in appearance to a drug but physiologically inert.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. An animal study that causes no pain or distress and produces a major scientific discovery would have low ethical costs.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess the ethical conduct of drugs studies using animal or human subjects

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Regulation of Animal Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. During the stages of drug development, safety pharmacology experiments are conducted during Phase 1 clinical trials.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the process of therapeutic drug development

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: From Actions to Effects: Therapeutic Drug Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

Short Answer

  1. A ______ is an administered substance that alters physiological functioning.

Ans: drug

Learning Objective: 1-1 Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is a Drug?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______ drug use consists of using a drug to address a specific purpose.

Ans: Instrumental

Learning Objective: 1-1 Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Psychoactive Drugs Are Described by Manner of Use

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A drug’s ______ name is a nonproprietary name that indicates the classification for a drug and distinguishes a drug from others in the same class.

Ans: generic

Learning Objective: 1-1 Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Generic, Brand, Chemical, and Street Names for Drugs

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A ______ Index is calculated by dividing a toxic dose that caused toxicity in only 1% of the subjects--referred to as a TD1--and dividing this by a dose that achieved a 99% therapeutic effect--an ED99.

Ans: Certain Safety

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______ refers to the amount of drug used to produce a certain magnitude of effect.

Ans: Potency

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______ refers to the physiological actions of drugs. For psychoactive drugs, this includes the drug’s actions on the nervous system.

Ans: Pharmacodynamics

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______ is the study of how genetic differences influence a drug’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects.

Ans: Pharmacogenetics

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacogenetics

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Measuring how quickly someone is breathing after taking a certain drug is an example of a(n) ______ effect.

Ans: objective

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Objective and Subjective Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ studies refer to the assignment of study treatments without using blinded procedures.

Ans: Open-label

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A ______ is a substance harmful to a fetus.

Ans: teratogen

Learning Objective: 1-3: Characterize the different pharmacological effects of drugs

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Easy

Essay

  1. Compare and contrast the following names used to describe psychopharmacology: psychopharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and neuropsychopharmacology.

Ans: All three names refer to the study of drugs. Psychopharmacology is more general--the study of how drugs affect mood, perception, thinking, or behavior. Behavioral pharmacology emphasizes behavior analysis principles and concepts to interpret drug effects, and neuropsychopharmacology emphasizes the effects drugs have on the nervous system.

Learning Objective: 1-1 Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Psychopharmacology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The book discussed how drugs are described by their manner of use. Write out the definition of these different types of use, and describe how marijuana might serve as an example of each of these different uses.

Ans: Instrumental drug use consists of using a drug to address a specific purpose. Recreational drug use refers to using a drug entirely to experience its effects. Someone may use marijuana to treat a disorder or condition--This is an example of an instrumental drug use. Someone else may use marijuana entirely to enjoy its effects--This is an example of recreational drug use. Note that marijuana was not covered in Chapter 1, so this answer should not be expected to include specific drug effects from marijuana.

Learning Objective: 1-1 Identify drugs in terms of their use and intended purpose

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Psychoactive Drugs Are Described by Manner of Use

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Define objective and subjective effects. Provide an example for each.

Ans: Objective effects are pharmacological effects that can be directly observed by others. An example would consist of something that other can measure, such as heart rate, body temperature, or body movement. Subjective effects are pharmacological effects that cannot be directly observed by others. An example would consist of something that others cannot directly observe, such as someone indicating how a drug makes him feel.

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Objective and Subjective Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Define single-blind procedure, double-blind procedure, and open-label studies. Provide a rationale for each.

Ans: In a single-blind procedure, researchers do not inform study participants which treatment or placebo they received. Rationale: to eliminate potential bias by study participants. In a double-blind procedure, neither the participants nor the investigators know the treatment assignments during the study. Rationale: to eliminate potential bias by study participants and study investigators. Open-label studies refer to the assignment of study treatments without using blinded procedures. Rationale: There may be ethical reasons that require informing participants which treatment was given.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Study Designs and the Assessment of Psychoactive Drugs

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A team of researchers developed a new cellular model for a particular eye disease. Define face, construct, and predictive validity, and indicate how the model could address each type.

Ans: Face validity refers to the appearance of a test measuring what a researcher considers it to measure. For the model, face validity might occur if the appearance of the cells is similar to those found in the eye disease. Construct validity addresses how well a study’s findings relate to the underlying theory of a study’s objectives. For the model, whatever is causing abnormal functions of the cells would be similar to those thought to be causing the eye disease. Predictive validity addresses how well a model predicts treatment effects. For the model, a chemical agent found to have beneficial effects in the model would also have beneficial effects for the disease.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Validity and the Interpretation of Study Findings

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. You are a member of your university’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and you have received an application for an animal research study. The researcher would like to determine if a new drug may reduce symptoms of fibromyalgia, a chronic pain disorder, and proposes studying 100 monkeys using procedures that will cause moderate pain. A federal agency has reviewed a grant proposal submitted by the researcher and found the work to have high scientific value. Provide questions or comments for your review of the application that includes each of the 3Rs and an ethical cost assessment.

Ans: The 3Rs consist of replacement, reduction, and refinement. For replacement, one may ask if a computer simulation, studies using cells, or studies using invertebrates may be used instead. For reduction, one may ask if these studies can be conducted in fewer animals. For refinement, one may ask if less painful procedures could be used or if a pain-relieving medication could be provided. The ethical cost can be justified if the work will lead to important gains in the scientific field, although making the procedures less painful would lower the ethical cost of these studies.

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess the ethical conduct of drugs studies using animal or human subjects

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Regulation of Animal Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. You are a pharmacologist working for a large pharmaceutical company. A team of researchers at the company reported that a new experimental drug’s therapeutic index was 10. However, providing no other information about the index, you are left wondering about how to interpret this finding. Based on what you know about how therapeutic indexes are determined, provide a question to ask the research team and indicate the rationale for this question.

Ans: A comprehensive answer would note that TIs are derived from effective dose (ED) and toxic dose (TD) values. A safe TI would be calculated using an ED99 and a TD1, or something more extreme. A likely question to be asked would be, “What ED and TD values were used?” Another might be, “How many subjects experienced toxic effects at a high ED value (e.g., ED99)?” Another might be, “Is this also a Certain Safety Index?”

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Name and define each of the stages of therapeutic drug development.

Ans: Stage 1: Identify disorder to treat: Decisions include feasibility and profitability concerns.

Stage 2: Drug synthesis: Chemists synthesize experimental compounds.

Stage 3: Biological experimentation: High-throughput screening methods provide basic biological information about compounds. Results are sent to chemists and guide synthesis of further compounds.

Stage 4: Focused screening methods: Focused testing occurs with most promising compounds identified during Stage 3.

Stage 5: Safety pharmacology: Tests identify adverse effects and toxic doses.

Stage 6: Clinical trials: Most effective and safest compounds tested from previous stages are tested in humans: Regularly approval sought after positive clinical findings.

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the process of therapeutic drug development

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: From Actions to Effects: Therapeutic Drug Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. List and describe the goals of each clinical trial phase.

Ans: Phase 1: Determine a drug’s most likely and frequent adverse effects to occur during treatment.

Phase 2: Determination of therapeutic effectiveness; experimental drug may be compared to standard medical treatment; adverse effects continue to be monitored.

Phase 3: Further determination of therapeutic effectiveness; experimental drug may be compared to standard medical treatment; adverse effects continue to be monitored.

Phase 4: Occurs after FDA approves a drug for the market; might address remaining questions or concerns about the drug; goal is to further determine features of a drug’s therapeutic effectiveness and adverse effects.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Appraise the quality of outcomes from scientific studies

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: From Actions to Effects: Therapeutic Drug Development

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Draw a graph such as a bar chart to illustrate an additive drug effect and a synergistic drug effect on body temperature changes for two drugs: Drug A (increases temperature by 0.5°C) and Drug B (increases temperature by 0.3°C). Your answer must show for bars--one bar each for Drug A and Drug B alone, one bar for an additive effect, and one bar for a synergistic effect.

Ans: The chart should show degrees on the y-axis and the drugs plotted on the x-axis. Drug A’s bar should reach 0.5 and Drug B’s bar should reach 0.3. A bar for additive effects should reach 0.8°. A bar for synergistic effects could be anything higher than 0.8°.

Learning Objective: 1-2: Interpret drug effects based on dose.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Drug Effects Correspond With Doses

Difficulty Level: Hard

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