Test Bank Drugs, Behaviour and Society 3rd Canadian Edition by Robert Gilbert By Carl L. Hart, Charles J. Ksir, Andrea Hebb A+

$35.00
Test Bank Drugs, Behaviour and Society 3rd Canadian Edition by Robert Gilbert By Carl L. Hart, Charles J. Ksir, Andrea Hebb A+

Test Bank Drugs, Behaviour and Society 3rd Canadian Edition by Robert Gilbert By Carl L. Hart, Charles J. Ksir, Andrea Hebb A+

$35.00
Test Bank Drugs, Behaviour and Society 3rd Canadian Edition by Robert Gilbert By Carl L. Hart, Charles J. Ksir, Andrea Hebb A+

. What were the questions who, what, why, when, where, how, and how much introduced to do?
A. Understand the dependence potential of a drug.
B. Help us evaluate whether a particular type of drug use is a problem.
C. Determine the toxicity of a drug.
D. Track arrest data for drug law violations.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Develop an analytical framework for understanding any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-01 "The Drug Problem"

2. If a substance is consistently used in a particular kind of situations (e.g., at parties, as opposed to when one is alone), what can it help us understand?
A. The amount of the substance being used.
B. The type of substance being used.
C. The reason the substance is being used.
D. Who is using the substance?


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Develop an analytical framework for understanding any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-01 "The Drug Problem"

3. The media has been reporting on drug use ranging from methamphetamine to ecstasy to glue sniffing. How have these various examples been described in the media?
A. The "drug du jour"
B. Drug use: a laissez-faire reality
C. Drugs that are always bad drugs
D. Drug use by celebrities


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Develop an analytical framework for understanding any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-01 "The Drug Problem"

4. What did a 2015 survey of high school students in Ontario reveal regarding the use of ecstasy in the previous 12-month period?
A. Less than 1% of the students self-reported using ecstasy
B. 5.4% of the students self-reported using ecstasy
C. 10.4% of the students self-reported using ecstasy
D. 15.4% of the students self-reported using ecstasy


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Develop an analytical framework for understanding any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

5. A survey completed regarding drug use and Aboriginals living on reserves in Canada reported that most youth who tried solvents did so by which age?
A. ten years
B. eleven years
C. thirteen years
D. fourteen years


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Develop an analytical framework for understanding any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

6. How a drug exists is an important fact to consider. For instance, compared to smoking cocaine in the form of "crack", how will Indigenous South Americans who chew coca leaves absorb cocaine?
A. Quickly over a short period of time.
B. Slowly over a short period of time.
C. Slowly over a long period.
D. Quickly and continuously over a long period.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Develop an analytical framework for understanding any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

7. All of the following EXCEPT which one, are examples of harm reduction measures reflected in Canada's Drug Strategy, to reduce the damage associated with alcohol and drugs?
A. Television educational campaigns
B. Safe injection sites
C. Methadone maintenance therapy
D. Syringe exchange programs


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Develop an analytical framework for understanding any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

8. What is one of the four principles of psychoactive drug use?
A. All psychoactive drugs should be banned.
B. Most people are unable to control their own drug use.
C. Every drug has an opposite drug that can counteract it.
D. Frugs, per se, are not good or bad.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Apply four general principles of psychoactive drug use to any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

9. One of the four principles of psychoactive drugs is that every drug has what?
A. effects on the heart
B. impurities
C. multiple effects
D. mind altering potential


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Apply four general principles of psychoactive drug use to any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

10. According to the four principles of psychoactive drug use would state; "the effect of any psychoactive drug depends on ___________________."
A. the individual's history and expectations
B. its legal status
C. the user's diet
D. the user's unique brain chemistry


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Apply four general principles of psychoactive drug use to any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

11. Which term describes use of prescribed drugs in greater amounts than, or for purposes other than, those prescribed by a physician or dentist.
A. Addiction
B. Drug misuse
C. Drug Abuse
D. Dependence


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

12. Which term is used to describe, the use of a substance in a manner, amount, or situation such that the drug causes problems or greatly increases the chances of problems occurring?
A. Addiction
B. Dependence
C. Abuse
D. Tolerance


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

13. Which term refers to a state in which an individual uses a drug so frequently and consistently that it would be difficult for the person to get along without using the drug?
A. Addiction
B. Dependence
C. Abuse
D. Tolerance


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

14. Which term describes a situation when a person's reaction to a psychopharmaceutical drug (such as a painkiller) decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect?
A. Addiction
B. Dependence
C. Abuse
D. Tolerance


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

15. Because drugs alter consciousness and thought processes, the affects experienced will depend on which of the following?
A. Expectations
B. Attitudes
C. Individual history
D. All of the answers are correct


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Apply four general principles of psychoactive drug use to any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

16. How does the text define a drug that is unlawful to possess or use?
A. An illicit drug.
B. A narcotic.
C. An addictive drug.
D. An abused drug.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Apply four general principles of psychoactive drug use to any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

17. How long have drugs played a significant role in human society?
A. for thousands of years
B. for about the past 200 years
C. since the 1920s
D. only since the 1960s


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Apply four general principles of psychoactive drug use to any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-02 Talking about Drug Use

18. In the past 100 years, the introduction of vaccines to prevent diseases and antibiotics to cure some infections laid the foundation for what?
A. Illicit drug markets.
B. Our acceptance of medicines as the cornerstone of our health care system.
C. Many dangerous drug interactions.
D. The need to create a "war on drugs" ethos.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Apply four general principles of psychoactive drug use to any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-02 Talking about Drug Use

19. The Government of Canada addresses the public health concern of substance abuse with its Canada's Drug Strategy (CDS), by using a broad four-component approach. It includes all of the following EXCEPT which one?
A. Education
B. Medical intervention
C. Harm reduction
D. Enforcement


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

20. Much of our information regarding drug use comes from survey questionnaires. What is one IMPORTANT limitation of questionnaires?
A. The sample sizes are too small.
B. People might not answer honestly.
C. The people who do the studies are biased.
D. The questionnaires don't ask questions about illicit drug use.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

21. Despite the limitations of survey questionnaires, when can they be informative?
A. If they are done year after year, because we can then look for changes over time.
B. If they seek information regarding those who are not included in the survey.
C. If they ask questions regarding alcohol use, because it is not illegal.
D. If they ask about the misuse of prescription drugs.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-04 How Did We Get Here?

22. According to the 2004 Canadian Addiction Survey, what percent of Canadians produce their own wine or beer at home?
A. 6.7%
B. 10.7%
C. 18.7%
D. 32.7%


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

23. The 2004 Canadian Campus Survey (CCS), revealed what percentage of the Canadian undergraduate, population had used Cannabis within the previous 12 months period?
A. 10%
B. 20%
C. 30%
D. 40%


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

24. What does the 2016 (ACHA) National College Health Assessment data provide?
A. A snapshot of current use patterns among postsecondary students.
B. A snapshot of the number of drug overdose emergency room admissions.
C. A one day snapshot survey of the number of youth 18-24 presently admitted in some form of drug/alcohol treatment program.
D. A snapshot of the current college/university support services offered across the country.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

25. Which statement best describes the OSDUHS?
A. Began in 1977, and is the longest ongoing school-based survey in Canada.
B. Began in 1977, and is the longest ongoing school-based survey in North America.
C. Recently launched in 2015, in response to the growing concern regarding the opioid use in North America.
D. Recently launched in 2015, in response to the growing concern regarding the opioid use in Canada.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-08 Trends in Drug Use

26. Accordingly to the 2017 OSDUHS results, what substance was the most commonly used illicit drug?
A. Hallucinogens
B. Methamphetamine
C. Cannabis
D. Cocaine


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

27. Who is included and how is the OSDUHS conducted?
A. Interviews include thousands of students every second year from elementary and secondary schools across Ontario
B. Interviews include thousands of students every second year from secondary schools across Ontario
C. Interviews include thousands of students from colleges and universities every second year from across Ontario was
D. Interviews include thousands of students every second year from colleges and universities, and elementary and secondary schools, across


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Topic: 01-05 Have Things Really Changed?

28. Which Canadian survey examining trends in drug use, has been conducted every year since 2008?
A. Canadian Addiction Survey
B. Canadian Campus Survey
C. Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey
D. The National Survey of Drug use in Canada


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-08 Trends in Drug Use

29. The Canadian Campus Survey indicated that between 1998 and 2004 the use of cannabis declined in the Western provinces but increased where in Canada?
A. Quebec
B. Ontario
C. British Columbia
D. Atlantic Canada


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-08 Trends in Drug Use

30. What was a significant change made to the CTADS survey beginning in 2015 compared to previous years?
A. Data was collected for residences of the Yukon
B. The CTADS used cell phones in its sampling frame
C. Data was collected using an internet questionnaire
D. Data was collected for residences of the Nunavut


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

31. What did the 2017 OSDUHS results regarding marijuana use ONLY among students in grades 7 through 12 reveal?
A. Has slowly been rising since 1999
B. Has remained consisted for since 1999
C. Has been drastically rising since 1999
D. It has been declining since 1999


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-07 Extent of Drug Use

32. Is you were a social worker working with elementary and secondary students within a school system, according to the 2017 OSDUHS results, which substance might you be most concerned with due to its availability?
A. Alcohol
B. Cigarettes
C. Marijuana
D. OxyContin


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

33. The 2017 OSDUHS results indicated that students identified the greatest risk of physical harm to be regular use of which substance?
A. Regular alcohol use.
B. Regular, prescription drug use.
C. Regular marijuana use.
D. Regular cocaine use.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

34. When adolescents have a socially supportive family, are interested in school and sports activities and perceive marijuana use being strongly opposed by their school, these factors correlate with lower rates of marijuana use which are commonly referred to as what?
A. Antecedents
B. Causal factors
C. Deviates
D. Protective factors


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-10 Risk and Protective Factors

35. Much of the research on correlates of drug use has used which substance as an indicator?
A. Alcohol
B. Methamphetamine
C. Marijuana smoking
D. Steroids


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 01-05 Explain correlates and antecedents of adolescent drug use.
Topic: 01-09 Correlates of Drug Use

36. Which of the following describes one of the MOST important risk factors for drug use?
A. Having friends who use marijuana or other substances.
B. Being heavily involved in extracurricular activities.
C. Having lots of money.
D. Believing that your parents are a source of social support.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-10 Risk and Protective Factors

37. What is one of the MOST important protective factors for drug use?
A. Having to work and earn your spending money.
B. Having been punished for fighting.
C. Knowing adults who use drugs.
D. Believing that there are strong sanctions against substance use at school.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-10 Risk and Protective Factors

38. What is one consistent trait among students who report they are less likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use any type of illicit drug?
A. They have high self-esteem
B. They are well-off financially
C. They have more involvement with religion
D. They have lots of friends


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-12 Personality Variables

39. When considering gender, socioeconomic status, and level of education, there has been a consistent finding over many studies. Which of the following describes the outcome?
A. Males are more likely to drink alcohol and smoke marijuana, than are females.
B. Males are more likely to drink alcohol, but females are more likely to smoke marijuana, than are males.
C. Females are more likely to drink alcohol, but males are more likely to smoke marijuana, than are females.
D. Females are more likely to drink alcohol and smoke marijuana, than are males.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-11 Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Level of Education

40. When considering gender, socioeconomic status, and level of education, there has been a consistent finding over many studies. Which of the following describes the outcome?
A. There is a very small, almost an insignificant difference between a person's education level and the amount of alcohol they drink.
B. People who completed only high school are more likely to drink more alcohol, than those who complete postsecondary education and university degrees.
C. People with higher levels of education are somewhat less likely to use marijuana.
D. People with higher levels of education are somewhat more likely to use marijuana.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-11 Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Level of Education

41. Personality may have some predictive value by indicating whether someone does which of the following?
A. Experiments with drugs.
B. Abstains from drug use.
C. Uses drugs socially.
D. Develops an addiction.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-12 Personality Variables

42. Compared to young adults who only finished high school, those with university degrees are more likely to do which of the following?
A. Use cocaine.
B. Drink alcohol.
C. Smoke marijuana.
D. Report similar rates of use of most substances.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-10 Risk and Protective Factors

43. What is one personality variable that has been consistently associated with higher rates of substance dependence?
A. Low self-esteem
B. Extraversion
C. High impulsivity
D. Passivity


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-12 Personality Variables

44. Which of the following is an example of a longitudinal study of drug use?
A. Surveying high-school seniors every year.
B. Following each individual throughout the entire day.
C. Sampling drug use from different parts of the country.
D. Following the same group of people at intervals over several months or years.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-10 Risk and Protective Factors

45. Comparing adolescents who smoke cigarettes with those who do not, and then looking at later adoption of marijuana use, cigarette smokers are about twice as likely as non-smokers to later use marijuana. For this reason, what have cigarettes been referred to as?
A. Addictive
B. A gateway substance
C. A conduit
D. A correlate


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-11 Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Level of Education

46. Which statement describes the group most likely to be drug users in adulthood?
A. Males who are aggressive in early elementary school
B. Females who are aggressive in early elementary school
C. Males who are considered "loners and withdrawn" in early elementary school
D. Females who are considered "loners and withdrawn" in early elementary school


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-12 Personality Variables

47. Some drugs have the effect that every time you take the drug, the probability that you will take it again increases slightly. What is this process referred to as?
A. Reinforcement
B. Altered perception
C. Addiction
D. Drug misuse


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-15 Motives for Drug Use

48. Which type of factor probably plays a bigger role in determining whether a person will try a drug in the first place, opposed to determining which of those who try it will become dependent?
A. Genetics
B. Personality
C. Individual reaction to the drug
D. Social conditioning


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-15 Motives for Drug Use

49. Which of the following describes what most drug users are seeking?
A. Reduction of emotion pain
B. Need to fit in
C. An altered state of consciousness
D. Need to rebel


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-07 Discuss motives that people may have for illicit or dangerous drug-using behaviour.
Topic: 01-15 Motives for Drug Use


True / False Questions

50. The majority of Canadians do NOT perceive drug and alcohol abuse to be serious problems in Canada.
FALSE


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Develop an analytical framework for understanding any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-02 Talking about Drug Use

51. We can get an idea of why someone is using a drug by examining when and where he or she uses it.
TRUE


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Develop an analytical framework for understanding any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-04 How Did We Get Here?

52. There are some drugs that we should just define as being bad drugs.
FALSE


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 01-02 Apply four general principles of psychoactive drug use to any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-02 Talking about Drug Use

53. Every drug has multiple effects.
TRUE


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 01-02 Apply four general principles of psychoactive drug use to any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

54. Illicit drug is a term used to refer to a drug that is unlawful to possess or use.
TRUE


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

55. The Harm Reduction model of drug treatment accepts that there may be other acceptable outcomes than drug abstinence.
TRUE


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

56. Drug misuse generally refers to the use of prescribed drugs in greater amounts than, or for purposes other than, those prescribed by a physician or dentist.
TRUE


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Topic: 01-07 Extent of Drug Use

57. The 2015 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey showed that 8% of males and 6.5% of females, grades 7-12, reported having used an inhalant (glue or solvents) in the past year.
FALSE


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Explain correlates and antecedents of adolescent drug use.
Topic: 01-09 Correlates of Drug Use

58. In general most Canadians do not see a strong link between the availability of drugs and Canada's problems related to drug use.
FALSE


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Explain correlates and antecedents of adolescent drug use.
Topic: 01-10 Risk and Protective Factors

59. Being willing to fight seems to be an important protective factor against substance use.
FALSE


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-10 Risk and Protective Factors

60. Impulsivity is one personality factor that is associated with higher rates of substance abuse and dependence.
TRUE


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-11 Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Level of Education

61. If John wants to enhance the likelihood he hires someone who is more likely to NOT smoke marijuana, research considering gender, socioeconomic status, and level of education would suggest he hire a female with a university education.
TRUE


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-11 Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Level of Education


Short Answer Questions

62. Describe the term "drug du jour"?

The term "drug du jour" or drug of the day is often identified when the news media concentrates or focuses "en masse", their repointing of a particular drug, which has been continually changing over the past 40 years.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Develop an analytical framework for understanding any specific drug-use issue.
Learning Objective: 01-02 Apply four general principles of psychoactive drug use to any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-01 "The Drug Problem"
Topic: 01-02 Talking about Drug Use

63. Identify and briefly describe the four pillars of the Canadian Drugs and Substances Strategy

Answer can be found in Figure 1.; Canadian Drugs and Substances Strategy.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Develop an analytical framework for understanding any specific drug-use issue.
Learning Objective: 01-02 Apply four general principles of psychoactive drug use to any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

64. What do the abbreviations CCS and OSDUHS stand for, and what are they?

Two surveys, the Canadian Campus Survey (CCS), and the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), which provide insight into the alcohol and drug use practices of Canadian youth.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-05 Have Things Really Changed?
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today

65. What does the research regarding religion and drug use describe?

In Canada the National Population Health Survey, interviewed more than 20,000 Canadian households and recorded the finding that attendance at religious services for both male and female adolescents was linked with lower levels of multiple-risk behaviour, including smoking and binge drinking.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Explain correlates and antecedents of adolescent drug use.
Learning Objective: 01-07 Discuss motives that people may have for illicit or dangerous drug-using behaviour.
Topic: 01-08 Trends in Drug Use

66. What does drug Reinforcement mean?

Reinforcement means that, everything else being equal, each time you take the drug you increase slightly the probability that you will take it again.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Explain correlates and antecedents of adolescent drug use.
Topic: 01-09 Correlates of Drug Use

67. Which three demographics have been used when analyzing the "who uses drugs?"

Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Level of Education.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-07 Discuss motives that people may have for illicit or dangerous drug-using behaviour.
Topic: 01-11 Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Level of Education

68. According to the findings reported in your text, who is more likely to use illegal drugs and alcohol?

Finding over many kinds of studies indicated that Males are more likely to drink alcohol, smoke marijuana, and use illicit drugs than are females. And education related level is powerfully related to two common behaviours: People with some postsecondary education and university degrees (compared with those who completed only high school) are more likely to drink alcohol, and people with higher levels of education are somewhat less likely to use marijuana.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Explain correlates and antecedents of adolescent drug use.
Learning Objective: 01-07 Discuss motives that people may have for illicit or dangerous drug-using behaviour.
Topic: 01-11 Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Level of Education

69. What did the 2003 report commissioned by the Pauingassi First Nation in Manitoba determine?

In 2003, a report commissioned by the Pauingassi First Nation in Manitoba determined that approximately half of the children in that community under 18 years of age engaged in VSM. Despite anecdotal reports of VSM as a continuing crisis, the true prevalence among Canada's First Nations and Inuit youth population as a whole is not known. Furthermore, it is not clear if prior perceptions of widespread misuse were factual or were inflated though media reporting, particularly through repeated showings of 1993 and 2000 news clips, of First Nation and Inuit youth in the communities of Davis Inlet and Sheshatshiu, Labrador, getting high on gasoline. Regardless of the true extent of the problem, the consequences are clear. Volatile substance misuse among First Nations and Inuit youth has been linked to high rates of poverty, boredom, unemployment, family breakdown, loss of self-respect, and poor social and economic structures. These issues have been attributed to the impact of residential schooling, racism and discrimination, and multi-generational losses of land, language, and culture.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Develop an analytical framework for understanding any specific drug-use issue.
Learning Objective: 01-02 Apply four general principles of psychoactive drug use to any specific drug-use issue.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

70. Describe Harm Reduction and how it has been used as an initiative by Canada's Drug Strategy to reduce the damage associated with alcohol and other drugs?

The most commonly accepted definition of harm reduction is "measures taken to address drug problems that are open to outcomes other than abstinence or cessation of use." Measures may include programs, policies, or interventions that seek to reduce or minimize the adverse social and health consequences associated with drug use, for instance: safe injection sites, syringe exchange programs, and methadone maintenance therapy for heroin intravenous drug users.
Bonus: harm reduction has become controversial in part because some people equate it with advocating for legalization of all drugs.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

71. Explain the differences among the definitions of drug misuse, drug abuse, and harm reduction.

misuse: greater amounts or for other purposes than prescribed; abuse: drug use that causes problems for the user; harm reduction: reduce the damage associated with drug use. Bonus: appropriate examples of each, and/or showing how these definitions may overlap in specific instances.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Explain the differences among misuse; abuse; and dependence.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

72. Describe the differences between drug dependence and tolerance.

Drug dependence involves using the substance more often or in greater amounts than the user intended and having difficulty stopping or cutting down on its use. Tolerance can occur with repeated ingestion of a drug and requires the user to use increasingly larger doses to achieve the same effect.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-03 Four Principles of Psychoactive Drugs

73. It is important to monitor which illicit drugs are widely used and whether their use is increasing or decreasing. Describe the most important sources of information we have about drug use in Canada and the major limitations of that kind of information.

The Canadian Addiction Survey (CAS) (last administered in 2004) and the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey (CADUMS) conducted annually since 2008. Limitations are possible sample bias (those most at risk are less likely to be sampled), and uncertainty about the honesty of people's responses. Bonus: in spite of these limitations, year-by-year comparisons are useful for spotting increases or decreases.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Describe the concepts of dependence; tolerance; and withdrawal.
Topic: 01-06 Drugs and Drug Use Today
Topic: 01-07 Extent of Drug Use
Topic: 01-08 Trends in Drug Use

74. What is meant by risk and protective factors for substance use? Provide at least two examples of each.

Attitudes or social factors that correlate with either increased (risk) or decreased (protective) use of substances. Examples in Table 1.4.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-10 Risk and Protective Factors

75. What has the research revealed regarding Religion and Drug Use?

In study after study, those young people who report more involvement with religion (they attend services regularly and say their religion influences how they make decisions) are less likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use any type of illicit drug.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-10 Risk and Protective Factors

76. Discuss how personality variables relate to substance use.

Most large surveys find little or no relationship to most personality measures, such as self-esteem. The most consistent correlations have been found for impulsivity. Bonus: distinguishing between studies of rates of use in the general population vs comparisons with dependent users, with both impulsivity and personality disorders more strongly associated with dependence/abuse.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-06 Explain risk factors and protective factors for drug use.
Topic: 01-12 Personality Variables

77. What is meant by the term "gateway substance"? Provide an example of a gateway substance? What is wrong with assuming that use of a gateway substance causes increased use of other substances?

A substance (e.g., cigarettes) that is used before illicit substances AND use of which is associated with increased likelihood of later use of illicit substances. Assuming a person is generally more likely to engage in deviant or problem behaviour, the apparent gateway substance might just be the easiest thing for a young person to start with, so it is most likely to be the first. Bonus: discussion of whether preventing or delaying cigarette smoking would reduce later use of marijuana or other substances.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 01-07 Discuss motives that people may have for illicit or dangerous drug-using behaviour.
Topic: 01-15 Motives for Drug Use

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