Test Bank Early Childhood Development A Multicultural Perspective, 7th Edition Jeffrey Trawick-Smith

Test Bank Early Childhood Development A Multicultural Perspective, 7th Edition Jeffrey Trawick-Smith

Test Bank Early Childhood Development A Multicultural Perspective, 7th Edition Jeffrey Trawick-Smith

Test Bank Early Childhood Development A Multicultural Perspective, 7th Edition Jeffrey Trawick-Smith

Test Bank Early Childhood Development A Multicultural Perspective, 7th Edition Jeffrey Trawick-Smith

Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective, 7e (Trawick-Smith)

Chapter 1 Studying Early Childhood Development in a Diverse World

1.1 Multiple Choice: Recall Questions

1) Which of the following statements best describes the process of child development?

  1. A) Children acquire more knowledge and grow larger and stronger over time.
  2. B) Children are "emerging selves;" they mature over time, just as other organisms unfold.
  3. C) Children's abilities and knowledge are shaped by caring adults within their environment.
  4. D) Children's knowledge and physical abilities increase and also change qualitatively over time.

Answer: D

2) Qualitative development involves:

  1. A) transformations in the processes of thinking, feeling, and moving.
  2. B) growing complexity in biological functions only.
  3. C) the formation of diverse affective states.
  4. D) the acquisition of more knowledge and skills.

Answer: A

3) Which of the following best explains the statement "Children are almost different people from one developmental stage to the next"?

  1. A) Temperamental shift occurs, causing a quiet child to become bold and active or a shy child to become outgoing.
  2. B) Children's facial structure and stature change so markedly that they appear to be very different people.
  3. C) Personalities vary drastically from one developmental stage to another.
  4. D) Children think and behave in qualitatively different ways as they develop.

Answer: D

4) Development is best described as:

  1. A) qualitative and quantitative changes over time.
  2. B) physical and mental growth of humans from birth to old age.
  3. C) acceleration of mental and physical functions with age.
  4. D) the acquisition of knowledge and physical skill during the life cycle.

Answer: A

5) Early childhood development is defined in the field of education as development:

  1. A) of mental operations from birth to five years.
  2. B) which begins with the child's first words and ends with formal operational thought in adolescence.
  3. C) from the preschool years to the primary grades.
  4. D) from conception and birth to age eight.

Answer: D

6) Understanding child development assists the teacher and caregiver in all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. A) arranging the physical aspects of the classroom in a way that best encourages the active learning styles of young children.
  2. B) accelerating the child's development past certain developmental stages.
  3. C) planning curriculum that is developmentally appropriate.
  4. D) guiding the behaviors of young children in the classroom setting.

Answer: B

7) Which of the following statements about Western perspective on child development is accurate?

  1. A) All children, regardless of background, enjoy greater healthcare and childcare than in previous centuries.
  2. B) In Western society, children have always been viewed as distinct human beings from infancy.
  3. C) Concern for children's socialization needs is a relatively recent development in Western history.
  4. D) Over the past several centuries, children have come to be viewed as "little adults."

Answer: C

8) Prior to the Middle Ages, children in Western society were:

  1. A) smothered with affection to the point where personality development was often inhibited.
  2. B) cared for by hired caregivers, so bonding with parents rarely occurred.
  3. C) believed to be nonpersons in infancy and little adults by age 7.
  4. D) believed to be dependent and uneducable until 8 years of age.

Answer: C

9) Why should the word minority no longer be used to refer to historically underrepresented groups in the United States?

  1. A) There are so many individual variations across cultures that a single term should not be used to define them all.
  2. B) The word has so many other meanings within our culture that it can be misleading.
  3. C) The word is overused in child development research, leading to a "cultural deficit model."
  4. D) "Minorities" will soon comprise the majority of people in American society.

Answer: D

10) The Child Watch Visitation Program of the Children's Defense Fund is powerful as an advocate for child development because:

  1. A) it is focused primarily on the central issue of reducing poverty within society.
  2. B) it provides financial support for families at the lowest socioeconomic level.
  3. C) it allows policy members to see for themselves the challenges that children and families face.
  4. D) it emphasizes education, health services, and emotional support.

Answer: C

11) Socioeconomic status, or SES, does NOT usually take into account:

  1. A) income.
  2. B) level of education.
  3. C) occupation of primary wage earners.
  4. D) ethnicity.

Answer: D

12) Which of the following is an accurate statement?

  1. A) Socioeconomic status is something very different from culture or ethnicity.
  2. B) Socioeconomic status is a measure of economic class based completely on family income.
  3. C) Socioeconomic status is synonymous with special needs status.
  4. D) Socioeconomic status is the social acceptance status of a particular cultural group.

Answer: A

13) Which of the following statements best describes studies that have been conducted with children of historically underrepresented groups?

  1. A) Children of historically underrepresented groups are more likely to be studied than Euro-American children.
  2. B) Most research has been done with only Euro-American children; children of color have been traditionally excluded.
  3. C) In recent years, there has been much multicultural research with young children of color in almost every area of development.
  4. D) Studies do not compare the development of children of historically underrepresented groups to that of children from mainstream society.

Answer: C

14) One way in which slavery and colonialism have influenced parenting values and child-rearing practices is that:

  1. A) parents are more likely to sever ties with extended family and cultural groups.
  2. B) parents are more likely to emphasize multicultural education and developing diverse friend groups.
  3. C) parents are more likely to encourage their children to be dependent on them until adulthood.
  4. D) parents are more likely to rely on a firm disciplinary approach in order to protect their children.

Answer: D

15) The term "children of color" is best used to describe:

  1. A) children from non-European, non-Caucasian backgrounds.
  2. B) children with low socioeconomic status.
  3. C) children with parents who are of different races or ethnic groups.
  4. D) children with minority status.

Answer: A

16) When researchers refer to the "unique and/or diverse needs of young children," they are typically referring to the needs of:

  1. A) all children, as individuals.
  2. B) children from historically underrepresented groups.
  3. C) children from families of varied socioeconomic status.
  4. D) children with challenging conditions or disabilities.

Answer: A

17) The term "culturally deprived":

  1. A) is used today to describe the relationship between culture and socioeconomic status.
  2. B) reflects a trend towards including diverse samples in developmental research.
  3. C) is a synonym of the modern phrase "cultural difference."
  4. D) reflects the inaccurate idea that children who speak and behave differently from white, middle-class children are atypical or developmentally delayed.

Answer: D

18) Which statement best describes the relationship between special needs and low socioeconomic status?

  1. A) Low socioeconomic status and special needs are essentially the same thing, for purposes of diagnostic assessment.
  2. B) Special needs and low socioeconomic status are separate, distinct concepts.
  3. C) Special needs usually cause low socioeconomic status.
  4. D) Low socioeconomic status usually causes special needs.

Answer: B

19) Which statement best describes the relationship between knowledge of child development and the shaping of public policy?

  1. A) Knowledge of the universals of child development is the only thing necessary to develop effective public policy for children.
  2. B) Knowledge of child development from a multicultural perspective is required to develop effective public policy for children.
  3. C) Knowledge of child development is helpful but not necessary to forging effective public policy.
  4. D) Knowledge of child development is necessary only in developing policy related to children with disabilities and special needs.

Answer: B

20) As teachers and caregivers, we can become advocates for young children by:

  1. A) informing legislators and other public officials about the needs of young children and their families.
  2. B) informing parents and community members about legislative concerns.
  3. C) being aware of current legislation that will affect the quality of life for young children and their families.
  4. D) doing all the things presented in the options here.

Answer: D

1.2 Multiple Choice: Analysis/Application

1) A young child becomes frightened when he hears the radiators hiss in his apartment. He believes something is living inside of them. In a year's time, this fear disappears. Which is the best explanation for why this has occurred?

  1. A) Emotional support from parents and teachers has led to greater feelings of security, which has reduced the child's anxieties.
  2. B) Quantitative changes in the child's brain have caused the alarm mechanisms to be better regulated.
  3. C) The child has become bolder and less fearful as the personality has formed.
  4. D) Qualitative changes in the child's thinking led to better understanding of what is real and what is not.

Answer: D

2) One reason that African American parents often use firm, directive forms of discipline is that they:

  1. A) feel this form of discipline best protects them from the dangers of racism and physical violence.
  2. B) live in small homes with many people, including extended family members.
  3. C) have been taught to reject the mainstream values of Western society.
  4. D) know the importance of enmeshment in the face of adversity.

Answer: A

3) Of the following, the best example of child advocacy is:

  1. A) developing a lesson on multicultural awareness.
  2. B) basing curricular planning on direct observation of children's needs.
  3. C) recognizing and appreciating diversity in society.
  4. D) campaigning for candidates who support programs for children.

Answer: D

4) Which of the following statements does NOT reflect an appropriate use of child development research in the classroom?

  1. A) A teacher applies knowledge of age-appropriate materials to plan mathematics experiences in a preschool classroom.
  2. B) A teacher uses knowledge of diversity in development to design a parent education program to address socialization deficits in culturally deprived families.
  3. C) A teacher applies knowledge of cultural diversity in children's development to select reading and writing materials for a new literacy center in a second grade classroom.
  4. D) A teacher relies on research in child development to guide classroom interactions with a kindergarten child who is autistic.

Answer: B

5) Which of the following is an example of what researchers refer to as "miseducation"?

  1. A) A Native American child scores poorly on an IQ test.
  2. B) A Euro-American five-year-old is asked to quietly complete an abstract, mathematics worksheet.
  3. C) A primary teacher does not notice a Mexican American child who is raising her hand to speak.
  4. D) A Southeast Asian child is placed in a group with students of very different cultural backgrounds.

Answer: B

6) Which of the following is NOT a good example of how child development research can guide work with children with special needs?

  1. A) A teacher adapts a mathematics activity in the primary grades that allows a child with an attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder to move around while working.
  2. B) A teacher identifies a child who is culturally deprived and recommends special remediation.
  3. C) A teacher facilitates a conversation between a hearing-impaired child and a typically developing peer in the block area.
  4. D) A teacher identifies a child with unusual patterns of interaction and concludes she is simply different in her play and learning styles.

Answer: B

7) A Native American child lives in a household where everything is shared - food, toys, and living space. At school, she helps herself to the belongings of others. Her peers complain to the teacher that she is stealing. From a multicultural perspective, what is the appropriate teacher response?

  1. A) The teacher should help other children in the class to understand the intention behind this child's style of interaction.
  2. B) The teacher should work closely with parents and other family members in learning more mainstream styles of interaction.
  3. C) The teacher should help the child understand universal principles of cooperation and sharing.
  4. D) The teacher should shape the child's classroom behavior toward mainstream expectations through rewards and praise.

Answer: A

8) A teacher notices that a Middle Eastern child will not speak in stressful situations. Rather than insist on verbalization during conflicts or arguments, the teacher allows the child to remain silent. This is an example of:

  1. A) an understanding of cultural diversity in social development.
  2. B) an application of child development research in resolving elective mutism.
  3. C) a supportive/conflict resolution intervention model.
  4. D) effective curriculum planning.

Answer: A

9) Of the following, the best approach for assessing whether a young child has special needs is to:

  1. A) consider the child's scores on academic assessments.
  2. B) review research on typical behaviors of children of this age.
  3. C) compare the child's behaviors to other children in the classroom.
  4. D) observe the child's behavior in the classroom.

Answer: D

10) A first grade teacher is informed that a Puerto Rican child will be enrolled in her class. She responds by saying, "I'll need to give him special guidance. He has probably not had the advantages that other children have had. I wonder if he has had any books and toys available in the home." This teacher is confusing:

  1. A) special needs with cultural deficits.
  2. B) unique/diverse needs with cultural needs.
  3. C) ethnicity with culture.
  4. D) cultural differences with socioeconomic status.

Answer: D

11) A new teacher needs more information on the development of a child of East Indian background. The teacher would find the most useful information by:

  1. A) reading original research studies.
  2. B) talking with the child's parents.
  3. C) reviewing a child development textbook.
  4. D) reading articles that emphasize multicultural perspectives in real classrooms.

Answer: B

12) You are writing a case report about an African American child with autism whose family lives in poverty. In the report, you should NOT describe the child as:

  1. A) a child of color.
  2. B) a child from a family with low socioeconomic status.
  3. C) a child with special needs.
  4. D) a child from a minority group.

Answer: D

13) A daycare teacher knows that research has demonstrated that infants who are securely attached are more likely to be social preschoolers. However, she has noticed that some of the infants in her daycare do not demonstrate the classic signs of secure attachment. Which of the following would NOT be good advice for this teacher?

  1. A) The teacher should learn more about the children's families and create opportunities for dialog with parents.
  2. B) The teacher should be aware that the attachment literature, like many psychological literatures, is primarily based on samples of white, middle-class children and that the results might not apply to more diverse groups of children.
  3. C) The teacher should observe all of the children carefully while keeping in mind that behaviors might differ as a result of diverse family environments and parenting styles.
  4. D) The teacher should meet with the parents and caution them that their parenting practices are not sufficiently preparing their children for the future.

Answer: D

14) An infant care provider observes that one child in the group is smaller and less physically active than other babies. He immediately assumes that the child is developmentally delayed. His conclusion reflects an erroneous assumption that:

  1. A) size and activity patterns are related to motor growth.
  2. B) differences are deficits.
  3. C) specific developmental delays can be identified very early in life.
  4. D) the child is a member of a culture with unique needs.

Answer: B

15) A childcare provider learns that an African American child in her class is spanked by her mother if she misbehaves. From a multicultural perspective, what is an appropriate response?

  1. A) The teacher should point out to the parent that spanking is the reason that children of some cultural groups are aggressive.
  2. B) The teacher should report this potentially abusive situation to the state child protection agency.
  3. C) The teacher should recognize spanking as parenting practice prevalent in some cultures and should not intervene.
  4. D) The teacher should intervene to change this behavior, regardless of the culture of the child involved.

Answer: C

1.3 Essay Questions

1) How have beliefs about children changed in Western society from the Middle Ages, through the Renaissance, into the era of enlightenment, and finally into modern times?

Answer: Suggested Responses: Students should describe the view of children in the Middle Ages as non-persons in infancy and as little adults by age 7. Strong responses will describe implications of these beliefs - infanticide, harsh treatment, and expectations for mature adult behavior at a young age. The students should describe the Renaissance as a time when parents were concerned with rooting out inherent evil in children. Harsh punishment and "breaking the will" of children should be described. The 19th and 20th centuries should be described as periods of relative enlightenment, where training replaced "conquering" as a goal in socialization. Students should note current research showing that children in America are increasingly facing poverty, poor health, violence, and family dysfunction. Students' projections for the future - whether optimistic or pessimistic - should acknowledge these societal problems and risk factors.

2) Across cultures, families strive to protect their children. The demands of survival shape parenting styles and practices. Families from cultures that have suffered oppression often have unique child-rearing patterns. Describe the most typical practices that these families engage in, and explain how each practice serves to protect the children.

Answer: Suggested Responses: Students should cite the dangers to children under these types of living conditions and describe how parenting practices such as a collectivist approach, firm and directive parenting, and either a valuing of excelling at Western education or a rejection of Western education affect children. Students should provide examples of how each practice protects children.

3) During first grade, Mariana changes dramatically. She becomes taller and stronger. She learns sight words and phonics, math facts, and science and social studies concepts. She solves problems more effectively and is able to examine many different aspects of a task at one time. She learns the conventions of school - to say "please" and "thank you" for example - and to raise her hand when she wishes to talk. She can understand others' viewpoints better and can "put herself in the shoes" of a peer. She can identify and name specific feelings, such as anger, surprise, and sadness, and use appropriate words to describe these emotions. Which areas of development, described above, are examples of quantitative change? Which are qualitative? Write an essay in which you clearly differentiate the qualitative and quantitative aspects of this child's development.

Answer: Suggested Responses: Students should note that the following areas of development are largely quantitative, because they relate to increases in knowledge, ability, or physical size: growing taller and stronger, learning facts and concepts in school, learning social conventions, and learning the names of emotions. Students should note that the following areas of development are qualitative, because they have to do with changes in the nature or quality of thinking and interacting with others: problem solving, understanding others' viewpoints better, understanding and expressing varied emotions.

4) Understanding early childhood development research is essential to becoming an effective teacher. Describe one of the ways that child development research can be useful to early childhood teachers. In your description, give at least one concrete example that links research to practice and that illustrates contemporary diverse classrooms.

Answer: Suggested Responses: Students should identify and give an illustrative example of one of the following: planning the curriculum, guiding interactions in the classroom, observing and identifying children with special needs, understanding and appreciating diversity, and shaping child advocacy and/or public policy. Examples should be specific and descriptive enough that they could be replicated in an early childhood classroom.

5) How can a teacher's lack of knowledge in child development adversely affect teaching, classroom activities, and learning? Give an example of a school experience that reflects a teacher's poor understanding of what children are like, and explain how better understanding of child development would have led to a different teacher behavior or outcome.

Answer: Suggested Responses: Students should describe an experience in which the teacher's response was inappropriate and not helpful because it failed to consider the developmental characteristics and abilities of the child.

6) In the author's story about Sarah, Peter, and Alonzo, we are guided to an understanding of how the young thinker's perceptions of social situations are different from those of older children and adults. The term egocentric is used to describe Peter's thinking about the amount of clay he has as compared with Sarah and Alonzo. Some adults may label this egocentric behavior as "selfish." How does the term egocentric differ from the term selfish, with respect to the young child's thinking?

Answer: Suggested Responses: Students should explain that the term selfish refers to a perspective in which my needs are more important than your needs whereas the term egocentric refers to a perspective that doesn't distinguish between my needs and your needs because the child cannot consider a perspective/set of needs that differs from their own.

7) You are a kindergarten teacher in a suburban school that is in a community that is primarily middle income and Caucasian. You have implemented a multicultural curriculum in your kindergarten classroom. Several parents complain that such an approach is not necessary because the school system has so little cultural diversity. Using ideas from Chapter 1, write a letter to all the parents, justifying a multicultural curriculum for this kindergarten. Within this letter, include examples of how you plan to integrate a multicultural perspective into the classroom. Include examples of books, lessons and units, parent involvement, and other teaching strategies that represent multicultural perspectives.

Answer: Suggested Responses: Students should argue that all children will grow up in a diverse world and will need to understand and appreciate cultural variations in human interactions. Students may cite demographic data showing that "minorities" in the United States will soon comprise a new majority in the country. Other thoughtful arguments about the importance of cultural sensitivity and understanding should be accepted. In addition, students should be able to articulate specific teaching strategies and curriculum materials that represent cultural diversity. Examples include book titles, posters and other visuals for the classroom environment, social studies and language arts themes and units, parent involvement events, and other types of multicultural learning experiences.

8) Explain the meaning of the term "culturally deprived," the circumstances in which it might be used, and why it is a problematic term. Describe how child development research has inadvertently contributed to the notion that children from certain background are "culturally deprived" and ways that new research could dispel these myths.

Answer: Suggested Responses: Students should define "culturally deprived" as a term that labels children from non-European backgrounds or low socioeconomic status as abnormal or incompetent because they do not think, behave, or interact in ways that are typical of children from White middle-class backgrounds. This is problematic because behaviors that are uncommon among this limited group of children may be adaptive and appropriate in other settings and for children of other ethnic or socioeconomic backgrounds. Students should state that child development research is often conducted on samples with limited cultural diversity. Therefore, behaviors of White middle-class children are reported in studies and textbooks as being typical, giving the impression that the behavior of other children is atypical. Students should suggest that researchers study child development in more diverse samples and make efforts to recruit underrepresented groups in order to understand typical child development in a variety of cultural contexts.

9) Describe why a cultural difference might be mistaken for a developmental deficit. Differentiate between the terms, and discuss why such a mistake would be detrimental to the child. Give an example of a classroom situation in which cultural differences might be mislabeled as developmental deficits.

Answer: Suggested Responses: Students should explain that cultural differences can lead to variations in children's developmental trajectories and that a teacher who is unfamiliar with these cultural differences might misinterpret this difference as a developmental deficit. Students should clarify that developmental deficits are special needs that must be diagnosed and addressed by outside intervention, rather than a variation in development as the result of differing cultural practices. Students should explain that by mislabeling a cultural difference as a developmental deficit, teachers ignore the fact that these differences can be adaptive and valuable for the child, and run the risk of labeling the child with an incorrect diagnosis and subjecting them to an inappropriate intervention. As examples, students could cite differences in social practices - such as whether or not to make eye contact with authority figures or how to share toys with others - that might be mistaken as conduct disorder or other social deficit. Students could also cite a situation in which a child who is learning English as a second language is mislabeled as having a speech delay or intellectual disability.

10) Define and distinguish among the following categories of children: children with special needs, children of historically underrepresented groups, children of low socioeconomic status. Discuss how confusion about these concepts might negatively influence professional practice in schools.

Answer: Suggested Responses: Students should describe children with special needs as those with identified developmental delays or exceptionalities that require support services in the home and classroom. They should identify children from historically underrepresented groups as those from ethnic groups other than mainstream, Euro-American culture. They should describe socioeconomic status as determined by level of education, income, place of residence, and the occupation of primary wage earners. Students should indicate that confusion of these terms will lead professionals to believe children of historically underrepresented groups are always poor and deprived. Such confusion may also lead teachers and caregivers to mislabel children of color as "special education" students. They should note that misconceptions about culture, class and, and exceptionality can lead to classroom bias and interfere with positive teacher-child, child-child, and parent-child interactions.

11) A young child has been enrolled in your preschool program. The child is from another country and does not speak English. Because the child cannot respond to simple directions given to the English-speaking children, the teacher begins to see the child as a "special needs" child. Explain why being non-English speaking is not synonymous with having special needs and how the teacher can come to know more about the child's development.

Answer: Suggested Responses: Students' responses should reflect an understanding that the term special needs refers only to developmental delays or disabilities rather than to normal cultural variations such as language differences. Students should also indicate that careful observation of the child and using the child's native language or gestures instead of or along with English to give directions will provide accurate information about the child's actual developmental level.

12) Child advocacy is a growing part of the early childhood teacher's role. From the ideas presented in Chapter 1, identify three different issues related to advocacy in which it would be appropriate for an early childhood teacher to become engaged. Then, present three different strategies that are appropriate for child advocacy in the early childhood classroom. Describe strategies that involve both teachers and parents.

Answer: Suggested Responses: Students' responses should include an understanding of multicultural issues in contemporary classrooms. An example would be determining the use of English as a second language among the students in his/her class and then identifying which parents would benefit from English language support. Another contemporary issue is the inclusion of children with special needs in the early childhood classroom. A child with a specific muscular development delay may need resources beyond what is provided by the school. A teacher might advocate for the child's family by securing information on state and federal funds available for children with this particular disability. Other child advocacy issues would include homeless children, children in poverty, and children with abusive home environments. All of these issues would require an effective teacher's advocacy involvement. Strategies for child advocacy could include writing letters to appropriate community, state, or federal agencies; holding workshops for parents with English as second language and securing a community resource person to work with these parents in job applications or obtaining a GED; identifying medical resources within the community; forming a teacher advocacy group within the school to address curriculum needs for children with limited English backgrounds; inviting a local representative to visit the classrooms to see firsthand the challenges of serving children with special needs.

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