Test Bank Earth Science, 15th Edition Edward J. Tarbuck A+

Test Bank Earth Science, 15th Edition Edward J. Tarbuck A+

Test Bank Earth Science, 15th Edition Edward J. Tarbuck A+

Test Bank Earth Science, 15th Edition Edward J. Tarbuck A+

1) What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?

A) Physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past.

B) Physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past.

C) Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.

D) None of the above-physical geology and historical geology are essentially the same.


2) The study of Earth's atmosphere is known as .

A) oceanography B) astronomy C) meteorology D) cosmology


3) Which discipline is not used within the Earth sciences?

A) Biology

B) Mathematics

C) Chemistry

D) Physics

E) None of the above; Earth Science makes use of all of these sciences.


4) Oceanography is the study of the oceans and geology is the study of Earth, so what is meteorology?

A) the study of the Sun's impact on the upper atmosphere

B) the study of meteors

C) the study of the atmosphere

D) the study of how to be a TV newscaster


5) Sedimentary rocks with marine fossils are exposed at the top of Mt. Everest. Which scientists would make most use of this observation in their study?

A) astronomers, because they can study how life came from outer space to Earth

B) meteorologists, because they could use the fossils as a guide to ancient climates

C) geologists, because their elevation is related to physical geology and fossils are related to Earth history

D) oceanographers, because the fossils can tell us about periods when Earth was covered with water to the height of Mt. Everest


6) Hurricanes and tornados are natural disasters. What branch of the Earth sciences studies the origin of these phenomena?

A) meteorology B) geology C) oceanography D) astronomy


7) Earthquakes are natural disasters. Which branch of the Earth sciences studies the impact of this phenomenon on coastal environments?

A) meteorology B) geology C) oceanography D) astronomy


8) Haley's Comet visits Earth's atmosphere once every 76 years. What branch of the Earth sciences is the main group that studies these phenomena?

A) meteorology B) geology C) oceanography D) astronomy


9) If you want to buy a house in an area and you are worried there may be an earthquake hazard, who would be the best person to ask for advice on this hazard?

A) an astrologer B) a civil engineer C) a geologist D) a physicist


10) Earth is estimated to be approximately 4.6 billion years old. Life appeared early in the history of Earth, but metazoans (multicelled organisms) did not appear until about 600 million years ago. If the history of Earth were compressed into a single year, about when would metazoans appear?

A) late September B) late November C) late January D) mid-December


11) Which of the following would not typically be considered an Earth Science study?

A) studies of impact craters on the moon

B) studies of acid mine waters and the bacteria that live in those waters

C) studies of volcanic eruptions

D) chemical refining of petroleum


12) Climate change is a well-known human created problem but there remains resistance to addressing the issue despite widespread scientific agreement on the issue. Although most scientists are familiar with the issues, if you were a congressman and wanted an informed analysis of the problem, which of the following would be most likely to give you the most complete analysis?

A) a geologist with knowledge of astronomy

B) an astronomer

C) a physicist

D) a meteorologist with knowledge of oceanography


13) Geologists primarily would study which phenomenon?

A) stars and galaxies B) marine life and ocean currents

C) clouds and precipitation D) rocks and minerals


14) Oceanography includes a study of .

A) the effect of oceans on climate

B) chemistry of sea water

C) ocean animals

D) the ocean floor

E) all of the above


15) A is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.

A) generalization B) law C) theory D) hypothesis


16) The primary goal of Earth Science is .

A) to identify the patterns in nature and use that information to predict the future

B) to locate resources

C) to develop things that will benefit mankind

D) to protect the environment


17) All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for .

A) development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses

B) the collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement

C) the development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts

D) assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation


18) Which of the following is not necessary for a hypothesis to be accepted by the scientific community?

A) There must be alternative hypotheses proposed.

B) It must predict something other than the observations it was based on.

C) It must be testable.

D) It must be based on observations or facts.


19) If someone says that an idea is "only a theory" and implies that this means it can be dismissed, is this a valid viewpoint?

A) The viewpoint is accurate because since science is based on interpretation it is not really trustworthy.

B) The viewpoint is incorrect because for an idea to become a theory it has withstood robust testing and is currently accepted.

C) The viewpoint is accurate because a theory is essentially just a guess.

D) The viewpoint is incorrect because once an idea becomes a theory it can never be disproven.


20) The explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.

A) protogalactic theory B) planetary compression theory

C) extrastellar solar hypothesis D) nebular theory


21) Which of the following is not a planet?

A) Saturn B) Europa C) Venus D) Neptune


22) In the television series "Cosmos" the astronomer Carl Sagan used to say, "We are all made of star stuff." What did he mean by that?

A) We all have to potential to be stars.

B) The earth has incorporated large amounts of chemical material from the solar wind, so our bodies carry this material.

C) All of the chemical elements were formed during the big bang when the universe began, so we are like the stars.

D) All of the chemical elements in our solar system were forged in an ancient star that went supernova.


23) In the proto-solar system nebula, gravity pulled matter together to form larger bodies. As they collided, what happened to these bodies?

A) Immense heat was released within the colliding bodies as gravitational potential energy was converted to heat.

B) The objects temporarily broke apart and then reformed into large objects, cooling rapidly during the breakup period.

C) Oblique collisions caused individual bodies to spin.

D) The objects broke apart to form asteroids, much like a neutron colliding with a heavy atom produces fission.


24) Light elements like hydrogen and helium form a large percentage of the outer planets and Sun is made up primarily of hydrogen. Why are these elements nearly absent from the inner planets?

A) Hydrogen and helium have all been bound up by chemical reactions on the inner planets and are held in rock.

B) It is a mystery that has never been solved by science.

C) The Sun captured all of the hydrogen during its formation.

D) These light elements are blown away from the inner planets by the solar wind.


25) Comets are made up primarily of .

A) frozen hydrogen

B) frozen water, carbon dioxide, and methane

C) silicate minerals, like rocks on Earth

D) iron-nickel alloys


26) The Oort cloud is .

A) the outer solar system where planetesimals, rocky debris and comets orbit outside beyond the outer planets but cross into the inner solar system at times

B) the asteroid belt

C) an unusual type of cloud formed when meteorites strike Earth

D) another name for the inner solar system, just before the Sun became hot enough for nuclear fusion


27) The circumference of Earth is about km.

A) 20,000 B) 40,000 C) 10,000 D) 30,000


28) The refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.

A) hydrosphere B) biosphere C) geosphere D) atmosphere


29) The refers to the water-dominated parts of Earth.

A) atmosphere B) biosphere C) geosphere D) hydrosphere


30) The largest of Earth's spheres is the .

A) hydrosphere B) geosphere C) biosphere D) atmosphere


31) Soil belongs to the .

A) atmosphere

B) geosphere

C) hydrosphere

D) biosphere

E) All of the above


32) The exchange of energy between the surface of Earth, the atmosphere, and space causes .

A) weather B) temperature C) topography D) glaciers


33) Ocean surf wearing away rocks is an example of the interaction of which two of Earth's spheres?

A) biosphere and atmosphere B) hydrosphere and geosphere

C) atmosphere and hydrosphere D) biosphere and geosphere


34) In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?

A) core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust B) core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere

C) inner core, outer core, mantle, crust D) inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere


35) The composition of Earth's inner core is thought to be .

A) peridotite B) solid iron-nickel alloy

C) basalt D) granite


36) The asthenosphere is part of the of Earth.

A) outer core B) mantle C) crust D) inner core


37) The is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in Earth's interior.

A) outer core B) inner core C) lithosphere D) mantle


38) The is the thinnest layer of Earth.

A) inner core B) outer core C) mantle D) crust


39) The forms the relatively cool, brittle tectonic plates.

A) asthenosphere B) lithosphere C) eosphere D) astrosphere


40) Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates?

A) heat transfer between Earth's interior and the surface of Earth

B) electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core

C) gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon

D) swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core


41) Convergent plate boundaries are .

A) sites where oceanic plates descend beneath continental plates

B) areas where two plates slide laterally past one another, generating earthquakes, like the San Andreas fault

C) sites where heat from Earth's interior is vented to the surface as volcanoes

D) sites of supervolcanoes like Yellowstone


42) Oceanic crust is generated at .

A) spreading ridges B) hot spots on the sea floor, like Iceland

C) convergent plate margins D) transform plate margins


43) Continental shields and platforms represent .

A) names given to Paleozoic mountain belts

B) areas in the interior of continents that have not experienced mountain building for billions of years

C) sites where continents collide, analogous to warriors clashing shields

D) sedimentary basins with inland seas shaped like a shield, like Hudson's bay


44) Which of the following layers in Earth has the highest density?

A) outer Core B) lower mantle C) lithosphere D) asthenosphere


45) The Andes Mountains in South America are formed as a result of .

A) continental collision B) sea floor spreading

C) subduction D) back-arc contraction


46) The Himalayan Mountains and adjacent Tibet are a mountain system formed by .

A) sea floor spreading B) continental collision

C) subduction D) back-arc contraction


47) Which of the following is a reasonable approximation of the rate that plates move?

A) the speed of deep ocean currents

B) the rate of growth of human hair or fingernails

C) the speed a turtle walks

D) the speed of a mountain glacier


48) What two chemical elements are most abundant in the deep interior of Earth?

A) silicon and oxygen B) magnesium and oxygen

C) hydrogen and helium D) iron and magnesium


49) A major cause of the differences in elevation between ocean basins and continents is .

A) density B) temperature C) mass D) viscosity


50) Ocean floor averages about km depth below sea level.

A) 8 B) 2 C) 6 D) 4


51) Ocean crust is denser than continental crust because ocean crust is .

A) thicker than continental crust B) thinner than continental crust

C) composed primarily of granite D) composed primarily of basalt


52) Flat, stable areas of continental crust tend to be located .

A) near desert regions

B) in areas that receive large amounts of rainfall

C) in the interior of continents

D) along coastlines


53) Major mountain belts on Earth are .

A) located around the Pacific Ocean

B) made of granite because it is low density and allows for maximum growth

C) over 10 km high

D) older than smaller mountain belts because they have had enough time to grow large


54) Shield areas in continental interiors are characterized by .

A) flat areas that include rocks older than 1 billion years old

B) flat river valleys that cut through older mountain ranges

C) linear chains of mountains less than 100 million years old

D) ancient coastal regions that have become abandoned and eroded


55) Which of the following is not considered to be part of a typical ocean basin?

A) large expanses of flat plains B) granitic intrusions

C) a linear chain of volcanoes D) deep canyons


56) Deep ocean trenches typically are not located adjacent to .

A) transform plate boundaries B) young continental mountains

C) volcanic island arc chains D) abyssal plains


57) Long oceanic mountain chains typically are characterized by .

A) highly deformed sedimentary rocks B) layers of igneous rocks

C) rocks older than 1 billion years old D) granitic plutons and batholiths


58) Active mountain belts are most likely to be found .

A) along the margins of continents

B) along only the eastern margins of continents

C) scattered throughout continents

D) in the interior regions of continents


59) The continental shelf is located .

A) between the continental rise and the abyssal plains

B) seaward of the continental slope

C) between the continental slope and continental rise

D) landward of the continental slope


60) The most prominent features on the ocean floor are the .

A) oceanic ridges B) deep-ocean trenches

C) lava plateaus D) seamounts


61) Below is a picture of Mt. St. Helens volcano 61)

What is the usual cause for such events?

A) location in earth's interior

B) location near a plate boundary

C) earthquakes

D) interaction of the hydrosphere and the atmosphere

62) Below is a picture of an Appalachian mountain ridge and Himalayan mountain peaks (left and right, respectively). Why are the Appalachians so much smoother and lower than the Himalayan Mountains?

A) The Appalachian Mountains are younger and younger mountains tend to be more weathered.

B) The Appalachian Mountains are older and thus have softer rocks.

C) The Appalachian Mountains are younger and have not yet built up to being jagged.

D) The Appalachian Mountains are older and thus have become more worn down.


63) A(n) system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves the system.

A) open B) feedback C) closed D) equilibrated


64) Mechanisms that enhance or drive change are known as .

A) negative feedback mechanisms B) open feedback mechanisms

C) closed feedback mechanisms D) positive feedback mechanisms


65) What is the source of the energy that powers the Earth system?

A) heat from Earth's interior B) the Sun

C) both A and B D) none of the above


66) Which of the following is not a system?

A) soil, plants, rock, soil organisms, and animals

B) the study of minerals

C) the biosphere

D) the Pacific Ocean and the west coast of North America


67) A mineralogist studies minerals and their origins. A mineralogist studying the Earth system would


A) study how minerals form rocks

B) study how minerals influence organisms living on them, how they react with water to produce soil forming minerals, or study how wind transports minerals as dust and influences climate

C) do the same thing, studying minerals and their origins, as any other mineralogist

D) Minerals can never be used to study the Earth system.


68) Examine the words and/or phrases below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option that does not fit the pattern.

A) fact B) hypothesis C) theory D) observation


69) Examine the words and/or phrases below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option that does not fit the pattern.

A) comets B) Oort cloud

C) meteorites D) planetesimals


70) Examine the words and/or phrases below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option that does not fit the pattern.

A) atmosphere B) hydrosphere

C) solid Earth D) biosphere


71) Examine the words and/or phrases below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option that does not fit the pattern.

A) crust B) core C) lithosphere D) mantle


72) Examine the words and/or phrases below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option that does not fit the pattern.

A) stable platform B) mountain belt

C) continental interior D) shield


73) Examine the words and/or phrases below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option that does not fit the pattern.

A) oceanic ridge B) seamount

C) continental crust D) abyssal plain


74) Examine the words and/or phrases below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option that does not fit the pattern.

A) geology

B) oceanography

C) psychology

D) astronomy

E) meteorology


75) The vast majority of Earth scientists are involved in .

A) exploring the features and process of Earth

B) lobbying for alternative energy for profit

C) either extraction of mineral resources or energy

D) focusing on only one earth science discipline with few connections to other Earth science disciplines.


76) Earth Science uses .

A) chemistry B) mathematics

C) biology D) All of the above


77) Environmental science primarily focuses on any of the following except .

A) water use B) mineral classification

C) sustainable development D) air pollution


78) Science is based on the assumption that nature behaves in a and manner.

A) inconsistent; predictable B) inconsistent; unpredictable

C) consistent; predictable D) consistent; unpredictable


79) A scientific is a tentative or untested explanation that is proposed to explain scientific observations.

A) theory B) hypothesis C) law D) observation


80) A scientific theory is the step in developing an idea. It is well tested.

A) last; very B) first; very C) last; not very D) first; not very


81) The "Big Bang" is an example of a .

A) law B) hypothesis C) observation D) theory


82) The formation of the solar system from a huge cloud of gases and dispersed particles is known as the .

A) Big Bang theory B) origin of species

C) harmony of the heavens D) solar galactic hypothesis


83) According to the nebular theory, all of the bodies in the universe evolved from a rotating cloud of gases and dust about billion years ago.

A) 3 B) 12 C) 2 D) 5


84) There are places on the deepest parts of the ocean where no penetrates that support colonies of life.

A) sound B) light C) energy D) water


85) Oceans cover about of Earth's surface.

A) 30 B) 90 C) 70 D) 97


86) The lithosphere and asthenosphere are layers of Earth defined by their .

A) strength B) biology C) heat D) composition


87) The earth is sometimes called "The Blue Planet" because the appear(s) blue in sunlight.

A) atmosphere B) lakes

C) rivers D) overall surface of earth from space


88) Internally, Earth consists of shells with different compositions and densities.

A) square B) rectangular C) hollow D) circular


89) The asthenosphere is the layer in the upper mantle that the plates move on.

A) all solid B) gaseous

C) partially melted D) all liquid


90) Subduction zones are where are descending.

A) collisional mountain chairs B) magmas

C) oceanic plates D) transform faults


91) Earth's core is largely molten and and convection of this molten mass generates Earth's magnetic field.

A) oxygen, iron B) nickel, silicon C) nickel, iron D) silicon, iron


92) Subduction zones are regions of convergence and the overlying plate is made of lithosphere.

A) continental B) sedimentary C) liquid D) oceanic


93) During the history of Earth there have been periods when all the continents were together in a supercontinent known as .

A) Pangaea B) Tethys C) Gaia D) Laurentia


94) The asthenosphere is a relatively and rigid shell that the lithosphere.

A) warm; overlies B) cool; overlies

C) cool; underlies D) warm; underlies


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

95) Continents are, on average, about 2 km higher than sea level. 95)

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

96) The waterline where the ocean meets the land is the boundary between .

A) mid-ocean ridge and subduction zone B) continental crust and oceanic crust

C) dry land and submerged land D) all of the above


97) Shields and stable platforms are typically found in the regions of a continent.

A) subsurface B) atmospheric C) exterior D) interior


98) Humans are the Earth System Earth's environment in a major way.

A) not part of; and do not affect B) part of; and affect

C) not part of; but affect D) part of; but do not affect


99) In an open system energy and matter flow of the system.

A) not into and not out B) into and out

C) not into but out D) into but not out


100) The two broad, traditional subject areas of geologic study are .

A) physical and historical geology B) mineralogy and igneous petrology

C) structural geology and sedimentology D) None of the above


101) The thin, outer layer of Earth, from 7 to 40 km in thickness, is called the .

A) core B) crust C) lithosphere D) mantle


102) The is the relatively rigid zone above the asthenosphere that includes the crust and upper mantle.

A) core B) crust C) lithosphere D) mantle


103) The is the solid, rocky shell between the crust and outer core.

A) core B) crust C) lithosphere D) mantle


104) The convective flow of liquid, metallic iron in the is thought to generate Earth's magnetic field.

A) outer core B) lithosphere C) inner core D) asthenosphere


105) Moving from the shoreline towards the deep-ocean basin, the first part of the continental margin you would encounter would be the continental .

A) trench B) slope C) shelf D) rise


106) The are the most prominent feature on the ocean floor.

A) sediment cores B) mid-ocean ridges

C) abyssal mounds D) seamounts


ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

107) Earth's physical environment is traditionally divided in the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and the solid Earth. Remembering the scientific method, why do you think that scientists tend to categorize and classify various features, phenomena, and characteristics of the natural world into groups or subdivisions? Also, are there potential pitfalls or problems if we only consider the natural world as individual groups or categories rather than as a whole?

108) What is the relationship of the dense oceanic crust that is produced at a divergent plate boundary to the convergence or collision of an oceanic plate and a continental plate, such as the western margin of South America in the diagram below?

109) Below is a picture of water striking rocks at a coastline.

Describe which of Earth's "spheres" are interacting here, and some of the effects that may be caused by this interaction.

Answer Key

Testname: UNTITLED1

1) C

2) C

3) E

4) C

5) C

6) A

7) B

8) D

9) C

10) B

11) D

12) D

13) D

14) E

15) C

16) A

17) D

18) A

19) B

20) D

21) B

22) D

23) A

24) D

25) B

26) A

27) B

28) B

29) D

30) B

31) E

32) A

33) B

34) C

35) B

36) B

37) A

38) D

39) B

40) A

41) A

42) A

43) B

44) A

45) C

46) B

47) B

48) D

49) A

50) D

Answer Key

Testname: UNTITLED1

51) D

52) C

53) A

54) A

55) B

56) A

57) B

58) A

59) D

60) A

61) D

62) D

63) C

64) D

65) C

66) B

67) B

68) A

69) B

70) B

71) C

72) B

73) C

74) C

75) C

76) D

77) B

78) C

79) A

80) A

81) D

82) D

83) D

84) B

85) C

86) A

87) D

88) D

89) C

90) C

91) C

92) A

93) A

94) D


96) C

97) D

98) B

99) B

100) A

Answer Key

Testname: UNTITLED1

101) B

102) C

103) D

104) A

105) C

106) B

107) Categorizing and classifying is a way of cataloging the differences and similarities between things. We put items that are mostly similar into the same broad groups and separate items that are mostly different. From this system, we can begin to study why things are similar and what is the significance of the differences and that helps us to get to the basic processes that are of scientific interest. The pitfalls or problems are that we may not recognize similarities in objects that have been classified as different and vice versa. Also, we are likely to miss the interactions between different groups and the processes that cause those interactions when we focus on classifying things.

108) The dense oceanic crust sinks underneath the more buoyant continental crust at this type of convergent plate boundary.

109) Student may say that the hydrosphere (surf) and geosphere (rocks) are interacting. They may also involve the atmosphere, as its energy is driving the force of the waves. Less commonly they may invoke the biosphere, nothing that the rocks may be made from the shells of organisms. In terms of the effects, they could note that the surf energy will diminish when it hits the land, but erosion may occur as a result of the surf hitting land.

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