Test Bank Empowerment Series Direct Social Work Practice 10th Edition by Dean H. Hepworth

$35.00
Test Bank Empowerment Series Direct Social Work Practice 10th Edition by Dean H. Hepworth

Test Bank Empowerment Series Direct Social Work Practice 10th Edition by Dean H. Hepworth

$35.00
Test Bank Empowerment Series Direct Social Work Practice 10th Edition by Dean H. Hepworth

Test Bank Empowerment Series Direct Social Work Practice 10th Edition by Dean H. Hepworth

Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following is true of social work assessments?​

a.

​They explore multiple concerns expressed by potential clients.

b.

​They only assess health and safety issues of clients.

c.

​They do not explore potential problems that emerge from the assessments.

d.

​They do not assess strengths and potential resources of clients.

ANSWER:

a

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

4

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

OTHER:

Social work assessments include three facets. One of these facets is exploration of multiple concerns expressed by potential clients.

DATE CREATED:

4/1/2016 1:22 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

2. ​According to the National Association of Social Workers, the primary mission of the social work profession is to:

a.

help legally mandated clients solve their mental issues.​

b.

​empower women and minorities.

c.

​help meet the basic human needs of all people.

d.

​develop research methods specifically for the field of social work.

ANSWER:

c

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

4–5

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 3

OTHER:

According to the National Association of Social Workers (NASW), “the primary mission of the social work profession is to enhance human well-being and help meet the basic human needs of all people with particular attention to the needs and empowerment of people who are vulnerable, oppressed, and living in poverty” (NASW, 2008a).

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:06 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

3. _____ refers to the creation of institutions that support the welfare of individuals and groups.​

a.

​Social justice

b.

Economic justice​

c.

​Distributive justice

d.

​Procedural justice

ANSWER:

a

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

5

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 3

OTHER:

According to the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE), a key competency of the social work profession is to advance human rights and social and economic justice. Social justice refers to the creation of social institutions that support the welfare of individuals and groups (Center for Economic and Social Justice, n.d.).

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:10 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

4. In the context of the purposes of social work, _____ involves the timely provision of services to vulnerable persons, promoting social functioning before problems develop.​

a.

​prevention

b.

​restoration

c.

​remediation

d.

​intervention

ANSWER:

a

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

5

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 3

OTHER:

In the context of the functions of social work, prevention involves the timely provision of services to vulnerable persons, promoting social functioning before problems develop. It includes programs and activities such as family planning, well-baby clinics, parent education, premarital and preretirement counseling, and marital enrichment programs (Pomeroy & Steiker, 2012).

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:12 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

5. In which of the following ways can a social worker demonstrate the value of individual worth and dignity?​

a.

​By engaging clients as partners

b.

​By helping only those clients who do not have access to resources

c.

​By helping make social institutions more humane

d.

​By engaging with only legal immigrants

ANSWER:

a

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

6

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 1

OTHER:

Social workers’ professional relationships are built on regard for individual worth and dignity and are advanced by mutual participation, acceptance, confidentiality, honesty, and responsible handling of conflict. Social workers engage clients as partners in purposeful efforts to promote, restore, maintain, and enhance the clients’ well-being.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:13 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

6. In the context of assisting clients to help obtain needed resources, social workers act as case managers by:​

a.

​providing direct services and connecting their clients to diverse resources.

b.

​creating and organizing new resource systems.

c.

​enhancing access to resources.

d.

​promoting policies that enhance their clients’ physical and social environments.

ANSWER:

a

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

7

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 1

OTHER:

Some individual clients or families may require goods and services from many different providers and may lack the language facility, physical or mental capacity, experience, or skills needed to avail themselves of these goods and services. Social workers then may assume the role of case managers; that is, they may not only provide direct services but also assume responsibility for connecting the client to diverse resources and ensuring that the client receives needed services in a timely fashion.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:15 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

7. In the context of Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards competencies, in order to demonstrate competency in advancing human rights and social justice, social workers should:​

a.

engage in practice-informed research and research-informed practice.​

b.

​understand how diversity and difference characterize and shape the human experience.

c.

​understand the value base and ethical standards of the profession.

d.

​be aware of the global implications of oppression.

ANSWER:

d

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

10

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 3

OTHER:

Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards Competency 3 requires that social workers advance human rights and social justice and asserts that each person in society has basic human rights, such as freedom, safety, privacy, an adequate standard of living, health care, and education. To meet this competency, social workers should be aware of the global implications of oppression, be knowledgeable about theories of justice and strategies to promote human and civil rights, and strive to incorporate social justice practices into organizations, institutions, and society.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:21 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

8. In the context of Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards competencies, in order to demonstrate competency in possessing knowledge and skills in evaluation, social workers should:​

a.

​continuously educate themselves about various cultures.

b.

​be able to critically analyze and monitor interventions.

c.

​strive to incorporate social justice practices into organizations.

d.

​engage in practices that advance human rights.

ANSWER:

b

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

12

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 9

OTHER:

Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards Competency 9 requires knowledge and skills in evaluation. To meet this competency, social workers must be able to critically analyze, monitor, and evaluate interventions.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:22 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

9. In the context of levels of practice, individuals, couples, and families are served at the _____.​

a.

​micro level of social work practice

b.

​mezzo level of social work practice

c.

​macro level of social work practice

d.

mega level of social work practice​

ANSWER:

a

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

12

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

OTHER:

The population served by social workers at the micro level of social work practice includes individuals, couples, and families. Practice at the micro level is designated as direct practice because practitioners deliver services directly to clients in face-to-face situations.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:23 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

10. According to the ecological systems model, niche refers to the:​

a.

​domain in which people in a community work.

b.

​statuses or roles occupied by community members.

c.

​boundaries that prevent inputs into a community.

d.

​unique population characteristics of a community.

ANSWER:

b

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

13

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

OTHER:

According to the ecological systems model, niche refers to the statuses or roles occupied by members of a community. One of the tasks in the course of human maturation is to find one’s niche in society, which is essential to achieving self-respect and a stable sense of identity.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:25 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

11. Which of the following is a subsystem of the individual according to the ecological systems model?​

a.

​Housing

b.

​Family

c.

​Motivation

d.

​Culture

ANSWER:

c

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

14

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

OTHER:

Assessment from an ecological systems perspective requires knowledge of the diverse systems involved in interactions between people and their environments. Subsystems of the individual include biophysical, cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and motivational aspects of the individual.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:27 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

12. Which of the following is one of the first steps in applying the ecological systems model?​

a.

​Determining the foci of interventions

b.

​Surveying the broad spectrum of available practice theories

c.

​Implementing an intervention strategy

d.

​Evaluating the outcome of intervention strategies

ANSWER:

a

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

14

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

OTHER:

Assessing the sources of problems and determining the foci of interventions are the first steps in applying the ecological systems model. Assessment tools have been developed that can engage clients in gathering information to assist in discovering the strengths, resources, and challenges of the systems surrounding individuals and families.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:28 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

13. According to Pincus and Minahan (1973), a(n) _____ includes those persons who are requesting a change, sanction it, are expected to benefit from it, and contract to receive it.​

a.

​client system

b.

​action system

c.

​target system

d.

​agency system

ANSWER:

a

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

15

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

OTHER:

Adapting systems models to social work practice, Pincus and Minahan (1973) suggested that a client system includes those persons who are requesting a change, sanction it, are expected to benefit from it, and contract to receive it (Compton, Galaway, & Cournoyer, 2005). Potential clients who request a change are described as voluntary clients.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:30 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

14. While applying the ecological systems model, the _____ is a special subset of an action system that includes the practitioners and formal service systems involved in work on the target problems.​

a.

​closed system

b.

​client system

c.

​open system

d.

​agency system

ANSWER:

d

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

16

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

OTHER:

The agency system is a special subset of an action system that includes the practitioners and formal service systems involved in work on the target problems (Compton & Galaway, 2005).

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:31 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

15. In the context of applying the ecological systems model, the principle of _____ suggests that the same outcome can be achieved even with different starting points.​

a.

​equifinality

b.

​multifinality

c.

​nonlinearity

d.

​multilinearity

ANSWER:

a

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

17

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

OTHER:

According to the ecological systems model, the principle of equifinality suggests that the same outcome can be achieved even with different starting points.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:33 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

16. Empirically based practice refers to:​

a.

​promoting models of practice based on scientific evidence.

b.

abiding by the ethical decision-making model for ethical practice.​

c.

​seeking single approaches to direct practice.

d.

​using ego psychology to guide social work interventions.

ANSWER:

a

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

18

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 4

OTHER:

Empirically based practice refers to promoting models of practice based on scientific evidence (Barker, 2003). In such an approach, problems and outcomes are conceived in measurable terms, and data are gathered to monitor interventions and evaluate effectiveness.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:34 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

17. In the context of evidence-based practice, the _____ focuses on the practices of the individual practitioner.​

a.

​process model

b.

​system model

c.

​service model

d.

​product model

ANSWER:

a

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

18

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 4

OTHER:

The process model is consistent with the medical definition of evidence-based practice and focuses on the practices of the individual practitioner. Specifically, the individual practitioner learns how to formulate a question about his or her work with a client that is answerable with data (Rubin, 2007).

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:36 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

TUTORIAL QUIZZES

18. ​In the context of the purposes of social work, _____ seeks to reestablish functioning that has been impaired by physical or mental difficulties.

a.

​prevention

b.

​restoration

c.

​remediation

d.

​intervention

ANSWER:

b

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

5

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

PREFACE NAME:

TUTORIAL QUIZZES

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 3

OTHER:

In the context of the purposes of social work, restoration seeks to restore functioning that has been impaired by physical or mental difficulties. Included in this group of clients are persons with varying degrees of paralysis caused by severe spinal injury, individuals afflicted with chronic mental illness, persons with developmental disabilities, persons with deficient educational backgrounds, and individuals with many other types of disability.

DATE CREATED:

4/1/2016 1:32 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

19. In the context of Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards competencies, to demonstrate the competency of understanding diversity and difference, social workers should:​

a.

​be aware of human and civil rights.

b.

​engage in continual education about various cultures.

c.

​make ethical decisions.

d.

​work with individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities.

ANSWER:

b

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

10

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

PREFACE NAME:

TUTORIAL QUIZZES

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 2

OTHER:

Cultural competence requires continual upgrading and lifelong learning over the course of a social worker’s career. To do this, you will need to engage in continual education about the culture and experiences of client groups with whom you work.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:40 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

20. Mezzo-level of social work practice includes:​

a.

​relationships with families.

b.

​relationships with peer groups.

c.

​relationships with individuals.

d.

​relationships with private organizations.

ANSWER:

b

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

12

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

PREFACE NAME:

TUTORIAL QUIZZES

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

OTHER:

The second level of social work practice is defined as “interpersonal relations that are less intimate than those associated with family life; more meaningful than among organizational and institutional representatives; [including] relationships between individuals in a self-help or therapy group, among peers at school or work or among neighbors” (Sheafor, Horejsi, & Horejsi, 1994, pp. 9–10). Mezzo events are “the interface where the individual and those most immediate and important to him/her meet” (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 1990, p. 11).

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:42 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

21. Which of the following levels of practice is most concerned with social planning and community organization?​

a.

​Nano-level social work practice

b.

​Macro-level social work practice

c.

​Mezzo-level social work practice

d.

​Micro-level social work practice

ANSWER:

b

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

12

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

PREFACE NAME:

TUTORIAL QUIZZES

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

OTHER:

Macro-level social work practice involves the processes of social planning and community organization. On this level, social workers serve as professional change agents who assist community action systems composed of individuals, groups, or organizations in dealing with social problems.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:44 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

22. In the context of orienting frameworks to achieve competencies, a _____ is a set of orderly elements that are related to make a whole.​

a.

​niche

b.

​ecomap

c.

​system

d.

​habitat

ANSWER:

c

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

13

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

PREFACE NAME:

TUTORIAL QUIZZES

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

OTHER:

In the context of orienting frameworks to achieve competencies, a system is a set of orderly elements that are related to make a whole. Systems theory emphasizes the interactions between these elements (Kirst-Ashman & Hull, 2012).

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:46 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

23. According to the ecological systems perspective, climate is a part of an individual’s _____.​

a.

​subsystem of the individual

b.

​interpersonal system

c.

​physical environment

d.

​community

ANSWER:

c

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

14

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

PREFACE NAME:

TUTORIAL QUIZZES

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

OTHER:

Assessment from an ecological systems perspective requires knowledge of the diverse systems involved in interactions between people and their environments. The physical environment includes housing, neighborhood environment, buildings, other artificial creations, water, weather and climate.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:47 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

24. A solid line in an ecomap depicts a relationship which is _____.​

a.

​tenuous

b.

​stressful

c.

​strong

d.

delicate​

ANSWER:

c

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

15

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

PREFACE NAME:

TUTORIAL QUIZZES

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

OTHER:

In an ecomap, a solid line connecting systems to individuals and families can indicate a strong relationship, a dotted line can indicate a tenuous relationship, and hatch marks can indicate a stressful relationship (Cournoyer, 2011; Mattaini, 1995).

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:48 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

25. In the context of applying the ecological systems model, the _____ refers to those formal and informal resources and persons that the social worker needs to cooperate with to accomplish a purpose.​

a.

​target system

b.

​action system

c.

​agency system

d.

​closed system

ANSWER:

b

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

16

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

PREFACE NAME:

TUTORIAL QUIZZES

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

OTHER:

While applying the ecological systems model, the action system refers to those formal and informal resources and persons that the social worker needs to cooperate with to accomplish a purpose. It often includes family, friends, and other resources as well as more formal resources.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:50 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

26. In the context of applying the ecological systems model, the principle of _____ suggests that beginning from the same starting points may end in different outcomes.​

a.

​equifinality

b.

​multifinality

c.

​nonlinearity

d.

​multilinearity

ANSWER:

b

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

17

QUESTION TYPE:

Multiple Choice

HAS VARIABLES:

False

PREFACE NAME:

TUTORIAL QUIZZES

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

OTHER:

In the context of applying the ecological systems model, the principle of multifinality suggests that beginning from the same starting points may end in different outcomes.

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:51 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

Essay

27. Discuss the three types of clients who require help from social workers.

ANSWER:

A legally mandated client is one who receives services under the threat of a court order. Those clients who themselves apply for services are referred to as voluntary clients. Many potential clients fall between the two extremes of legally mandated and voluntary clients, as they are neither legally coerced nor seeking a service themselves (Trotter, 2006). These potential clients, who often experience nonlegal pressures from family members, teachers, and referral sources, are known as nonvoluntary clients (R. H. Rooney, 2009).

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

3–4

QUESTION TYPE:

Essay

HAS VARIABLES:

False

STUDENT ENTRY MODE:

Basic

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 2, 3, 6, 7, 8

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:55 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

28. How can a social worker demonstrate the value of respecting the individual’s right to make independent decisions?

ANSWER:

People have a right to freedom as long as they do not infringe on the rights of others. Therefore, transactions with people who are seeking and utilizing resources should enhance their independence and self-determination. Too often in the past, social workers and other helping professionals focused on “deficit, disease, and dysfunction” (Cowger, 1992). The attention currently devoted by social workers to client empowerment and strengths means that social workers assist clients in increasing their personal potential and political power such that clients can improve their life situation (Krogsrud, Miley, O’Melia, & Dubois, 2013; Parsons, 2002; Saleebey, 2006).

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

7

QUESTION TYPE:

Essay

HAS VARIABLES:

False

STUDENT ENTRY MODE:

Basic

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 1, 2

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:57 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

29. Describe how a social worker can demonstrate the competency of engaging in practice-informed research and research-informed practice.

ANSWER:

Answers may vary. Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards Competency 5 requires that social workers engage in practice-informed research and research-informed practice. To fulfill this competency, social workers use their practice experience to inform research, employ evidence-based interventions, evaluate their own practice, and use research findings to improve practice, policy, and social service delivery. This competency requires that social workers be knowledgeable about quantitative and qualitative research, understand scientific and ethical approaches to building knowledge, and use their practice experience to inform scientific inquiry and use research evidence to inform their practice.

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

10–11

QUESTION TYPE:

Essay

HAS VARIABLES:

False

STUDENT ENTRY MODE:

Basic

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 4

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:58 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

30. Distinguish between micro, mezzo, and macro levels of practice and provide an example for each.

ANSWER:

Micro-level practice: The population served by social workers at this level of practice includes individuals, couples, and families. Practice at the micro level is designated as direct practice because practitioners deliver services directly to clients in face-to-face situations. Direct practice, however, is by no means limited to such face-to-face contact.

Mezzo-level practice: The second level of social work practice is defined as “interpersonal relations that are less intimate than those associated with family life; more meaningful than among organizational and institutional representatives; [including] relationships between individuals in a self-help or therapy group, among peers at school or work or among neighbors” (Sheafor, Horejsi, & Horejsi, 1994, pp. 9–10). Mezzo events are “the interface where the individual and those most immediate and important to him/her meet” (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 1990, p. 11). Mezzo intervention is hence designed to change the systems that directly affect clients, such as the family, peer group, or classroom.

Macro-level practice: Still further removed from face-to-face delivery of services, macro-level social work practice involves the processes of social planning and community organization. On this level, social workers serve as professional change agents who assist community action systems composed of individuals, groups, or organizations in dealing with social problems. For example, social workers may work with citizen groups or with private, public, or governmental organizations. Activities of practitioners at this level include (1) development of and work with community groups and organizations; (2) program planning and development; and (3) implementation, administration, and evaluation of programs (Meenaghan, 1987).

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

12

QUESTION TYPE:

Essay

HAS VARIABLES:

False

STUDENT ENTRY MODE:

Basic

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 1:59 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

31. Describe the limitations of systems theories.

ANSWER:

While systems models often provide useful concepts for describing person–situation interactions, they may have limitations in suggesting specific intervention prescriptions (Whittaker & Tracy, 1989). Similarly, Wakefield (1996a, 1996b) has argued that systems concepts do not add much to domain-specific knowledge. Others claim that, however faulty or inadequate, systems theory provides useful metaphors for conceptualizing the relations between complex organizations. Perhaps we should not place such high expectations on the theory (Gitterman, 1996). We take the view that systems theory provides useful metaphors for conceptualizing the varied levels of phenomena social workers must recognize. By themselves, those metaphors are insufficient to guide practice. Concepts such as equifinality and multifinality cannot be rigidly applied in all human and social systems.

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

17

QUESTION TYPE:

Essay

HAS VARIABLES:

False

STUDENT ENTRY MODE:

Basic

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 7

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 2:00 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

32. Describe two different definitions of evidence-based practice.

ANSWER:

Two forms of evidence-based practice have become prominent. The first form, the process model, is consistent with the medical definition of evidence-based practice and focuses on the practices of the individual practitioner. Specifically, the individual practitioner learns how to formulate a question about his or her work with a client that is answerable with data (Rubin, 2007). Based on that question, the social worker gains access to appropriate empirical literature through online journals and studies. The social worker does not need to review all the relevant literature from all of the available studies but may seek secondary reviews and meta-analyses of an intervention that summarize the state of knowledge about that intervention. Another version of evidence-based practice refers to training in evidence-based practice approaches. In this approach, the emphasis is on identifying models of practice that have demonstrated efficacy for particular problems and populations, learning about them, and learning how to implement them.

POINTS:

1

REFERENCES:

18–19

QUESTION TYPE:

Essay

HAS VARIABLES:

False

STUDENT ENTRY MODE:

Basic

ACCREDITING STANDARDS:

EPAS: 4

DATE CREATED:

4/6/2016 2:01 AM

DATE MODIFIED:

4/7/2016 5:41 AM

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