Test Bank Essentials of Economics 10th Edition By Bradley Schiller

$35.00
Test Bank Essentials of Economics 10th Edition By Bradley Schiller

Test Bank Essentials of Economics 10th Edition By Bradley Schiller

$35.00
Test Bank Essentials of Economics 10th Edition By Bradley Schiller

Test Bank Essentials of Economics 10th Edition By Bradley Schiller

Chapter 01_Test Bank KEY

1. The central problem of economics is the:

A. Distribution of goods and services to those in need.

B. Human wants exceeding the availability of resources.

C. Inefficiency of government operations.

D. Labor unemployment.

There are only a finite amount of resources.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

2. The primary concern of economics is the study of:

A. Why human wants exist and what motivates them.

B. How to distribute goods and services according to human needs.

C. How best to allocate scarce resources among competing uses.

D. The measurement of political power in an economy.

There are not enough resources for everyone to have all that they desire.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

3. Which of the following explains why economic choices must be made?

A. The factors of production are scarce.

B. The factors of production are expensive.

C. The factors of production are used inefficiently.

D. The factors of production are of inferior quality.

There is not an infinite amount of the factors of production.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

4. The main focus of economic studies concerns:

A. The behavior of successful businesses.

B. The role of money in our economy.

C. How best to allocate scarce resources.

D. The elimination of opportunity costs.

The goal of economic theory is to figure out how to use scarce resources in the best possible way.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

5. Opportunity cost may be defined as the:

A. The value of goods or services that are forgone in order to obtain something else.

B. Dollar price paid for a final good or service.

C. Dollar cost of producing a particular product.

D. Dollar cost of the next best alternative resources for producing a good.

The opportunity cost is the value of the next best alternative that is forgone.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

6. Given that resources are scarce:

A. A "free lunch" is possible, but only for a limited number of people.

B. Poor countries must make choices, but rich countries do not have to make choices.

C. Opportunity costs always exist whenever choices are made.

D. Some choices involve opportunity costs while other choices do not.

Resources required in the production of desired goods and services are limited so there is an opportunity cost for each production decision.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

7. The opportunity cost of playing tennis with your friend is:

A. Negative since its good exercise.

B. Zero since you already own the tennis racket and play on a public court.

C. The next-best alternative use of your time that is forgone.

D. The cost of the tennis lessons you took last year.

An opportunity cost is an opportunity lost.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

8. There would be no reason for students to study the concept of opportunity costs if:

A. The market mechanism functioned to allocate resources.

B. The government allocated resources.

C. The production possibilities curve bowed outward.

D. Resources were no longer scarce.

If no resources were scarce, consumers would not have to make choices.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

9. If resources are limited:

A. People will rush to buy more goods than they would otherwise.

B. Businesses will sell more products than they would otherwise.

C. There will be tradeoffs whenever choices are made.

D. All individuals are deprived of basic necessities.

Available resources always fall short of our desires.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

10. Which of the following is true about the factors of production?

A. The physical limits of production are determined by all of the factors of production and technology

B. Rich countries have an unlimited quantity of factors.

C. The factors include natural resources but not skilled labor.

D. Some factors are scarce but other factors are not.

The more advanced our technological and managerial abilities, the more output we will be able to produce with available factors of production.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

11. If society lacks enough resources to satisfy all the desired uses of the resources, this is known as:

A. Government failure.

B. Laissez faire.

C. Scarcity.

D. Market failure.

All factors of production are finite.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

12. Scarcity means:

A. Retail stores always run out of popular products.

B. The desire for goods exceeds our capacity to produce them.

C. Society will run out of the factors of production in the near future.

D. A surplus of unsold goods in a specific market will not occur.

Given that resources are finite, consumers will not be able to have everything they desire.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

13. Societies must address the question of WHAT to produce because:

A. We can't produce all the goods and services we want.

B. The amount of money in an economy is limited.

C. We are wasteful and use resources inefficiently.

D. Our economy experiences market failures.

With finite factors of production, society must decide what is best to produce for the majority of the population.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

14. Which of the following is the best example of the "WHAT" economic question?

A. Is the production process using an efficient amount of labor and capital machinery?

B. Who are the recipients of the goods produced?

C. What is the most efficient method for producing goods?

D. What is the optimal mix of output?

Societies must decide how to use a combination of factors of production in order attempt to satisfy wants and needs. Society must decide WHAT to produce to satisfy those wants and needs.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

15. Which of the following is NOT a factor of production?

A. A toll-bridge across a lake.

B. The money hidden in an old basement.

C. A wrecking ball used to tear down old buildings.

D. The CEO of a large corporation.

In economics, capital is referred to as the goods that are used to make goods. Money is not a factor of production.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

16. In economics, capital refers to:

A. Money.

B. Savings put aside for future investment.

C. Goods that can be used to produce other goods.

D. The value of a corporation's assets.

Capital would include items such as machinery, buildings, and networks. Money is not economic capital.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

17. In economics, which of the following is the best example of capital?

A. Money held in a checking account.

B. A computer used by a lawyer to prepare legal documents.

C. Investment in training for employees in an accounting firm.

D. The executive producer of a new adventure movie.

Capital refers to goods that are used to produces other goods. In this example, the computer is the good used to produce the document which is the other good.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

18. Which of the following is NOT an example of land, or a natural resource?

A. Coal.

B. A river.

C. Natural gas.

D. A homebuilder.

A homebuilder would be an example of a labor resource.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

19. Which of the following is an example of labor as a factor of production?

A. People who bring together the skills necessary for creating products and services.

B. The skills and abilities of workers.

C. People who are paid an hourly wage but not those paid a salary.

D. A college or university that educates people.

Labor is the number and skills of workers.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

20. Entrepreneurship refers to:

A. Natural resources, such as land and water.

B. Computer technology.

C. Skilled labor.

D. Ability to see market opportunities and the will to take risk

Entrepreneurship is skill in creating products, services, and processes.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

21. In economics, which of the following represents entrepreneurship?

A. Natural resources.

B. Skill in creating products and services.

C. The skills of workers.

D. Machinery, buildings and networks.

Entrepreneurship is defined as the skill in creating products, services, and processes.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

22. Output choices are necessary within a market because of:

A. Inefficient use of resources.

B. High prices for goods.

C. Scarcity of resources.

D. Limited technology.

With limited factors of production and technology output would have a finite limit.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

23. When economists talk about a trade-off between "guns and butter," they mean:

A. Society can produce more military goods without giving up any consumer goods.

B. Military goods are an inefficient use of resources.

C. The production of more military goods may require fewer consumer goods.

D. Consumer goods are always more costly than military goods.

In this case guns represent military spending while butter represents consumer goods.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

24. Table 1.1 shows the tradeoff between different combinations of missile production and home construction, ceteris paribus. Complete the table by calculating the required opportunity costs for both missiles and houses. Then answer the indicated question(s).

In Table 1.1, what is the opportunity cost of increasing the production of missiles from 2 to 3 in terms of houses?

A. 1,000 houses.

B. 3,333 houses.

C. 7,000 houses.

D. 17,000 houses.

Seventeen thousand houses are built when two missiles are built. Ten thousand houses are built when three missiles are built. Over this range of production seven thousand houses are sacrificed to that an additional missile can be produced.

Refer to: Table 1.1

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

25. Table 1.1 shows the tradeoff between different combinations of missile production and home construction, ceteris paribus. Complete the table by calculating the required opportunity costs for both missiles and houses. Then answer the indicated question(s).

In Table 1.1, the opportunity cost of increasing the production of houses from 17,000 to 21,000 in terms of missiles per house is:

A. 0.00014 of a missile.

B. 0.00025 of a missile.

C. 2.00 missiles.

D. 4.00 missiles.

The difference in the production of 17,000 houses to 21,000 houses is 4,000. The difference between the number of missiles produced is one. Therefore the opportunity cost of increasing the production of houses from 17,000 to 21,000 in terms of missiles per house is .00025

Refer to: Table 1.1

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

26. Table 1.1 shows the tradeoff between different combinations of missile production and home construction, ceteris paribus. Complete the table by calculating the required opportunity costs for both missiles and houses. Then answer the indicated question(s).

In Table 1.1, the lowest opportunity cost of houses in terms of missiles is:

A. 0.00010 of a missile per house.

B. 0.00050 of a missile per house.

C. 7.00 missiles per house.

D. 10.00 missiles per house.

When 10,000 houses are built the cost is 1 missile. Therefore, the house share is .00010 of the cost of 1 missile.

Refer to: Table 1.1

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

27. Table 1.1 shows the tradeoff between different combinations of missile production and home construction, ceteris paribus. Complete the table by calculating the required opportunity costs for both missiles and houses. Then answer the indicated question(s).

In Table 1.1, the highest opportunity cost of missiles in terms of houses is:

A. 500 houses per missile.

B. 4,000 houses per missile.

C. 7,000 houses per missile.

D. 10,000 houses per missile.

The creation of 1 missile creates the highest cost at 10,000 houses. This is the opportunity cost of producing the fourth missile given an economy is already producing three.

Refer to: Table 1.1

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

28. Which of the following statements about production possibilities is true?

A. Production possibilities are limited for all countries because resources are scarce.

B. The production of food does not involve opportunity costs since people must eat.

C. A reduction in productivity will expand the production possibility curve.

D. Production possibilities are only limited for a country if prices are too high.

No country has an infinite amount of resources.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

29. Which of the following is NOT an assumption under which the production possibilities curve is drawn?

A. The economy's resources are fully employed.

B. The price level is stable.

C. Technology is being held constant.

D. The supplies of factors of production are fixed.

E. The trade-off of one good for another is not constant.

The production possibilities curve represents the alternative combinations of goods and services that could be produced in a given time period with all available resources and technology. Price is not a factor.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

30. All points on the production possibilities curve:

A. Represent the use of all available resources.

B. Are equally desirable.

C. Represent the same mix of output.

D. Represent the same opportunity costs.

A production possibilities curve describes the various combination of final goods or services that could be produced in a given time period with available resources and technology.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

31. Ceteris paribus, if North Korea increases the size of its military, then:

A. Its production possibilities curve will shift outward.

B. Its production possibilities curve will shift inward.

C. Its production of consumer goods will increase.

D. Its production of consumer goods will decrease.

Because of limited resources the increase in military production will decrease the production of consumer goods.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

32. Assuming the level of resources and technology are constant, if France decreases the size of its military, then:

A. Its’ production possibilities curve will shift outward.

B. Its’ production possibilities curve will shift inward.

C. Its’ production of consumer goods can increase.

D. Its’ production of consumer goods must decrease.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

33. Figure 1.1 – Production Possibilities and Opportunity Costs: Linear Model versus Non-Linear Model

In the linear production possibilities model, we assume each of five equally-sized parcels of land contributes the same to the production of food and timber: 6 units of timber or 3 units of food.

By contrast, in the non-linear model, we will assume that there are five different types of land in equal-sized plots and that each plot may contribute as follows to the production of

Assuming all parcels of land are the same, when all land is in use, one more unit of timber produced will require…

A. Two more units of food produced

B. Five fewer units of food produced

C. One-half fewer units of food produced

D. Two fewer units of food produced

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity & Appendix: Using Graphs

34. Figure 1.1 – Production Possibilities and Opportunity Costs: Linear Model versus Non-Linear Model

In the linear production possibilities model, we assume each of five equally-sized parcels of land contributes the same to the production of food and timber: 6 units of timber or 3 units of food.

By contrast, in the non-linear model, we will assume that there are five different types of land in equal-sized plots and that each plot may contribute as follows to the production of

Assuming all parcels of land are the same, there is a constant trade-off in the production of timber and food. When all land is in use, one more unit of food produced will require…

A. Two more units of timber produced

B. Five fewer units of timber produced

C. One-half fewer units of timber produced

D. Two fewer units of timber produced

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity & Appendix: Using Graphs

35. Figure 1.1 – Production Possibilities and Opportunity Costs: Linear Model versus Non-Linear Model

In the linear production possibilities model, we assume each of five equally-sized parcels of land contributes the same to the production of food and timber: 6 units of timber or 3 units of food.

By contrast, in the non-linear model, we will assume that there are five different types of land in equal-sized plots and that each plot may contribute as follows to the production of

Assuming all land is equally productive in either use, how much output of each type will be produced with 2/5 of the land in timber production and 3/5 of the land in food production?

A. 12 units of timber and 9 units of food

B. 9 units of timber and 12 units of food

C. 18 units of timber and 9 units of food

D. 9 units of timber and 18 units of food

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity & Appendix: Using Graphs

36. Figure 1.1 – Production Possibilities and Opportunity Costs: Linear Model versus Non-Linear Model

In the linear production possibilities model, we assume each of five equally-sized parcels of land contributes the same to the production of food and timber: 6 units of timber or 3 units of food.

By contrast, in the non-linear model, we will assume that there are five different types of land in equal-sized plots and that each plot may contribute as follows to the production of

Now assume that there are five different types of land in equally-sized parcels:

A. Great farmland/Terrible timberland

B. Good farmland/Poor timberland

C. Moderate farmland/Moderate timberland

D. Poor farmland/Good timberland

E. Terrible farmland/Great timberland

Starting from point A on the production possibilities line where 30 units of timber and no food is produced, suppose that we choose to produce more food by moving one parcel of land out of timber production and into food production. In order to minimize the opportunity cost of producing more food, the first plot to be re-purposed should be…

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

E. E

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity & Appendix: Using Graphs

37. Figure 1.1 – Production Possibilities and Opportunity Costs: Linear Model versus Non-Linear Model

In the linear production possibilities model, we assume each of five equally-sized parcels of land contributes the same to the production of food and timber: 6 units of timber or 3 units of food.

By contrast, in the non-linear model, we will assume that there are five different types of land in equal-sized plots and that each plot may contribute as follows to the production of

In the model where we assume that all parcels of land are the same, the relationship between food and timber produced when all land is in use is:

A. Linear and inverse

B. Direct and linear

C. Inverse and nonlinear

D. Direct and nonlinear

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity & Appendix: Using Graphs

38. Figure 1.1 – Production Possibilities and Opportunity Costs: Linear Model versus Non-Linear Model

In the linear production possibilities model, we assume each of five equally-sized parcels of land contributes the same to the production of food and timber: 6 units of timber or 3 units of food.

By contrast, in the non-linear model, we will assume that there are five different types of land in equal-sized plots and that each plot may contribute as follows to the production of

In the model where we assume that all five parcels of land are NOT the same, the relationship between food and timber produced when all land is in use is:

A. Linear and inverse

B. Direct and linear

C. Inverse and nonlinear

D. Direct and nonlinear

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity & Appendix: Using Graphs

39. Figure 1.1 – Production Possibilities and Opportunity Costs: Linear Model versus Non-Linear Model

In the linear production possibilities model, we assume each of five equally-sized parcels of land contributes the same to the production of food and timber: 6 units of timber or 3 units of food.

By contrast, in the non-linear model, we will assume that there are five different types of land in equal-sized plots and that each plot may contribute as follows to the production of

The most desirable attainable mix of output for society:

A. Consists of the entire production possibilities curve.

B. Consists of a point on the production possibilities curve.

C. Consists of a point outside the production possibilities curve.

D. Occurs to the left and the right of the production possibility curve.

There is no single point on the production possibilities curve that is right for all nations at all times.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

40. Figure 1.1 – Production Possibilities and Opportunity Costs: Linear Model versus Non-Linear Model

In the linear production possibilities model, we assume each of five equally-sized parcels of land contributes the same to the production of food and timber: 6 units of timber or 3 units of food.

By contrast, in the non-linear model, we will assume that there are five different types of land in equal-sized plots and that each plot may contribute as follows to the production of

In attempting to answer the WHAT question, a society seeks to:

A. Produce the optimal mix of output.

B. Exploit its workers in order to produce more output.

C. Produce more military goods so that the citizens will be safe.

D. Distribute an equal amount of goods to all citizens.

Locating and producing the optimal mix of output is the essence of the WHAT challenge.

AACSB: Analytic
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

41. Figure 1.1 – Production Possibilities and Opportunity Costs: Linear Model versus Non-Linear Model

In the linear production possibilities model, we assume each of five equally-sized parcels of land contributes the same to the production of food and timber: 6 units of timber or 3 units of food.

By contrast, in the non-linear model, we will assume that there are five different types of land in equal-sized plots and that each plot may contribute as follows to the production of

Investment refers to all of the following except:

A. An increase in business inventories.

B. The purchase of new equipment by a business.

C. The construction of new factories by a company.

D. The purchase of stock by an individual.

Economic investments enhance the ability to produce.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

42. Which of the following is NOT an example of investment?

A. A hair salon buys additional hair dryers.

B. The campus bookstore buys new T-shirts with the college logo.

C. A business owner uses his profits to play the lottery and wins.

D. Toyota expands the size of its factories located in the United States.

Lottery is a game of chance is not an investment.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

43. Economic growth always takes the form of

A. An expansion of production possibilities.

B. A change in how goods are distributed.

C. A movement along the production possibilities curve.

D. Higher prices.

Economic growth expands the possibilities to produce more.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

44. Economic growth is represented by:

A. An inward shift of the production possibilities curve.

B. A point inside the production possibilities curve.

C. An outward shift of the production possibilities curve.

D. A movement along the production possibilities curve.

Production possibilities increase and shift outward with growth in resources and technology.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

45. The production possibilities curve shifts outward in response to:

A. A decline in technology or more resources or both.

B. A decline in technology or fewer resources or both.

C. Improved technology or more resources or both.

D. Improved technology or fewer resources or both.

Outward shifts occur with growth. Growth is due to improved technologies which use fewer resources and/or an increase in resources.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

46. Ceteris paribus which of the following is likely to cause an outward shift of the production possibilities curve?

A. Investment in telecommunications networks.

B. The deportation of illegal immigrants.

C. An increase in the unemployment rate.

D. A tax increase on factors of production.

Investment in new technologies is necessary to economic growth.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

47. Ceteris paribus when technological change allows a smaller amount of a resource to be used in producing any combination of two goods, there will be:

A. A movement along the production possibilities curve.

B. An outward shift of the production possibilities curve.

C. An inward shift of the production possibilities curve.

D. No change in the production possibilities curve.

Change in technology allows for resources to be used more efficiently.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

48. Ceteris paribus, which of the following is least likely to contribute to economic growth?

A. A greater quantity of labor.

B. A greater quantity of capital.

C. An increase in prices.

D. Improved production technology.

Price is not a factor in growth.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

49. Ceteris paribus, which of the following will most likely cause an inward shift of the production possibilities curve?

A. A decrease in the size of the labor force.

B. An increase in population.

C. An increase in knowledge.

D. An improvement in technology.

Labor is a factor of production. If there is a reduction of labor production possibilities decrease.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

50. Ceteris paribus which of the following events would most likely cause the production possibilities curve to shift inward?

A. The labor supply grows.

B. New factories are built.

C. A technological breakthrough occurs that makes production of all goods more efficient.

D. A major earthquake destroys several industrial centers.

In this scenario, loss of industrial centers creates a reduction in capital which would cause production to decrease.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

51. Figure 1.1 – Production-possibilities curve

Society is employing some of the available technology but not all of it. Select the appropriate point. (See Figure 1.1)

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

When all resources are not used to their fullest capacity, production falls below the curve.

Refer to: Figure l.1

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

52. Figure 1.1 – Production-possibilities curve

Society is producing some output, but some of the available resources are unemployed. Select the appropriate point. (See Figure 1.1)

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

Point C falls below the production possibilities curve, which indicates some resources are not being used to the fullest potential.

Refer to: Figure 1.1

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

53. Figure 1.1 – Production-possibilities curve

Society is producing the maximum potential output, given its existing resources and technology. Select the appropriate point. (See Figure 1.1)

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

Point B represents the point on the possibilities curve that best represents the optimal use of resources.

Refer to: Figure 1.1

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

54. Figure 1.1 – Production-possibilities curve

Society might be able to produce this combination if new resources were discovered but cannot produce it with current resources. Select the appropriate point. (See Figure 1.1)

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

If new resources are discovered the production possibilities curve shifts to the right.

Refer to: Figure 1.1

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

55. Figure 1.1 – Production-possibilities curve

It is not possible for society to produce this combination with current resources and technology. Select the appropriate point. (See Figure 1.1)

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

There are not sufficient recourses to produce at this level.

Refer to: Figure 1.1

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

56. Figure 1.1 – Production-possibilities curve

Society is not producing either good because of extreme inefficiencies. Select the appropriate point. (See Figure 1.1)

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

At point D there is no production of either houses or office buildings.

Refer to: Figure 1.1

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

57. When society searches for the optimal method of producing goods and services, it is responding to the:

A. "WHAT" question.

B. "HOW" question.

C. "FOR WHOM" question.

D. "WHY" question.

The best possible answer to the HOW question will entail both efficiency in the use of factors of production and adequate safeguards for the environment and other social concerns.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

58. When society struggles with how to divide up the "economic pie," it is responding to the:

A. "FOR WHOM" question.

B. "HOW" question.

C. "WHAT" question.

D. "WHY" question.

Everyone wants a slice of the "economic pie" that would best fit their needs.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

59. Welfare programs are designed to address the:

A. "HOW" question.

B. "FOR WHOM" question.

C. Issue of scarce resources.

D. "WHAT" question.

The optimal distribution of income must satisfy our sense of fairness and as well as our desire for more output

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

60. Which of the following best describes the way resources are allocated in the U.S. economy?

A. By rules.

B. By markets.

C. By regulations.

D. By government.

The use of market prices and sales to signal desired outputs.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

61. The market mechanism:

A. Works through central planning by the government.

B. Eliminates market failures created by the government.

C. Uses prices as a means of communication between consumers and producers.

D. Is very inefficient since consumers cannot communicate directly with producers.

The market mechanism signals producers what products are demanded.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

62. The market mechanism:

A. Is an inefficient means of communicating consumer wants to producers.

B. Relies on government control and planning.

C. Eliminates the market failures caused by government.

D. Relies on prices and sales to communicate consumer wants to producers.

Prices and sales indicate to producers what they should continue to produce.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

63. The essential signal of the market mechanism is:

A. Income.

B. Price.

C. Property.

D. Government directive.

Price and sales send signals to producers about what mix of output consumers want.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

64. The price of a good or service:

A. Never has an impact on the market mechanism.

B. Serves as the essential signal of the market mechanism.

C. Sometimes plays a role in the market mechanism.

D. Rarely has an impact on the market mechanism.

Price and sales send signals to producers about what mix of output consumers want.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

65. Which of the following best describes the "invisible hand?"

A. Price signals drive the market mechanism.

B. Government regulations influence the allocation of society's scarce resources.

C. The Internal Revenue Service enforces the nation's tax laws.

D. Lobbyists influence which laws are passed by Congress.

No direct communication between consumer and producer is required to signal what the market desires

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

66. The essential feature of the market mechanism is:

A. That every consumer is concerned about the welfare of others.

B. The price signal for both consumers and producers.

C. Equity in the distribution of income and housing.

D. Government taxation of profits.

Price is a determining factor for consumers to buy and producers to sell.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

67. Laissez faire refers to:

A. The belief that government can make better choices than the market about the mix of output.

B. The economic theory of Karl Marx.

C. A belief of nonintervention by government in the market mechanism.

D. A preference for central planning.

Laissez faire means hands off which invites the government to stay out of the market decisions.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

68. Which of the following is most consistent with a market economy?

A. Shortages.

B. Central planners.

C. Government directives.

D. Laissez faire.

Laissez faire means hands off which invites the government to stay out of the market decisions.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

69. Which of the following individuals is typically associated with a laissez faire economic policy?

A. Adam Smith.

B. Karl Marx.

C. The Chairman of the Federal Reserve.

D. John Maynard Keynes.

Adam Smith argued that nations would prosper with less government interference.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

70. Which of the following statements is consistent with central planning?

A. The economy relies heavily on the market mechanism to allocate resources.

B. Government planners play the dominant role in deciding how resources are allocated.

C. Economic decisions are made by large competitive firms.

D. Market prices are used to guide production and consumption activities.

The government, not the market, assumes responsibility for deciding what goods are to be produced.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

71. Karl Marx wrote:

A. Das Kapital, which was used as the rationale for centrally-planned economies.

B. Das Kapital, which described the virtues of market-based economies.

C. The Wealth of Nations, which provided the rationale for centrally-planned economies.

D. The Wealth of Nations, which described the virtues of market-based economies.

Karl Marx proposed central planning.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

72. Central planning is the principal method for making economic decisions in:

A. The United States.

B. Singapore.

C. New Zealand.

D. North Korea.

Central planning is still the principal mechanism of choice in some countries that still tend to be communist.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

73. The economy of the United States is best characterized as:

A. Centrally planned.

B. A laissez faire model.

C. A mixed economy.

D. A democratic socialist economy.

The U.S. uses a mix of market mechanism and government directives to make economic choices.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

74. Which of the following is NOT a reason why the U.S. government intervenes in the economy?

A. To ensure the safety of products.

B. To reduce pollution.

C. To make a profit for the government.

D. To improve the mix of output.

The government is not a business and does not seek profits.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

75. If the market mechanism causes the economy to arrive at the wrong mix of output, there is:

A. Market failure.

B. Mixed economy failure.

C. Government failure.

D. Laissez faire.

The market may not always pick the best possible mix of output.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

76. Market failure means:

A. Government solutions fail to improve economic outcomes.

B. The market mechanism does not produce the best mix of output.

C. The market allocates goods more efficiently than does the government.

D. The market is responsive to consumer demand.

The market did not produce the best possible mix of outputs.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

77. An externality is:

A. A cost or benefit of a market activity that impacts a third party.

B. The private costs that are borne by an individual.

C. The cost of clean up paid for by the polluter.

D. A situation in which the government solution makes the outcome worse.

An externality is a cost imposed on innocent third parties.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

78. Which of the following is an example of a negative externality?

A. A decrease in available educational options due to government intervention.

B. An increase in government bureaucracy and red tape.

C. An increase in the incidence of cancer due to pollution.

D. An introduction to a pollution decreasing technology.

The cancer was a result of pollution and borne by a third party.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

79. Pollution is an example of:

A. Inefficiency by the polluting firm.

B. Market failure.

C. Government transfers.

D. Economic instability.

When the market mechanism selects the wrong choice of HOW to produce, this will cause a market failure.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

80. If government intervention fails to improve economic outcomes, the result is known as:

A. Government failure.

B. Market failure.

C. Mixed economy failure.

D. Laissez faire.

The government may not necessarily offer better answers to the three basic questions.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

81. Government intervention designed to address market failure:

A. May either improve or worsen the mix of output produced.

B. Will definitely worsen the mix of output produced.

C. Will definitely improve the mix of output produced.

D. Never has an impact on the mix of output produced.

Government intervention might not just worsen the mix of output but even reduce the total amount of output.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

82. Which of the following is an example of government failure?

A. A negative externality, such as pollution.

B. An increase in bureaucracy and red tape that fails to improve economic outcomes.

C. An increase in airline safety.

D. An increase in the costs of production and an improvement in economic outcomes.

An increase in bureaucratic red tape may burden private industry and reduce the total amount of output.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

83. Which of the following groups of words best represents macroeconomic goals?

A. Full employment, price stability, economic growth.

B. Rate of production, choice of factors of production, and the pricing of specific goods.

C. Welfare of individual consumers and business firms.

D. Land, labor, and capital.

Macroeconomics focuses on the behavior of an entire economy—the big picture.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: What Economics is All About

84. Macroeconomics focuses on:

A. Government failure.

B. The behavior of individuals, firms, and government agencies.

C. Land, labor, and capital.

D. The economy as a whole.

The essential concern of macroeconomics is to understand and improve the performance of the economy as a whole.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: What Economics is All About

85. Microeconomics focuses on:

A. Full employment, price stability, and economic growth.

B. The behavior of individuals, firms, and government agencies.

C. Land, labor, and capital.

D. Centrally planned economies.

Microeconomics focuses on individuals, firms, and government agencies.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: What Economics is All About

86. Which of the following is associated with microeconomics?

A. An increase in sales for a chain of pet supply stores.

B. A decrease in the unemployment rate for the nation.

C. An increase in the inflation rate for the entire economy.

D. A decrease in the level of economic growth for the country.

One focus of microeconomics is on individual firms.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: What Economics is All About

87. Which of the following is associated with microeconomics?

A. An economy's overall output level.

B. The country's unemployment rate.

C. A specific U.S. industry's sales figures.

D. The economy's rate of growth.

One focus of microeconomics is on individual firms.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: What Economics is All About

88. Economic theories can be used to do all of the following EXCEPT:

A. Evaluate economic policy.

B. Design economic policy.

C. Explain consumer and market behavior.

D. Determine exact economic outcomes.

There are too many factors that contribute to economic theory; exact economic outcomes cannot be determined.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: What Economics is All About

89. Economic models:

A. Focus on details about the economy.

B. Focus on basic relationships.

C. Cannot be constructed because of the complexity of the economy.

D. Can be used to predict market behavior but not consumer behavior.

Models are used like maps to show basic relationships.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: What Economics is All About

90. According to the Latin phrase ceteris paribus:

A. Resources are limited.

B. Things do not remain equal.

C. There is no government intervention.

D. Nothing else changes.

The assertion is that all things remain equal except for one.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: What Economics is All About

91. Ceteris paribus means:

A. Leave the market alone.

B. Noninterference by the government.

C. Other things remaining equal.

D. Things are always changing.

Only one circumstance will change in a model, all other circumstances’ will remain constant.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: What Economics is All About

92. A HEADLINE article in the text asks parents, "Do you expect your children's generation to enjoy a higher standard of living than your generation?" What is necessary for the standard of living to rise?

A. Economic growth.

B. A greater allocation of resources to consumption.

C. An inward shift in the production possibilities curve.

D. A less equitable distribution of income.

Economic growth is essential for future generations to continue to enjoy a higher standard of living than the past generation.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: What Economics is All About

93. A HEADLINE article in the text indicates that North Korea is running out of food. If North Korea is on its production possibilities curve and reduces its production of food so that it can increase the size of its military, this is most consistent with:

A. Market failure.

B. A movement along the production possibilities curve.

C. An inward shift of the production possibilities curve.

D. An expansion beyond the production possibilities curve.

With a reduction in food production there are more resources to produce military goods. This leads to a movement along the production possibilities curve.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: What Economics is All About

94. A HEADLINE article in the text indicates that North Korea is expanding its missile programs, and at the same time it is running out of food. If North Korea is on its production possibilities curve and reduces food production so that it can increase the size of its military, this is an example of:

A. Opportunity costs.

B. Laissez faire.

C. Externalities.

D. Ceteris paribus.

Resources used for the military aren’t available for producing food. This is an opportunity cost to the production of missiles.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: What Economics is All About

95. A HEADLINE article in the text indicates that North Korea is expanding its missile programs. Assume North Korea is currently on its production possibilities curve. If the increase in missile production results in a decrease in food production, this is an example of:

A. Market failure.

B. An inward shift of the production possibilities curve.

C. Opportunity cost.

D. A reduction in available resources.

Resources used for the military aren’t available for producing food. This is an opportunity cost to the production of missiles in terms of food.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: What Economics is All About

96. One HEADLINE article in the text suggests that 30 percent of Americans trust the federal government to do the right thing. If government intervention makes the economy worse off, this is referred to as:

A. Scarce resources.

B. Central planning.

C. Market failure.

D. Government failure.

Government intervention may fail to improve market outcomes.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

97. One HEADLINE article in the text suggests that most Americans do not trust the federal government to do the right thing. If they are correct, then government intervention results in:

A. A decrease in opportunity costs.

B. A less desirable mix of output.

C. Market failure.

D. Less unemployment.

A government failure may result in a less desirable mix of output.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

98. In order to understand a particular graph, it is important to know:

A. The total number of squares in the grid.

B. Which variable is on the vertical axis and which is on the horizontal axis.

C. Where a point on the graph is.

D. Where the maximum quantity is.

The horizontal and vertical axis identifies the variables.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

99. The slope of a line is:

A. The vertical distance between the two points, divided by the horizontal distance between the two points.

B. Always positive.

C. Sometimes referred to as "run over rise."

D. The horizontal distance between the two points, divided by the vertical distance between the two points.

Divide the vertical distance between the two points, by the horizontal distance between the two points.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

100. The slope of a curve is given by the formula:

A. The percentage change in x coordinates between two points divided by the percentage change in y coordinates.

B. The percentage change in y coordinates between two points divided by the percentage change in x coordinates.

C. The change in x coordinates between two points divided by the change in y coordinates.

D. The change in y coordinates between two points divided by the change in x coordinates.

Slope equals the rise divided by the run.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

101. When a curve shifts, this indicates that:

A. One variable has increased and the other has decreased.

B. A change has occurred in the underlying relationship between the two variables.

C. The slope has changed.

D. The two variables are now unrelated.

Shifts are reflective of changes in the underlying relationships between the two variables.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

102. A linear curve can be distinguished by:

A. The continuous change in its slope.

B. The changing relationship between the two variables.

C. The same slope throughout the curve.

D. A shift in the curve.

A distinguishing feature of linear curves is that they have the same slope throughout.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

103. If one variable increases when the other variable decreases, then the drawn curve is:

A. Horizontal.

B. Downward-sloping.

C. Upward-sloping.

D. Vertical.

The A negative relationship among the variables produces a negatively sloped curve .

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

104. If one variable increases when the other variable increases, then the drawn curve is:

A. Upward-sloping.

B. Downward-sloping.

C. Horizontal.

D. Vertical.

Variables of both axes are moving upward to the right.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

105. A line that slopes upward from left to right has a:

A. Negative slope.

B. Positive slope.

C. Slope that changes as you move along the curve.

D. Slope of zero.

All variables are increasing in this case.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

106.

In Figure 1.2, a grade-point average of 3.0 is associated with how many hours of study time per week?

A. 10.

B. 20.

C. 30.

D. 40.

A grade of 3.0 intersects with 30 hours of study time.

Refer to: Figure 1.2

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

107.

In Figure 1.2, a grade-point average of 1.0 is associated with how many hours of study time per week?

A. 10.

B. 20.

C. 30.

D. 40.

A grade of 1.0 intersects with10 hours of study time.

Refer to: Figure 1.2

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

108.

Figure 1.2 suggests that the relationship between the variables is:

A. Linear at every point.

B. Linear at places and nonlinear at places.

C. Linear at places and nonlinear at places but always negatively sloped.

D. Negative after 30 hours of study time.

The line is straight until approximately 4.0 then moves downward.

Refer to: Figure 1.2

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

109.

Based on Figure 1.2, if a student wants to achieve a grade-point average of 3.0, he or she should study:

A. An average of 40 hours per week.

B. An average of 30 hours per week.

C. An average of 20 hours per week.

D. An average of 10 hours per week.

A grade of 3.0 intersects with 30 hours.

Refer to: Figure 1.2

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

110.

Based on Figure 1.2, if a student wants to achieve a grade-point average of 2.0, he or she should study:

A. An average of 40 hours per week.

B. An average of 30 hours per week.

C. An average of 20 hours per week.

D. An average of 10 hours per week.

A grade of 2.0 intersects with 20 hours.

Refer to: Figure 1.2

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

111.

Based on Figure 1.2, if a student studies 40 hours per week, he or she will:

A. Earn a grade-point average between 3.5 and 4.0.

B. Earn a grade-point average of exactly 3.0.

C. Drop out of school because of the stress.

D. Earn a lower grade-point average than if the study time is reduced to 30 hours per week.

A point between 3.5 and 4.0 intersects with 40 hours.

Refer to: Figure 1.2

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

112.

Based on Figure 1.2, if a student studies 30 hours per week, he or she will:

A. Earn a grade-point average of between 3.5 and 4.0.

B. Earn a grade-point average of 3.0.

C. Earn a grade-point average 2.0.

D. Drop out of school because of the stress.

The intersection of 3.0 and 30 hours earns a grade of 3.0.

Refer to: Figure 1.2

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Appendix: Using Graphs

113. Economics is the study of how to allocate scarce resources among competing uses.

TRUE

Economics is the study of how to allocate scarce resources among various uses.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

114. When an economic choice is made, it is possible to avoid opportunity costs.

FALSE

The opportunity cost of a good is the sacrifice of the next-best alternative goods that are forgone.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

115. The quantity of capital in an economy is unlimited since more can always be produced.

FALSE

All factors of production are finite.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

116. Scarcity is not an issue in countries such as the United States since people live in nice homes and have plenty to eat.

FALSE

The resources of the U.S. are not sufficient to meet the desires of all its citizens.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

117. Every economy faces the situation of scarcity of resources.

TRUE

No economy can escape scarcity.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

118. The United States is a prosperous nation because its resources are sufficient to meet the desires of its citizens.

FALSE

Not all desires of every citizen are met.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

119. All economies must decide what to produce, how to produce it, and who gets the output.

TRUE

The Three Basic Economic Questions are WHAT, FOR WHOM, and HOW.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

120. The factors of production include the land, labor, and money used to produce goods and services.

FALSE

The factors of production include land, labor and capital.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

121. Capital includes the machinery and buildings used to produce goods and services.

TRUE

Capital is the good used to produce other goods.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

122. When a society is operating on the production possibilities curve, it is using its available resources efficiently in the production of goods and services.

TRUE

All resources are being used efficiently.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

123. More resources and better technology shift the production possibilities curve inward.

FALSE

Economic growth will expand the production possibilities outward, allowing more production thus shifting the production possibilities curve to the right.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

124. To experience future economic growth, an economy must allocate some of its scarce resources to investment.

TRUE

Investment is necessary for growth.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

125. The FOR WHOM to produce question focuses on the distribution of output across the members of society.

TRUE

FOR WHOM question address issues of distribution and who will get what share of goods and services.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

126. The invisible hand refers to the price signal in a free market economy.

TRUE

No direct communication is needed between the producer and the consumer.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

127. Adam Smith was a proponent of the doctrine of laissez faire.

TRUE

Adam Smith preferred little or no government intervention.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

128. The United States relies primarily on central planning to allocate resources.

FALSE

Because the U.S. uses a combination of government directives and market mechanisms to determine economic outcomes, the United States is a mixed economy.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

129. Karl Marx encouraged a policy of laissez faire because he believed that the market mechanism provided society with the best answers to the WHAT, HOW, and FOR WHOM questions.

FALSE

Karl Marx believed central planning was necessary to keep workers from being exploited.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

130. A "mixed economy" is one that relies solely on market signals to allocate goods and services.

FALSE

A mixed economy relies on both market signals and government directives to allocate goods and services.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

131. Pollution is an example of an externality.

TRUE

An externality places the burden on an innocent third party.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: Undesirable Choices

132. Government failure occurs when government intervention fails to improve economic outcomes.

TRUE

Government intervention does not always result in a positive outcome.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: Undesirable Choices

133. Because the economy is so complex, it is impossible to construct a theory about how it works.

FALSE

The focus of economics is on basic relationships, ignoring unnecessary details. Therefore, theories, or models of economic behavior are possible to formulate.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: What Economics is All About

134. Explain opportunity cost. Give one example of an opportunity cost.

An opportunity cost is the value of the second best choice. Example: A student stays home to study for an exam instead of going to a movie with friends. (Answers may vary)

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

135. What are the factors of production? How do these factors play a role in an economy answering the Three Basic Economic Questions?

The factors of production are Land, Labor, Capital, and Entrepreneurship. Each factor of production plays a role in answering the WHAT, HOW, and FOR WHOM questions by distributing scarce resources in the best possible way. (Answers may vary)

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

136. Define market mechanism and discuss Adam Smith’s explanation of the "invisible hand."

The market mechanism is central in reshuffling resources and outputs. Market sales and prices send a signal to producers about what mix of output consumers want. Without direct communication between consumers and producers the "invisible hand" communicates sales and prices.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

137. Karl Marx viewed ______________as the major flaw with capitalism.

A. state controlled production

B. labor unions

C. private property ownership

D. all of the above are correct answers

Karl Marx believed that private property ownership would self-destruct and ruin an economy

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

138. An accurate definition of the term “optimal mix” would be the production of goods and services that would satisfy all the wants and needs of the individuals in society.

FALSE

With limited resources, it is impossible to satisfy everyone’s needs. The optimal mix would be the best combination of output from scarce resources that could meet as many needs possible.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

139. Because of scarcity,

A. choices must be made.

B. there are not enough goods and services to satisfy everyone.

C. there are plenty of goods to go around.

D. Both A and B are true.

Both of these things are true of scarcity.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

140. When an economist says that "there is no such thing as a free lunch," she means that

A. we still cannot have everything we want, even if the price is $0.

B. there are sufficient resources to produce everything we want

C. even when a meal is free, we still give up the chance to do something else with that time.

D. Both A and C correct.

Scarcity forces us to choose between alternative uses of a resource; even if there is no monetary cost to a choice, we must pick the "best" use of the resource and give up the next alternative. Both A and C are true about scarcity.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-01 Explain the meaning of scarcity.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

141. Factors of production are:

A. the laws that regulate manufacturers.

B. the technological innovations available to companies.

C. the resources used to create output.

D. the waste left over after goods are produced.

Factors of production are the resource inputs used to produce goods and services.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

142. Opportunity cost is:

A. the value of the best alternative that you give up.

B. the most desired goods and services that are foregone in order to obtain something else.

C. what you sacrifice in order to do something.

D. All of the above are true.

Opportunity cost is described by all of these.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-02 Define opportunity cost.
Topic: The Central Problem of Scarcity

143. Which of the three basic economic questions deals with choosing the correct mix of output?

A. What to produce.

B. How to produce.

C. For whom to produce.

D. How much to charge.

What to produce refers to choosing the mix of output.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

144. Economic growth means:

A. an increase in imports.

B. an expansion of production possibilities outward.

C. an increase in population.

D. Both A and B are true.

Economic growth involves an outward shift of production possibilities.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-03 Recite society's three core economic questions.
Topic: Three Basic Economic Questions

145. What is the determining factor of the market mechanism?

A. The price of the good.

B. The government.

C. The presence of foreigners.

D. None of the above is true.

The price of the good is the determining factor in a market.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

146. Consumers play a part in the market mechanism by:

A. writing letters to firms asking for certain products.

B. buying goods that they both desire and can afford.

C. voting for their favorite politician.

D. producing the output that firms pay them to produce.

As firms see the sales and prices of certain goods rise, they will produce more of these goods.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-04 Discuss how market and command economies differ.
Topic: The Mechanisms of Choice

147. Which of these is an example of a market failure?

A. Too few doctors and hospitals in rural areas.

B. Too much pollution in urban areas.

C. Too many people living in poverty.

D. All of these are correct.

Each of these answers illustrates an externality that causes too much or too little of a product to be provided by the market.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

148. Market failure is:

A. when the market does not provide the "best" answers to the basic economic questions.

B. when the market doesn’t always produce the "right" amount of output.

C. when the government fails to improve market outcomes.

D. Both A and B are true.

Market failure is described by both of these.

AACSB: Analytic
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 01-05 Describe the nature of market and government failure.
Topic: What Economics is All About

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