Multiple Choice
1. Which of the following is an example of quantitative data?
a.
the player’s number on a baseball uniform
b.
the serial number on a one-dollar bill
c.
the part number of an inventory item
d.
the number of people in a waiting line
ANSWER:
d
POINTS:
1
2. Which of the following is not an example of descriptive statistics?
a histogram depicting the age distribution for 30 randomly selected students
an estimate of the number of Alaska residents who have visited Canada
a table summarizing the data collected in a sample of new-car buyers
the proportion of mailed-out questionnaires that were returned
b
3. Which of the following is an example of categorical data?
social security number
score on a multiple-choice exam
height, in meters, of a diving board
number of square feet of carpet
a
4. The number observations in a complete data set having 10 elements and 5 variables is
5
10
25
50
5. Facts and figures that are collected, analyzed and summarized for presentation and interpretation are
data
variables
elements
Both variables and elements are correct.
6. The entities on which data are collected are
populations
sets
samples
7. The set of measurements collected for a particular element is (are) called
census
observations
c
8. A characteristic of interest for the elements is called a(n)
sample
data set
variable
observation
9. All the data collected in a particular study are referred to as the
inference
10. In a data set, the number of observations will always be the same as the number of
data sets
11. Which of the following is NOT a scale of measurement?
nominal
ordinal
interval
All of these are scales of measurement.
12. When the data are labels or names used to identify an attribute of the elements, the variable has which scale of measurement?
ratio
13. When the data are labels or names used to identify an attribute of the elements and the rank of the data is meaningful, the variable has which scale of measurement?
14. When the data have the properties of ordinal data and the interval between observations is expressed in terms of a fixed unit of measure, the variable has which scale of measurement?
15. When the data have the properties of interval data and the ratio of two values is meaningful, the variable has which scale of measurement?
16. Which scale of measurement can be either numeric or nonnumeric?
nominal and ordinal
17. Which of the following variables use the interval scale of measurement?
name of stock exchange
time
SAT scores
Social Security number
18. Which of the following variables use the ratio scale of measurement?
19. Quantitative data
are always nonnumeric
may be either numeric or nonnumeric
are always numeric
are always labels
20. Categorical data
indicate either how much or how many
21. Categorical data
can not be numeric
are labels used to identify attributes of elements
must be nonnumeric
22. Ordinary arithmetic operations are meaningful
only with categorical data
only with quantitative data
either with quantitative or categorical data
with rank data
23. Arithmetic operations are inappropriate for
categorical data
quantitative data
both categorical and quantitative data
large data sets
24. In a questionnaire, respondents are asked to mark their gender as male or female. Gender is an example of a
categorical variable
quantitative variable
categorical or quantitative variable, depending on how the respondents answered the question
ratio variable
25. In a questionnaire, respondents are asked to record their age in years. Age is an example of a
26. In an application for a credit card, potential customers are asked for their social security numbers. A social security number is an example of a
27. Temperature is an example of
a categorical variable
a quantitative variable
either a quantitative or categorical variable
neither a quantitative nor categorical variable
28. For ease of data entry into a university database, 1 denotes that the student is an undergraduate and 2 indicates that the student is a graduate student. In this case data are
categorical
quantitative
either categorical or quantitative
neither categorical nor quantitative
29. Income is an example of
either categorical or quantitative data
currency data
30. The birth weight of newborns, measured in grams, is an example of
neither categorical nor quantitative data
31. The weight of a ball bearing, measured in milligrams, is an example of
32. The profits earned by a particular Fortune 500 company, measured in millions of dollars, is an example of
33. Data collected at the same, or approximately the same, point in time are
time series data
static data
cross-sectional data
one-dimensional data
34. Data collected over several time periods are
time controlled data
time dependent data
35. Statistical studies in which researchers do not control variables of interest are
experimental studies
uncontrolled experimental studies
not of any value
observational studies
36. Statistical studies in which researchers control variables of interest are
control observational studies
non experimental studies
37. __________ is an example of an existing source of data.
An experimental study
An uncontrolled experimental study
U. S. Census Bureau
An observational study
38. Which of the following is NOT an example of an existing source of data?
The Internet
Internal company records
All of these are examples of existing sources of data.
39. Which of the following is NOT an example of a firm that sells or leases business database services to clients?
Dun & Bradstreet
Bloomberg
All of these answers are examples of firms that sell or lease business database services to clients.
40. The most common type of observational study is
an experiment
a survey
a debate
a statistical inference
41. The summaries of data, which may be tabular, graphical, or numerical, are referred to as
inferential statistics
descriptive statistics
statistical inference
report generation
42. A Scanner Data User Survey of 50 companies found that the average amount spent on scanner data per category of consumer goods was $387,325 (Mercer Management Consulting, Inc., April 24, 1997). The $387,325 is an example of
a descriptive statistic
Both quantitative data and a descriptive statistic are correct.
43. Statistical inference
refers to the process of drawing inferences about the sample based on the characteristics of the population
is the same as descriptive statistics
is the process of drawing inferences about the population based on the information taken from the sample
is the same as a census
44. The collection of all elements of interest in a particular study is
the population
the sampling
45. A portion of the population selected to represent the population is called
a census
a sample
46. In a sample of 800 students in a university, 360, or 45%, live in the dormitories. The 45% is an example of
a population
47. In a sample of 800 students in a university, 160, or 20%, are Business majors. Based on the above information, the school's paper reported that "20% of all the students at the university are Business majors." This report is an example of
48. Six hundred residents of a city are polled to obtain information on voting intentions in an upcoming city election. The six hundred residents in this study is an example of a(n)
population
49. A statistics professor asked students in a class their ages. On the basis of this information, the professor states that the average age of all the students in the university is 21 years. This is an example of
50. The owner of a factory regularly requests a graphical summary of all employees' salaries. The graphical summary of salaries is an example of
51. The Department of Transportation of a city has noted that on the average there are 14 accidents per day. The average number of accidents is an example of
Exhibit 1-1In a recent study based upon an inspection of 200 homes in Daisy City, 120 were found to violate one or more city codes.
52. Refer to Exhibit 1-1. The city manager released a statement that 60% of Daisy City's 3,000 homes are in violation of city codes. The manager's statement is an example of
53. Refer to Exhibit 1-1. The Daisy City study described above is an example of the use of a
probability
54. Refer to Exhibit 1-1. The manager's statement that 60% of Daisy City's 3,000 homes are in violation of city codes is
an exactly correct statement
only an approximation, since it is based upon sample information
obviously wrong, since it is based upon a study of only 200 homes
None of the other answers are correct.
Exhibit 1-2In a sample of 3,200 registered voters, 1,440, or 45%, approve of the way the President is doing his job.
55. Refer to Exhibit 1-2. The 45% approval is an example of
56. Refer to Exhibit 1-2. A political pollster states, "Forty five percent of all voters approve of the President." This statement is an example of
57. The process of analyzing sample data in order to draw conclusions about the characteristics of a population is called
data analysis
data summarization
58. In a post office, the mailboxes are numbered from 1 to 5,000. These numbers represent
59. The average age in a sample of 90 students at City College is 20. As a result of this sample, it can be concluded that the average age of all the students at City College
must be more than 20, since the population is always larger than the sample
must be less than 20, since the sample is only a part of the population
could not be 20
could be larger, smaller, or equal to 20
60. Since a sample is a subset of the population, the sample mean
is always smaller than the mean of the population
is always larger than the mean of the population
must be equal to the mean of the population
can be larger, smaller, or equal to the mean of the population
61. Since a sample is a subset of the population, a percentage that is calculated from the sample data
is always smaller than the corresponding percentage from the population
is always larger than the corresponding percentage from the population
must be equal to the corresponding percentage from the population
can be larger, smaller, or equal to the corresponding percentage from the population
62. A sample of five Fortune 500 companies showed the following revenues ($ millions): 7505.0, 2904.7, 7208.4, 6819.0, and 19500.0. Based on this information, which of the following statements is correct?
An estimate of the average revenue for all Fortune 500 companies is 8787.42 ($ millions).
The average revenue for all Fortune 500 companies is 8787.42 ($ millions).
Over half of all Fortune 500 companies earn at least 7208.4 ($ millions) in revenues.
If five other Fortune 500 companies were chosen, the average revenue would be 8787.42 ($ millions).
63. A sample of five Fortune 500 companies showed the following industry codes: banking, banking, finance, retail, and banking. Based on this information, which of the following statements is correct?
Sixty percent of the sample of five companies are banking industries.
Sixty percent of all Fortune 500 companies are banking industries.
Banking is the most common type of industry among all Fortune 500 companies.
If five other Fortune 500 companies were chosen, 60% of them would be banking industries.
64. __________ is a spreadsheet package.
Statistical inference
The bar chart
The New York Stock Exchange
Microsoft Excel
65. Dr. Kurt Thearling, a leading practitioner in the field, defines data mining as “the _________ extraction of _________ information from databases”.
thorough, insightful
timely, accurate
automated, predictive
intentional, useful
66. The major applications of data mining have been made by companies with a strong _______ focus.
consumer
manufacturing
exporting
research and development
67. Quantitative data that measure how many are ________; quantitative data that measure how much are ________.
interval; ratio
ratio; interval
continuous; discrete
discrete; continuous
68. Flight time from Cincinnati to Atlanta is an example of a _______ variable and _______ measurement.
discrete, interval
discrete, ratio
continuous, interval
continuous, ratio
69. Which of the following is not a categorical variable?
your age on your last birthday
your cell phone area code
your accounting class start time
your high school graduation year
70. Categorical data use either the ______ or ______ scale of measurement.
nominal, ordinal
nominal, interval
ordinal, interval
interval, ratio
71. The largest experimental statistical study ever conducted is believed to be for
Cholera
Polio
Diphtheria
Malaria
72. The term data warehousing is used to refer to the process of doing all of the following except
mining the data
capturing the data
storing the data
maintaining the data
73. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts a census every
4 years
5 years
8 years
10 years
Subjective Short Answer
74. After the graduation ceremonies at a university, six graduates were asked whether they were in favor of (identified by 1) or against (identified by 0) abortion. Some information about these graduates is shown below.
Graduate
Sex
Age
Abortion Issue
Class Rank
Nancy
F
22
3
Michael
M
21
2
Tammy
33
0
John
38
20
Marlene
4
David
19
8
How many elements are in the data set?
How many variables are in the data set?
How many observations are in the data set?
Name the scale of measurement for each of the above (Sex, Age, Abortion Issue, Class rank).
e.
Which of the above (Sex, Age, Abortion Issue, Class rank) are categorical and which are quantitative variables?
f.
Are arithmetic operations appropriate for the variable "abortion issue"?
6
Sex: nominal
Age: ratio
Abortion Issue: nominal
Class rank: ordinal
Sex: categorical
Age: quantitative
Abortion Issue: categorical
Class Rank: categorical
No
75. An issue of Fortune Magazine reported that the following companies had the lowest sales per employee among the Fortune 500 companies.
Company
Sales per Employee ($1000s)
Sales Rank
Seagate Technology
$42.20
285
SSMC
42.19
414
Russell
41.99
480
Maxxam
40.88
485
Dibrell Brothers
22.56
470
How many elements are in the above data set?
How many variables are in the above data set?
How many observations are in the above data set?
Name the scale of measurement for each of the variables.
Name the variables and indicate whether they are categorical or quantitative.
Sales per employee: ratio; Sales rank: ordinal
Sales per employee: quantitative; Sales rank: categorical
76. The following shows the temperatures (high, low) and weather conditions in a given Sunday for some selected world cities. For the weather conditions, the following notations are used: c = clear; cl = cloudy; sh = showers; pc = partly cloudy.
City
Hi
Lo
Condition
Acapulco
99
77
pc
Bangkok
92
78
Mexico City
57
sh
Montreal
72
56
Paris
58
Rome
88
68
cl
Toronto
61
How many elements are in this data set?
How many variables are in this data set?
How many observations are in this data set?
For which variables are arithmetic operations appropriate and for which are they not appropriate?
7
Hi: interval, Lo: interval, Condition: nominal
Hi: quantitative, Lo: quantitative, Condition: categorical
Hi: appropriate, Lo: appropriate, Condition: not appropriate
77. A magazine surveyed a sample of its subscribers. Some of the responses from the survey are shown below.
Annual Household
Subscriber ID
Income ($1000)
0006
45
4798
53
2291
82
4988
30
Which of the above (Sex, Age, Annual Household Income) are categorical and which are quantitative?
Are the data time series or cross-sectional?
Sex: nominal, Age: ratio, Annual Household Income: ratio
Sex: categorical, Age: quantitative, Annual Household Income: quantitative
cross-sectional
78. A magazine surveys a sample of its subscribers every year. Some of the responses are shown below.
Percent
Average
Average Annual
Year
Female
Household Income ($1000)
1996
5.8
35.2
40
1997
8.6
35.8
42
1998
7.3
33.9
41
1999
9.2
35.3
43
2000
9.8
36.6
46
Name the scale of measurement for each variable.
Which of the above (Year, Percent Female, Average Age, Average Annual Household Income) are categorical and which are quantitative?
Year: interval, Percent Female: ratio, Average Age: ratio, Average Annual Household Income: ratio
all are quantitative
time series
79. The following data shows the yearly income distribution of a sample of 200 employees at MNM, Inc.
Yearly Income ($1000s)
Number of Employees
20 − 24
25 − 29
48
30 − 34
60
35 − 39
80
40 − 44
What percentage of employees has yearly incomes of more than $35,000?
Is the figure (percentage) that you computed in Part a an example of statistical inference? If no, what kind of statistics does it represent?
Based on this sample, the president of the company said that "45% of all our employees' yearly incomes are over $35,000." The president's statement represents what kind of statistics?
With the statement made in Part c, can we be assured that more than 45% of all employees' yearly incomes are at least $35,000? Explain.
What percentage of employees of the sample has yearly incomes of $29,000 or less?
How many variables are presented in the above data set?
g.
The above data set represents the results of how many observations?
45%
No, it is descriptive statistics.
No, this is simply an inference and approximation based on the sample information.
25%
200
80. A recent issue of a national magazine reported that in a national public opinion survey conducted among 2,000 individuals, 56% were in favor of gun control, 40% opposed gun control, and 4% had no opinion on the subject.
What is the sample in this survey?
Based on the sample, what percentage of the population would you think is in favor of gun control?
Based on the sample, what percentage of the population would you think have no opinion on the subject?
The 2000 individuals who were approached
56%
4%
81. A pharmaceutical company is performing clinical trials on a new drug that is intended to relieve symptoms for allergy sufferers. Twelve percent of the 300 clinical trial participants experienced the side effect dry mouth.
What is the population being studied?
What is the sample being studied?
Based on the sample, what percentage of the population do you think would suffer from dry mouth?
All allergy sufferers
The 300 participants
12%
82. A polling organization conducts a telephone poll of 850 registered voters and asks which candidate they will vote for in the upcoming presidential election. Forty-three percent of the respondents prefer candidate A and 45% prefer candidate B.
Based on the sample, what percentage of the population do you think would vote for candidate B?
All registered voters
The 850 registered voters who were polled
83. The following table shows the starting salaries of a sample of recent business graduates.
Income (In $1,000s)
Number of Graduates
15 − 19
18
What percentage of graduates in the sample had starting salaries of at least $30,000?
Of the graduates in the sample, what percentage had starting salaries of less than $25,000?
Based on this sample, what percentage of all business graduates do you estimate to have starting salaries of at least $20,000?
10%
50%
80%
84. Michael, Inc., a manufacturer of electric guitars, is a small firm with 50 employees. The table below shows the hourly wage distribution of the employees.
Hourly Wages (In Dollars)
10 − 13
14 − 17
12
18 − 21
22 − 25
How many employees receive hourly wages of at least $18?
What percentage of the employees has hourly wages of at least $18?
What percentage of the employees has hourly wages of less than $14?
60%
16%
85. Laura Naples, Manager of Heritage Inn, periodically collects and tabulates information about a sample of the hotel’s overnight guests. This information aids her in planning and scheduling decisions she must make. The table below lists data on ten randomly selected hotel registrants, collected as the registrants checked out. The data listed for each registrant are: number of people in the group; birth date of person registering; shuttle service used, yes or no; total telephone charges incurred; and reason for stay, business or personal.
Name ofRegistrant
PeopleIn Group
BirthDate(mm/dd/yy)
ShuttleUsed
TelephoneCharges
ReasonFor Stay
Adam Norquist
05/07/59
yes
$0.00
personal
Mica Pepper
11/23/48
no
12.46
business
Claude Shepler
04/30/73
1.20
Amy Rodriquez
12/16/71
2.90
Tony DiMarco
05/09/39
0.00
Amy Franklin
09/14/69
4.65
Tammy Roberts
04/22/66
9.35
Ed Blackstone
10/28/54
2.10
Mary Silverman
11/12/49
1.85
Todd Atherton
01/30/62
5.80
a. How many elements are there in the data set?b. How many variables are there in the data set?c. How many observations are there in the data set?d. What are the observations for the second element listed?e. What is the total number of measurements in the data set?
f. Which variables are quantitative?g. Which variables are qualitative?h. What is the scale of measurement for each of the variables?i. Does the data set represent cross-sectional or times series data?j. Does the data set represent an experimental or an observational study?
a. 10 elementsb. 5 variablesc. 10 observations
d. 4, 11/23/48, no, 12.46, business
e. 50f. people in group, telephone chargesg. birth date, shuttle used, reason for stay
h. people in group – ratio scale, birth date – ordinal scale, shuttle use – nominal, telephone charge – ratio scale, reason for stay – nominal scale
i. cross-sectionalj. observational
86. Suppose the current weather report for your area contains the following information. Specify the measurement scale for each of the variables.
Temperature
84^{o}
Wind Speed
10 mph
Wind Direction
(from the) South
Sky Description
Sunny
Molds Level
High
Temperature - intervalWind Speed - ratioWind Direction - nominalSky Description - nominalMolds Level - ordinal
87. Molly Porter owns and operates two convenience stores, one on the East side of the city and the other on the South side. She has workforce-planning decisions to make and has collected some recent sales data that are relevant to her decisions. Listed below are the monthly sales ($000) at her two stores for the past six months.
Store
March
April
May
June
July
August
East
102
100
103
105
109
106
South
74
81
86
93
a. Is the data set cross-sectional or time series data? Explain.b. Comment on any apparent patterns you see in the data.
a. Time series data for two variables: monthly sales for East store and monthly sales for South store.b. Both stores have been experiencing an overall rise in sales during the past six months. The South store’s increase in sales (as a percentage of sales) has been greater than the East store’s increase. The increases might be temporary, due to the seasonal nature of demand. It is also possible that the increases will continue.
88. Cortland Software, Inc. surveyed a sample of its programmers and recorded the following data on their: age, gender, years of programming experience, whether or not they have a master’s degree, and annual salary.
Programmer
Gender
Years of
Experience
Master’s
Degree
Salary
32
Male
$59,450
27
Yes
62,750
31
65,820
37
Males
54,620
29
61,900
48,370
Age: ratio; MorF: nominal; Exper.: ratio; Degree: nominal; Salary: ratio
Cross-sectional
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