Test Bank Essentials of Organizational Behavior 2nd Edition by Terri A. Scandura A+

$35.00
Test Bank Essentials of Organizational Behavior 2nd Edition by Terri A. Scandura A+

Test Bank Essentials of Organizational Behavior 2nd Edition by Terri A. Scandura A+

$35.00
Test Bank Essentials of Organizational Behavior 2nd Edition by Terri A. Scandura A+

Chapter 1: What Is Organizational Behavior?

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. Modern organizational behavior studies started with ______.

A. a 2008 to 2010 Gallup study

B. Frederick Taylor in the 1900s

C. Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Studies

D. Chester Barnard

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in Organizational Situations

2. The Hawthorne researchers discovered that for workers ______ was more important than previously known in understanding performance.

A. an incentive system

B. the human element

C. standards of production

D. dimmed lights

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in Organizational Situations

3. Organizational behavior is the study of ______.

A. strategic management processes

B. information technology

C. individuals at home

D. individuals and their behaviors at work

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

4. Leadership and organizational behavior falls under the category of ______ psychology.

A. cognitive

B. developmental

C. applied social

D. personality

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Disciplines Contributing to Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

5. Kristen manages a group of workers. She wants to see how her employees would handle positive responses to their attitudes and performances. This is called ______.

A. Taylorism

B. the Hawthorne effect

C. scientific management

D. Gallup study

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

6. Applied social psychology is the science of ______.

A. how people address significant challenges

B. how people interact in groups

C. how people address insignificant challenges and interact in groups

D. how people interact in groups and address significant challenges

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Disciplines Contributing to Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

7. Goals of science are ______.

A. description, analysis, explanation, control

B. description, prediction, explanation, control

C. analysis, prediction, explanation, control

D. explanation, control, evidence, description

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: From Theory to Practice

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

8. Evidence-based management (EBM) can be defined as ______.

A. the ability to translate research to practice

B. the ability to translate practice to research

C. the ability to translate theory to research

D. the ability to translate research to theory

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: From Theory to Practice

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

9. Which of the following is a discipline that organizational behavior draws from?

A. social media

B. mathematics

C. information technology

D. applied psychology

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

10. Empathy wages refers to ______.

A. sick pay

B. gifts to employees

C. bereavement pay

D. performance incentives

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

11. Evidence-based management is originally from the field of ______.

A. management

B. psychology

C. medicine

D. science

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

12. Which of the following is one of the sources of information for EBM?

A. the best available hypothetical evidence

B. the best available statistical evidence

C. the best available stakeholder evidence

D. the best available organizational evidence

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

13. Which of the following is a standard for leaders asking questions using EBM?

A. be accepting of “breakthrough” ideas

B. discourage collective brilliance

C. stop treating old ideas like new ones

D. always trust new claims of management principles

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

14. How is EBM different in the global world than in North America?

A. Nothing differs.

B. Everything differs.

C. One needs to question if the North American EBM will apply abroad.

D. One does not need to question things before going overseas.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Managing in a global context

15. Critical thinking has been around ______.

A. since the 1950s

B. since the ancient Greeks

C. since the 1900s

D. since World War I

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Managing in a global context

16. With regard to EBM, leaders are encouraged to emphasize drawbacks as well as ______.

A. failures

B. hindrances

C. virtues

D. deal breakers

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

17. Being able to illustrate sound practices is important but it should never replace ______ with regard to EBM.

A. valid research methods

B. old theories

C. critical thinking

D. scientific management

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

18. How are ideologies and theories viewed when it comes to EBM?

A. with great care

B. with neutrality

C. with concern

D. with reluctance

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

19. How does EBM improve a leader’s decisions?

A. It encourages taking everything into consideration.

B. It encourages taking nothing into consideration.

C. It encourages being disciplined with application and using current and relevant scientific evidence.

D. It encourages taking advice from peers and subordinates.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

20. Fanta has just recently been promoted to a new leadership role with her company. She wants to make sure that she takes the right steps when making decisions. What should she avoid using?

A. evidence-based management

B. critical thinking

C. collective brilliance

D. relying on sound practice without research

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

21. Critical thinking is ______.

A. group-directed

B. self-disciplined

C. group monitored

D. self-damaging

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What is Critical Thinking?

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

22. Which of the following should be used with critical thinking?

A. illogical deductions

B. looking at reasons or evidence

C. arguing against an idea

D. drawing biased conclusions

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What is Critical Thinking?

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

23. Skills for critical thinking should include ______.

A. biases

B. self-awareness

C. passivity

D. undisciplined thinking

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What is Critical Thinking?

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

24. Paolo has a reputation for making some bad decisions. What is one thing he could do to help with his critical thinking skills?

A. dismiss the credibility of sources

B. neglect evidence

C. ignore alternatives

D. recognize relationships

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: What is Critical Thinking?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

25. Mitroff says that the following question should be asked, ______.

A. What country are we in?

B. What is our organization?

C. Are our products and services unethical?

D. How will the outside world perceive our actions?

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: What is Critical Thinking?

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

26. What are the steps in the scientific method used for organizational behavior?

A. problem statement, review scientific evidence, observations, hypothesis, evaluate and draw conclusions

B. problem statement, hypothesis, review scientific evidence, observations, evaluate and draw conclusions

C. review scientific evidence, hypothesis, observations, evaluate and draw conclusions, problem statement

D. observe, question, develop hypotheses/predictions, collect data, statistically analyze, repeat as needed

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the scientific method used in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

27. One of the most important outcomes of organizational behavior is ______.

A. environment

B. productivity

C. relations

D. workload

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

28. Performance or job productivity can be defined as ______.

A. determining how well someone gets along with their coworkers

B. determining how much someone knows about the organization they work for

C. determining how much work someone gets done during a regular work day

D. determining how well someone does at his or her required work tasks

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

29. Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is ______.

A. how employees show they go above and beyond at work

B. how employees show they do just the bare minimum to get by at work

C. how employees show they do less the required at work

D. how much fun employees have at work

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

30. Emmanuel wants to know how his employees are enjoying the new processes and procedures he has implemented since taking over the department. The best way for him to measure work-related attitudes is to ______.

A. measure employee motivation and employee withdrawal

B. measure job performance and employee motivation

C. measure job satisfaction and job performance

D. measure job satisfaction and employee engagement

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

31. Commonly studied organizational behavior outcome variables are ______.

A. performance, work-related attitudes, employee engagement, and employee withdrawal

B. performance, work-related attitudes, motivation, and employee withdrawal and well-being

C. work-related attitudes, motivation, employee withdrawal, and job satisfaction

D. performance, motivation, employee withdrawal, and employee engagement

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

32. Which of the following is a form of motivation?

A. extrinsic

B. superficial

C. monetary

D. organizational

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

33. Prosocial motivation is ______.

A. a new concept of motivation that assesses the degree of how employees behave that benefits no one

B. a new concept of motivation that assesses the degree of how employees behave that benefits everyone

C. the first concept of motivation that assesses the degree of how employees behave that benefits themselves

D. the newest concept of motivation that assesses the degree of how employees behave that benefits themselves

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

34. Hillary has just taken a course in Organizational Behavior for her MBA and wants to apply what she has learned about motivating employees at work. Hillary wants to develop the best type of motivation for her employees, which is ______.

A. instinctive

B. intrinsic

C. prosocial

D. power

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

35. Turnover intentions and turnover are forms of ______.

A. motivation

B. employee withdrawal

C. performance

D. work-related attitudes

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

36. Employee withdrawal happens with ______.

A. absenteeism

B. poor job market

C. high job satisfaction

D. high engagement

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

37. Fatima has recently taken over as manager of the customer service department of ABC Manufacturing. She has been reviewing turnover reports trying to identify the reason for turnover within the department. She can rule the following out as a reason ______.

A. low job satisfaction

B. poor job market

C. increased employee engagement

D. low employee morale

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

38. Job performance can be regarded as ______.

A. the least important outcome of OB

B. one of the most important outcomes of OB

C. neither important nor unimportant

D. varies depending on the organization

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

39. Which of the following is a type of outcome variable that organizational behavior researchers have studied?

A. performance

B. societal attitudes

C. employee investment

D. EBM

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

40. Prediction is an important component of theory because it allows ______.

A. people to see what the process looks like

B. people to think about what will happen in the future

C. people to think about what is currently happening

D. people to think of what can or cannot be changed

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

41. Ricky has learned about EBM and decided to start using it within his department. The first thing he should do is to ______.

A. implement ideas from “breakthrough” studies without hesitation

B. work on the development of collective brilliance

C. realize that old ideas are old ideas and should be treated that way

D. show favoritism to new ideas and theories

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

42. Organizational behavior comprises all of the following areas EXCEPT ______.

A. behavior in groups and teams

B. understanding individuals in organizations

C. the role of leaders as motivators

D. the role of technology in organizations

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-7: Develop plans for using OB research to improve employee job performance.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: How OB Research Increases Employee Performance

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

43. Work-related attitudes can be defined as ______.

A. how others view an employee at work

B. how an employee views his or her own feelings about work

C. how management views an employee at work

D. how an employee gets along with others at work

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

44. Turnover intentions are described as ______.

A. why employees think about leaving an organization

B. why employees leave an organization

C. why employees come to an organization

D. why employees take sick days with no good reasons

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

45. Group and team level analysis are important for organizational behavior because ______.

A. an individual can encourage a group or team to perform highly in the workplace

B. a group or team can encourage a group or team member to perform at their best

C. the organizational culture can encourage high levels of individual performance

D. an individual can discourage a group or team to perform highly in the workplace

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-6: Compare the levels of analysis in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Levels of Analysis in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

46. Turnover intentions is best defined as ______.

A. consistently being absent from work with reason

B. being at work at all times

C. reasons why employees think about quitting

D. being at work with a negative attitude

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

47. The dyad level is best described as ______.

A. the most basic level

B. examples similarities between people’s behaviors

C. the relationship between two individuals

D. the most complicated level

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-6: Compare the levels of analysis in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Levels of Analysis in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

48. An example of the group and team level is ______.

A. individuals who do not work toward a common goal

B. a team that has high-performance norms that encourage a team member to perform at their best

C. cultural characteristics that have a profound influence on an individual member’s behavior

D. comparisons are made across different industries

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-6: Compare the levels of analysis in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Levels of Analysis in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

49. Which of the following is recognized as a level of analysis in organizational behavior research?

A. emotional

B. social

C. industry

D. dynamic

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-6: Compare the levels of analysis in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Analysis in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

50. According to a recent Gallup study, the primary reason listed by most employees for being disengaged at work was ______.

A. low pay

B. relationships with coworkers

C. workplace safety

D. their boss

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: A Crisis in Leadership

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

51. The “human relations” aspect became part of organizational behavior ______.

A. before the Hawthorne studies

B. with the Hawthorne studies

C. before Frederick Taylor

D. after Frederick Taylor

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

52. Organizational behavior is most associated with ______.

A. social psychology

B. applied psychology

C. psychology

D. applied social psychology

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

53. Theories and predictions are important in organizational behavior because they ______.

A. ignore prior research and help develop new areas

B. build upon prior research and help develop new areas

C. ignore old and new research

D. develop new research areas

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

54. It is important to take a neutral stance toward ideologies and theories because ______.

A. ideas developed in North America do not apply in the global world

B. it is important to look for ways to have theories developed overseas

C. ideas developed in North America can apply to the global world

D. most management experts are from North America, and should not be ignored

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Managing in a global context

55. Which of the following is a critical thinking skill?

A. self-denial

B. strictness

C. lack of precision

D. rationality

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What is Critical Thinking?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

56. The scientific method is best used in organizational behavior because it allows for ______.

A. leaders to form hypotheses, collect observations, and collect data and test it with statistical techniques

B. leaders to collect observations and data and test it with emotional techniques

C. leaders to form hypotheses and collect data and disregard observations

D. leaders to disprove data and observations and test it with statistical techniques

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the scientific method used in OB research

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

57. Juan is trying to decide which factor to focus on when it comes to the outcome variables of organizational behavior. Out of the four types of outcome variables listed, which one is most important to improve his organization’s productivity?

A. work-related attitudes

B. performance

C. motivation

D. employee withdrawal

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

58. Maddy has been tasked to work on a project dealing with work-related attitudes with her company. She wants to be sure she is using a contemporary attitude variable. She should focus on______.

A. job performance

B. job satisfaction

C. employee engagement

D. organizational citizenship behaviors

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

59. ABC Company is looking at hiring a new leadership team. They want to make sure that they are hiring the best possible people they can find, and that the new leadership team is well versed in organizational behavior. ABC Company should focus on the following skill______.

A. disregarding external forces

B. ineffective communication skills

C. managing poor performance

D. ignoring the impact of global competition

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-7: Develop plans for using OB research to improve employee job performance.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Toward More Effective Organizational Leaders: Plan for This Textbook

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

60. Samantha is working with a mentor and he has recommended that she develop a virtual management toolkit. Her mentor said that the management toolkit will help her become a better manager. Samantha is feeling a little anxious about it all. What recommendation would you give her?

A. take it all in as fast as you can

B. develop a personal leadership plan

C. never mind, a toolkit is not important

D. you can learn it on the fly

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-7: Develop plans for using OB research to improve employee job performance.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Toward More Effective Organizational Leaders: Plan for This Textbook Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

61. A leadership development plan needs to include which of the following______.

A. employee personalities

B. concerns

C. behavior strategies

D. materials

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-7: Develop plans for using OB research to improve employee job performance.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Toward More Effective Organizational Leaders: Plan for This Textbook

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

62. Nisha wants to make sure that she is working her way to her goals. What is the best way for her to assess them?

A. general outcomes

B. measurable outcomes

C. expectations

D. measurable expectations

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-7: Develop plans for using OB research to improve employee job performance.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Toward More Effective Organizational Leaders: Plan for This Textbook

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

63. Putting theory into practice can be difficult if it is not executed properly. The best way to put theory into practice is to ______.

A. control what can happen and be able to explain it

B. describe the problem and predict whether it will happen again or not

C. describe the problem, predict the future, control the change and explain it

D. describe the problem, predict the future, explain it, and decide whether you can control the change

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

64. Critical thinking skills should be used in organizational behavior to ______.

A. sort through information and then prioritize it

B. take all the information found and apply it

C. use all of the information you have heard about

D. don’t question anything that you find

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: What is Critical Thinking?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

65. Job satisfaction includes ______.

A. how happy someone is with his or her job

B. how happy someone is with their spending habits

C. how happy someone is with his or her spouse or partner

D. how happy someone is with his or her coworkers

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

66. Employee withdrawal includes ______.

A. increased training

B. motivation

C. turnover

D. job satisfaction

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

67. There are various levels of analysis when studying organizational behavior. Which of the following is NOT one of the levels?

A. individual level

B. dyad level

C. group level

D. triad level

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-6: Compare the levels of analysis in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Levels of Analysis

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

68. According to a recent survey, what did senior managers indicate was a behavior displayed by high-performing managers?

A. empowering the team

B. takes a hands-off approach to career development

C. does not ask employees about their personal state of well-being

D. allows the team to create their own vision

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Research in Action

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Managing in a global context

69. Chris tends to place a higher value on the extent and weight of evidence; this indicates he is displaying which of the following skills needed of a leader?

A. communication

B. judgment

C. charisma

D. decision-making

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Table 1.1 Critical Thinking Skills

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

70. Where do leaders obtain the best available knowledge on workplace issues?

A. intuition

B. senior managers

C. evidence-based management

D. employee surveys

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

71. What is the first step in the scientific method?

A. review scientific evidence

B. develop a hypothesis

C. evaluate and draw conclusions

D. state the problem

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the scientific method used in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

72. In the statement, “Leader appreciation leads to higher work engagement in employees,” the variable leader appreciation is the ______ variable.

A. independent

B. mediating

C. dependent

D. moderating

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

73. Trisha’s manager told her that while her job performance was strong, she needed to go above and beyond what is listed in the job description. Trisha’s manager is talking about which of the following outcome variables?

A. work-related attitudes

B. organizational citizenship behaviors

C. motivation

D. employee withdrawal

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

74. Which of the following is an example of a dyadic relationship in an organization ______.

A. mentor and protégé

B. supervisor news reporter

C. CEO and top management team

D. trainer and janitor

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-6: Compare the levels of analysis in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Analysis in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

75. The most basic level of analysis in organizational behavior research is ______.

A. dyad level

B. organizational level

C. industry level

D. individual level

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-6: Compare the levels of analysis in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Analysis in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

76. Ezra wants to develop the collective brilliance in his organization. He should employ which of the following methods to best accomplish this?

A. Delphi method

B. gut instinct method

C. experimental method

D. research method

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Best Practices

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

77. Which of the following is the best way to sort through the information provided by evidence-based management (EBM)?

A. delegating to subordinates

B. critical thinking

C. scientific method

D. illustrative stories

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What is Critical Thinking?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

True/False

1. People who hate their jobs do not collectively cost their organization money based on low productivity.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer location: A Crisis of Leadership?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

2. Organizational behavior can be defined as the study of people and their behaviors in the work place.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

3. The Hawthorne effect describes negative responses in attitudes and performance when researchers pay attention to a group of workers as a whole.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Hawthorne Effect

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

4. Providing employees with gifts or empathy wages makes employees feel appreciated.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Hawthorne Effect

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

5. A primary research area for OB scholars is biology.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Applied Social Psychology

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

6. Kurt Lewin has been attributed with saying: “There is nothing as practical as a good theory.”

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: From Theory to Practice

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

7. EBM stands for evidence-based management.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

8. EBM started with the business field and has worked its way into other work fields such as health care and manufacturing.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

9. It is never good to use a success or failure story to illustrate a sound practice.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

10. Critical thinking is not important when it comes to leadership.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What is Critical Thinking?

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

11. Critical thinkers employ a variety of methods to arrive at decisions.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What is Critical Thinking?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Making sound decisions

12. The scientific method process is just as important in OB research as it is in any other research field.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What is Critical Thinking?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

13. OCB stands for organizational corporate behavior.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

14. The group or team level is the most basic level of an organization.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-6: Compare the levels of analysis in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Level of Analysis in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

15. All levels of analysis may have an influence on employee performance.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-6: Compare the levels of analysis in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Level of Analysis in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

16. It is important that organizational leaders communicate effectively to employees, peers, and superiors.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-6: Compare the levels of analysis in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Level of Analysis in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

17. Leaders in today’s organizations do not face challenges in terms of organizational behavior.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Crisis in Leadership?

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

18. Organizational behavior’s main focus is to make organizations more effective.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Disciplines Contributing to Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

19. Job performance outcomes are not important to organizational behavior.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Outcome variables in organizational behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

20. Leaders should be coaches to help with the organizational behavior of an organization.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Plan for This Textbook

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

Essay

1. Explain how the first and second Hawthorne studies have impacted the overall study of organizational behavior.

Ans: The Hawthorne studies showed the human element to be more important than previously thought. In the first study, researchers found that employees were more productive when watched by the researchers. In the second study, researchers found that employees set production standards among themselves in response to a new incentive system. A “human relations” movement followed these studies, and the field of Organizational Behavior had developed by the 1950s.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: What is Organizational Behavior?

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

2. Describe the relevance of applied social psychology to organizational behavior research.

Ans: Applied social psychology studies how people interact in groups and can address significant challenges that organizational leaders face today. Trends such as organizational restructuring and changes in technology have resulted in the need to lead through change. Through the many types of organizational changes, an understanding of social psychology can help leaders understand followers’ motivation, needs, and well-being, as well as maintain productivity and minimize turnover. By understanding psychology, leaders can solve problems and lead change more effectively.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB).

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Disciplines Contributing to Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

3. Define turnover and discuss its impact on the organization.

Ans: Turnover is when an employee quits an organization. Turnover can reduce productivity and cost organizations thousands, if not millions, of dollars through lost revenue opportunities, the cost of training, and more. Turnover can also impact the employees who do not leave, as their workload might change until staffing levels return to normal.

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Outcome variables in organizational behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

4. Describe the four goals of science and how they apply to organizational behavior.

Ans: The four goals of science are description, prediction, explanation, and control. The question “What does the process look like?” achieves the goal of description. Prediction can be achieved by asking, “Will the process occur again? When? Why?” Researchers can work on explanation by asking, “Why is this happening?” Finally, control can be achieved by asking, “Can we change whether or not this happens?” These questions can be asked at all levels of the organization.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define the concept of organizational behavior (OB)

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: From Theory to Practice

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

5. Define hypothesis and explain how it can be used in OB research.

Ans: A hypothesis is a proposed explanation made on the basis of evidence as a starting point for further investigation. A hypothesis can help an organization define what its main issues are and steer leaders in the right direction for researching the issues and collecting data.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Describe the scientific method used in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

6. List and describe the four sources of information that are typically used in evidence-based management.

Ans: EBM uses the following sources of information: The best available scientific evidence--research or articles published on organizational behavior. The best available organizational evidence--interview or surveys by people in an organization. The best available experiential evidence--intuition or experience of an organizations leadership team. Organizational values and stakeholders’ concerns--stock price or groups focus on whether the organization employs environmentally friendly or socially accepted practices.

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

7. List the six standards that upper level management can use when practicing EBM.

Ans: Stop treating old ideas as if they were brand new. Be suspicious of “breakthrough” studies and ideas. Develop and celebrate collect brilliance. Emphasize drawbacks as well as virtues. Use success (and failure) stories to illustrate sound practices but not in place of a valid research method. Adopt a neutral stance toward ideologies and theories.

Learning Objective: 1-2: List and give examples of the four sources of information used in evidence-based management (EBM).

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Evidence-Based Management

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

8. Define critical thinking.

Ans: Critical thinking examines beliefs in the light of evidence, and involves using justification; recognizing relationships; evaluating the credibility of sources; looking at reasons or evidence; drawing inferences; identifying alternatives, logical deductions, sequences, and order; and defending an idea.

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: What is Critical Thinking?

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Thinking creatively

9. Describe what outcome variables are and why they are used in the study of OB.

Ans: The five outcome variables are performance, work-related attitudes, motivation, employee well-being, and employee withdrawal. It is very important to assess performance to see how employees and management are doing. Management needs to understand work-related attitudes to know how employees feel about their job, their coworkers and the organization. Motivation is used in OB because if an organization understands what motivates its employees, productivity can increase. Employee well-being studies examine outcomes such as emotional exhaustion, psychosomatic health complaints, and physical health symptoms. Recent research has shown that leaders not doing their job (i.e., passive leadership) undermines employee well-being because having a weak leader increases role stress and depletes employees’ psychological resources for coping with the stress. An organization needs to understand employee withdrawal, because an employee quitting the organization is costly in terms of the money and time spent to recruit, hire, and train replacements.

Learning Objective: 1-5: Discuss five types of outcome variables studied in OB.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Outcome Variables in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

10. Identify the various levels of analysis within organizational behavior.

Ans: Individual, dyad, group and team, and organizational and industry.

Learning Objective: 1-6: Compare the levels of analysis in OB research.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Levels of Analysis in Organizational Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

AACSB Standard: Integrating knowledge across fields

11. Describe some external pressures that organizational leaders face in this day and age.

Ans: Varies, but may include mergers, downsizing, restructuring, layoffs, global competition, product obsolescence, new technology, government mandates, demographic changes, or other pressures.

Learning Objective: 1-3: Define critical thinking, and explain the critical thinking skills leaders need.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Plan for This Textbook

Difficulty Level: Hard

AACSB Standard: Leading in organizational situations

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