Test Bank Essentials of Physical Anthropology 10th Edition Robert Jurmain A+

$35.00
Test Bank Essentials of Physical Anthropology 10th Edition Robert Jurmain A+

Test Bank Essentials of Physical Anthropology 10th Edition Robert Jurmain A+

$35.00
Test Bank Essentials of Physical Anthropology 10th Edition Robert Jurmain A+
  1. The order Primates includes all of the following except:
    1. tarsiers.
    2. marsupials.
    3. monkeys.
      1. humans.
      2. prosimians.

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: Introduction

  1. Which statement is not true of human culture?
  2. It includes such things as technology, language, religion, and gender roles.
  3. It is genetically determined.
  4. It plays a critical role in human evolution.
  5. All people are products of human culture.
  6. It is learned.

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: Biocultural Evolution

  1. What is a relativistic view of culture and why is it important in anthropology?

ANSWER: It is an approach that allows anthropology to view other cultures from a broader perspective, by viewing them as they relate to something else. It is very important because our world is increasingly interdependent.

REFERENCES: The Anthropological Perspective

  1. Which subdiscipline of anthropology is concerned with various aspects of human language?
  2. Ethnology
  3. Applied anthropology
  4. Primatology
  5. Anthropometry
  6. Linguistic anthropology

ANSWER: e

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

  1. Define the term biocultural evolution.

ANSWER: It is the mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture.

REFERENCES: Biocultural Evolution

  1. Which of the following includes genetic alterations within populations?
  2. Anatomy
  3. Macroevolution
  4. Microevolution
  5. Osteology
  6. Paleopathology

ANSWER: c

REFERENCES: Introduction

  1. The anthropological perspective proposes to broaden our viewpoint though time and space.
  2. True
  3. False

ANSWER: True

REFERENCES: The Anthropological Perspective

  1. Which specialty focuses specifically on the study of skeletal material?
  2. Osteology
  3. Paleoanthropology
  4. Paleopathology
  5. Forensic anthropology
  6. Molecular anthropology

ANSWER: a

REFERENCES: What is Anthropology?

  1. What is meant by the term biocultural evolution?
  2. Changes in human culture from generation to generation
  3. Biological evolution in all species except humans
  4. Biological changes in a species over time
  5. The influence of genetic engineering on culture
  6. The interaction between biology and culture in human evolution

ANSWER: e

REFERENCES: Biocultural Evolution

  1. is the study of human anatomical and behavioral evolution as evidenced by the fossil record.
  2. Osteology
  3. Paleopathology
  4. Anthropometry
  5. Primatology
  6. Paleoanthropology

ANSWER: e

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

11.Forensic anthropology is an applied subfield which benefits from a background in physical anthropology.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

12.What are the primary steps involved in the scientific method?

ANSWER: It involves formulating a question, doing background research on what others have done on the subject, determining a hypothesis, developing a research design or methodology, collecting data and doing very precise analysis to test the hypothesis.

REFERENCES: Physical Anthropology and the Scientific Method

13.Which of the following is not an important reason why primatology has become increasingly important since the late 1950s?

  1. Nonhuman primates are our closest living relatives.
  2. Through primatology we can better address the needs of primitive humans.
  3. The behavioral studies of any species provide a wealth of data on adaptation.
    1. Many nonhuman primates are threatened or seriously endangered.
    2. Behavioral studies have implications for understanding natural forces that have shaped human behavior.

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

14.Which is not true about paleoanthropology?

  1. Its goal is to identify the various human ancestors.
  2. It is a valid way to conduct anthropology.
  3. It is the study of human evolution.
  4. It includes the fossils of ancient reptiles and amphibians.
  5. It attempts to gain insights into human adaptation and behavior.

ANSWER: d

REFERENCES: What is Anthropology?

  1. is the practical application of the subfields of anthropology.
    1. Linguistics
    2. Applied Anthropology
      1. Archaeology
      2. Physical Anthropology
      3. Cultural Anthropology

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

16.Archaeologists:

  1. are interested in human behavior when it pertains to osteology.
  2. only examine complex civilizations that have left architectural ruins.
  3. focus primarily on biological imperatives.
  4. never work with physical anthropology.
  5. study earlier human groups using artifacts and structures as their evidence.

ANSWER: e

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

17.What are the four major subfields of anthropology?

ANSWER: The subfields are Cultural Anthropology, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Physical (or Biological) Anthropology.

REFERENCES: Introduction

18.What is the role of the scientific method in physical anthropology? Discuss the various steps and how they might be applied to a specific case study in physical anthropology.

ANSWER: Will vary

REFERENCES: Physical Anthropology and the Scientific Method

19.The origins of physical anthropology arose from two areas of interest among 19th-century scientists. What did these areas concern?

  1. The genetic determinants of behavior and osteology
  2. Nonhuman primates and origins of modern species
  3. Human variation and osteology
  4. The origins of modern species and human variation
  5. Human evolution and nonhuman primates

ANSWER: d

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

20.The anthropological perspective does not:

  1. look at the diversity of the human experience.
  2. narrow our viewpoint of how our species has evolved through time and space.
  3. help to avoid ethnocentric pitfalls.
  4. offer a wider appreciation through time and space.
  5. give a wider appreciation of the human experience.

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: The Anthropological Perspective

21.Fields of inquiry fundamental to studies of adaptation in modern human populations include:

  1. examinations of modern groups but not populations over time.
  2. traits that typify certain populations that have evolved as biological adaptation to environment.
  3. factors that have produced only genetic variation.
  4. traits that typify certain populations that have not evolved as biological adaptations.
  5. factors that have produced only visible physical differences.

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

22.Primatology is the study of:

  1. human skeletal material.
  2. diseases in earlier human groups.
  3. skeletal remains at crime scenes.
  4. the beginnings of human evolution.
  5. the biology and behavior of nonhuman primates.

ANSWER: e

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

23.Physical anthropologists are interested only in the study of biological systems.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

REFERENCES: Introduction

24.Molecular anthropologists have used genetic technologies to investigate the relationships between human populations and between humans and nonhuman primates.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

25.Physical or biological anthropologists are only interested in the human fossil record.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

26.Human evolution is:

  1. not subject to the same factors that have produced other species.
  2. solely the result of cultural factors.
  3. complete and no longer a driving force as it once was.
  4. solely the result of biological factors.
  5. subject to the long-term interactions of biology and culture.

ANSWER: e

REFERENCES: Biocultural Evolution

27.Which of the following is true of the relativistic view of culture?

  1. It allows us to judge other species using well-tested human criteria.
  2. It allows us to understand our own culture from a narrower perspective.
  3. It allows us to understand which culture is superior to another.
  4. It allows us to understand other people’s concerns and view our culture from a broader perspective.
  5. It provides us with data to prove that the human species is better adapted than others.

ANSWER: d

REFERENCES: The Anthropological Perspective

28.Ethnographies are:

  1. studies of nonhuman primates.
  2. studies of only Western European societies.
  3. detailed descriptive studies of contemporary living peoples.
  4. the practical application of anthropological theories.
  5. studies done by archaeologists.

ANSWER: c

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

29.Explain each of the subfields of anthropology and how they each contribute to our understanding of what it means to be human.

ANSWER: Will vary

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

30.Define osteology and then discuss which subfields of physical anthropology require knowledge of osteology.

ANSWER: Will vary

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

31.Approximately 3.7 million years ago, two or three hominins left their footprints across the savannah of modern-day Tanzania, clear evidence of:

  1. hominins walked bipedally.
    1. hominins traveled in small groups.
    2. Tanzania is 3.7 million years old.
      1. modern-day Tanzania continues to be a savannah environment.
        1. apes were present in Tanzania.

ANSWER: a

REFERENCES: Introduction

32.Cultural anthropology:

  1. focuses solely on the study of traditional societies.
  2. is the study of the patterns of belief and behavior found in modern and historical cultures.
  3. was first developed as a discipline in the 17th century.
  4. includes the recovery and analysis of material culture from earlier civilizations.
  5. has no practical application in modern society.

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

  1. focuses on the study of skeletal remains from archaeological sites.
  2. Primate paleontology
  3. Bioarchaeology
  4. Osteology
  5. Forensic anthropology
  6. Paleopathology

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

34.Objects or materials made or modified for use by hominins are called:

  1. data.
    1. fossils.
    2. ethnographies.
    3. empiricism.
    4. artifacts.

ANSWER: e

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

35.Briefly differentiate between paleoanthropology and paleopathology.

ANSWER: Paleoanthropology is the study of early hominins and paleopathology is the study of early diseases and injuries in human skeletal remains.

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

36.A group of reproductively-isolated organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring is called a(n):

  1. infrastructure.
    1. species.
    2. hominid.
      1. populace.
      2. family.

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: Introduction

37.Explain what “the anthropological perspective” means and why it is important.

ANSWER: Will vary

REFERENCES: The Anthropological Perspective

38.What is the initial step in the scientific method?

  1. Form a theory
  2. Perform an experiment
  3. Form a hypothesis
  4. Collect data under precise conditions
  5. Publish a scientific article

ANSWER: c

REFERENCES: Physical Anthropology and the Scientific Method

39.Culture, as defined in Chapter 1:

  1. was not an important factor in human evolution.
  2. is genetically determined and does not alter over time.
  3. is important only as it pertains to modern humans.
  4. includes only those aspects of human lifestyle that relate to the arts.
  5. can be defined as the strategy by which humans adapt to the natural environment.

ANSWER: e

REFERENCES: Biocultural Evolution

40.Anthropology can be applied to practical issues outside the university setting.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

41.Forensic anthropologists:

  1. apply anthropological techniques to legal matters.
  2. are primarily concerned with the recovery of material culture remains.
  3. examine the relationships between medical treatment and culturally determined views of disease.
  4. study disease and trauma in ancient populations.
  5. study nonhuman primates.

ANSWER: a

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

42.Which of the following does not apply to theories?

  1. They are tested explanations of facts.
  2. They are specific statements of scientific relationships that have not been verified.
  3. They are usually concerned with broader and more universal views.
  4. They are the result of repeated testing.
  5. They are not absolutes and are open to falsification.

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: Physical Anthropology and the Scientific Method

43.Who uses anthropological techniques to assist in crime investigations and to identify skeletal remains in cases of disaster?

  1. Forensic anthropologists
  2. Archaeologists
  3. Primatologists
  4. Cultural anthropologists
  5. Paleoanthropologists

ANSWER: a

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

44.What unique strategy allows humans to adapt to the natural environment?

  1. Walking on two legs
  2. Evolution
    1. Biological adaptation
      1. Culture
      2. Genetic change

ANSWER: d

REFERENCES: The Human Connection

45.Why are physical anthropologists concerned with studying human variation today?

ANSWER: Their studies of human variation help us to better understand adaptive significance and to identify factors that have produced physical and genetic variation.

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

  1. is the subdiscipline of osteology that is concerned with disease and trauma in earlier populations.
  2. Anthropometry
  3. Paleopathology
  4. Forensic anthropology
  5. Primatology
  6. Paleoanthropology

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

47.The focus of anthropology is very narrow and has only two subfields.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

REFERENCES: What IsAnthropology?

48.All cultures share the same worldview.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

REFERENCES: Biocultural Evolution

49.What is meant by the term adaptation in a biological sense?

ANSWER: It is an anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment.

REFERENCES: Introduction

  1. The term evolution refers to:
    1. patterns of inheritance from parent to offspring.
    2. the process of biological specialization.
    3. changes in the genetic make-up of a population from one generation to the next.
    4. genetic changes within populations, but not the appearance of new species.
    5. a response of organisms or populations to the environment.

ANSWER: c

REFERENCES: Introduction

51.The 3.7 million year-old footprints of two hominins were discovered in a riverbed in Texas.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

REFERENCES: Introduction

52.Which of the following is not one of the subfields of anthropology in the United States?

  1. Cultural
    1. Psychological
      1. Physical
      2. Linguistics
        1. Archaeology

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

53.What is a hypothesis?

  1. It is equivalent to a theory.
  2. It is a provisional statement regarding certain scientific facts or observations.
  3. It is a statement that has been proven to be true.
  4. It is a fact from which conclusions can be drawn.
  5. It is proof of a theory and occurs after testing a theory.

ANSWER: b

REFERENCES: Physical Anthropology and the Scientific Method

54.The human predisposition to assimilate culture and function within it is profoundly influenced by biological factors.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

REFERENCES: Biocultural Evolution

55.The study of human biology within the framework of human evolution can be said to be the domain of which of the following?

  1. Osteology
  2. Cultural anthropology
  3. Primatology
  4. Archaeology
  5. Physical or biological anthropology

ANSWER: e

REFERENCES: What Is Anthropology?

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