Test Bank Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior 3rd Edition by David Sue

$20.00
Test Bank Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior 3rd Edition by David Sue

Test Bank Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior 3rd Edition by David Sue

$20.00
Test Bank Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior 3rd Edition by David Sue

Test Bank Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior 3rd Edition by David Sue

Chapter 3: Clinical Research, Assessment, and Classification of Mental Disorders

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. What is the role of replication in psychological research?
a.Replication assists psychologists in making accurate diagnoses.
b.Replication assists psychologists in determining which clients to treat.
c.Replication increases the chances that consumers will understand psychological research.
d.Replication provides scientifically verified approaches to treating mental illness.

ANS: D

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Your neighbor tells you, “I’m concerned about vaccinating my children. I understand that scientists haveproved that childhood vaccines cause autism.” What response to your neighbor is most accurate?

a.“Actually, no one has ever studied this thoroughly, so no one really knows.”
b.“Not really; well-designed studies have been done, and the research does not support a link between vaccines and autism.”
c.“Not exactly; it seems that autism is caused by an equation of environmental conditions, with childhood vaccines being one of the many variables involved.”
d.“You are right; double-blind research has shown that autism is caused by vaccines.”

ANS: B

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. What conclusion can be reached from research findings that the mass media reports?
a.The findings from initial research are typically replicated.
b.Newspapers often get the facts wrong.
c.Initial findings reported by newspapers often are not replicated.
d.Newspapers are the best sources of scientific information.

ANS: C

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. “I never accept the results of one study as conclusive. Findings must be replicated. I look carefully at the methods used to produce conclusions. Because of my skeptical attitude, you can assume that I am a ____.”
a.philosopherc.scientist
b.cliniciand.newspaper reporter

ANS: C

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. Emily came to see her advisor about doing a research study for her Ph.D. dissertation.

“What are you going to investigate?” he asked.

“I believe that drinking orange juice before an IQ test will raise a person’s score,” she said.

Emily’s answer constitutes a(n) ____.

a.idiographic orientationc.operational definition
b.hypothesisd.theory

ANS: B

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Which of the following is a hallmark of the scientific method?
a.systematic collection of data, controlled observation, and the testing of hypotheses
b.maintaining the privacy of researchers’ methods so that ideas are not stolen
c.research conducted without restrictions imposed by theories or hypotheses
d.rejection of the concept “self-correction” in favor of unique phenomena

ANS: A

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Dr. Gonzalez devised a new scale to measure depressive symptoms amongHispanic females. To be sure that his test is actually measuring depressive symptoms, he will have his test group respond to his new instrument and the Beck Depression Inventory, as well as completing a social desirability scale, which should be unrelated to depression. Dr. Gonzalez is ____.
a.checking the validity of his measure of depressive symptoms
b.checking the reliability of his measure of depressive symptoms
c.assessing the honesty of his participants
d.pursuing idiographic research

ANS: A

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. A researcher finds that when people report their sexual activity on a mailed questionnaire, they indicate higher levels of bizarre fantasies than when they are questioned face to face. This indicates that these methods of measuring sexual activity ____.
a.have high base ratesc.are negatively correlated
b.are high in validityd.have low reliability

ANS: D

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. By definition, reliable measures ____; valid measures ____.
a.are manipulated by the experimenter; are not manipulated
b.measure what they are supposed to; are consistent
c.are consistent; measure what they are supposed to
d.are not manipulated by the experimenter; are manipulated

ANS: C

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. A researcher believes that depressive symptoms will be reduced when family members give attention to competent behavior and express disinterest when depressive behavior is exhibited. In this example, attention is the ____ and depressive symptoms are the ____.
a.confounding variable; manipulated variable
b.dependent variable; independent variable
c.independent variable; dependent variable
d.experimental variable; control variable

ANS: C

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. The best way to test cause-and-effect relationships is with a(n) ____.
a.case studyc.correlational study
b.placebod.experiment

ANS: D

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. In an experiment, the ____ is as similar as possible to the experimental group except that it is not exposed to the independent variable.
a.control groupc.dependent group
b.casegroupd.randomized group

ANS: A

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. In the Thom et al. (2000) study of the treatment of dental-phobic patients, if participants in the two experimental groups showed reduced anxiety from pretest to posttest, could the researchers conclude that the treatments were effective in reducing anxiety?
a.Yes. Reduction in anxiety for the experimental groups would prove the effectiveness of the treatment.
b.No. There are many possible reasons why patients would show reduced anxiety, so the only way to know if the cause was the treatments would be to use a control group that did not get a treatment.
c.Yes, but only if one of the groups had a greater reduction in anxiety than the other.
d.No. To conclude that the treatments were effective, they would need to see if the effects last for many years afterwards.

ANS: B

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. To study the effectiveness of a new anti-anxiety drug, researchers randomly assign equally anxious people to two groups, one getting Drug X and the other getting no drug. The researchers mistakenly conclude that Drug X works because people in the drug group show fewer signs of anxiety than the others. What is the mistake?
a.They never introduced an independent variable.
b.They did not create a placebo control group.
c.They never did a pretest of anxiety symptoms.
d.They did not operationally define what the experimental group was.

ANS: B

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. In a study of the effectiveness of cognitive therapy on anxiety, fifty anxious patients are divided into two groups. One group gets cognitive therapy, the other a fake kind of therapy that should have no benefit. However, the patients can tell that the second form of treatment is a fake. The study is weak because ____.
a.its placebo condition did not control for expectancy
b.it did not include an independent variable
c.it confuses experimental designs with correlational designs
d.it did not have a placebo condition

ANS: A

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. Rosie participates in a study assessing the effectiveness of a drug to treat osteoporosis. Throughout the study, neither Rosie nor the person administering the dosage knows whether she was getting the real medication or a placebo. Rosie is participating in a ____.
a.blind design studyc.field study
b.correlational studyd.double-blind design study

ANS: D

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Instead of manipulating variables, the researcher measures the extent to which changes in one variable are accompanied by changes in a second variable. What type of study is this?
a.analoguec.epidemiological
b.experimentald.correlational

ANS: D

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. A researcher believes that the higher a person’s creativity, the greater the person’s likelihood of showing mood swings. Research to test this idea ____.
a.could use the correlational method
b.would require an experimental design
c.could not have a nomothetic orientation
d.would require a double-blind design

ANS: A

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology. KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. A researcher studies a group of elderly people and finds that, as a group, the better their memory performance, the lower their anxiety level. What can be said about this research?
a.It was a correlational study.
b.The results show that memory loss causes anxiety.
c.It was an experiment.
d.The results show a perfect positive correlation.

ANS: A

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology. KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. What type of study will yield information on levels of school phobia in children are related to levels of social anxiety?
a.a double-blind experimentc.epigenetic research
b.a genetic linkage studyd.a correlational study

ANS: D

REF: Research Methods Used to Study Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology. KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. The 2007 Parents Television Council Study reported that people who watch more than three hours of television a day during the family time slot were much more likely to commit violent acts than people who watched less than one hour of television a day. What can be said about this research?
a.It proves that watching television during the evening leads to violence.
b.It proves that watching a lot of violence on television leads to committing acts of violence.
c.It suggests that there is a relationshipbetween watching violence on television and committing acts of violence.
d.It suggests that there is little, if any, association between watching television and committing acts of violence.

ANS: C

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. Which of the following is an example of analogue research?
a.studying the effects of alcohol ingestion on pregnant rats in order to obtain further evidence to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome in human children
b.studying the effects of RET therapy on a population of depressed individuals
c.studying the effects of an art class on a heterogeneous group of school children in order to determine factors that enhance creativity
d.studying the effects of antipsychotic drugs on people diagnosed with schizophrenia

ANS: A

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. Typically, when new drugs are developed, their effects are first tested on animals rather than on humans. The use of animals as substitutes for humans in research is often referred to as ____.
a.descriptive researchc.quasi-experimental research
b.substitution researchd.analogue research

ANS: D

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. Analogue studies are used when researchers ____.
a.are unable to use an experimental design
b.are able to use only a single subject who must act as his or her own control
c.are unable to recruit a sufficient number of human participants
d.cannot practically or ethically observe behaviors as they occur in real life

ANS: D

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. The primary method for gathering data in a field study is ____.
a.through the use of questionnaires
b.by interviewing participants
c.by analyzing archival data
d.through observation in the natural environment

ANS: D

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. To better understand bulimia among college students, a researcher lives in a female freshman dorm for the fall semester to observe and interview students about their stresses, attitudes, and eating behaviors. This is an example of what type of study?
a.analoguec.experimental
b.fieldd.case

ANS: B

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology. KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. Dr. Cummins publishes an article describing a man who abused alcohol for 25 years before becoming abstinent after having a religious conversion experience. This article illustrates a ____.
a.nomothetic studyc.case study
b.field studyd.single-participant experiment

ANS: C

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Which type of study is especially valuable for studying rare phenomena and for evaluating the course of a disorder and its treatment?
a.fieldc.nomothetic
b.cased.correlational

ANS: B

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. In a genetic linkage study, which piece of information would be important?
a.whether behavior changes when individuals are exposed to a particular chemical or diet
b.whether the experimenter knows who is in the experimental group
c.the nationwide prevalence of the disorder under study
d.identifying family members who have the same disorder as the proband

ANS: D REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Martin and Matthew are identical twins. Matthew has obsessive-compulsive disorder, but Martin does not. In a biological research study, who would be the proband?
a.Martinc.Martin and Matthew’s mother
b.Matthewd.Martin and Matthew’s father

ANS: B REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health.KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. A researcher has identified seventy individuals with a relatively rare psychological disorder. These individuals are asked to identify blood relatives, who are contacted by the researcher to see if they have the same disorder. What kind of research study is being performed?
a.an epidemiological surveyc.a historical study
b.a genetic linkage studyd.a correlational case study

ANS: B REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. Measurable heritable characteristics like brain abnormalities, attention processing deficits, or eye movements that give clues about specific genes involved in psychological disorders are called ____.
a.endophenotypesc.base rates for a behavior
b.iatrogenic effectsd.genetic linkages

ANS: A REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. All endophenotypes are ____.
a.environmentally-caused
b.heritable
c.abnormal
d.caused by mutations

ANS: B REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Dr. Richards focuses her research on how many school teachers had anxiety disorders in 2012, regardless of when the disorders were diagnosed. What information is she trying to determine?
a.lifetime prevalencec.incidence
b.iatrogenic effectsd.prevalence

ANS: D REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Research that examines the rate and distribution of mental disorders in the population is called ____ research.
a.historicalc.nomothetic
b.epidemiologicald.analogue

ANS: B REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Dr. Chin told his students, “Incidence rates tell us the percentage of individuals in a targeted population who have a particular disorder during a specified period of time, while prevalence rates describe the number of new cases within a specified period. Shorter periods of time generally reveal higher prevalence rates. Moreover, incidence rates are likely to be lower than prevalence rates.” Which part of Dr. Chin’s statement isaccurate?
a.Incidence rates tell us the percentage of individuals in a targeted population who have a particular disorder during a specific period of time.
b.Prevalence rates describe the number of new cases within a specified period.
c.Shorter periods of time generally reveal higher prevalence rates.
d.Incidence rates are likely to be lower than prevalence rates.

ANS: D REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. A school psychologist was concerned with the number of children being diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). If she were interested in learning how many new cases of ADHD had been diagnosed within the last year, she will look at ____.
a.concordance ratesc.sampling rates
b.incidence ratesd.prevalence rates

ANS: B REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. In addition to describing the distribution of disorders in populations, epidemiological research is also important for____.
a.identifyingthe possible causal factors that contribute to disorders
b.describing treatment effectiveness for disorders
c.protecting the rights of research participants
d.encouraging the development of new treatments for disorders

ANS: A REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.3 Describe why epidemiological research is important in understanding mental illness. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. A clinician has collected data about a client based on observations, interview material, and psychological test results. As a first step in the treatment process, the clinician will evaluate this information and formulate a(n) ____.
a.psychodiagnosisc.model
b.therapeutic pland.assessment instrument

ANS: A REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Which statement about psychodiagnosis is accurate?
a.It involves describing and drawing inferences about a person’s psychological state.
b.It is the basis of all research on psychological disorders.
c.It includes physical or biological causes for symptoms.
d.It is the last step in the treatment process.

ANS: A REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. A ____ provides therapists with distinct categories, indicators, and nomenclature for different patterns of behavior, thought processes, and emotional disturbances.
a.psychodiagnosisc.classification system
b.psychometric examinationd.diagnosis

ANS: C REF: Diagnosis and Classification of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.3 Explain how professionals categorize or classify mental health problems.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. A psychologist gives the same test to a client twice. The tests are separated by six days. If the test results are quite dissimilar, we could say that the test has weak ____.
a.test-retest reliabilityc.internal consistency
b.interrater reliabilityd.predictive validity

ANS: A REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. Professor Wapner wants to develop a new psychometric test of anxiety. He must be careful to have the various items on the test yield similar results to ensure that it will be high in ____.
a.interrater reliabilityc.construct validity
b.test-retest reliabilityd.internal consistency

ANS: D REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Dr. Frederick is developing a new test forbinge eating disorders. She finds that people who score high on the testengage in more binge eating and other forms of abnormal eating behaviors than people who score low on the test. These results indicate that the test has ____.
a.good content validityc.high test-retest reliability
b.interrater reliabilityd.good internal consistency

ANS: A REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Which assessment best illustrates the concept of reliability?
a.A test that measures depression and appears to have items that cover the spectrum of symptoms for depression
b.A test that measures counselor aptitude that, when given to prospective counselors, accurately predicts those who will and those who will not perform well in a counseling vocation
c.A test that measures attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and accurately identifies children who currently have difficulty in the classroom
d.A test that measures disordered eating behaviors and attitudes that yields similar scores when completed two weeks apart

ANS: D REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. A psychologist wants to assess the construct validity of a new test. He can do so by showing that ____.
a.scores at Time 1 predict behavior at Time 2
b.all portions of the test produce similar results
c.the test results correlate with an established measure
d.scores on the test are consistent over time

ANS: C REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Dr. Peterson has collected clinical observations, neurological test data, psychological test scores, and interview material on Mrs. Davis. If Dr. Peterson is doing this for the purpose of drawing conclusions that will lead to a diagnosis of Mrs. Davis, we can infer that Dr. Peterson is ____.
a.a psychoanalystc.doing an assessment
b.using reliable and valid measuresd.using the DSM-5

ANS: C REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Dr. Simon is observing several schizophrenic patients interact in a mental hospital ward without interfering. Which type of observation is Dr. Simon using?
a.diagnosticc.analogue
b.naturalisticd.controlled

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Gathering information on brain structures focuses on which type of assessment?
a.psychological testsc.interviews
b.neurological testsd.observations

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. A psychologist notices that a male client rarely makes eye contact and pulls at his ear when he seems nervous. What type of assessment is the most likely psychologist performing?
a.observationc.structured interviewing
b.projective testingd.controlled testing

ANS: A REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. When Dr. Wilson administers psychological tests, she strictly follows specific procedures. This refers to what aspect of test administration?
a.reliabilityc.norming
b.validityd.standardization

ANS: D REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. A psychologist notes that a female client is wearing a heavy wool sweater and cap on a hot summer day. The client walks with a limp and mumbles to herself. The psychologist should ____.
a.interpret these objective signs without regard to the individual’s culture
b.conduct testing or interviewing and disregard the information about the client’s appearance
c.assess the significance of these observations with interview and other information
d.disregard these observations in order to make an unbiased assessment

ANS: C REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Dr.Heyer is a behavioral therapist working with a 10-year-old boy named Lee.The boy’s parents and teachers both agree that Lee is disobedient and unruly. What assessment method should Dr. Heyer use to most accurately assess the degree to which Lee is excessively active and disobedient?
a.personality testingc.interview method
b.observationd.questionnaire

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. A psychologist who is simply looking for any unusual behaviors when interacting with a client is using ____.
a.psychological testingc.observation
b.structured interviewd.neuropsychological assessment

ANS: C REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Dr. Miller, a clinical psychologist, observes that his client Jennifer is presenting with a disheveled appearance, constricted emotions, and is speaking slowly. Dr. Miller is likely to use these observations as ____ with diagnostic significance.
a.functional indicators
b.indicatorsof intelligence
c.cultural differences
d.behavioral clues

ANS: D REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. What widely used interview procedure is used tobriefly evaluate a client’s cognitive, psychological, and behavioral functioning?
a.Rorschach techniquec.sentence-completion test
b.mental status examinationd.Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. What aspect of interviewing increases the consistency of assessment information?
a.Doing the interview in a naturalistic setting
b.Using projective techniques
c.Increasing the reactivity of the person being interviewed
d.Increasing the structure of the interview

ANS: D REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. As discussed in the text, which factor is a consideration when assessing characteristics using the mental status examination?
a.The treatment model used
b.Use of a highly unstructured interview
c.The interviewee’s cultural background
d.Future achievements relative to people of the same age

ANS: C REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Which of the following is a self-report inventory?
a.The MMPI-2c.The draw-a-person test
b.The TATd.The Rorschach

ANS: A REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Self-report inventories, unlike projective tests, are ____.
a.unstructured
b.standardized
c.oral
d.valid

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. Dr. Rose, a clinical psychologist, is administering a battery of psychological tests to a client to gain insight into the client’s current issues. In the ____, the client is shown inkblots and asked to interpret them.
a.Rorschach test
b.thematic apperception test
c.MMPI
d.WAIS

ANS: A REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Nicole is shown a series of ambiguous pictures and is then asked to tell a story about each of them. If this is a psychological test, it is a ____.
a.self-report inventoryc.cognitive impairment test
b.projective personality testd.mental status examination

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. The goal of projective tests is to ____.
a.understand a single facet of a client’s personality
b.put the client at ease so that other tests will be answered honestly
c.allow people to “project” their attitudes and personality characteristics
d.allow a client to express his or her conscious needs and motivations

ANS: C REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. A major concern about projective tests is that they ____.
a.are overly structured
b.demonstrate low reliability and validity
c.are too cumbersome to administer
d.are too expensive to include in most psychological assessments

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Rose is being given a self-report inventory to assess her general personality traits. What kinds of questions or tasks is she likely to be given?
a.She will be asked to draw pictures of herself and the rest of her family members.
b.She will be asked to agree or disagree with statements such as “I am attractive” and “I sometimes feel shy.”
c.She will be shown pictures of people and asked to write a story describing them and the situations they face.
d.She will be asked to answer arithmetic, vocabulary, and general knowledge questions.

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. These tests require test-takers to answer specific written questions. They are scored in a predetermined way, and scores are easily compared with those from a standardization sample. Which assessment fits the above description?
a.self-report inventoriesc.neuroimagingtests
b.unstructured interviewsd.projective personality tests

ANS: A REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. Which of the following occurred in the development of the MMPI-2?
a.Validity and reliability scales were removed to prevent questions on the test from becoming too confusing.
b.Individuals diagnosed with specific mental illnesses were compared to individuals with no diagnosed mental illness.
c.What was previously an objective test became a projective test designed to determine subjective responses.
d.New scales were added to measure intelligence and creativity in addition to personality and psychopathology.

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Which personality test includes ten clinical scales as well as several validity scales to check for faking, confusion, falsification, or other response patterns that may affect the outcome of the other scales?
a.Beck Depression Inventoryc.MMPI-2
b.WAIS-IVd.TAT

ANS: C REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. In utilizing MMPI scores, trained and experienced clinicians usually focus on ____.
a.single-scale interpretations
b.the DSM diagnosis derived from the individual’s responses
c.the validity scores
d.interpretation of response patterns

ANS: D REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. A psychologist says, “The fixed alternatives for answers prevent test-takers from presenting a true picture of themselves.” What kind of assessment tool is being criticized?
a.unstructured interviewsc.naturalistic observation
b.projective personality testsd.personality inventories

ANS: D REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. A critic of personality inventories says, “These tests have no way of detecting faking or defensiveness in the individuals who take them. Worse, they never include norms for responses of people from different cultural groups.” Which response to these criticisms is accurate?
a.The MMPI-2 has both of the features the critic says are absent.
b.The critic is correct about the problem of faking but not about norms from different cultures.
c.The critic is confusing the problems of projective tests with those of inventories.
d.Current research supports what the critic is saying.

ANS: A REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. IQ scores reflect an individual’s ____.
a.intelligence
b.social skills
c.level of performance relative to people of the same age
d.future achievements and behavior relative to people of the same age

ANS: C REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. The ____ is an intelligence test appropriately administered to people age 16 and older.
a.WISC-IVc.WPPSI-III
b.WAIS-IVd.MMPI-2

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. A major criticism of IQ tests is that they ____.
a.reflect cultural and social factors rather than innate intelligence
b.are limited to assessing intelligence for children in the elementary grades
c.cannot be used to predict school performance
d.are not useful for detecting intellectual disability

ANS: A REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Teachers in a school are interested in finding a psychological test that predicts future achievement. Which statement best reflects what is known about the existence of such a test?
a.Few psychologists believe that there is a test that can do what the teachers want.
b.Projective tests do a good job of predicting achievement; IQ tests predict social competence.
c.There is debate about whether IQ tests can predict achievement.
d.There is no doubt that IQ tests can predict achievement.

ANS: C REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. After his stroke, Aaron’s clinical psychologist is most likely to assess ____.
a.his interest in physical activities he previously enjoyed
b.cognitive impairment resulting from brain damage
c.his vocational interests
d.his unconscious needs and motivations

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Which test is typically used to assess brain damage?
a.Bender-Gestaltc.BDI
b.MMPI-2d.TAT

ANS: A REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Mr. Nolan has been referred to a psychologist to be assessed for potential brain damage. The psychologist will undoubtedly look at the ____ to find information on the location of the damage.
a.thematic apperception test
b.Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological test battery
c.MMPI-2
d.WAIS

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Jack is being tested for suspected brain damage by being shown designs made up of lines and dots. He is asked to copy the designs on a blank sheet of paper. Jack is taking which test?
a.Stanford-Binetc.Bender-Gestalt Visual-Motor Test
b.MMPI-2d.WAIS-IV

ANS: C REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Dr. Cohen says to her patient, “We believe there may be problems with the way your brain functions. We’re going to do a test that uses a radioactive substance that we can trace as it’s metabolized in your brain.” What procedure is Dr. Cohen describing?
a.Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery
b.PET scan
c.EEG
d.CAT scan

ANS: B REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. A psychologist says, “The pictures that come from the testing are amazing—clear and detailed depictions of brain structures. Not only that, they do not require giving radioactive substances to patients.” The psychologist is referring to a(n) ____.
a.MRI
b.EEG (electroencephalograph)
c.PET scan
d.Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery

ANS: A REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. What can be said about the use of neurological techniques and other assessments, such as psychological tests, with regard to evaluating mental disorders?
a.Neurological techniques will eventually replace psychological tests.
b.Psychological tests provide more useful information than neurological techniques.
c.Both neurological techniques and psychological tests will soon be replaced by computerized assessments.
d.Using neurological techniques along with psychological tests increases diagnostic accuracy.

ANS: D REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

  1. Dr. Cooper says, “What abnormal psychology needs is a system of categories for different patterns of behavior that can be agreed on by all professionals.” Dr. Cooper is asking for a(n) ____.
a.valid method of assessment
b.more reliable battery of psychological tests
c.ethical use of assessment
d.reliable classification system

ANS: D REF: Diagnosis and Classification of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.3 Explain how professionals categorize or classify mental health problems.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. The co-occurrence of different disorders, whereby individuals who have one mental disorder also suffer from another, is identified by the DSM as ____.
a.comorbidityc.multiplicity
b.causalityd.specificity

ANS: A REF: Diagnosis and Classification of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.3 Explain how professionals categorize or classify mental health problems.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Harold is addicted to cocaine and nicotine. His wife, Janet, is dissatisfied with her physique and has developed a pervasive pattern of bingeing and purging in attempt to lose weight. According to the DSM-5, Janet has ____, whereas Harold ____.
a.a personality disorder; has impulse control disorder
b.somatoform disorder; does not have a mental disorder
c.dissociative disorder; has a personality disorder
d.an eating disorder; has a substance-related and addictive disorder

ANS: D REF: Diagnosis and Classification of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.3 Explain how professionals categorize or classify mental health problems.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Disorders involving the disruption of the normal sexual response cycle, including desire, arousal, or orgasm are considered ____ in the DSM-5 category of disorders.
a.Sexual Dysfunctionsc.Gender Dysphoria
b.Paraphiliasd.Complex Somatic Symptom Disorders

ANS: A REF: Diagnosis and Classification of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.3 Explain how professionals categorize or classify mental health problems.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. What is a criticism regarding the decisions concerning diagnostic categories in the DSM-5?
a.They favored a single diagnostic label, eliminating the five-axis concept.
b.They neglected to consider mental disorders that afflict only women.
c.They assumed that stimulus control is the major component in mental disorders.
d.They may have been influenced by pharmaceutical companies.

ANS: D REF: Diagnosis and Classification of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.3 Explain how professionals categorize or classify mental health problems.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. Vera has the following cyclical pattern of symptoms. A week before her period, she is persistently angry and anxious, has body aches, and she has marked interpersonal conflicts that interfere with her work and social relationships. According to the DSM-5, what condition might Vera have?
a.premenstrual dysphoric disorder
b.“adjustment disorder”
c.a gynecological disorder called “raging hormones”
d.no diagnosable mental disorder

ANS: A REF: Diagnosis and Classification of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.3 Explain how professionals categorize or classify mental health problems.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Dr. Reynolds is an avid feminist. What is her opinion of the proposed condition “premenstrual dysphoric disorder” likely to be?
a.She would argue that it helps reduce the stigma of being a woman with a mental disorder.
b.She will favor its inclusion in future editions of the DSM.
c.She would prefer that it be seen as a physical condition, not a mental disorder.
d.She would prefer that it not be seen as a problem at all.

ANS: C REF: Diagnosis and Classification of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.3 Explain how professionals categorize or classify mental health problems.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. What is an important aspect of the character strengths classification scheme that Petterson and Seligman developed as a complement to the DSM?
a.The character strengths classification scheme incorporates a more cognitive approach to understanding mental disorders.
b.By providing a taxonomy of emotional disturbances, the character strengths scheme simplifies diagnosis and treatment.
c.By considering new research findings, therapists are better able to understand and treat mental disorders.
d.The character strengths assessment of characteristics such as wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence are important to assess and consider when working with mental disorders.

ANS: D REF: Assessment of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

  1. The term “course” refers to which of the following?
  2. the usual pattern that a disorder follows
  3. the categories in the DSM-5
  4. the dimensions in the DSM-5
  5. The presence of more than one disorder at a time

ANS: A

REF: Diagnosis and Classification of Abnormal Behavior

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.3 Explain how professionals categorize or classify mental health problems.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

ESSAY

  1. Clinical assessment uses four methods. Briefly describe how each would be used in collecting information on the following hypothetical client:

Mara is a 16-year-old who is angry and anxious at home and in school but seems relatively happy among her friends when shopping or doing other leisure activities. She seems extremely bright to her teachers but is receiving poor grades because she seems distracted and unable to recall facts. Her interest in boys has been almost obsessive recently; she fantasizes about being saved from her horrible parents by someone who will marry and whisk her away.

ANS:

The four assessment methods are observation, interview, psychological tests, and neurological tests. In Mara’s case, the psychologist could collect direct observations of her in the school, home, and office environments to see whether there is consistency in her behaviors and emotions. The psychologist would look at Mara’s dress, facial expressions, posture, activity level, speech, and voice tone to get a full picture of her emotional state in different settings. Observations by others—teachers, parents, friends, and Mara herself—could deepen the psychologist’s appreciation of her situation. A nondirective interview would allow Mara to express what she is feeling and emphasize the problems she thinks are most important. Using a more structured interview, the psychologist would present her with a set of questions to assess her mental status (does she really believe her fantasies are based in fact?) and get a clearer idea about her diagnosis. Interviews with parents, teachers, and friends could reveal how consistent her problems are and how distressing. Psychological tests could range from projective tests such as the TAT and Rorschach to self-report inventories such as the MMPI-2. The projective tests would reveal unconscious motives; the MMPI-2 would show general personality patterns. Intelligence tests like the WAIS-IV might be given to see whether her poor grades are due to a lack of intellectual capacity or a learning disability. Neurological tests might also reveal a cognitive impairment that accounts for her poor memory and attention span.

REF: Assessment and Classification of Mental Disorders

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. What three criteria are commonly used to evaluate psychological assessment procedures? Describe each criterion in detail, and then apply each to the assessment of a problem such as severe anxiety.

ANS:

The three criteria commonly used to evaluate assessment procedures are reliability, validity, and standardization. Reliability refers to the consistency or repeatability of results. There are three different types of reliability: test-retest, internal consistency, and interrater. Test-retest reliability refers to the consistency of a test over time. For example, if you take a test measuring your intelligence one week and the test has good test-retest reliability, your score should be about the same if you take the test again the following week. The second type of reliability is internal consistency. This type of reliability refers to the consistency among test items. In other words, to what extent do the items in a test measure the same construct? The third type of reliability is interrater reliability, which refers to consistency or agreement among scorers or observers. For example, if two researchers were observing children on a playground and counting the frequency with which they engaged in aggressive behavior, then the observers should have similar frequency counts for their assessment to be considered to have good interrater reliability.

Validity addresses the issue of the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to. There are four main types of validity: predictive validity, content validity, criterion-related validity, and construct validity. Predictive validity refers to the ability for a test to forecast how a person will behave or respond. For example, universities use applicants’ ACT and SAT scores to predict future college academic performance. Content validity means that the items of an assessment device are representative examples of the domain(s) the test measures. For example, if a test measures anxiety but its questions asked about a person’s social activities, it would not have adequate content validity. A third type of validity is criterion-related validity. With this type of validity, the scores on a measure are compared with a criterion thought to be related to the construct measured by the test. The criterion can be some future event (if so, it is called predictive validity) or some current event (if so, it is called concurrent validity). For example, if I had a test that was supposed to measure how successful one was going to be in college, I might give my test to a group of high school seniors. Then four years later I would compare their scores on the test with their college GPA to see if my test had good predictive validity. For construct validity, test results must be related to the theoretical construct (or concept) the test is supposed to measure. The third criterion is utility, or usefulness. For an assessment to be useful it must be reliable and valid, and provide information that cannot be obtained more simply, cheaply, or quickly using another procedure.

Standardization refers to both the use of identical procedures in administering tests and to establishing norms against which an individual is tested. Results can be compromised if a test administrator treats people differently, such as smiling at one group of children taking a test and being cold and indifferent to another group taking the same test, or giving one group more time than another group (i.e., different procedures in test administration). Also, comparing the scores of a 10-year-old student from Nigeria with those of a college-educated, 50–year-old CEO of a Fortune 500 company would not be valid (different norms based on age, culture, education, experience, etc.).

REF: Reliability and Validity OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.2 Describe the kinds of tools that clinicians employ in evaluating a client’s mental health. KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

  1. Suppose you are interested in the relationship between stress and overeating. Describe two research studies on the topic, one a laboratory experiment and the other a correlational study. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each form of research.

ANS:

In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the independent variable and randomly assigns subjects to at least two groups: one where the independent variable is present and one (the control group) where it is not. The independent variable in the proposed study is stress. In a hypothetical experiment, one-half of the participants would be given a problem that has no solution (the experimental group), and the other half (control group) would receive a problem that can be easily solved. Both groups would have the same amount of time to “solve” their problems. Participants would be allowed to eat as much of some snack foods that were made available as they wished, so the dependent variable of overeating would be defined in terms of caloric intake of the snack foods provided. Average differences in the amounts eaten by experimental and control subjects would then be calculated.

In a correlational study, subjects might be asked to list all of the stressful events that had occurred in their lives over the past thirty days. Each person would also be asked how much he or she ate in the past 24 hours (another definition of eating). If reported eating increased as reported stress increased, we could assume a positive correlation between the two variables.

The experiment would allow inferences about cause and effect (stress caused eating), but the correlational study would not allow such inferences since eating might induce stress or both eating and stress might be influenced by a third variable. The experiment’s weakness would be the artificiality of the situation, reducing our confidence in generalizing results to the “real world.” The weakness of the correlation is not only the inability to make causal inferences but also inaccuracies that come from self-reports.

REF: The Scientific Method in Clinical Research

OBJ: UABB.SUES.17.3.1 Explain the kinds of studies used in the field of abnormal psychology.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

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