Test Bank Exploring Child & Adolescent Development 1st Edition Laura E. Berk

$35.00
Test Bank Exploring Child & Adolescent Development 1st Edition Laura E. Berk

Test Bank Exploring Child & Adolescent Development 1st Edition Laura E. Berk

$35.00
Test Bank Exploring Child & Adolescent Development 1st Edition Laura E. Berk

est Bank Exploring Child & Adolescent Development 1st Edition Laura E. Berk

Chapter 1
History, theory, and research strategies

Multiple Choice

  1. Although great diversity characterizes the interests and concerns of investigators who study child development, they share a single goal: to identify ________.
  2. A) genetic factors that contribute to behavior problems
  3. B) environmental factors that contribute to disease and illness
  4. C) those factors that lead to abnormal development in children and adolescents
  5. D) those factors that influence consistencies and changes in people during the first two decades of life

Answer: D

Page Ref: 2

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.1 Describe the field of child development, along with factors that stimulated its expansion.

Topic: The Field of Child Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Child development is an interdisciplinary field, meaning it ________.
  2. A) covers children from diverse cultures and backgrounds
  3. B) has grown through the combined efforts of many different fields of study
  4. C) cannot be applied in the same way to every culture in the world
  5. D) is a body of knowledge that is relevant and useful but not scientifically important

Answer: B

Page Ref: 2

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.1 Describe the field of child development, along with factors that stimulated its expansion.

Topic: The Field of Child Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Child development is often divided into three broad domains: ________.
  2. A) physical, cognitive, and emotional and social
  3. B) biological, psychological, and sociological
  4. C) applied, interdisciplinary, and holistic
  5. D) infancy, childhood, and adolescence

Answer: A

Page Ref: 3

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.2 Explain how child development is typically divided into domains and periods.

Topic: The Field of Child Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The developmental period of infancy and toddlerhood spans the approximate age range of ________.
  2. A) 4 to 8 years
  3. B) birth to 2 years
  4. C) 2 to 6 years
  5. D) conception to birth

Answer: B

Page Ref: 4

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.2 Explain how child development is typically divided into domains and periods.

Topic: The Field of Child Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ________ is the developmental period during which motor skills are refined, thought and language expand, and children become more self-controlled and self-sufficient.
  2. A) Toddlerhood
  3. B) Middle childhood
  4. C) Adolescence
  5. D) Early childhood

Answer: D

Page Ref: 4

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.2 Explain how child development is typically divided into domains and periods.

Topic: The Field of Child Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. A theory of development ________.
  2. A) illustrates the ultimate truth about child behavior
  3. B) describes, explains, and predicts behavior
  4. C) explains all aspects of child growth
  5. D) does not require scientific verification

Answer: B

Page Ref: 4

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.3 Identify three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. According to the ________ view of development, the difference between the immature and mature being is simply one of amount or complexity.
  2. A) nature
  3. B) discontinuous
  4. C) nurture
  5. D) continuous

Answer: D

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.3 Identify three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. The discontinuous view of development holds that ________.
  2. A) infants and preschoolers respond to the world in much the same way adults do
  3. B) growth is the process of gradually augmenting the skills that were present from the beginning
  4. C) infants and children have unique ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving
  5. D) development is a smooth process limited only by a lack of information and precision

Answer: C

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.3 Identify three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Constantine believes that development takes place in stages. This belief is consistent with the ________ view of development.
  2. A) nurture
  3. B) continuous
  4. C) discontinuous
  5. D) nature

Answer: C

Page Ref: 5

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.3 Identify three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. New evidence increasingly emphasizes that ________.
  2. A) there is very little cultural diversity in child development
  3. B) environmental but not personal contexts shape development
  4. C) development occurs in a neat, orderly sequence of stages unaffected by distinct contexts
  5. D) people not only are affected by but also contribute to the contexts in which they develop

Answer: D

Page Ref: 6

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.3 Identify three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Contemporary theorists regard the contexts that shape development as ________.
  2. A) less important in adolescence than in early childhood
  3. B) dependent on the individual’s genetics
  4. C) uniform across different individuals
  5. D) many-layered and complex

Answer: D

Page Ref: 6

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.3 Identify three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Tammy’s father is an exceptional gymnast. When Tammy was just a toddler, her father believed that Tammy already showed great promise as a gymnast. Tammy’s father probably believes that athletic ability is mostly determined by ________.
  2. A) nurture
  3. B) stages
  4. C) nature
  5. D) early experiences

Answer: C

Page Ref: 6

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.3 Identify three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Justin spent his first 18 months in an orphanage. Justin’s adoptive mother believes sensitive caregiving will help him overcome his early experiences. She is emphasizing the role of ________ in development.
  2. A) nurture
  3. B) stages
  4. C) stability
  5. D) nature

Answer: A

Page Ref: 6

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.3 Identify three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Theorists who contend that powerful negative events in the first few years cannot be fully overcome by later, more positive ones emphasize ________.
  2. A) plasticity
  3. B) stability
  4. C) nurture
  5. D) discontinuity

Answer: B

Page Ref: 6

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.3 Identify three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Although Betty grew up in a rundown neighborhood, had divorced parents, and rarely saw her father, she is a successful, happy, and healthy adult. Betty’s ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to her development is known as ________.
  2. A) assimilation
  3. B) resilience
  4. C) age-graded development
  5. D) multidimensional development

Answer: B

Page Ref: 7 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Resilience

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.3 Identify three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The most consistent asset of resilient children is ________.
  2. A) a strong bond with a competent, caring adult
  3. B) high intelligence
  4. C) an easygoing temperament
  5. D) association with a rule-abiding peer

Answer: A

Page Ref: 7 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Resilience

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.3 Identify three basic issues on which theories of child development take a stand.

Topic: Basic Issues

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution emphasized ________ and ________.
  2. A) the normative approach; survival of the fittest
  3. B) noble savages; physical maturation
  4. C) the tabula rasa; natural selection
  5. D) natural selection; survival of the fittest

Answer: D

Page Ref: 8

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.4 Describe major early influences on the scientific study of child development.

Topic: Scientific Beginnings

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. G. Stanley Hall and his student Arnold Gesell ________.
  2. A) were major proponents of the mental testing movement
  3. B) devised theories of child development based on evolutionary ideas
  4. C) emphasized environmental influences in producing developmental advances
  5. D) rejected the normative approach to studying development

Answer: B

Page Ref: 8

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.4 Describe major early influences on the scientific study of child development.

Topic: Scientific Beginnings

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Arnold Gesell ________.
  2. A) was among the first to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parents
  3. B) is generally regarded as the founder of the child study movement
  4. C) proposed the principle of natural selection on which Darwin based his theory of evolution.
  5. D) constructed the first successful intelligence test

Answer: A

Page Ref: 9

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.4 Describe major early influences on the scientific study of child development.

Topic: Scientific Beginnings

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon ________.
  2. A) wrote the first book of its time on childbirth
  3. B) were the first researchers to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parents
  4. C) regarded development as a maturational process
  5. D) constructed the first successful intelligence test

Answer: D

Page Ref: 9

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.4 Describe major early influences on the scientific study of child development.

Topic: Scientific Beginnings

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. The first successful intelligence test was originally constructed to ________.
  2. A) measure individual differences in IQ
  3. B) document age-related improvements in children’s intellectual functioning
  4. C) identify children with learning problems for placement in special classes
  5. D) compare the scores of children who varied in gender, ethnicity, and birth order

Answer: C

Page Ref: 9

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.4 Describe major early influences on the scientific study of child development.

Topic: Scientific Beginnings

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Sigmund Freud constructed his psychosexual theory ________.
  2. A) on the basis of his adult patients’ memories of painful childhood events
  3. B) by conducting studies of animal behavior
  4. C) on the basis of interviews with institutionalized children and adolescents
  5. D) by carefully observing his own children

Answer: A

Page Ref: 9

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Psychosexual theory emphasizes that ________.
  2. A) children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore the world
  3. B) directly observable events—stimuli and responses—are the appropriate focus of psychological study
  4. C) how parents manage their child’s sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development
  5. D) the ego makes a positive contribution to development, acquiring attitudes and skills that make the individual a useful member of society

Answer: C

Page Ref: 9

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. One criticism of Freud’s psychosexual theory is that it ________.
  2. A) does not apply in other cultures
  3. B) underemphasizes the influence of sexual feelings
  4. C) compares child development to the evolution of the human species
  5. D) offers too narrow a view of important environmental influences

Answer: A

Page Ref: 10

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Erik Erikson believed that normal development must ________.
  2. A) reflect the values of Western nations
  3. B) focus on managing sexual and aggressive drives beginning early in life
  4. C) be evaluated in terms of directly observable events, such as stimuli and responses
  5. D) be understood in relation to each culture’s life situation

Answer: D

Page Ref: 11

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Siddhi believes that at each stage of development a basic psychosocial conflict, resolved along a continuum from positive to negative, determines healthy or maladaptive outcomes. Siddhi’s beliefs are aligned with those of ________.
  2. A) G. Stanley Hall
  3. B) Sigmund Freud
  4. C) Erik Erikson
  5. D) B. F. Skinner

Answer: C

Page Ref: 11

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. The psychoanalytic perspective is no longer in the mainstream of child development research, in part because ________.
  2. A) theorists were so committed to in-depth study of individuals that they failed to consider other methods
  3. B) it focused too heavily on individuals in non-Western cultures
  4. C) subsequent research failed to replicate the results of psychoanalytic studies
  5. D) many psychoanalytic ideas are too complex to be tested empirically

Answer: A

Page Ref: 11

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Ivan Pavlov discovered ________.
  2. A) observational learning
  3. B) classical conditioning
  4. C) the ego’s positive contributions to development
  5. D) the clinical method

Answer: B

Page Ref: 11

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In a historic experiment with 11-month-old Albert, John Watson demonstrated that ________.
  2. A) children cannot be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulus
  3. B) infants as young as a few months old will repeat a behavior to obtain a desirable reward
  4. C) adults can mold children’s behavior by carefully controlling stimulus–response associations
  5. D) children have an innate, inborn fear of rats

Answer: C

Page Ref: 11–12

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. According to operant conditioning theory, ________.
  2. A) the frequency of a behavior can be increased through punishment, such as disapproval
  3. B) normal development must be understood in relation to each culture’s life situation
  4. C) the id develops as parents insist that children conform to the values of society
  5. D) the frequency of a behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety of reinforcers

Answer: D

Page Ref: 12

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Baby Gabriella claps her hands after her mother does. Gabriella is displaying ________.
  2. A) reinforcement
  3. B) classical conditioning
  4. C) observational learning
  5. D) adaptation

Answer: C

Page Ref: 12

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. According to ________ theory, modeling is a powerful source of development.
  2. A) reinforcement
  3. B) operant conditioning
  4. C) social learning
  5. D) classical conditioning

Answer: C

Page Ref: 12

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The most recent revision of Albert Bandura’s theory stresses the importance of ________.
  2. A) behavior modification
  3. B) punishment
  4. C) cognition
  5. D) reinforcement

Answer: C

Page Ref: 12

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Cindy tells her daughter, “I know you can do a good job on that homework” because she believes that if she encourages persistence, her daughter will start to view herself as hardworking and high-achieving. Cindy is ________.
  2. A) using behavior modification
  3. B) promoting psychosocial thinking
  4. C) applying a cognitive-developmental approach
  5. D) encouraging self-efficacy

Answer: D

Page Ref: 12

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. The goal of applied behavior analysis is to ________.
  2. A) understand differences in temperament in different cultures
  3. B) eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses
  4. C) examine how we think about ourselves and other people
  5. D) synthesize information from various sources into a detailed picture of a person’s personality

Answer: B

Page Ref: 12

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Behaviorism and social learning theory ________.
  2. A) overemphasize the plasticity of cognitive development
  3. B) overestimate people’s contributions to their own development
  4. C) offer too narrow a view of important environmental influences
  5. D) overemphasize each individual’s unique life history

Answer: C

Page Ref: 12

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. According to Jean Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, ________.
  2. A) children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world
  3. B) children’s learning depends on reinforcers, such as rewards from adults
  4. C) adult teaching is the best way to foster development
  5. D) rapid development occurs during sensitive periods

Answer: A

Page Ref: 13

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Central to Piaget’s theory is the concept of ________.
  2. A) imitation
  3. B) adaptation
  4. C) self-efficacy
  5. D) scaffolding

Answer: B

Page Ref: 13

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. According to Jean Piaget, ________ is the balance between cognitive structures and information that children encounter in their everyday worlds.
  2. A) imitation
  3. B) adaptation
  4. C) scaffolding
  5. D) equilibrium

Answer: D

Page Ref: 13

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Four-year-old Monty engages in make-believe play, stirring beads in a bowl and saying, “Soup is ready!” According to Piaget, Monty is in the ________ stage of cognitive development.
  2. A) sensorimotor
  3. B) preoperational
  4. C) concrete operational
  5. D) sociocultural

Answer: B

Page Ref: 13

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Sydney, when faced with a problem, starts with a hypothesis, deduces testable inferences, and isolates and combines variables to see which inferences are confirmed. Sydney is in Piaget’s ________ stage of development.
  2. A) sensorimotor
  3. B) preoperational
  4. C) concrete operational
  5. D) formal operational

Answer: D

Page Ref: 13

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Piaget’s critics point out that ________.
  2. A) he overestimated the competencies of infants and young children
  3. B) his stagewise account pays insufficient attention to social and cultural influences
  4. C) discovery learning rather than adult teaching is the best way to foster development
  5. D) children’s performance on Piagetian problems cannot be improved with training

Answer: B

Page Ref: 14

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.5 Describe theories that influenced child development research in the mid-twentieth century.

Topic: Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. The information-processing approach views the human mind as a ________.
  2. A) socially mediated process
  3. B) collection of stimuli and responses
  4. C) system of genetically programmed behaviors
  5. D) symbol-manipulating system through which information flows

Answer: D

Page Ref: 15

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Lillian uses flowcharts to map the precise steps individuals use to solve problems and complete tasks. Lillian is a(n) ________ theorist.
  2. A) psychoanalytic
  3. B) information-processing
  4. C) psychosocial
  5. D) social learning

Answer: B

Page Ref: 15

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Like Piaget’s theory, the information-processing approach ________.
  2. A) divides development into stages
  3. B) views development as discontinuous
  4. C) regards people as actively modifying their own thinking
  5. D) has much to say about nonlinear cognition, such as imagination and creativity

Answer: C

Page Ref: 15

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. The findings of information-processing research have important implications for ________.
  2. A) the study of imagination
  3. B) nonlinear cognition
  4. C) education
  5. D) childhood creativity

Answer: C

Page Ref: 15

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Reza studies the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing person’s cognitive processing and behavior patterns. She is part of a group of researchers from the fields of psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine. Their approach to development is known as ________.
  2. A) behaviorism
  3. B) cognitive-developmental theory
  4. C) the information-processing approach
  5. D) developmental cognitive neuroscience

Answer: D

Page Ref: 16

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. The field of developmental social neuroscience ________.
  2. A) exploded when researchers began to use neurobiological measures that are sensitive to psychological state, such as heart rate and blood pressure
  3. B) is still too new to provide research findings that have practical value
  4. C) has been helpful in explaining why brain characteristics that underlie child behavior are more important than environmental influences
  5. D) focuses less on the contexts for development than does developmental cognitive neuroscience

Answer: A

Page Ref: 16

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. By studying the diverse behaviors of different animal species in their natural habitats, Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen laid the modern foundations for ________.
  2. A) ethology
  3. B) social learning theory
  4. C) sociocultural theory
  5. D) cognitive-developmental theory

Answer: A

Page Ref: 17

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Observations of imprinting led to which major concept in child development?
  2. A) adaptation
  3. B) equilibrium
  4. C) the critical period
  5. D) classical conditioning

Answer: C

Page Ref: 17

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The ethological view of attachment suggests that ________.
  2. A) adults and more expert peers help children master culturally meaningful activities.
  3. B) the infant‒caregiver bond has lifelong consequences for human relationships.
  4. C) parents and infants are both instinctively attached to each other.
  5. D) attachment patterns are too difficult to study in humans.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 17–18

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Evolutionary developmental psychology ________.
  2. A) focuses on how the structures of the mind develop to better fit with, or represent, the external world
  3. B) seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide competencies as those competencies change with age
  4. C) views the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows
  5. D) brings together researchers from many fields to study changes in the brain and behavior patterns

Answer: B

Page Ref: 18

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Andrew studies how culture is transmitted to the next generation. His research best aligns with the perspective of ________.
  2. A) Jean Piaget
  3. B) John Bowlby
  4. C) Lev Vygotsky
  5. D) Erik Erikson

Answer: C

Page Ref: 18

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Vygotsky’s emphasis on culture and social experience led him to ________.
  2. A) neglect the biological side of development
  3. B) overemphasize the role of heredity in cognitive change
  4. C) emphasize children’s independent efforts to make sense of their world
  5. D) place too much emphasis on children’s capacity to shape their own development

Answer: A

Page Ref: 19

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Ecological systems theory views the person as ________.
  2. A) a blossoming flower whose development is a genetically determined series of events that unfold automatically
  3. B) developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment
  4. C) a social being influenced primarily by observational learning or adult modeling
  5. D) a computer-like system that actively codes, transforms, and organizes information

Answer: B

Page Ref: 19

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Vadim views child development as affected both by the child’s biologically influenced dispositions and by multiple levels of the surrounding environment. This view is best characterized as a(n) ________ perspective.
  2. A) psychoanalytic
  3. B) bioecological
  4. C) evolutionary developmental
  5. D) cognitive-developmental

Answer: B

Page Ref: 19

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. According to ecological systems theory, interactions between Marina and her child, Tyler, occur in the ________.
  2. A) microsystem
  3. B) mesosystem
  4. C) exosystem
  5. D) macrosystem

Answer: A

Page Ref: 20

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. The outermost level of Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model is the ________.
  2. A) microsystem
  3. B) macrosystem
  4. C) exosystem
  5. D) mesosystem

Answer: B

Page Ref: 20

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Toby moved with his family to a new neighborhood, just before he entered fourth grade. In ecological systems theory, the move represents a change in Toby’s ________.
  2. A) microsystem
  3. B) mesosystem
  4. C) exosystem
  5. D) chronosystem

Answer: D

Page Ref: 21

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Family chaos is especially prevalent among ________.
  2. A) dual-earner parents with three or more children
  3. B) single mothers with unstable child-care arrangements
  4. C) single fathers who use firm discipline with their children
  5. D) single mothers who rely on multiple sources of social support

Answer: B

Page Ref: 21 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: Family Chaos Undermines Parents’ and Children’s Well-Being

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Eight-year-old Maribel’s parents both have high-stress careers, and they often engage in work-related tasks, such as responding to emails, during family meal-times and while helping Maribel with her homework. These behaviors create an atmosphere in which Maribel is likely to ________.
  2. A) feel hassled and powerless, leading to anxiety and low self-esteem
  3. B) show a decline in appetite
  4. C) begin overeating to cope with her emotions
  5. D) develop a stronger sense of self-efficacy

Answer: A

Page Ref: 21 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: Family Chaos Undermines Parents’ and Children’s Well-Being

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Theorists who adopt the dynamic systems perspective argue that a change in any part of the integrated system of mind, body, and physical and social worlds ________.
  2. A) leads to an increase in mental-processing power
  3. B) causes the child to stagnate at a particular developmental stage
  4. C) disrupts the current organism–environment relationship for the child
  5. D) leads to a return to less-complex and less-effective patterns of behavior

Answer: C

Page Ref: 22

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. According to the dynamic systems perspective, development of a reorganized, more effectively functioning system results from ________.
  2. A) the child actively reorganizing his or her behavior
  3. B) parental training of more complex behaviors in the child
  4. C) allowing the child to overcome environmental risks independently
  5. D) exposing the child to conflicts between biological drives and social expectations

Answer: A

Page Ref: 22

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Dynamic systems researchers ________.
  2. A) observe children’s behavior just after they have reached a more effective level of functioning
  3. B) acknowledge wide individual differences in the way children master the same skills
  4. C) believe that most children master the same skills in a similar way
  5. D) view development as taking place in stages rather than as continuous change

Answer: B

Page Ref: 22

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.6 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on child development.

Topic: Recent Theoretical Perspectives

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, information processing, and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory all stress ________.
  2. A) nature over nurture
  3. B) changes in thinking
  4. C) unconscious motives and drives
  5. D) the effects of punishment and reinforcement on behavior

Answer: B

Page Ref: 23

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.7 Identify the stand taken by each major theory on the three basic issues of child development.

Topic: Comparing Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Behaviorism and social learning theory view development as ________.
  2. A) discontinuous
  3. B) continuous
  4. C) both discontinuous and continuous
  5. D) neither discontinuous nor continuous

Answer: B

Page Ref: 24

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.7 Identify the stand taken by each major theory on the three basic issues of child development.

Topic: Comparing Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Which theory of development holds that adaptive behaviors and sensitive periods apply to all members of a species?
  2. A) dynamic systems
  3. B) ecological systems theory
  4. C) sociocultural theory
  5. D) ethology

Answer: D

Page Ref: 24

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.7 Identify the stand taken by each major theory on the three basic issues of child development.

Topic: Comparing Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory and the psychoanalytic perspective view development as ________.
  2. A) discontinuous
  3. B) culturally determined
  4. C) continuous
  5. D) both continuous and discontinuous

Answer: A

Page Ref: 24

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.7 Identify the stand taken by each major theory on the three basic issues of child development.

Topic: Comparing Theories

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Although most theoretical approaches to development recognize the contributions of both nature and nurture, ________ places greater emphasis on nurture.
  2. A) ethology
  3. B) social learning theory
  4. C) ecological systems theory
  5. D) Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory

Answer: B

Page Ref: 24

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.7 Identify the stand taken by each major theory on the three basic issues of child development.

Topic: Comparing Theories

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. In designing a research study, George predicts that positive reinforcement will increase prosocial behavior in preschoolers. George’s prediction is an example of a ________.
  2. A) theory
  3. B) research question
  4. C) hypothesis
  5. D) research design

Answer: C

Page Ref: 23

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Completing tests and answering questionnaires are examples of ________.
  2. A) research designs
  3. B) theories
  4. C) hypotheses
  5. D) research methods

Answer: D

Page Ref: 23

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Which statement describes a unique strength of naturalistic observation?
  2. A) Investigators can see directly the everyday behaviors they hope to explain.
  3. B) It permits comparisons of participants’ responses.
  4. C) Great depth and breadth of information can be obtained in a short time.
  5. D) It grants each participant an equal opportunity to display the behavior of interest.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 24–25

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Kai-ming observes children’s responses to bullying by watching them play in a park. The one major limitation in Kai-ming’s study is that ________.
  2. A) children are unlikely to respond similarly when faced with bullying in other environments
  3. B) not all children will face the same bullying behaviors and have the same opportunity to respond
  4. C) some children will report made-up thoughts and feelings in the hope of pleasing Kai-ming
  5. D) Kai-ming has no reliable way to record his observations

Answer: B

Page Ref: 25

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. In ________, every participant has an equal opportunity to display the behavior of interest.
  2. A) a clinical interview
  3. B) naturalistic observation
  4. C) structured observation
  5. D) a case study

Answer: C

Page Ref: 25

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. One limitation of systematic observation is that it ________.
  2. A) provides little information about how participants actually behave
  3. B) tells investigators little about the reasoning behind behaviors
  4. C) underestimates the capacities of individuals who have difficulty putting their thoughts into words
  5. D) is inappropriate for participants with poor memories, who may have trouble recalling exactly what happened

Answer: B

Page Ref: 26

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. One major strength of the clinical interview is that it ________.
  2. A) makes comparing individuals’ responses very easy
  3. B) can provide a large amount of information in a fairly brief period
  4. C) is directed toward understanding a culture or distinct social group
  5. D) allows researchers to see the behavior of interest as it occurs in everyday life

Answer: B

Page Ref: 26

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. The parents at Central Elementary School responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire that asked them to identify the most important activity they do with their child. This questionnaire is an example of ________.
  2. A) a structured interview
  3. B) a clinical interview
  4. C) naturalistic observation
  5. D) structured observation

Answer: A

Page Ref: 26

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Structured interviews ________.
  2. A) do not yield the same depth of information as clinical interviews
  3. B) are flexible, because questions can be phrased differently for each participant
  4. C) bring together a wide range of information on one person
  5. D) tell researchers little about the reasoning behind participants’ responses

Answer: A

Page Ref: 26

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. One major limitation of research methods that rely on self-reports is that ________.
  2. A) the manner of interviewing, more than participants’ true thoughts on a topic, tends to shape responses
  3. B) the process of interviewing participants is time-consuming and expensive
  4. C) participants may knowingly or unknowingly give false reports of their thoughts and experiences
  5. D) these methods cannot allow for differences in participants’ ability to express themselves

Answer: C

Page Ref: 26

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Which research method is an outgrowth of psychoanalytic theory?
  2. A) naturalistic observation
  3. B) structured observation
  4. C) ethnography
  5. D) the clinical method

Answer: D

Page Ref: 26

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Kathryn is interested in studying musical prodigies. Which method is best suited for this type of research?
  2. A) naturalistic observation
  3. B) clinical interview
  4. C) case study
  5. D) structured interview

Answer: C

Page Ref: 26

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. The clinical, or case study, method ________.
  2. A) allows investigators to see directly the everyday behaviors they hope to explain
  3. B) must be conducted with large groups of people at the same time
  4. C) provides little information on how children actually behave
  5. D) yields richly detailed case narratives that offer valuable insights

Answer: D

Page Ref: 27

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Which statement describes a limitation of the clinical method?
  2. A) It may not yield observations typical of a participant’s behavior in everyday life.
  3. B) Researchers cannot control the conditions under which participants are observed.
  4. C) The findings cannot be applied to individuals other than the participant.
  5. D) It generally does not yield rich, descriptive insights into factors that affect development.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 27

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Which research method was borrowed from the field of anthropology?
  2. A) ethnography
  3. B) clinical interview
  4. C) structured interview
  5. D) systematic observation

Answer: A

Page Ref: 27

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Ethnographic research is directed toward understanding a culture through ________ observation.
  2. A) naturalistic
  3. B) participant
  4. C) systematic
  5. D) structured

Answer: B

Page Ref: 27

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Jade spent two years living in a Mexican-American community, where she studied communication between parents and children. Jade was using ________.
  2. A) naturalistic observation
  3. B) ethnography
  4. C) self-reports
  5. D) structured observation

Answer: B

Page Ref: 27

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. What is one limitation of the ethnographic method?
  2. A) Investigators’ cultural values sometimes lead them to misinterpret what they see.
  3. B) It provides little information on how people actually behave.
  4. C) It relies on unobtrusive techniques, such as surveillance cameras and one-way mirrors.
  5. D) It provides little information about the reasoning behind participants’ responses.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 27

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. In the United States, children of immigrant parents who are first generation (foreign-born, immigrated with their parents) or second generation (American-born, with immigrant parents) ________ than students of native-born parents.
  2. A) are more likely to commit delinquent and violent acts
  3. B) are more likely to be obese
  4. C) often achieve as well or better in school
  5. D) tend to report lower self-esteem

Answer: C

Page Ref: 28 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Ethnographies reveal that immigrant parents view ________ as the surest way to improve life chances.
  2. A) learning English
  3. B) education
  4. C) close ties to an ethnic community
  5. D) moving to an urban area

Answer: B

Page Ref: 28 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.8 Describe research methods commonly used to study child development.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The two main types of designs used in all research on human behavior are ________ and ________.
  2. A) observational; experimental
  3. B) correlational; experimental
  4. C) observational; correlational
  5. D) variable; observational

Answer: B

Page Ref: 29

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In a correlational design, researchers ________.
  2. A) gather information on individuals without altering their experiences
  3. B) divide events and behaviors of interest into two types: dependent variables and independent variables
  4. C) use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treatment conditions
  5. D) directly control or manipulate changes in the independent variable

Answer: A

Page Ref: 29

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. In correlational studies, a correlation coefficient can range in value from ________.
  2. A) 0 to +1.00
  3. B) 0 to –2.00
  4. C) +1.00 to –1.50
  5. D) +1.00 to –1.00

Answer: D

Page Ref: 29

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Correlations of +.77 and −.77 ________.
  2. A) show the same direction of relationship between two variables
  3. B) cancel each other out, resulting in no correlation
  4. C) are equally strong
  5. D) reveal the same pattern of relationship between two variables

Answer: C

Page Ref: 29

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. In her research, Andrea found a correlation of +.49 between illegal drug use and levels of adolescent delinquency. This correlation is ________ and ________.
  2. A) moderate; positive
  3. B) low; positive
  4. C) high; negative
  5. D) low; negative

Answer: A

Page Ref: 29

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Ngozi wants to conduct a study to determine the cause-and-effect relationship between domestic violence and anger in children. She should use a(n) ________ design.
  2. A) structured
  3. B) observational
  4. C) correlational
  5. D) experimental

Answer: D

Page Ref: 29

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. An experimental design ________.
  2. A) allows researchers to gather information in natural life circumstances without altering the participants’ experiences
  3. B) looks at relationships between participants’ characteristics and their behavior or development
  4. C) permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers evenhandedly assign people to treatment conditions
  5. D) has one major limitation: researchers cannot infer cause and effect

Answer: C

Page Ref: 29

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In an experiment, the independent variable ________.
  2. A) is the one the investigator expects to be influenced by another variable
  3. B) is the one the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable
  4. C) cannot be manipulated or controlled by the researcher
  5. D) is the number that describes how two measures are associated with each other

Answer: B

Page Ref: 29

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. In an experimental study examining whether the way angry encounters end affects children’s emotional reactions, the dependent variable would be the ________.
  2. A) way the angry encounters end
  3. B) amount of unresolved anger
  4. C) frequency of angry encounters
  5. D) children’s emotional reactions

Answer: D

Page Ref: 29–30

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. In experimental studies, investigators must control for ________ that could reduce the accuracy of their findings.
  2. A) dependent variables
  3. B) participants’ characteristics
  4. C) random assignments
  5. D) correlation coefficients

Answer: B

Page Ref: 30

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. By using ________ assignment of participants to treatment conditions, investigators increase the chances that participants’ characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment groups.
  2. A) sequential
  3. B) random
  4. C) systematic
  5. D) correlational

Answer: B

Page Ref: 30

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Henry wants to know if a teacher’s use of encouragement in the classroom affects the children’s self-esteem. To assign children to treatment conditions, Henry should ________.
  2. A) carefully distribute the children according to their test scores
  3. B) divide the children so that each group has an equal number of boys and girls
  4. C) draw the children’s names out of a hat
  5. D) assign the quieter children to the same treatment condition

Answer: C

Page Ref: 30

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. In field experiments, researchers ________.
  2. A) selectively assign participants to treatment conditions in natural settings
  3. B) cannot use random assignment or manipulate treatment conditions
  4. C) assign participants randomly to treatment conditions in natural settings
  5. D) have stronger control over the treatment conditions than in the laboratory

Answer: C

Page Ref: 30

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Researchers randomly assigned adolescents to either a single-grade classroom or a mixed-grade classroom, then measured several learning outcomes in each group. This is an example of a ________.
  2. A) naturalistic observation
  3. B) case study
  4. C) natural experiment
  5. D) field experiment

Answer: D

Page Ref: 30

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.9 Distinguish between correlational and experimental research designs, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. In a(n) ________ design, the same group of participants is studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older.
  2. A) cross-sectional
  3. B) experimental
  4. C) longitudinal
  5. D) correlational

Answer: C

Page Ref: 31

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Longitudinal research can identify common patterns as well as individual differences in development because the investigator ________.
  2. A) studies groups of participants differing in age at the same point in time
  3. B) randomly assigns participants to treatment conditions
  4. C) tracks the performance of each person over time
  5. D) conducts quasi-experiments, comparing conditions that already exist

Answer: C

Page Ref: 31

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. A major strength of the longitudinal design is that researchers can ________.
  2. A) examine relationships between early and later behaviors
  3. B) collect a large amount of data in a short time span
  4. C) explore similarities among children of different cohorts
  5. D) study participants differing in age at the same point in time

Answer: A

Page Ref: 31

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. What is one problem with longitudinal research?
  2. A) It does not permit correlations between early and later events and behaviors.
  3. B) Participants may move away or drop out of the research.
  4. C) Researchers must account for the effects of age differences among participants.
  5. D) It does not permit study of individual developmental trends.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 32

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Bernadette, a participant in a longitudinal study, became quite familiar with the test over time and, as a result, her performance improved. This limitation of longitudinal research is known as ________.
  2. A) biased sampling
  3. B) practice effects
  4. C) random assignment
  5. D) cohort effects

Answer: B

Page Ref: 32

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Between 1990 and 2010, Marisol conducted a longitudinal study on childhood depression in New York City. Because many of the participants witnessed the 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. Marisol is concerned that ________ effects may influence her findings.
  2. A) practice
  3. B) cross-sectional
  4. C) dropout
  5. D) cohort

Answer: D

Page Ref: 32

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. When using a cross-sectional design, researchers ________.
  2. A) need to be concerned about such difficulties as participant dropout
  3. B) benefit from its greater efficiency compared to the longitudinal approach.
  4. C) study groups of participants of the same age in different years
  5. D) measure participants at regular intervals over a short amount of time

Answer: B

Page Ref: 31, 32

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. What is one strength of the cross-sectional design?
  2. A) It provides evidence about individual trends.
  3. B) It cannot be threatened by cohort effects.
  4. C) It is not affected by participant dropout or practice effects.
  5. D) It permits longitudinal comparisons.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 31, 32

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. What is a major disadvantage of cross-sectional research?
  2. A) Age-related changes cannot be examined.
  3. B) Participants often drop out before the study is over.
  4. C) Evidence about development at the individual level is not provided.
  5. D) Practice effects often cause biased findings.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 31, 33

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Like longitudinal research, cross-sectional studies can be threatened by ________.
  2. A) practice effects
  3. B) participant dropout
  4. C) sequential timing
  5. D) cohort effects

Answer: D

Page Ref: 31, 33

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. To overcome some of the limitations of traditional developmental research designs, investigators sometimes use ________ designs, in which they conduct several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies.
  2. A) sequential
  3. B) experimental
  4. C) correlational
  5. D) quasi-experimental

Answer: A

Page Ref: 33

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A sequential design ________.
  2. A) does not address diversity in developmental outcomes
  3. B) permits researchers to check if cohort effects are operating
  4. C) is less efficient than a longitudinal design
  5. D) makes cross-sectional, but not longitudinal, comparisons

Answer: B

Page Ref: 33

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. An adaptation of the longitudinal approach called the ________design presents children with a novel task and follows their mastery over several closely spaced sessions.
  2. A) cross-cohort
  3. B) cross-sectional
  4. C) cross-sequential
  5. D) microgenetic

Answer: D

Page Ref: 34

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Research that combines an experimental strategy with ________ approach is becoming increasingly common.
  2. A) both a correlational and a sequential
  3. B) either a correlational or a sequential
  4. C) either a longitudinal or a cross-sectional
  5. D) both a correlational and a longitudinal

Answer: C

Page Ref: 34

Skill Level: Remember

Objective: 1.10 Describe designs for studying development, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. When children are research participants, ________.
  2. A) investigators must seek the opinion of school officials if in doubt about the harmful effects of research
  3. B) they do not have the right to conceal their identity on information collected in the course of research
  4. C) there is no need to inform them or their parents of the results of the research
  5. D) informed consent should be obtained from their parents as well as others who act on their behalf

Answer: D

Page Ref: 35

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.11 Discuss special ethical concerns that arise in research on children.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. The right of privacy in research means that ________.
  2. A) children have the right to concealment of their identity on all information collected in the course of research
  3. B) investigators do not have to reveal the true purpose of their study to participants under the age of 12
  4. C) school officials should not be told which children are participating in a research project
  5. D) parents must sign a notarized document in order for their children to be paid for research participation

Answer: A

Page Ref: 35

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.11 Discuss special ethical concerns that arise in research on children.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. In his research study, Hiroshi gives participants false feedback about their performance. Consequently, Hiroshi should use ________ after the research session is over.
  2. A) informed consent
  3. B) a privacy statement
  4. C) debriefing
  5. D) a placebo

Answer: C

Page Ref: 36

Skill Level: Apply

Objective: 1.11 Discuss special ethical concerns that arise in research on children.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

  1. Ethical standards permit deception in research studies if ________.
  2. A) the participants are young enough that they would not understand the deception
  3. B) investigators satisfy institutional review boards that such practices are necessary
  4. C) researchers can observe participants from behind one-way mirrors
  5. D) the participants give informed consent and the researchers never reveal the real purpose of the study

Answer: B

Page Ref: 36

Skill Level: Understand

Objective: 1.11 Discuss special ethical concerns that arise in research on children.

Topic: Studying Development

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Essay

  1. Explain the difference between child development theories that view the course of development as continuous and those that see it as discontinuous.

Answer: If development is continuous—a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with—then infants and children respond to the world in much the same way as adults do. The difference between the immature and mature being is simply one of amount or complexity. If development is discontinuous—a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times—then infants and children have unique ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are quite different from those of adults. Theories that accept the discontinuous perspective regard development as taking place in stages—qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development. In stage theories, development is like climbing a staircase, with each step corresponding to a more mature, reorganized way of functioning. The stage concept also assumes that people undergo periods of rapid transformation as they step up from one stage to the next. In other words, change is fairly sudden rather than gradual and ongoing.

Page Ref: 5

  1. Describe limitations of Jean Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory.

Answer: Despite Jean Piaget’s overwhelming contributions to the field of child development, his cognitive-developmental theory has been challenged. Research indicates that Piaget underestimated the competencies of infants and preschoolers. When young children are given tasks scaled down in difficulty and relevant to their everyday experiences, their understanding appears closer to that of an older child and adult than Piaget assumed. Furthermore, children’s performance on Piagetian problems can be improved with training—findings that call into question Piaget’s assumption that discovery learning rather than adult teaching is the best way to foster development. Critics also point out that Piaget’s stagewise account pays insufficient attention to social and cultural influences on development.

Page Ref: 14

  1. Describe the core ideas of ethology and evolutionary developmental psychology as theoretical perspectives on child development.

Answer: Ethology is concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history. Its roots can be traced to the work of Darwin. Two European zoologists, Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen, laid its modern foundations. Watching diverse animal species in their natural habitats, Lorenz and Tinbergen observed behavior patterns that promote survival. The best known of these is imprinting, the early following behavior of certain baby birds, such as geese, that ensures that the young will stay close to the mother and be fed and protected from danger. Observations of imprinting led to a major concept in child development: the critical period, a limited time span during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of a stimulating environment. The term sensitive period applies better to child development than the strict notion of a critical period. A sensitive period is a time that is biologically optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. However, its boundaries are less well-defined than those of a critical period.

Investigators have extended the efforts of ethologists in an area of research called evolutionary developmental psychology. It seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competencies change with age. Evolutionary psychologists are not just concerned with the genetic and biological roots of development. They recognize that humans’ large brain and extended childhood resulted from the need to master an increasingly complex environment, so they are also interested in learning. In sum, evolutionary developmental psychology aims to understand the entire person–environment system.

Page Ref: 17–18

  1. Describe the exosystem as it exists in Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory.

Answer: According to Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, child development takes place within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment. Bronfenbrenner envisioned the environment as a series of nested structures, including but also extending beyond the home, school, neighborhood, and workplace settings in which children spend their everyday lives. Each layer joins with the others to powerfully affect development. The exosystem consists of social settings that do not contain the developing person but nevertheless affect experiences in immediate settings. These can be formal organizations, such as parents’ workplaces, religious institutions, and community health and welfare services. Flexible work schedules, paid maternity and paternity leave, and sick leave for parents whose children are ill are examples of ways that work settings can support child rearing and, indirectly, enhance children’s development. Exosystem supports can also be informal, such as parents’ social networks—friends and extended-family members who provide advice, companionship, and even financial assistance.

Page Ref: 20

  1. Compare and contrast naturalistic and structured observations.

Answer: Observations of children’s behavior can be made in different ways. One approach is to go into the field, or natural environment, and record the behavior of interest—a method called naturalistic observation. The great strength of naturalistic observation is that investigators can see directly the everyday behaviors they hope to explain. Naturalistic observation also has a major limitation: Not all individuals have the same opportunity to display a particular behavior in everyday life. Researchers commonly deal with this difficulty by making structured observations, in which the investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has equal opportunity to display the response. Systematic observation provides invaluable information on how children actually behave, but it tells us little about the reasoning behind their responses.

Page Ref: 24–26

  1. Describe the longitudinal approach, and explain its strengths and weaknesses.

Answer: In a longitudinal design, children are studied repeatedly, and changes are noted as they get older. The time spanned may be relatively short (a few months to several years) or very long (a decade or even a lifetime). The longitudinal approach has two major strengths. First, because it tracks the performance of each child over time, researchers can identify common patterns as well as individual differences in development. Second, longitudinal studies permit investigators to examine relationships between early and later events and behaviors. Despite these strengths, longitudinal investigations pose a number of problems. For example, participants may move away or drop out of the research for other reasons. This biases the sample so that it no longer represents the population to which researchers would like to generalize their findings. Also, from repeated study, children may become more aware of their own thoughts, feelings, and actions and revise them in ways that have little to do with age-related change. In addition, their performance on tests may improve as a result of practice effects—better test-taking skills and increased familiarity with the test—not because of factors commonly associated with development. The most widely discussed threat to the accuracy of longitudinal findings is cohort effects: Individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions. Results based on one cohort may not apply to people developing at other times. But cohort effects do not just operate broadly on an entire generation. They also occur when specific experiences influence some children but not others in the same generation.

Page Ref: 31–32

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